REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; Immunotherapy; Immunomodulator; Antibody; Plasma; Immunoglobulins
Online: 5 July 2020 (17:01:31 CEST)
Since the outbreak of SARS CoV-2 infection (Covid-19), healthcare professionals worldwide have been trying to find disease management and control alternatives to encourage immunotherapies. Immunotherapy is an efficient therapeutic option used against comparable viral contaminations such as MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. The aim of the current study is to assess the existing knowledge associated with SARS-CoV-2 immunotherapy. Information available in published articles and their quality highlights the importance of following strict scientific rules for clinical outcomes. Thus, these studies have shown enough data to confirm that immunomodulation is the main topic investigated in research about Covid-19 therapy. Therefore, it is possible saying that immunotherapy is certainly the appropriate option against this virus.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0561.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: covid19; immunostimulant; immunomodulator; vitamin D; vitamin C; zinc
Online: 24 September 2020 (03:40:34 CEST)
Background & Aims: The covid19 is a world changing challenge. Furthermore, this disease challenges our capacities to change our point of view in the domain of infectiology, immunology and global public health. Many trials try some drug such as antiviral (lopinavir, remdesivir) interferon, and the chloroquine. Unfortunately, all approach is not really convincing at this time. We are proposing another approach on this issue. In infectiology there are two protagonists : the host and its immune system versus pathogens and its virulence. Our approach focuses on an intervention on the host’s immune system and how stimulate and modulate its reactions. Methods: We searched on PubMed and Google Scholar databases for French and English-language studies, without a limit of date of publications, for randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, reviews, systematic reviews, observational studies, case report. We performed a review on the field of immunology enhancements by nutrients use. Results: We identified groups of vitamins (D and C), oligo-elements (magnesium, zinc, selenium) and nutrition advice which enhance immune system response. Indeed, these supplements have some proved properties in modulating and stimulating the immune system. For example, a recent study demonstrates that vitamin D deficiency is linked with the severity of covid19. Majority of the population has a deficiency in these elements. According to this, we propose a therapeutic protocol using these elements to reach an efficient therapy against covid19 by enhancing host’s immune system. Conclusion: Due to this serious pandemic, any solutions must not be disregarded. The nutrition way is an entire part of the solution.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0381.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: hydroxychloroquine; COVID-19; immunomodulator; cytokine storm; flow chemistry
Online: 21 April 2020 (08:26:31 CEST)
Hydroxychloroquine, a known antiviral metabolite of chloroquine, is increasingly used along with antibiotic azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. In about one month India, the world’s largest manufacturer, delivered hydroxychloroquine for treating COVID-19 to over 50 countries. The therapy is being used across the world both for patients staying at home at the early phase of symptoms, as well as for patients hospitalized. We summarize achievements as of late April 2020, review possible modes of action and suggest avenues for the quick scale-up of production of hydroxychloroquine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0193.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Hemocytes; innate immune cells; Phagocytic Activity; Respiratory Burst; microalgae; immunomodulator; shrimps L. vannamei; Vibrio harveyi; Extracellular Polysaccharide (EPS)
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:57:25 CET)
White shrimps are susceptible to outbreaks of vibriosis because they do not have any adaptive immune system, they only have a non-specific innate immune system. The administration of EPS from microalgae Porphyridium cruentum (synonym: P. purpureum) on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated to determine the effect of this immunostimulant on their non specific immune response and to test if EPS can be used as a protective agent for shrimp related to Vibrio infection. EPS was given to shrimps by immersion method on day 1 and booster on day 8. Shrimp hemocytes were taken on day 1 (EPS administration), day 7 (no treatment), day 8 (EPS booster) and day 9 (Vibrio infection) and tested for their immune response on each treatment. Result shows an increase in values of all immune parameters in line with the increasing EPS concentration, except the Differential Haemocyte Count (DHC). In detail, an increase was noted in total hemocytes (THC) value, Phagocytotic Activity (PA), Respiratory Burst (RB) in line as the EPS concentration increase. Although there is a decrease after the infection, the value obtained is not lower than the control value. These results indicate that EPS from Porphyrydium enhances immune parameters in shrimp rapidly and has the ability as an immunostimulant or an immunomodulator. It is a good modulator for the non specific immune cells of Pacific white shrimps, and it can be used as a preventive agent against Vibrio.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Interferons; IFNα; IFNß; IFNγ; antiviral; antiproliferative; immunomodulator; PEGylation; formulation; encapsulate IFNs; drug delivery system; liposomes; polymeric micelles; microparticles; nanoparticles
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:51:44 CEST)
Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines involved in the immune response that act on innate and adaptive immunity. These proteins are natural cell-signaling glycoproteins expressed in response to viral infections, tumors, and biological inducers and constitute the first line of defense of vertebrates against infectious agents. They have been marketed for more than 30 years with considerable impact on the global therapeutic protein market thanks to their diversity in terms of biological activities. They have been used as single agents or with combination treatment regimens, demonstrating promising clinical results, resulting in 22 different formulations approved by regulatory agencies. The 163 clinical trials with currently active IFNs reinforce their importance as therapeutics for human health. However, their application has presented difficulties due to the molecules’ size, sensitivity to degradation, and rapid elimination from the bloodstream. For some years now, work has been underway to obtain new drug delivery systems to provide adequate therapeutic concentrations for these cytokines, decrease their toxicity and prolong their half-life in the circulation. Although different research groups have presented various formulations that encapsulate IFNs, to date, there is no formulation approved for use in humans. The current review exhibits an updated summary of all encapsulation forms presented in the scientific literature for these cytokines IFNα, IFNß, and IFNγ, from the year 1996 to the year 2021, considering parameters such as: encapsulating matrix, route of administration, and encapsulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hemocytes; Innate Immune Cells; Phagocytic Activity; Respiratory Burst; White-Shrimp; Microalgae; Immunomodulator; Toxicity; Extracellular Polysaccharide; Vibrio harveyi; Danio rerio
Online: 18 February 2021 (15:56:44 CET)
Exopolysaccharides or extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, sPS) represent valuable metabolite compound synthesized from red microalgae. It is a non toxic natural agent and can be applied as immunostimulant. Toxicity test of exopolysaccharides from Porphyridium has been done in-vivo using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic model, or the ZET (Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test). The administration of extracellular polysaccharide or exopolysaccharides (EPS) from microalgae Porphyridium cruentum (synonym: P. purpureum) on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated to determine the effect of this immunostimulant on their non specific immune response and to test if this compound can be used as a protective agent for shrimp related to Vibrio infection. For immune response, exopolysaccharides was given to shrimps by immersion method on day 1 and booster on day 8. Shrimp hemocytes were taken on day 1 (EPS administration), day 7 (no treatment), day 8 (EPS booster) and day 9 (Vibrio infection) and tested for their immune response on each treatment. Result shows that the EPS is not toxic as represented by the normal embryonic development and the mortality data. In the Pacific whiteshrimps, it show an increase in values of all immune parameters in line with the increasing EPS concentration, except the Differential Haemocyte Count (DHC). In detail, an increase was noted in total hemocytes (THC) value, Phagocytotic Activity (PA), Respiratory Burst (RB) in line with the EPS concentration increase. These results and other previous studies indicate that EPS from Porphyridium is safe and it enhances immune parameters in shrimp rapidly and has the ability as an immunostimulant or an immunomodulator. It is a good modulator for the non-specific immune cells of Pacific white shrimps, and it can be used as a preventive agent against vibriosis.