ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0322.v1
Online: 11 June 2021 (14:20:25 CEST)
History is part of the social sciences or humanities. In history, it studies events in the past which also determine what happens in the present and the future. With history, we can find out events and incidents in the past by reading books or by watching movies. Historical science provides many benefits for all circles. However, in this 21st century, which is a modern era, history is less desirable among millennials for various reasons. The purpose of writing this paper, the first is to find out what are the benefits of historical science in this millennial era, the second is to find out whether history is in demand or not among millennials, then what is the benefit of history in this millennial era. The third is to find a solution related to historical science learning so as not to be boring while maintaining its benefits. This research is to solve a common problem among millennials, namely whether millennials are interested in studying history and what can increase millennial interest in studying history. Researchers collect data to compile this paper with a qualitative method, which is to collect the latest journals for reference between 2019 and 2021 which are related to the urgency of 21st-century history for millennials. In addition, the researchers also looks for the latest data related to interest in studying historical science which is used to find out whether history is in demand or not among millennials. Thus, this research can find out what causes millennials to be less interested in history and find a solution, namely by using film media to increase millennial interest. This article is very useful in providing information about the urgency of learning history in the 21st century so that readers can use this article as material to conduct further research on this matter. As for this research, it has limitations, namely this research is only limited to millennials in relation to the urgency of historical science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0623.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: history of biology; history of zoology; taxonomy; biological nomenclature; metazoans
Online: 26 February 2021 (15:32:17 CET)
The great Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–322 BCE) is almost unanimously acclaimed as the founder of zoology. There is a consensus that he was interested in attributes of animals, but whether or not he tried to develop a zoological taxonomy remains controversial. Fürst von Lieven and Humar compiled a data matrix and showed, through a parsimony analysis published in 2008, that these data produced a hierarchy that matched several taxa recognized by Aristotle. However, their analysis leaves some questions unanswered because random data can sometimes yield fairly resolved trees. In this study, we update the scores of many cells and add four new characters to the data matrix (147 taxa scored for 161 characters) and quote passages from Aristotle’s Historia animalium to justify these changes. We confirm the presence of a phylogenetic signal in these data through a test using skewness in length distribution of a million random trees, which shows that many of the characters discussed by Aristotle were systematically relevant. Our parsimony analyses on the updated matrix recover far more trees than reported by Fürst von Lieven and Humar, but their consensus includes many taxa that Aristotle recognized and apparently named for the first time, such as selachē (selachians) and dithyra (Bivalvia). This study suggests that even though taxonomy was clearly not Aristotle’s chief interest in Historia animalium, it was probably among his secondary interests. These results may pave the way for further taxonomic studies in Aristotle’s zoological writings in general. Despite being almost peripheral to Aristotle’s writings, his taxonomic contributions are clearly major achievements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0321.v1
Online: 29 September 2019 (04:40:24 CEST)
Sociology and History as consolidated scientific and academic projects have maintained a peculiar and paradoxical relationship. The growing disciplinary and subdisciplinary specialization of these two sciences poses relevant epistemological and methodological challenges to face potential situations of isolation, fragmentation and enable the apology of an interdisciplinary perspective characterized by the historicity of social structures, actions and senses.Several types of reasons shape this diffuse process of approach/distinction between Sociology and History, namely, epistemological and methodological, disciplinary closure, academic, professional, configuring what can be called contained dialogues. This paper, starting from the sociological perspective of the authors, seeks to contribute to the reflection on the relevance of a scientific project aimed at affirming an interdisciplinary perspective that may foster the heuristic potentialities of both Sociology and History in the analysis of the complexity of social reality and human action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: aflatoxin, history, research, Mozambique
Online: 7 June 2018 (10:23:53 CEST)
In Mozambique, the aflatoxin research started in 1960’s and has been carried through apparently unrelated efforts according to opportunities. However, there was a major trend divided in early epidemiological studies and recent agricultural research. Early investigators found strong correlation between aflatoxin contamination and primary liver cancer. Since then, there have been efforts to analyze the extent of contamination, especially in groundnuts and maize. More recent investigation and intervention aimed mostly to reduce the level of contamination enough to allow such commodities to gain acceptance in the international market. The current status of knowledge is still marginal but the increasing involvement of local authorities, academia and international organizations seems promising.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0203.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: George Viau; collection; auction; art market; Impressionists; econometrics; quantitative art history; computational history
Online: 12 December 2022 (13:15:17 CET)
This paper analyzes the collection of George Viau (1855-1939) from a computational perspective. Indeed, this dental surgeon, close to the Impressionists, collected several hundred works of art in the first half of the 20th century: the auctions of his collection, in 1907, 1930 and after his death, in 1942, 1943 and 1948, accounted for 642 artworks and, during the Occupation, the 1942 sale produced a total of more than 46 million francs. Thanks to statistics, econometrics, network analysis and cartography, it is possible to understand the salient features of the collection and its place in the world of Parisian auctions.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0401.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: life history; longevity; senescence; stochastic environments
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:51:22 CEST)
The world’s human population is reaching record longevities. Consequently, our societies are experiencing the impacts of prolonged longevity, such as increased retirement age. A major hypothesised influence on ageing patterns is resource limitation, formalised under calorie restriction theory. This theory predicts extended organismal longevity due to reduced calorie intake without malnutrition. However, several challenges face current calorie restriction (CR) research and, although several attempts have been made to overcome these challenges, there is still a lack of holistic understanding of how CR shapes organismal vitality. Here, we conduct a literature review of 222 CR peer-reviewed publications to summarise the state-of-the-art in the field. We use this summary to highlight challenges of CR research in our understanding of its impacts on longevity. Our review demonstrates that experimental research in this field is biased towards short-lived species (98.2% of studies examine species with <5 years of mean life expectancy) and lacks realism in key areas, such as stochastic environments or interactions with other environmental drivers such as temperature. We argue that only by considering a range of short- and long-lived species and by taking more realistic approaches can the impacts of CR on longevity be examined and validated in natural settings. We conclude by proposing experimental designs and study species that will allow the discipline to gain a much-needed understanding of how restricting caloric intake affects long-lived species in realistic settings. Through incorporating more experimental realism, we anticipate crucial insights that will ultimately shape the myriad of socio-bio-economic impacts of senescence in humans and other species across the Tree of Life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0133.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: inertia; Mach's principle; history of physics
Online: 9 July 2019 (14:21:44 CEST)
A non-relativistic theory of inertia based on Mach's principle is presented as has been envisaged but not achieved by Ernst Mach in 1872. Central feature is a space-dependent, anisotropic, symmetric inert mass tensor. The contribution of a mass element $dm$ to the inertia of a particle $m_0$ experiencing an acceleration from rest is proportional to $\cos^2\alpha$, where $\alpha$ is the angle between the line connecting $m_0$ and $dm$ and the direction of the acceleration. Apsidal precession for planets circling around a central star is not a consequence of this theory, thereby avoiding the prediction of an apsidal precession with wrong sign as is done by Mach-like theories with isotropic inert mass.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0651.v1
Online: 29 October 2018 (04:32:23 CET)
Aims of the paper are the results of a research on a wooden box that holds an important historical document, which is a hand Bible handwritten in the thirteenth century. The tradition connect this Bible to the name of Marco Polo (Venice, 1254 - Venice, 1324), who would be the owner and that it would accompany him on his travels (1262 and 1271) in China. The Bible, of fine workmanship, written on thin parchment, and its container, along with a yellow silk cloth, is preserved in the ancient and prestigious Laurentian Library in Florence. The manuscript was in very poor condition and in the course of the study (2011) was being restored. Aims of survey were to determine the place and period of realization of the box, or rather if it be contemporary or later than the manuscript it contains and whether it was made in the East or in Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0245.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Pan-Africanism; history; colonialism; globalization; education
Online: 14 August 2018 (05:57:51 CEST)
Our paper examines the place of Pan-Africanism as an educational, political, and cultural movement which had a lasting impact on the on the relationship between liberation and people of African descent, in the continent of Africa and the Diaspora. We also show its evolution, beginning with formerly enslaved Africans in the Americas, to the colonial borders of the 1884 Berlin Conference, and conclude with the independence movements in Africa. For formerly enslaved Africans, Pan-Africanism was an idea that helped them see their commonalities as victims of racism. That is, they realized that they were enslaved because they came from the same continent and shared the same racial heritage. They associated the continent of Africa with freedom. The partitioning of Africa at the Berlin Conference (colonialism) created pseudo-nation states out of what was initially seen as an undivided continent. Pan-Africanism provided an ideology for rallying Africans at home and abroad against colonialism, and the creation of colonial nation-states did not erase the idea of a united Africa. As different African nations gained political independence, they took it upon themselves to support those countries fighting for their independence. The belief, then, was that as long as one African nation was not free, the continent could not be viewed as free. The existence of nation-states did not imply the negation of Pan-Africanism. The political ideas we examine include those of Marcus Garvey, W.E.B. Du Bois, Kwame Nkrumah, and Thabo Mbeki.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0524.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Alvar Aalto, Modernism, Paimio Sanatorium, Finland, Bruno Latour, actor-network theory, history of technology, history of architecture
Online: 30 August 2018 (10:47:12 CEST)
Alvar Aalto created innovative architecture in his breakthrough work, Paimio Sanatorium, located in Southwestern Finland and designed between 1928 and 1933. The technological systems in construction, such as the concrete frame, electricity, air conditioning, and lifts, developed rapidly in the interwar period and Aalto drew influences from the culturally radical modernistic discourse around the CIAM organisation and felt that architecture should respond to the demands of the age. Architecture is an applied form of art, and symbolic expression in architecture is a system with its logic. As a contrast, a building is a technological system and forms a framework within which to solve practical problems. Thus, as a technological system, the building is both material and social, during its construction and after. The theoretical underpinning for the study was the actor-network theory developed since the 1980s by the French sociologist Bruno Latour. This study clearly showed the importance of a collaborative effort in a building project. The most famous architectural solutions for Paimio Sanatorium, a demanding institutional building project, came into being in circumstances where the architect-innovator, Aalto, managed to create a viable and robust hybrid that merged collective competence with material factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0338.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Vitamin E, history, animal nutrition, production, activity
Online: 5 July 2023 (13:21:04 CEST)
Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds divided into two subgroups: four tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-) and four tocotrienols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-). α-Tocopherol is considered the most biologically active form. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge and historical progression of vitamin E research, with particular emphasis on its role in animal nutrition. Early studies in the 1920s identified vitamin E’s role in preventing neonatal mortality in rats. Over the following decades, scientists discovered the compound’s chemical structure and its importance for the immune system, skin health, anti-inflammatory properties, hormonal balance, and other bodily functions. Production of vitamin E products has evolved, starting with isolating the vitamin from natural sources and advancing to synthesizing it with greater efficiency and standardized potency units. Early animal studies focused on reproductive health and growth disorders, but further research demonstrated the importance of vitamin E in preventing encephalomalacia in domestic fowl and muscular dystrophy in rabbits and other animals. Today, vitamin E is commonly used as a feed additive to meet animals’ requirements and assure immune function and overall health. Despite much knowledge on vitamin E’s role in animal nutrition, many questions remain unanswered, and current research aims to determine optimal supplementation levels, interactions with other nutrients, impacts on gene expression, cell signaling and communication, and effects of supranutritional dosages in livestock. Vitamin E has a long and fascinating history in scientific research, with significant advancements in understanding its chemical structure and biological activity. In animal nutrition, vitamin E continues to play an important role in improving animal health, and ongoing research will continue to expand our understanding of its benefits and mechanisms of action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Medical Cannabis; history of cannabis; medicine; cannabinoids
Online: 7 April 2022 (04:14:19 CEST)
The cannabis plant has been known for millennia for its properties such as textile fiber, food, recreational and medicinal use. Since the origin of its domestication in Asia, cannabis has been transported to the rest of the continents by merchants, nomads, settlers, and slaves, who have also carried with them valuable knowledge about its uses. Its medical use was one of the major contributions of this plant in the various civilizations through which it passed. This article aims to understand its origins, dissemination, and medical use over the years to the present day.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0329.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Colonial Era; Digital Era; Education; History; Transformation
Online: 14 June 2021 (07:49:14 CEST)
ABSTRACT Education is the most important instrument in human life because education can increase human dignity. In addition, education can also be a benchmark for human quality and an example of the progress of a nation. The history of education in Indonesia has evolved from the colonial era to the digital era. These developments have influenced government policies in every era. In the 21st century, the development of education in Indonesia is starting to show progress. This is because it is supported by the rapid growth of information and technology. This research article aims to analyze the educational policies carried out by the government from the colonial era to the digital era to be used as evaluation material at this time so that in the future education in Indonesia is even better. To achieve this goal, this research focuses on the question of how is the transformation of education in Indonesia from the colonial era to the digital era? and what is the paradigm of education in Indonesia when viewed from a historical perspective?. The research method used is the Literature Review method from 27 sources in journal articles, websites, and data reports for 2019-2021. The results of this study found that changes in the Indonesian education system from time to time have a positive influence on the progress of the Indonesian nation. The development of education in Indonesia also has an impact on increasing the Human Development Index (HDI). This shows that the quality of Indonesian society is increasing. Based on the results obtained, it is hoped that it can provide information about the transformation of education in Indonesia from the colonial era to the digital era from a historical perspective. This article is suitable as a reference source for education observers in Indonesia to know the history of education and its policies from the colonial era to the digital era and useful for academics to know the history of education in Indonesia. This research has limitations, namely this research is only limited to the development of education in Indonesia from the colonial era to the digital era and the paradigm of education development in Indonesia from a historical perspective.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0195.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Intellectual Quotient; Gross Domestic Product; Correlation; History
Online: 5 March 2021 (21:15:17 CET)
A remarkable, unquestioned assumption in studies measuring the association between national average Intellectual Quotients (IQ) and Gross Domestic Products (GDP) per capita is that a supposedly immutable genetic factor (IQ) may be correlated with a markedly fluctuant one (the wealth of nations). Using historical GDP per capita data produced by the Maddison project, we find that, over history, the (Pearson productmoment) correlation coefficient (r) between average IQ and GDP per capita is highly variable and ranges from strong negative values to strong positive values. The correlation between national IQ and GDP per capita is thus a snapshot of the world order at some point in time, and historical data allow us to identify several other eras. Moreover, global GDP at any point in time is never difficult to predict in the first place. We show that arbitrary ad-hoc scores based on a country’s continental location present a more significant correlation with contemporary GDP per capita. We conclude this paper by a call to clarify the purpose of IQ studies in Macroeconomics and for the consideration of GDP as a time-series in this line of research.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: theory; simulation; computational power; epochs, science history
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:25:26 CET)
History is often thought to be dull and boring – where large numbers of facts are memorized for passing exams. But the past informs the present and future, especially in delineating the context surrounding specific events that, in turn, help provide a deeper understanding of their causes and implications. Scientific progress (whether incremental or breakthroughs) is built upon prior work. Chronological examination of computational chemistry’s evolution reveals the existence of major “epochs” (e.g., transition from semi-empirical methods to first principles calculations), and the centrality of key ideas (e.g., Schrodinger equation and Born Oppenheimer approximation) in potentiating progress in the field. The longstanding question of whether computing power (both capacity and speed) or theoretical insights play a more important role in advancing computational chemistry was examined by taking into account the field’s development holistically. Specifically, availability of large amount of computing power at declining cost, and advent of graphics processing unit (GPU) powered parallel computing are enabling tools for solving hitherto intractable problems. On the other hand, this essay argues (using Born Oppenheimer approximation as an example) that theoretical insights’ role in unlocking problems through simple (but insightful) assumptions is often overlooked. Collectively, the essay should be useful as a primer for appreciating major development periods in computational chemistry, from which counterfactual questions illuminate the relative importance of theoretical insights and advances in computer science in moving the field forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0232.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: concrete; construction history; Iceland; Reykjavík; Guðmundur Hannesson
Online: 13 September 2018 (10:11:59 CEST)
The quick modernisation of Iceland, that rapidly took place from the first decades of the 20th century onwards, did not only bring fishing trawlers and cars into the country. Among all the techniques of modernity, concrete [steinsteypa] was to become the key material that changed the built landscape of the island and was soon adopted by the first Icelandic architects, such as Rögnvaldur Ólafsson (1874–1914) and Guðjón Samúelsson (1887–1950). Interestingly, the main supporter of this material was Guðmundur Hannesson (1866–1946), a medical doctor and town planner who wrote several articles and even a guidebook published in 1921 and titled Steinsteypa. Leiðarvísir fyrir alþýðu og viðvaninga [Concrete. Guidebook for Common People and Beginners]. In a country that was seeking an architectural self-representation, he understood the technical and formal possibilities that concrete could offer: he claimed, “people [...] were trying to change, to build out of a new material with a new form” (Guðmundur Hannesson 1926, 14). This essay aims thus to retrace the rhetoric of Guðmundur Hannesson and his role in writing an Icelandic chapter of the history of concrete, from its early stage of unmodern trial-and-error to the definition of a modern Icelandic architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0388.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: cyprinidae; life history; freshwater ecology; oocyte; ovary
Online: 28 May 2018 (08:48:11 CEST)
Understanding the reproductive patterns and strategies of a species is an important step in establishing the species’ life history. Campostoma oligolepis, the Largescale Stoneroller, is a species that has received little attention in the 90 years since it was first identified, and the work that has been done has been localized in the American Midwest. Collections of C. oligolepis were made monthly from the Flint River in Madison County in northern Alabama, USA, from March, 2014, to September, 2015. A total of 768 fish were collected over the collection period including 492 adults, 268 females and 224 males. We found strong evidence that the peak spawning time for C. oligolepis in the Flint River is March and April. Ovarian maturation, gonadosomatic index for both sexes, and monthly clutch size all support this conclusion. Two unexpected features were found. The first is how few females of mature size were found to carry either oocytes or a clutch except in the peak observed reproductive month of April, 2014. The second unusual feature is the prevalence of asymmetric ovaries, with the left the larger if a difference exists. Campostoma oligolepis may have unusually strong inter-annual responses to abiotic factors such as water temperature and river discharge.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0062.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: X-rays; polarimetry; general; history of astronomy
Online: 7 February 2018 (10:35:37 CET)
Astronomical X-ray polarimetry was first explored in the end of the 60's by pioneering rocket instruments. The craze arising from the first discoveries on stellar and supernova remnant X-ray polarization led to the addition of X-ray polarimeters on-board of early satellites. Unfortunately, the inadequacy of the diffraction and scattering technologies required to measure polarization with respect to the constraints driven by X-ray mirrors and detectors, coupled to long integration times, slowed down the field for almost 40 years. Thanks to the development of new, highly sensitive, compact X-ray polarimeters in the beginning of the 2000's, the possibility to observe astronomical X-ray polarization is rising again and scientists are now ready to explore the high energy sky thanks to modern X-ray polarimeters. In the forthcoming years, several X-ray missions (both rockets, balloons and satellites) will open a new observational windows. A wind of renewal blows over the area of X-ray polarimetry and this paper presents for the first time a quantitative assessment, all based on scientific literature, of the growth of interest for astronomical X-ray polarimetry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0071.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: history of architecture; architectural models; architectural media
Online: 12 December 2017 (07:05:09 CET)
Architecture is more than just buildings. Its associated production and reception processes take place through a variety of different media. Among those media, the model is of special significance: because architecture, like almost every science or art, works with models as representationally or theoretically simplified images mediating between the abstract and the reality. The properties that characterise models give them a special significance in architecture—both in the abstract, as well as in the concrete. The following article sketches out the history of the architectural model as a medium in a short tour d’horizon. A special focus is placed on showing the versatility of the model—for design and presentation and as an artefact, teaching resource and research medium. It transmits a specific form of knowledge which can be replaced by no other medium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0129.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Museology Keywords: history; museology; Israeli culture; Holocaust; Israeli society
Online: 26 December 2016 (10:43:31 CET)
Tiny by physical size, the State of Israel retains some of the world’s most important cultural treasures, along with many other great cultural institutions. Archeological treasures have yielded much information as far as biblical history and have been well adapted to a Zionist narrative by both the Jewish press and international news organizations, such as the New York Times whose archives are replete with reports of Jewish history being dug up by the Jewish people. Once the State of Israel gained independence in 1948, the course was set for the development of historical museums whose discourse would reflect the most significant events in Jewish history, most especially the Holocaust and the state of constant warfare that continues to imbue the cultural consciousness of its citizens. In this paper we outline, through categorization, the various historical museums, which are currently operating. Furthermore, this article hopes to shed some light upon the cultural sensibilities conveyed through these institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1117.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: history; endowments; query model; digital data; physical data
Online: 17 July 2023 (15:11:18 CEST)
Historical and Endowment Properties are different from Heritage and cultural Properties, as Historical and Endowment properties are governed by a unique set of laws that Waqf recipients must abide by. Property that is entrusted is usually in the form of buildings, land or valuables which in preservation is not limited to time as long as the property can be utilized. Reliable information technology is needed to ensure data security both digitally and physically, while the rapid development of information technology demands information openness and this will be a challenge in itself. The objectives of this study include examining the collection of historical databases and endowments, the relationship between digital data and physical data and management organizations. The method of how to design a query model to display data is then analyzed whether the data conforms to the rules in waqf management. The results are expected to bring up accurate data between digital data and physical data and if there are differences into findings for the next analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1980.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: cryophilic; ecophysiology; growth temperature, life history; local climate
Online: 28 June 2023 (09:37:19 CEST)
Typhulaceae Jülich is one of the cold-adapted fungal families in basidiomycetes. Typhula (Pers.) Fr. and Pistillaria Fr. representing the family are distinguished from the morphology of a stipe to a hymenium (Fries 1821). The hymenium of Typhula is distinguishable from the stipe, but indistinguishable and consecutive in the genus Pistillaria. This taxonomic criterion is ambiguous, and consequently the opinion of Karsten (1882) has been widely accepted; I the genus Typhula, basidiomata develop from sclerotia, while basidiomata develop directly from substrata in the genus Pistillaris. But, Corner (1970) observed basidiomata of Pistillaria petasitis S. Imai in Hokkaido, Japan, from sclerotia. We collected irregular sclerotia of Typhula hyperborea H. Ekstr. from Upernavik, West Greenland. This specimen had a stipe-like structure on a Poaceae plant, and sclerotia developed on its tip. In August, P. petasitis in Hokkaido, Japan, formed basidiomata directly from substrates on the ground. Similar phenomena were found from other Typhula spp. in Japan. All of these fungi had the potential to produce sclerotia in culture, and as well as the capacity of mycelial growth at ambient air temperatures in each locality when samples were collected. These findings suggest that Typhula spp. developed basidiomata not only from the sclerotia dispersed by the basidiospores but also mycelia generated by the spore germination formed basidiomata multiple times depending on their growth environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0002.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: universe expansion law; redshifts; distances; history of science
Online: 2 December 2018 (10:18:30 CET)
Based on historical facts, revisited from a present-day perspective, and on the documented opinions of the scientists involved in the discovery themselves, strong arguments are given in favor of a proposal to include prominent astronomer Vesto Slipher to the suggested addition of Georges Lemaître's name to Hubble's law on the expansion of the Universe, and thus eventually call it Hubble-Lemaître-Slipher's (HLS) law.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0419.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Orientalism; postcolonialism; Islamic Studies; Islam; representation; Muslims; history
Online: 19 November 2018 (05:28:54 CET)
This paper undertakes a critical analysis and evaluates the recent developments in the study of Islam and how it has gone beyond Orientalism; as Martin and Ernst remark in the preface and acknowledgements of Rethinking Islamic Studies: from Orientalism to Cosmopolitanism that the last three decades—after the publication of Orientalism in 1978—“has been a liberating experience for us as scholars initially trained in narrowly textual ‘Orientalist’ approaches, as we have been forced by circumstance to address many issues of contemporary political and social relevance.” However, I will also acknowledge the alternate perspective that these developments may not have gone beyond Said’s Orientalism, but have rather reinforced and maintained - and have “decidedly worsened”—the very ideas Said introduced in Orientalism because of issues such as: Islamic fundamentalism and the aftermath of 9/11, and how the study of Islam has been influenced by these issues in modern times thus returning to the Orientalist approach. I will look at the history of Orientalism in the study of Islam, then the emergence of space for self-representation, and then I will look at the current study of Islam. Esposito argues that Orientalism has taken a new form, and no longer romanticizes the Middle East as having sandy deserts where genies, thieves and evil sorcerers vied after scantily clad princesses amid a backdrop of white palaces and peasant-ridden streets, as presented in the film ‘Aladdin’.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0147.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: history of psychology; humanism; reformation; metaphysics; empirical psychology
Online: 29 September 2017 (03:41:09 CEST)
Subjectivity has always been a part of philosophical speculations. However, Immanuel Kant is mentioned as the main figure to bring in subjectivity in modern philosophy by comparing the Critique of Pure Reason with the Copernican revolution. We might include Descartes as well, and not least the followers of Kant, like Fichte and Hegel. Yet none of these end up with subjectivity as the only premise for thinking, but rather combine it with objectivity. Hence, subjectivity has appeared as a stranger in philosophy and yet not fully accepted. In this paper, I try to pursue the aspect of subjectivity by not looking at philosophy, but rather at psychology. The appearance of the term can be dated back to 1520 when the Croatian humanist Marcus Marulus published the thesis entitled “Psychology, the Nature of the Soul”. This thesis is lost, but by pursuing the appearance of the term, four different movements seem to contribute with and highlight an aspect of subjectivity. One is Humanism, the other is Reformation, the third is a focus on the empirical aspects of science and the fourth is the dissemination of folk culture to academics and aristocracy by means of the art of printing. The finding, therefore, is that psychology is not to be regarded as a discipline that grows out of philosophy, but rather as a discipline that conflicts philosophy, but nevertheless intervenes it and makes it progress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Approximate Bayesian computation; demographic history; distributional shift; evolutionary history; machine learning; phylogeography; range contraction; range expansion; Reticulitermes flavipes; species distribution modeling
Online: 4 February 2019 (16:47:40 CET)
The eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes, currently inhabits previously glaciated regions of the northeastern U.S., as well as the unglaciated southern Appalachian Mountains and surrounding areas. We hypothesized that Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have influenced the distribution of R. flavipes, and thus the evolutionary history of the species. We estimated contemporary and historical geographic distributions of R. flavipes by constructing Species Distribution Models (SDM). We also inferred the evolutionary and demographic history of the species using mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I and II) and nuclear (endo-beta-1,4-glucanase) DNA sequence data. To do this, genetic populations were delineated using Bayesian spatial genetic clustering, competing hypotheses about population divergence were assessed using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), and changes in population size were estimated using Bayesian skyline plots. SDMs identified areas in the north with suitable habitat during the transition from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum, as well as an expanding distribution from the mid-Holocene to the present. Genetic analyses identified three geographically cohesive populations, corresponding with northern, central, and southern portions of the study region. Based on ABC analyses, divergence between the Northern and Southern populations was the oldest, estimated to have occurred 64.80 thousand years ago (kya), which corresponds with the timing of available habitat in the north. The Central and Northern populations diverged in the mid-Holocene, 8.63 kya, after which the Central population continued to expand. Accordingly, phylogeographic patterns of R. flavipes in the southern Appalachians appear to have been strongly influenced by glacial-interglacial climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Body-size; Cerrado; Evolutionary history; Nymphalidae; Phylogeny; Species traits
Online: 5 November 2021 (10:35:29 CET)
Introduction: Body size is correlated with many aspects of an animal species' natural history, such as life span, abundance, dispersal capacity and diet breadth. However, contrasting trends have been reported for the relationship between body size and these ecological traits. Methods: Butterfly species from fruit-feeding guilds were used to investigate whether body size correlates with species abundances, dispersal, permanence, and diet breadth in a Neotropical savanna in Brazil (Cerrado). We used Blomberg’s K and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares models (PGLS) to measure phylogenetic signal strength in species traits, and to estimate size-dispersal-diet breadth associations while taking shared ancestry into account. Results: 539 individuals from 27 species were captured, and 190 individuals were recaptured, representing a 35% recapture rate. We found that body size negatively influenced butterfly abundance. In contrast, body size was positively associated with dispersal levels, distance traveled, number of traps visited, individual permanence, and diet breadth. These results indicate that larger butterflies have a greater proportion of dispersing individuals over longer distances, as they permanence were detected over longer periods than their smaller relatives. Moreover, larger butterflies are more generalized, based on the number of host plant families and genera they consume. Smaller butterflies demand fewer resources, which is reflected in their higher survival in small patches, and may explain their lower dispersal ability, and higher diet specialization. Nevertheless, lower dispersal ability, if not compensated by large population sizes, may threaten small-bodied species inhabiting environments with intense deforestation rates, such as the Cerrado. Conclusions: Body size positively influences dispersal and diet breadth in the fruit-feeding butterflies collected in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0524.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: Sport History; Iran; Zoorkhaneh Sport; Arjan Cup; Traditional Sport
Online: 21 June 2021 (15:46:22 CEST)
The article reviews Iranian sports in three periods: prehistoric, ancient, and modern. In prehistoric times, remaining cases have shown the existence of movement activities based on recreational and religious ceremonies. In the period of ancient history, documents such as Hasanlu Golden Cup and Arjan Cup, and in the continuation of architectures leftover from different eras, refer to the prosperity of sports activities with different approaches. Among all kinds of activities, Iranian zoorkhaneh sport has a significant cultural background and effect. Modern sports entered Iran through embassies, oil contractors, Western-educated students, and military representatives in other countries (in the modern era). Iran became a member of the International Olympic Committee in 1947 and won its first Olympic medal in 1948. Entering the 21st century, the sports industry in Iran began to grow and the number of clubs, sports careers, and sports science students in universities increased significantly. The growing dimension of attention and interest in sports among Iranians shows that sports will be one of the main areas in Iran's development in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0043.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Theater Keywords: Epilepsy, Theatre, Neurology, Cultural History, Drama, Engagement, Medical Communication
Online: 2 April 2021 (11:12:17 CEST)
The theatre has a tremendous ability to influence public discourse and shape societal opinions. And medical conditions can provide writers with a rich scope for plot development and characters with challenges to overcome. In particular, the neurological condition epilepsy has many possibilities with historical beliefs that people were possessed by gods and devils and the sudden, disabling seizures characteristic of the condition. But used unsympathetically, it can promote misunderstanding within audiences, resulting in discrimination for people with the condition. This review looks back at how epilepsy has been portrayed throughout history. How the Greeks portrayed epilepsy as a punishment from the gods. Then later, how Shakespeare utilised epilepsy to suggest characters as uncontrollable. However, we finish on a message of hope as modern writers look to collaboration to ensure accurate and honest portrayals of epilepsy, improving public understanding and removing many of the stigmas that have dogged the condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0117.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: Public Art; Cultural identity; Islamic society; Art history; Pakistan.
Online: 18 February 2018 (13:16:07 CET)
The significance of arts incorporated with culture inclusion makes the arts a matter of pressing interest. The arts are vital elements of a healthy society that benefits the nations even in difficult social and economic times. Based on the previous studies this research was conducted for the first time in Pakistan to explore the historical background of public art correlated with cultural and religious ethics. Though, Pakistan has a rich cultural history yet the role of modern public art is new and often used unintentionally. Our findings of different surveys conducted in Pakistan including oldest cities such as Lahore, Peshawar and newly developed, the capital city, Islamabad concluded that Public art has a rich cultural and historical background and the local community are enthusiastically connected to it. Different community groups prefer different types of public art in their surroundings depends on the city’s profile, cultural background, and religious mindset of the local community. Overall, the sculptures and depiction of animated beings are not considering right and debatable among the Pakistani societies. On the other hand, the cultural and historical monuments are highly appreciated and welcomed by the local community of Pakistan. This study may create scope for future estimation and development of public art in Pakistan in association with Islamic laws and cultural norms of the local society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0107.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: dynamic speckle; activity; temporal history speckle pattern; Varnish; Cyclododecane
Online: 16 November 2017 (07:14:44 CET)
Dynamic laser speckle is applied as a reliable sensor of activity in all sort of material. Traditional applications are based on a time rate that is usually higher than 10 frames-per-second (FPS). Even in drying processes, where there is a high activity in the first moments after the painting and a slow activity after some minutes or hours, the process is based on the acquisition of images in a time rate that is the same in both moments of high and low activity. In this work, we present an alternative approach to follow the drying of paint and the other processes related to restauration of paintings that takes long-term to reduce the activity. We illuminated, using three different wavelength lasers, an accelerator (Cyclododecane) and a varnish used in restauration of paintings and monitor them at long-term drying using an alternative fps, comparing the results to the traditional method. The work also presents a way to do the monitoring using a portable equipment. The results present the feasibility to use the portable device and show the improvement in the sensitivity of the dynamic laser speckle to sense long-term process regarding the drying of Cyclododecane and Varnish used in restauration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0897.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water management; climate history; humans-nature cooperation; conflict resolution; dialectics
Online: 13 June 2023 (08:26:41 CEST)
The way humans use natural resources and especially freshwater, reflects their relationship with nature. It also influences the conceptual Water Resources Management (WRM) model. A historical review shows that the interplay between Humans and Nature is diachronically in constant change between two opposites: conflict and cooperation. Lessons from the past 20.000 years indicate that the WRM model is a function of two main parameters: (1) socio-economics, and (2) climate conditions. Three different Eras of the Humans-Nature relationship have been distinguished: (1) Naturalistic: Nature dominating Humans during the Last Glacial Period (100-10) kyr BC, (2) Dualistic: Nature-Humans cooperation and competition from 10 kyr BC to 1800 AD, and (3) Anthropocentric: Humans dominating Nature from 1800 AD to now. Since 2000, the Integrated WRM (IWRM) model is promoted as state-of-the-art and remains anthropocentric producing huge externalities. Its assessment during the last 20 years has given mixed results and needs to be reformulated. The new model we suggest is based on the dialectical tool for conflict resolution. It unifies Humans and Nature and enhances the social dimension of WRM. After identifying conflicts between stakeholders and the natural laws (eristic part), opposite objectives are unified to harmonize Humans with Nature (dialectical resolution). A case study of flood mitigation illustrates the eristic-dialectical methodology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: 3D printing; intraoral scanners; digital dentistry; trueness; precision; accuracy; history
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:57:02 CEST)
Introduction: The term 3D printing is commonly used to depict an assembling method whereby the final form of an object is the result of the addition of different layers to build the frame of an object. This procedure is more accurately portrayed as additive manufacturing and is likewise alluded to as fast prototyping. The term 3D printing, in any case, is generally new and has been an active part of current developments in Dentistry. Much publicity encompasses the evolution of 3D printing, which is hailed as an innovation that will perpetually change CAM manufacturing, including in the dental sector. This review is the first part in a 3D Printing series that looks at the history of 3D Printing, the technologies available and reviews the literature relating to the accuracy of these technologies. Conclusions: The recent advancement in digital dentistry to incorporate these tools has modernised dental practices by paving the way for computer-aided design (CAD) technology and rapid prototyping. The use of 3D printing has led to 3D digital models produced with intraoral scanners (IOS), which can be manipulated easily for diagnosis, treatment planning, mockups, and a multitude of other uses. Combining 3D Printing with a 3D intraoral scan eliminates the need for physical storage but makes it to retrieve a 3D models for use within all dental modalities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0630.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Review; Machine Learning; Reservoir simulations; History matching; Production optimization; Production forecast
Online: 11 July 2023 (03:13:13 CEST)
In recent years, Machine Learning (ML) has become a buzzword in the petroleum industry with numerous applications which guide engineers in better decision-making. The most powerful tool that most production development decisions rely on is reservoir simulation with applications in numerous modeling procedures, such as individual simulation runs, history matching and production forecast and optimization. However, all these applications lead to considerable computational time and computer resources associated costs, rendering reservoir simulators as not fast and robust enough, thus introducing the need for more time-efficient and smart tools, like ML models which are able to adapt and provide fast and competent results that mimic the simulator’s performance within an acceptable error margin. The first part of the present study (Part I) offers a detailed review of ML techniques in the petroleum industry, specifically in subsurface reservoir simulation, for the cases of individual simulation runs and history matching, whereas the ML-based Production Forecast Optimization applications will be presented in Part II. This review can assist engineers as a complete source for applied ML techniques since, with the generation of large-scale data in everyday activities, ML is becoming a necessity for future and more efficient applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1956.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: COI; teleostei; nucleotide diversity; haplotypic diversity; qPCR; demographic history; environmental DNA
Online: 28 June 2023 (07:37:41 CEST)
Fish tissue samples from 203 adult individuals were collected in the main ports and markets of the Pacific coast of Panama. Molecular identification based on cytochrome oxidase I gene segment of all species was verified GENBANK reference sequences. 34 species from 14 families (Ariidae, Lutjanidae, Caranjidae, Scianidae, Centropomidae, Serranidae, Scombridae, Sphyraenidae, Haemulidae, Gerreidae, Stromotidae, Lobotidae, Malacanthidae, Mugilidae) were identified at species molecular level from 164 sequences. Also, three Caribbean species were molecularly identified among the analyzed samples (Mycteroperca xenarcha, Paralonchurus brasilensis and Lobotes surinamensis). Species diversity was slightly higher in the Gulf of Panama than in the Gulf of Chiriquí. For species with 5 or more individual sequences, genetic diversity and genetic connectivity parameters such as: total number of haplotypes (H), haplotype diversity (Hd), and nucleotide diversity (π) were calculated. Overall, pelagic-migratory species showed higher values of genetic diversity than coastal and estuarine species with some exceptions. Connectivity between Gulf areas was compared using values of genetic distances and genetic differentiation (Fst). High level of connectivity observed between Gulf of Chiriqui and Gulf of Montijo indicates the existence of a single stock in that area for the following species: Scomberomorus sierra, Caranx caninus and Lutjanus guttatus. Demographic history of the most common species was examined using Tajima’s D values suggesting population expansion for two snapper species, L. peru and L. argentiventris, having significant and higher values. Another important contribution from this research was the production of primers and dual labeled probes for environmental DNA detection using qPCR for the five most abundant species (spotted rose snapper, yellow snapper, green jack, Pacific crevalle jack and the Pacific sierra fish). These markers represent a new set of tools for environmental DNA (eDNA) detection and molecular traceability of three commercially important fish species along the supply chain including landing sites and markets of the main fishery areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1567.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Kentish plover; life-history; reproductive output; breeding behavior; inland arid area
Online: 21 June 2023 (14:48:00 CEST)
Due to the influence of bio-geographical and environmental factors, as well as anthropogenic landscape features, organism shows different reproductive strategies among different populations. There is lack of detailed information on the reproductive biology of Kentish plover Charadrius al-exandrinus in arid lands in Central Asia. In this study, we summarized the characteristics of the reproductive biology of three geographically distinct plover populations in Aibi Lake in the Northwestern Xinjiang, Taitema Lake in the Southern Xinjiang and artificial reservoirs around Urumqi City in Northern Xinjiang respectively, based on 440 eggs of 158 nests observed and ana-lyzed from April to July of 2019 and 2020. We find that there is no significant difference in clutch size among the three populations. However, the egg size of Taitema Lake population is signifi-cantly larger than those of the other two populations, whilst egg volume and clutch volume of ar-tificial reservoirs population are significantly larger than that of Aibi Lake. With the postpone-ment of laying date, the northern and northwestern populations respectively show the character-istics of small clutch size and relatively small egg size, and decrease of reproductive outputs. The heavier female plovers in Taitema Lake lays eggs earlier, and there was significantly positive cor-relation between the female body mass and the clutch size and egg size. The tarsometatarsus length of the female plovers was significantly positively correlated with the reproductive output in all three populations. The model selection results show that female body size and ambient tem-perature restrict the egg size and reproductive output of Kentish plovers, which is consistent with the upper limit hypothesis of the maternal condition and the maternal constraint. Our data sup-port that Kentish plover show distinct flexibility in breeding strategies to cope with the harsh nat-ural environment in arid lands of Xinjiang, China. The results of relatively high average clutch size and average egg size imply that saline wetlands in Western China are important breeding habitats for Kentish plover.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0295.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: virus life history; transmission ecology; evolution; arthropod host; virus-host mutualism
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:42:38 CEST)
It remains poorly understood how the life history strategies and transmission ecologies of viruses of plants, arthropods, and vertebrates are interrelated. The present analysis hinges on the virus transmission success. Virus transmission reflects where in the host-body viruses are retained or replicating. Plants, arthropods, and vertebrates share a protective outer-layer, a circulatory system, and reproductive organs. The latter enables vertical virus transmission and associates with virus-host mutualism. Two broadly opposing virus life history strategies are considered. Acute viruses tend to be replicative and are swiftly transmitted to the next host. Instead, persistent viruses keep virus replicating costs and host damage to a minimum. The intertwined life histories and transmission ecologies are accordingly pieced together, based on the virus mono- or instead dual-host tropism, the location of virus retention or replication on or in the host-body, the presence of cyclical or mechanical transmission by arthropods, and of horizontal and vertical host-to-host transmission modes. It is shown that in the arthropod and in the vertebrate animal host, virus circulation in the hemocoel or blood circulation goes hand-in-hand with vertical transmission. Instead, plant phloem viruses do not transmit via seed. The latter is the rule for the plant-only viruses. The risk management implications are discussed in brief.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0697.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: history education; social studies; scholar research; relevant social problems; global citizenship.
Online: 29 March 2021 (14:40:47 CEST)
In Secondary Education, the focus of History teaching must be on the development of global citizenship. The present research was a study contextualized in the Fiesta de la Historia Youth Congress in Seville (Spain). A documentary analysis with a descriptive and interpretive design was made of 63 projects of inquiry that pupils carried out. The main objectives were to assess the incidence of the proposal in terms of participation, and to determine whether the pupils' projects followed a logic of inquiry about socially relevant problems which favours the construction of global citizenship. The results point to a low incidence of schools participating in this initiative. The projects of inquiry analysed present for the most part themes related to the historical and social heritage of the locality. The proposals are approached as problems of a specific discipline, and are worked on through a method based on a pseudoscientific research process. The findings indicate the need to continue implementing initiatives based on school inquiry that allow the teaching of History to be articulated around relevant social problems, with the objective being to develop citizenship skills.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Ebola virus; rhesus macaque; animal model; FDA Animal Rule; natural history
Online: 5 February 2021 (11:34:20 CET)
Ebola virus (EBOV) is a negative-sense RNA virus that can infect humans and nonhuman primates with severe health consequences. Development of countermeasures requires a thorough understanding of the interaction between host and pathogen, and the course of disease. The goal of this study was to further characterize EBOV disease in a uniformly lethal rhesus macaque model, in order to support development of a well-characterized model following rigorous quality standards. Rhesus macaques were intramuscularly exposed to EBOV and one group was euthanized at predetermined time points to characterize progression of disease. A second group was not scheduled for euthanasia in order to analyze survival, changes in physiology, clinical pathology, terminal pathology, and telemetry kinetics. On day 3, sporadic viremia was observed and pathological evidence was noted in lymph nodes. By day 5, viremia was detected in all EBOV exposed animals and pathological evidence was noted in the liver, spleen, and gastrointestinal tissues. These data support the notion that EBOV infection in rhesus macaques is a rapid systemic disease similar to infection in humans, under a compressed time scale. Biomarkers that correlated with disease progression at the earliest stages of infection were observed thereby identifying potential “trigger--to-treat” for use in therapeutic studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0027.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Population genetics; Statistical modelling; Demographic modelling; Ancient DNA; Population history; Archaeology
Online: 2 March 2020 (15:17:14 CET)
Demographic processes directly affect patterns of genetic variation within contemporary populations as well as future generations, allowing for demographic inference from patterns of both present day and past genetic variation. Advances in laboratory procedures and sequencing and genotyping technologies in the last decades have resulted in massive increases in high quality genome-wide genetic data from present day populations and allowed retrieving genetic data from archaeological material, also known as ancient DNA. This has resulted in an explosion of work exploring past changes in population size, structure, continuity and movement. However, as genetic processes are highly stochastic, patterns of genetic variation only indirectly reflect demographic histories. As a result, past demographic processes need to be reconstructed using an inferential approach. This usually involves comparing observed patterns of variation with model expectations from theoretical population genetics. A large number of approaches have been developed based on different population genetic models that each come with assumptions about the data and underlying demography. In this article I review some of the key models and assumptions underlying the most commonly used approaches for past demographic inference and their consequences for our ability to link the inferred demographic processes to the archaeological and climate records.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0419.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Carcinus maenas; shore crab; European green crab; population dynamics; life history
Online: 31 December 2019 (17:09:57 CET)
Carcinus maenas (the “shore crab” or “European green crab”) is a very proficient invader (considered to be one of the world’s 100 worst invaders by the IUCN) due to its phenotypic plasticity, wide temperature and salinity tolerance, and an extensive omnivorous diet. Native to Atlantic Europe, it has established two well‐studied nonindigenous populations in the northwestern Atlantic and northeastern Pacific and less‐studied populations in Australia, Argentina and South Africa. Green crabs are eurythermal and euryhaline as adults, but they are limited to temperate coastlines due to more restrictive temperature requirements for breeding and larval development. They cannot tolerate wave‐swept open shores so are found in wave‐protected sheltered bays, estuaries and harbors. Carcinus maenas has been the subject of numerous papers, with over 1000 published in the past decade. This review provides an up‐to‐date account of the current published information on the life history and population dynamics of this very important species, including genetic differentiation, habitat preferences, physical parameter tolerances, reproduction and larval development, sizes of crabs, densities of populations, sex ratios, ecosystem dynamics and ecological impacts in the various established global populations of green crabs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1728.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Recommendation systems; collaborative filtering; sequential patterns; e-commerce; purchase and clickstream history
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:45:51 CEST)
E-commerce recommendation systems usually deal with massive customer sequential databases, such as historical purchase or click stream sequences. Recommendation systems’ accuracy can be improved if complex sequential patterns of user purchase behavior are learned by integrating sequential patterns of customer clicks and/or purchases into the user-item rating matrix input of collaborative filtering. This reviews focuses on algorithmic techniques of existing E-commerce recommendation systems that are sequential pattern based such as ChoRec05, ChenRec09, HuangRec09, LiuRec09, ChoiRec12, Hybrid Model RecSys16, Product RecSys16, SainiRec17, HPCRec18 and HSPCRec19. It provides a comprehensive and comparative performance analysis of these systems, exposing their methodologies, achievements, limitations, and potentials for solving more important problems in this domain. The review showed that integrating sequential pattern mining of historical purchase and/or click sequences into user-item matrix for collaborative filtering (i) improved recommendation accuracy (ii) reduced user-item rating data sparsity (iii) increased novelty rate of recommendations and (iv) improved scalability of the recommendation system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0519.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: prehistory; history; archeobiology; paleovirology; EVEs; ancient DNA; paleogenomics; pathology collections; historic publications
Online: 30 August 2022 (10:29:39 CEST)
Since life on earth developed, parasitic microbes have thrived. Increases in host numbers, or the conquest of a new species, provides an opportunity for such a pathogen to enjoy, before host defense systems kick in, a similar upsurge in reproduction. Outbreaks ‒ caused by ‘endemic’ pathogens ‒ and epidemics ‒ caused by ‘novel’ pathogens ‒ have thus been creating chaos and destruction since prehistorical times. To study such (pre)historic epidemics, recent advances in the ancient DNA field, applied to both archeological and historical remains, have helped tremendously to elucidate the evolutionary trajectory of pathogens. These studies offered new and unexpected insights in the evolution of, for instance, smallpox virus, hepatitis B virus and the plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis. Furthermore, burial patterns and historical publications can help in tracking down ancient pathogens. Another source of information is our genome, where selective sweeps in immune-related genes relate to past pathogen attacks, while multiple viruses have left their genomes behind for us to study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Metal 3D printing; Additive manufacturing; Powder bed fusion; Thermal simulation; Thermal history
Online: 17 September 2021 (09:28:45 CEST)
The powder bed fusion (PBF) metal additive manufacturing (AM) method uses an energy source like a laser to melt the metal powders. The laser can locally melt the metal powders and creates a solid structure as it moves. The complexity of the heat distribution in laser PBF metal AM is one of the main features that need to be accurately addressed and understood to design and manage an optimized printing process. In this research, the dependency of local thermal rates and gradients on print after solidification (in the heat-affected zone) was numerically simulated and studied to provide information for designing the print process. The simulation results were validated by independent experimental results. The simulation shows that the local thermal rates are higher at higher laser power and scan speed. Also, the local thermal gradients increase if the laser power increases. The effect of scan speed on the thermal gradients is opposite during heating versus cooling times. Increasing the scan speed increases the local thermal gradients in the cooling times and decreases the local thermal gradients during the heating. In addition, these simulation results could be used in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning for developing digital additive manufacturing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0349.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: garden of Eden; attempts at location; history of biblical exegesis; narrative strategies.
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:50:18 CEST)
A close analysis of the text of Gen. 2:8-15, pertaining to the garden of Eden, shows the structural differences between said text and others from ancient mythologies that mention or describe a paradise. Likewise, that analysis suggests that the data provided by the Bible to locate paradise is merely a narrative device meant to dissipate all doubts as to the existence of the garden where God put human beings. Similarly to other spaces that appear in the Bible, the garden of Eden is but an impossible place. Throughout the centuries, however, recurring proposals have been made that aim to find paradise. As time went by, those proposals were progressively modified by the intellectual ideas dominant at any given era, thus leading the representations of the location of Paradise further and further away from the information provided by the biblical text.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Calandrinia compressa; Calandrinia pilosiuscula; Montiaceae; Chilean Floristic Region; taxonomy; nomenclature; natural history
Online: 25 June 2020 (15:45:13 CEST)
Calandrinia compressa Schrad. ex DC (Prodr. 3: 359. 1828) is the name currently widely applied to a polymorphic annual species of Calandrinia sect. Calandrinia endemic to the Chilean Floristic Region. A total of ten validly published heterotypic names plus six horticultural designations (and orthographic variants thereof) have been considered at some point as taxonomically the same as C. compressa. Two additional heterotypic taxa and their synonyms and two other designations possibly refer to this species. Two other taxa sometimes referred to this species are excluded. I treat here a total of 77 distinct nomenclaturally valid names and invalid designations and variants thereof. The type of one of the valid and legitimate names, Calandrinia pilosiuscula DC (Rev. Portulac. 9. 1827), is judged here to be taxonomically the same as the type of C. compressa. Because of its chronological priority, Calandrinia pilosiuscula DC must be accepted as the correct name for Calandrinia compressa Schrad. ex DC when the two are considered taxonomic synonyms. Here, the taxonomic history of this taxon is articulated and, where possible, types are identified and/or designated. The natural and anthropogenic history of the species is summarized critically in a theoretical context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0438.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: history of science; study of invertebrates; research patterns; study of velvet worms
Online: 30 March 2020 (04:46:22 CEST)
Velvet worms, or onychophorans, include placental species and, as a phylum, have survived all mass extinctions since the Cambrian. They capture prey with an extraordinary adhesive net that appears in an instant. The first naturalist to formally mention them was Lansdown Guilding (1797-1831), a British priest from the Caribbean island of Saint Vincent. His life is as little known as the history of the field he initiated, onychophorology. This is the first general history of onychophorology, and I have divided it into half century periods. The beginning, 1826-1879, was defined by former students of great names in the history of biology, like Cuvier and von Baer. This generation included Milne-Edwars and Blanchard, and the greatest advances came from France, with smaller but still important contributions from England and Germany. In the 1880-1929 period, work concentrated in anatomy, behavior, biogeography and ecology, but of course the most important work was Bouvier’s mammoth monograph. The next half century, 1930-1979, was important for the discovery of Cambrian species; Vachon’s explanation of how ancient distribution defined the existence of two families; Pioneer DNA and electron microscopy from Brazil; and primitive attempts at systematics using embryology or isolated anatomical characteristics. Finally, the 1980-2020 period, with research centered in Australia, Brazil, Costa Rica and Germany, is marked by an evolutionary approach to everything, from body and behavior to distribution; for the solution of the old problem of how they form their adhesive net and how the glue works; the reconstruction of Cambrian onychophoran communities, the first experimental taphonomy; the first country-wide map of conservation status (from Costa Rica); the first model of why they survive in cities; the discovery of new phenomena like food hiding, parental feeding investment and ontogenetic diet shift; and for the birth of a new research branch, Onychophoran Ethnobiology, founded in 2015. While a few names appear often in the literature, most knowledge was produced by a mass of researchers who entered the field only briefly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: genetic improvement; genetic variation; heritability; systematic review; biocontrol agent; life history traits
Online: 24 January 2020 (10:39:55 CET)
The concept of genetic improvement in relation to biological control involves the exploitation of natural genetic variation for the benefit of existing biological control agents (BCAs). Despite recent calls for this process to be adopted in biological control research, there is no clear overview of the current state of research into genetic variation within a biological control context, including quantifiable estimates such as narrow-sense heritability (h2). In this systematic review, we aim to determine the current state of research on the genetic variation of biological control traits in natural enemies. After the searching process, screening for papers that can deliver on our research question reduced the initial 2,927 search hits to only a mere 69 papers for data extraction. Of these, the majority (73.6%) did not report quantitative values for genetic variation. Extracting the traits measured in these papers, we categorized them according to two approaches; the first related to fitness components, and the second related to biological control importance. This systematic review highlights the need for more rigorous reporting of the quantitative values of genetic variation to enable the successful genetic improvement of biological control agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0404.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: sweating sickness; sudor anglicus; English Sweat; Picardy Sweat; febbre miliare; Tudor; England; EEBO; Early English Books Online; CQPWeb; corpus linguistics; history of medicine; history; early modern; late mediaeval
Online: 23 February 2023 (09:14:11 CET)
The first reports of the acute and often fatal illness known as the “English Sweat” are from 1485 and its last known outbreak was in 1551. During this period, the Sweat produced only five epidemic waves. Except for one outbreak which spread to the northern part of the continent of Europe in 1529, the Sweat was confined almost exclusively to England, with only anecdotal reports of isolated infections in other parts of the British Isles. The Sweat was thus only a minor component in the panorama of infectious disease affecting mediaeval and early modern Europe. Nevertheless, it continues to fascinate both medical historians and modern infectious disease biologists – the latter group now often engaged in competing exercises in retrospective diagnosis. This paper seeks to explore the reasons for such enduring interest, using the Early English Books Online (EEBO) text corpus to analyse the various contexts in which the Sweat was discussed up to 1700. EEBO shows that references to the Sweat occur repeatedly in astrological and religious discourses, especially from the mid-17th century onwards. Four salient examples are examined in detail. It is proposed that the cultural memory of the Sweat, in the 150 years following its disappearance, was kept disproportionately alive not so much by accounts of its alarming symptoms but more due to its metaphorical and illustrative utility in non-medical discourse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0349.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: history of shipbuilding; Galleon hull; Barque hull; seakeeping analysis; CFD analysis; 3D model
Online: 27 June 2022 (04:09:47 CEST)
The Galleon was considered a masterpiece of shipbuilding in the sixteenth century, but from a modern point of view, the shape of her hull looks archaic and primitive. However, how accurate is this perception? Is the hull form of Galleon primitive? What were the reasons for its unique design features? This article investigates these questions by directly analysing the hull’s features from the point of view of modern ship’s theory, as well as from a historical perspective. A careful evaluation of specific design criteria of a typical Galleon, together with analysing a 3D model of its hull on modern software, with further insight for the seakeeping behaviour of Galleon with a comparison to more modern full-rigged ship (Barque of 19 CE), showed that these features were not random, but instead had a good rationale behind it, and served specific and carefully decided functions, required at the time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0504.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Microbiota; Microbiome; Mosquitoes; Behavior; Oviposition; Larval habitat; Life History Traits; Nutrition; Development; Survival
Online: 21 June 2021 (11:22:15 CEST)
Mosquitoes are considered one of the most important threats worldwide due to their ability to vector pathogens. They are responsible for the transmission of major pathogens such as Malaria, dengue, Zika or Chikungunya. Due to the lack of treatments or prophylaxis against many of the transmitted pathogens and an increasing prevalence of mosquito resistance to insecticides and drugs available, alternative strategies are now being explored. Some of these involve the use of microorganisms as promising agent to limit the fitness of mosquitoes, attract or repel them and decrease the replication and transmission of pathogenic agents. In recent years, the importance of microorganisms colonizing the habitat of mosquitoes has particularly been investigated since they appeared to play major roles in their development and diseases transmission. In this issue we will synthesize researches investigating how microorganisms present within water habitats may influence breeding site selection and oviposition strategy of gravid mosquito females. We will also highlight the impact, effect of such microbes on the fate of females’ progeny during their immature stages with a specific focus on egg hatching, development rate and larvae of pupae survival.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0091.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Evolutionary dynamics; life-history stages; mating systems; biotic interactions; climatic variability; ecological genomics
Online: 4 September 2020 (08:13:40 CEST)
Contemporary climate change is exposing plant populations to novel combinations of temperatures, drought stress, [CO2] and other abiotic and biotic conditions. These changes are rapidly disrupting the evolutionary dynamics of plants. Despite the multifactorial nature of climate change, most studies typically manipulate only one climatic factor. In this opinion piece, we seek to explore how climate change factors interact with each other and with biotic pressures to alter evolutionary processes. We first explore the ramifications of climate change for key life history stages (germination, growth and reproduction). We then examine how mating system variation influences population persistence under rapid environmental change and propose that mixed mating could be advantageous in future climates. Furthermore, we discuss how spatial and temporal mismatches between plants and their mutualists and antagonists could promote or constrain adaptive responses to climate change. For example, plant-virus interactions vary from highly pathogenic to mildly facilitative, and are partly mediated by temperature, moisture availability and [CO2]. Will host plants exposed to novel, stressful abiotic conditions be more susceptible to viral pathogens? Finally, we propose novel experimental approaches that could illuminate how plants will cope with unprecedented global change, such as resurrection studies combined with experimental evolution, genomics or epigenetics.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0459.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: colonial life-history; major evolutionary transition (MET); cooperation; modularity; biological information; heterochrony; tunicate
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:05:33 CEST)
The diversification of life-histories is mediated by cooperation, innovations of biological information, modularity, and heterochrony in developmental processes. These processes are defined, contextualized, and exemplified, studying the evolution of coloniality (i.e. life-history involving modularization of the multicellular individual) in the family of benthic tunicates Styelidae. This study proposes that in these colonial tunicates there is an inter-generational division of labor, where one generation is feeding, a second is developing by morphogenetic processes, and a third is aging by programmed cell death and phagocytosis. The communication system developed in these colonies is mediated, by changes in proportion, location, and gene expression of specialized blood cells. Colonial life-history in animals is related to the reduction of individual size; development of extra-corporeal tissues to interconnect zooids; the inter-generational division of labor; and the reduction of zooid’s individuality. Processes analogous with the widely accepted major evolutionary transitions (METs), suggesting that coloniality could be studied as a MET. The understanding of colonial life-histories could provide information about key mechanisms for life diversification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0151.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: STS container crane; uplift and derailment; time history analysis; pushover analysis; fragility assessment
Online: 15 September 2019 (06:26:29 CEST)
While the container crane is an important part of daily port operations, it has received little attention compared with other infrastructures, such as buildings and bridges. Crane collapse due to earthquake affects the operation of the port, and indirectly impacts the economy. This study proposes fragility analyses for various damage levels of the container crane that allow the port owner and partners to better understand the seismic vulnerability presented by container cranes. A large quantity of nonlinear time history analyses was applied for a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model to quantify the vulnerability of the container crane in considering the uplift and derailment behavior. The uncertainty of demand and capacity of the crane structures were also considered through random variables, i.e. elastic modulus of members, ground motion profile, and intensity. The results analyzed in the case of a Korean container crane showed that the probability of exceeding the first uplift with or without derailment is shown before the crane reaches the structure’s limit states. This means that under low seismic excitation, the crane might be derailed without any structural damage. But when the crane reaches the minor damage state, it is always coupled with a certain probability of uplift with or without derailment. This study also proposes the fragility curves developed for different structural periods to enable port stakeholders to assess the risk of their container crane.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0178.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: art history; Nordic countries; life reform movement; Ellen Key; 19th Century; 20th Century
Online: 28 November 2017 (05:29:23 CET)
In the second half of the 19th century a wave of modernisation, industrialisation and urbanisation swept the Nordic countries, catapulting what had until then been lagging and primarily rural countries into modernity. These major upheavals, however, also plunged the Nordic countries into a profound social and cultural crisis resulting from their consciousness of their own backwardness vis-a-vis the countries on the European continent, as well as the recognition that a nostalgic nationalism recalling a mythical past had become obsolete in the industrial age. In response to this crisis, a life reform movement emerged that was based on Arts and Crafts movements as well as various artistic and literary reform movements and—equally absorbing rural traditions and progressive social ideas—tried to establish a new national everyday culture. In this article, the two key terms coined by Ellen Key, “Festive Customs” (‘festvanor’) and “Everyday Beauty” (‘vardagsskönhet’)—the programmatic core of the Nordic life reform movement—are analysed and illustrated in various typical manifestations. It also examines to what extent the Nordic life reform movement with these two key concepts as its core agenda found expression in arts and crafts, in painting as well as in the architecture of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century and contributed to the progress of social and cultural renewal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: clinical pharmacist; pharmacist intervention; perioperative; surgical setting; potentially inappropriate medication; best possible medication history
Online: 18 July 2023 (04:15:38 CEST)
Background: Best Possible Medication History (BPMH) collected by clinical pharmacists is crucial for effective medication review but, in Italy, it is often left to the nursing staff. This study aims to compare the quality and accuracy of a clinical pharmacist-documented BPMH with the current standard practice of ward staff-collected BPMH at an Italian perioperative surgical setting. Methods: A 20-week prospective observational non-profit study was conducted in a major University hospital. The study comprised a feasibility, an observational, and an interventional phase. During the feasibility phase, 10 items for obtaining a correct BPMH were identified. The control group consisted of retrospectively analyzed BPMHs collected by the ward staff during the observational phase, while interventions included BPMHs collected by the clinical pharmacist during the third phase. Omissions between the two groups were compared. Results: 14 (2%) omissions were found in the intervention group, compared with 400 (57.4%) found in the controls (p<0.05); data collection was more complete when collected by pharmacists compared to the current modalities (98.0% versus 42.6%; p<0.05). Conclusions: The involvement of a pharmacist significantly reduced the number of omissions in perioperative surgical-collected BPMHs. This intervention holds the potential to decrease the risk of medication errors associated with inaccurate or incomplete BPMHs prior to surgical hospitalization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0451.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: eco-evo-devo; evolution of multicellularity; fruiting body; life-history evolution; microbial evo-devo
Online: 19 May 2021 (14:37:11 CEST)
Microbes have evolved many fascinating and complex ways of interacting with conspecifics. Perhaps one of the most interesting is aggregative multicellularity, wherein independent cells come together and adhere to one another in order to form a larger entity. The fundamental benefits of active aggregation into multicellular groups generally remain unclear, and there are many open questions about what selective pressures led to the evolution of this behavior in various eukaryotic and prokaryotic taxa, most notably the dictyostelids and the myxobacteria. Aggregative multicellularity can be partitioned into three main phases: coming together, staying together as a group, and disaggregation. Different selective pressures may have led to adaptations unique to each phase. While aggregative microbial systems generally form elevated multicellular structures such as fruiting bodies, these can vary in complexity and morphology even among closely related species. What evolutionary forces shaped such morphological diversification remains unknown. Strains that are not genetically identical can coaggregate, which can impact group-level function either positively through functional synergy or negatively through harmful exploitation. Such chimerism within aggregates is likely to have played important roles in shaping the evolution of microbial multicellularity. Much further research is needed into the evolutionary forces and processes leading to and shaping the many forms of microbial aggregation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0761.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Re-enaction history learning; Game-based learning; historical thinking skills; historical game; historical education
Online: 31 March 2021 (11:59:27 CEST)
Regardless of country and age, the importance of history education is always being emphasized. Although the importance of history education is being emphasized in Korea, there are many difficulties in getting students to understand history properly through school classes alone, and it is also difficult to attract students to participate in classes. The effectiveness of education using games has been proven 20 years ago, and the demand for game-based education is gradually increasing in the current education world, which is becoming more open. In this paper, based on the effects proven through research on the existing game-based education, the improvement of historical thinking ability, experiential history learning, and the problems of game-based education introduced in the ESN report and the discomfort of teachers who participated in the education were improved. A plan was suggested to select and use games suitable for basic education. In this thesis, we selected a history game with a clear historical and periodic background and without distortion of history, and experimented with teaching using games focusing on historical thinking and empirical history learning. The learning achievement of textbook-based education was compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Re-enaction history learning; Game-based learning; historical thinking skills; historical game; historical education
Online: 9 March 2021 (10:01:01 CET)
Regardless of country and age, the importance of history education is always being emphasized. Although the importance of history education is being emphasized in Korea, there are many difficulties in getting students to understand history properly through school classes alone, and it is also difficult to attract students to participate in classes. The effectiveness of education using games has been proven 20 years ago, and the demand for game-based education is gradually increasing in the current education world, which is becoming more open. In this paper, based on the effects proven through research on the existing game-based education, the improvement of historical thinking ability, experiential history learning, and the problems of game-based education introduced in the ESN report and the discomfort of teachers who participated in the education were improved. A plan was suggested to select and use games suitable for basic education. In this thesis, we selected a history game with a clear historical and periodic background and without distortion of history, and experimented with teaching using games focusing on historical thinking and empirical history learning. The learning achievement of textbook-based education was compared.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0022.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Turner; Perrow; Reason; Pidgeon; Hopkins; accident and disaster preventability; system thinking; history of ideas; ethical citation
Online: 1 June 2023 (04:00:58 CEST)
Barry Turner’s 1978 Man-made Disasters and Charles Perrow’s 1984 Normal Accidents were seminal books but a detailed comparison has yet to be undertaken. Doing so is important to establish content and priority of key ideas underpinning contemporary safety science. Turner’s research found socio-technical and systemic patterns that meant that major organisational disasters could be foreseen and were preventable. Perrow’s macro-structuralist industry focus was on technologically deterministic but unpredictable and unpreventable ‘system’ accidents, particularly rare catastrophes. Andrew Hopkins and Nick Pidgeon respectively suggested that some prominent writers who wrote after Turner may not have been aware of, or didn’t properly acknowledge, Turner’s work. Normal Accidents didn’t cite Turner in 1984 or 1999. Using a methodology involving systematic reading and historical, biographical and thematic theory analysis, a detailed review of Turner’s and Perrow’s backgrounds and publications sheds new light on Turner’s priority and accomplishment, highlighting substantial similarities as well as clear differences. In a previously unpublished letter, Perrow confirmed reading Man-made Disasters while writing Normal Accidents. Turner became better known after a 1997 second edition but under-acknowledgment issues continued. Ethical citation and potential reasons for under-acknowledgment are discussed. It is concluded that Turner’s foundational importance for safety science should be better recognised.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0319.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Multicellularity; cellular differentiation; life-history; individuality; gene co-option; Volvox; Chlamydomonas; volvocine algae; regA; SAND domain
Online: 20 February 2023 (04:32:35 CET)
The evolutionary transition from single-celled to multicellular individuality requires organismal fitness to shift from the cell-level to the cell group. This reorganization of fitness occurs by allocating the two components of fitness, survival and reproduction, between two specialized cell types in the multicellular group – soma and germ, respectively. How does the genetic basis for such fitness reorganization evolve? One possible mechanism is the co-option of life-history genes present in the unicellular ancestors of a multicellular lineage. Single-celled organisms must regulate their investment in survival and reproduction in response to environmental changes, particularly decreasing reproduction to ensure survival when stressed. Such stress response life-history genes can provide the foundation for the genetic basis for cellular differentiation in multicellular lineages. The regA gene family in volvocine green algae provides a model system to study how this co-option occurs. We discuss the origin and evolution of the volvocine regA gene family, including regA – the gene that controls somatic cell development in the model organism Volvox carteri. We hypothesize that the co-option of life history trade-off genes is a general mechanism involved in the transition to multicellular individuality, making volvocine algae and the regA family a useful template for similar investigations in other lineages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Hearing loos; conductive; sensorineural; outer ear; middle ear; inner ear; SNHL; Cochlear; auditory; physical examination; history
Online: 16 August 2022 (04:04:24 CEST)
Hearing loss in infancy leads to preventable speech, language, and cognitive developmental delay [1, 2]. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is caused by damages, problems, or issues related to the inner ear such as the cochlea with or without the auditory nerve; cranial nerve VIII, involvement. There are three anatomic areas which include the outer ear: composed of the auricle and external auditory canal and the middle ear: which includes the tympanic membrane, ossicles, and the middle ear space, the inner ear: composed of the cochlea, semi-circular canals, and internal auditory canals. The unique anatomical shape of the auricle catches the incoming sound waves to send them down the external auditory canal. Hearing risk assessment should be part of all health visits while regular hearing screening checks are done for all children from 4 to 21 years [1, 2]. Assessment of hearing loss includes history, physical examination and specific hearing assessment tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0350.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: lyme disease; clinical decision-making; medical history taking; physician-patient relation; primary health care; qualitative research
Online: 31 May 2022 (09:14:56 CEST)
Background: Media coverage of Lyme disease (LD) has led to an increase in consultations for presumed LD in Europe. However, LD is confirmed in only 10-20% of patients, with a significant number remaining in a diagnostic dead-end. Objectives: To reach a deeper understanding of how patients themselves contribute to the diagnostic process. To describe the genesis of the LD hypothesis in care pathways. Methods: In 2019, 30 patients from a prospective cohort consulting in the infectious diseases department at University Hospital in Marseille for presumed LD were recruited for semi-structured interviews. The inclusion criteria were : suffering from subjective symptoms for 6 months, no clinical or paraclinical argument suggesting current LD. The patients’ medical trajectories were collected using a biographical approach. Results: The diagnosis of Lyme disease was primarily triggered by identification with personal testimonies found on the internet. Most of patients were leading their own diagnostic investigation. The majority of participants were convinced they had LD despite the lack of medical evidence and the scepticism of their referring GP. Conclusion: GPs should first systematically explore patients’ etiologic representations in order to improve adherence to the diagnosis especially in the management of medically unexplained symptoms. Long COVID-19 syndrome challenge offers an opportunity to promote active patient involvement in diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0564.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: history of metallurgy; co-fusion steelmaking; ancient China; microstructure evolution; simulation experiments; cast iron; wrought iron
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:49:21 CEST)
The study of co-fusion was one of the essential topics in the history of metallurgy in China. Simulation experiments had been an essential concept in the study of the co-fusion steelmaking process. This paper mainly studied the simulation experiments of co-fusion from two aspects: the replication of co-fusion swords by three different methods, and the micro-analysis of the co-fusion samples. The experimental results indicated that several co-fusion swords could be made by different processes, but the carbon content and surface hardness were quite different. During repeated forging welded, the microstructure of the samples transformed from laminated to homogenized, finally the steel with a uniform carbon content was obtained. It was challenging to find the characteristics of co-fusion from the homogenized samples. The results prompted people to rethink the microstructure characteristics of ancient co-fusion artifacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: History of Modern Architecture; 20th Century; Walter Gropius; Rationalization; Construction Kit; Assembly Line; Weimar Republic; Bauhaus
Online: 2 November 2018 (13:23:10 CET)
With the breakthrough of modernism, various efforts are undertaken to rationalize architecture and building processes using industrial principles. Few architects explore these as intensively as Walter Gropius, the founder of the Bauhaus. Even before World War One, and increasingly in the interwar years, Gropius and a number of colleagues undertake various experiments which manifest in a series of projects, essays, model houses and Siedlungen. These aim at conceptually different goals, i.e. they follow two different categories of industrial logic: first, a flexible construction kit and, second, an assembly line serial production. This article traces the genesis of these two concepts and analyses their characteristics using these early manifestations. Compared to existing literature, this article takes into account hitherto neglected primary sources as well as technological and construction history aspects—allowing for a distinction based not only on theoretical, but also technological and structural characteristics. This article shows that Gropius succeeds in formulating and exploring the two principles in theory and practice as well as drawing conclusions by the end of the 1920s. With them, he contributed significantly to the rationalization of architecture, and his principles have been picked up and developed further by numerous architects since then.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; ZIKV; Rhesus macaques; Non-human primates; NHP; infection; natural history; Asian-lineage; African-lineage
Online: 9 April 2018 (03:53:26 CEST)
The establishment of a well characterized non-human primate model of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is critical for the development of medical interventions. In this study, challenging Indian rhesus macaques (IRMs) with ZIKV strains of the Asian lineage resulted in dose dependent peak viral loads between days 2 and 5 post infection; and a robust immune response which protected the animals from homologous and heterologous re-challenge. In contrast, viremia in IRMs challenged with an African lineage strain was below the assays lower limit of quantitation and the immune response was insufficient to protect from re-challenge. These results corroborate previous observations but are contrary to reports using other African strains obviating the need for additional studies to elucidate the variables contributing to the disparities. Nonetheless, the utility of an Asian lineage ZIKV IRM model for countermeasures development was verified by vaccinating animals with a formalin inactivated reference vaccine and demonstrating sterilizing immunity against a subsequent subcutaneous challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0251.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: The Big Bang concept; history of modern cosmology; singularity theorems; cosmological singularities in modified gravity models
Online: 8 February 2018 (08:54:20 CET)
The first part of this paper contains a brief description of the beginnings of modern cosmology, which, the author will argue, was most likely born in the Year 1912. Some of the pieces of evidence presented here have emerged from recent research in the history of science, and are not usually shared with the general audiences in popular science books. In special, the issue of the correct formulation of the original Big Bang concept, according to the precise words of Fred Hoyle, is discussed. Too often, this point is very deficiently explained (when not just misleadingly) in most of the available generalist literature. Other frequent uses of the same words, Big Bang, as to name the initial singularity of the cosmos, and also whole cosmological models, are then addressed, as evolutions of its original meaning. Quantum and inflationary additions to the celebrated singularity theorems by Penrose, Geroch, Hawking and others led to subsequent results by Borde, Guth and Vilenkin. And corresponding corrections to the Einstein field equations have originated, in particular, R2, f(R), and scalar-tensor gravities, giving rise to a plethora of new singularities. For completeness, an updated table with a classification of the same is given.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0302.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: evolutionary cell biology; evo-devo; animal origins; choanoflagellates; history of science; Haeckel; Metchnikoff; Blastaea; origin of multicellularity
Online: 10 November 2020 (11:18:25 CET)
Animals, with their complex and obligate multicellularity, evolved from microbial eukaryotes that were likely obligately or facultatively unicellular. The nature of the unicellular progenitors of animals has intrigued biologists since the late 19th century, coinciding with the parallel spread of the cell theory and the theory of evolution. However, views on the ancestry of animals have been extremely varied. The huge diversity of single-celled organisms, the tremendous plasticity of animal cellular phenotypes, and the difficulties of organizing both into clear phylogenies in the pre-molecular era allowed a wide range of hypotheses to flourish, with nearly every major single-celled lineage, at one time or another, having been proposed as the precursor of animals. Most of these hypotheses never gained followers beyond their originator (such as the ideas that animals evolved directly from either bacteria, Volvox or fungi) and will not be discussed here. Three concepts, however, have been enduring and influential: (1) the amoeboid theory; (2) the flagellate theory; and the (3) the ciliate theory – to which a fourth category can now be added: (4) a mixed model, in which the ancestor was phenotypically plastic. We will discuss their origin, history, and current relevance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: dual steel frame; far field from fault; near field to fault; time history non-linear dynamic analysis
Online: 15 October 2016 (08:39:13 CEST)
This study sought to investigate steel frames’ performance with dual lateral loader system (Frame bending + bracings of divergent and convergent) in near and far filed to fault. In order to this, four categories of steel frame with dual system with 8, 10 and 12 story are designed with average formation based on existing seismic regulation in 2800 standard of Iran and tenth chapter of national regulations of construction (planning and performing steel construction). Time history non-linear dynamic analysis under the effect of near and far field earthquakes has been done on plan’s models. Then the maximum of floors’ dislocation, floors’ drift, roof dislocation, base shear and energy curves of frames are shown and compared with each other. All non-linear time history analyses have been accomplished using PERFORM 3D software.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0531.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: special relativity; general relativity; gravitational fre- quency shift; conservation of energy; thought experiments; history and philosophy of physics
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:47:33 CEST)
In physics, thought experiments are impressive heuristic tools. They are valuable instruments to help scientists find new results and to teach students the known ones. However, as we shall show, they should always be received with prudence, even when they are a shortcut to 'prove' well-established results. Here, we show that the most widely known thought experiments devised to derive the gravitational frequency shift from energy conservation are, in fact, problematic. Unfortunately, even some criticism of them found in the literature seems to share a similar fate. When properly set and correctly read, those thought experiments reveal that the existence of the gravitational frequency shift is, in fact, at odds with energy conservation. However, in light of the well-known experimental proofs of the gravitational redshift, our findings cannot be considered a confutation of the phenomenon. Nonetheless, our results may be of some epistemological interest and could serve as a warning sign on how thought experiments should be received and trusted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1692.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Direct integration time history analysis; Response spectrum analysis; Push over analysis; Near field earthquake; Far field earthquake; ETABS
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:42:44 CEST)
Steel construction is used more often these days as an alternative to the R.C.C. when light weight, high strength, large-span structures with a faster erection are required. Extensive studies have been done by researchers to study the seismic performance of reinforced concrete and steel structures, both in terms of elastic and inelastic behavior. Composite construction is also a recent advancement in the building industry with similar advantages. However, no emphasis has been given to the comparison between the inelastic behavior of steel and composite structures when subjected to lateral loads. This study compares the inelastic behavior of steel and a composite frame designed to have the same plastic moment capacity for structural members. The responses, such as the formation of hinges, story drifts, story displacements, lateral stiffness, ductility, maximum strength, energy dissipated, joint accelerations, and performance points, are compared with the aid of the building analysis and design software ETABS-18. For this, response spectrum analysis, pushover analysis and nonlinear direct integration time history analysis have been performed on both frames. For design and analysis, international codes such as IS 800-2007, IS 875 (Part I, II, IV), IS 1893-2002, AISC 360 (16 & 10) and FEMA 440 have been used. Part of this study also aims at comparing the response of these frames when subjected to near field and far field earthquakes. It can be concluded from the results that the post yield performance of the composite frame is superior to that of the steel frame when seismically excited.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0227.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Eastern Europe; Balkans; Healthcare; Sustainability; History; Financing; Population Ageing; Migration; Belt and Road Initiative; Sustainable Millennium Development Goals
Online: 10 August 2021 (10:08:57 CEST)
Historical legacy of Eastern European and Balkans’ health systems was mutually interdependent and shaped by local socioeconomic circumstances. Three distinctive systems of risk sharing and health financing to develop since the late XIX century were the Bismarck, Beveridge, and Semashko systems. Modern day healthcare systems in these countries are challenged by population ageing, accelerated innovation in medical technology, growing purchasing power and rising demand for healthcare services. Supply side changes contribute to demand side efficiency bottlenecks in financing, driving the costs of the already expensive medical care up. All of the nations have a large share of citizens experiencing difficulty with affordability and access to medical care, particularly in rural and remote areas. Network of Health technology assessment agencies have mushroomed over the past three decades. Principles of health economics theory and cost-effective resource allocation are slowly gaining ground in governing authorities’ mindset and decision-making process. For many years to come, pharmaceuticals and medical services will remain dependent on out-of-pocket spending. Currently accelerating and spreading 4.0 Industrial Revolution, together with the Belt and Road Initiative, are likely to substantially impact the further economic development of this vast region. Post-Pandemic ‘Green’ Recovery strategies adopted by many of the Eastern European governments shall also make this transition towards sustainable development more difficult and challenging given the large dependency of all these economies upon traditional carbon fuels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0352.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Health record; electronic health record; e-health record; the history of medicine; the economy of the healthcare system
Online: 22 May 2020 (10:48:18 CEST)
The history of health records (later also called medical records), including ones regarding individual patients, is thousands of years old. It finds it roots in the first ancient civilisations. Up until the 19th century the records’ purpose was mainly an educational one. In the 19th and 20th century they started becoming significant in other roles as well, including those not strictly limited to medicine. In particular, to account for medical procedures, insurance proceeds or legal action. Currently we are living in a revolutionary era when it comes to health records, in which their character has changed from a “paper-based” to an electronic one. This paper presents the development of health records from the ancient to modern times, mainly in Europe and North America. Other cultures and civilisations, including China and India, are not discussed. An analysis of available sources was conducted, inter alia digital versions of manuscripts up to hundreds of years old. The analysis was based on PubMed and Google Scholar (several key words, all the available sources). Sources published in non-international languages (e.g. Dutch) were also investigated. Overall, approximately 600 articles were analysed, 158 of which were used and cited in this paper. The conclusions drawn from the analysis are as follows: (1) Health records, priorly used mostly for educational purposes, for about 100 years now have acquired a fully formal status. (2) We are currently facing the most revolutionary changes regarding the transformation of paper-based records into electronic ones. (3) The consequences of this process include systematic applications of solutions within the area of e-health, which allow us to make medical services more flexible, improve the health of individual patients and entire populations and potentially limit expenditure. (4) In the light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, introducing electronic health records could be beneficial in terms of limiting the potential sources of contamination (physical copies of health records), saving time and resources, and improving the network of communication between medical centres.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0265.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: History of Aymara; Ethnoarchaeological and linguistic evidence of Aymara; Dialectics in the development of Aymara social interpretation; Qullasuyu is not Aymara
Online: 20 February 2023 (04:40:17 CET)
Aymaraism, as a socio-cultural phenomenon, has given rise to components and elements of representativeness in the population of the Andes. However, the dialectic component of the Aymara as a nation is annulled by fundamental historiographical elements that underlie this process of identification. The empirical analysis of the historical data leads us to conclude that the Aymara language and culture contain ambiguous elements that cannot be defined according to the dialectical interpretation and the current narrative. Thus, the analysis of the cultural, linguistic and social elements of this population from the Early Horizon period to the present confirms the historical distortion towards a narrative component of origin and presence in the territory of the Qullasuyu, in the current geographical area of the Collao. In order to understand this phenomenon, this work promotes the complementarity of the analysis through the use of ethnoarchaeological and documentary elements in order to clarify the origin, synthesis and development of the Aymara from a historical perspective, leaving aside the dialectical component of the present.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: BRCA1, BRCA2, Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, Lynch Syndrome, Hereditary cancer, Family history screening. Risk assessment, Digital tool, Health information technology
Online: 25 July 2018 (09:59:26 CEST)
The number of individuals meeting criteria for genetic counseling and testing for hereditary cancer syndromes (HCS) is far less than the number that actually receive it. To facilitate identification of patients at risk for HCS, Counsyl developed a digital identification tool (digital ID tool) to match personal and family cancer history to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) BRCA-related Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC), Lynch syndrome, and polyposis testing criteria in one-to-one, automated fashion. The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of the digital ID tool to accurately identify histories that do and do not meet NCCN testing criteria. Methods: Third-party recorded three-generation pedigrees were retrospectively reviewed by a certified genetic counselor (CGC) to determine if independent events included in pedigree histories met NCCN guidelines, and were then sorted into groups: high risk events (meets criteria) and low risk events (does not meet criteria). Events were entered into the digital ID tool to determine the extent of its concordance with events sorted by CGC review. Statistical tests of accuracy were calculated at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: 197 pedigrees were reviewed consecutively representing 765 independent events for analysis across groups. 382/382 (100%) high risk events identified by the digital ID tool and 381/383 (99.47%) low risk events identified by the digital ID tool were concordant with CGC sorting. The digital ID tool had a sensitivity of 100% (99.04-100% CI) and specificity of 99.48% (98.13-99.94% CI). The overall accuracy of the digital ID tool was estimated to be 99.74% (99.06-99.97% CI), reflecting the rate at which the digital ID tool reached the same conclusion as that of CGC review of pedigree events for the recommendation of genetic testing for individuals at risk for HCS. Conclusions: The digital ID tool accurately matches NCCN criteria in one-to-one fashion to identify at-risk individuals for HCS and may be useful in clinical practice, specifically for BRCA-related HBOC and Lynch Syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: non-linear static (Pushover) analysis; modal pushover; non-linear time-history analysis; incremental analysis; bridges; assessment of bridges; seismic response of bridges
Online: 16 February 2020 (04:34:37 CET)
A large number of bridges are designed and built without considering seismic actions and, differently from buildings, there are currently no comprehensive guidelines to evaluate existing bridges without performing, as in the well known incremental dynamic analysis (IDA), complex non linear dynamic analyses (RHA). Bridges are structurally very different from building but, at the same time, are sensitive to higher modes as well as many multi-storey buildings that inspired innovative pushover procedures such as the well known modal pushover analysis (MPA). In the present study the incremental modal pushover analysis (IMPA), a pushover based approach already proposed and applied on buildings by the same authors, is revised and proposed for bridges (IMPAβ). IMPAβ accounts for the effects of higher modes in order to accurately estimate the seismic response of bridges; the effect of higher modes is considered by introducing a suitable number of modes to ensure the participation of a predefined total effective modal mass. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by conducting a study on two bridges, one regular and one irregular, and the IDA analysis is employed as reference solution. Numerical results indicate good accuracy of the proposed method in assessing the seismic response and a very good accuracy if compared to other available pushover procedures available in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1047.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Large Language Models; GPT-3.5; GPT-4; Google-BARD; Historical Fact-Checking; Distance to Reality; History; AI in Education; Gap Bridging
Online: 15 May 2023 (12:53:11 CEST)
The rapid proliferation of information in the digital era underscores the importance of accurate historical representation and interpretation. While artificial intelligence (AI) has shown promise in various fields, its potential for historical fact-checking and gap-filling remains largely untapped. This study evaluates the performance of three large language models (LLMs)—GPT-3.5, GPT-4, and Google- BARD—in the context of predicting and verifying historical events based on given data. A novel metric, "Distance to Reality" (DTR), is introduced to assess the models' outputs against established historical facts. The results reveal a substantial potential for AI in historical studies, with GPT-4 demonstrating superior performance. This paper underscores the need for further research into AI's role in enriching our understanding of the past and bridging historical knowledge gaps.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: loess-palaeosol sequences, luminescence signal sensitivity, quartz, feldspar, Schwalbenberg, sediment provenance, sediment history, optically stimulated luminescence, infrared stimulated luminescence, Central Europe, Rhine valley
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:11:18 CEST)
Loess provides a valuable terrestrial record of past environmental conditions, including the dynamics of air mass circulation responsible for dust transport. Here we explore variations in the luminescence characteristics of sedimentary quartz and feldspar – dominant minerals in loess-palaeosol sequences (LPS) - as possible tools for identifying changes in source. We investigate luminescence sensitivity, a rapidly measurable index which is the product of interplay between source lithology and the history of the mineral in question. Variations in sensitivity down profile may therefore reflect, among other factors such as pedogenesis and reworking, changes in sediment provenance. We undertake an empirical investigation of the luminescence sensitivity of quartz and feldspar from different grain-size fractions from the climatically sensitive Schwalbenberg LPS in the German Rhine valley, comparing samples from a 30 m core spanning the last full glacial cycle with samples of oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 3-2 age exposed within a c. 6 m profile downslope. The temporal overlap enables comparison of luminescence characteristics with respect to possible provenance change during that timeframe. We find an overall inverse relationship between quartz and feldspar sensitivity, as well as variability in sensitivity between different quartz grain sizes. There is some indication that feldspar sensitivity increases during periods of soil formation down the core. In particular, measurements of IR50 sensitivity on unprocessed sediments show correlation with down-profile trends in more established indicators of provenance. This suggests it may be used to provide a reliable, rapid scan of sensitivity changes, and may suggest source variability over millennial timescales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0566.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Montiaceae; life history; climate niche; polyploidy; phylogenetic comparative analysis (PhCA); natural selection (NS); natural drift (ND); chaos; stochasticity; determinism; principle of evolutionary idiosyncraticity (PEI)
Online: 2 October 2018 (12:06:57 CEST)
The present paper reviews evidence for ecological evolution of Montiaceae. Montiaceae (Portulacineae) comprise a family of ca. 275 species and ca. 25 subspecific taxa of flowering plants distributed mainly in extreme western America, with additional endemism elsewhere, including other continents and islands. They have diversified repeatedly across steep ecological gradients. Based on narrative analysis, I argue that phylogenetic transitions from annual to perennial life history have been more frequent than suggested by computational phylogenetic reconstructions. I suggest that a reported phylogenetic correlation between the evolution of life history and temperature niche is coincidental and not causal. I demonstrate how statistical phylogenetic comparative analysis (PhCA) missed evidence for marked moisture niche diversification among Montiaceae. I discount PhCA evidence for the relation between Montiaceae genome duplication and ecological diversification. Based on the present analysis of Montiaceae evolution, I criticize the premise of the prevalent statistical approach to PhCA, which tests Darwinian deterministic hypotheses against stochastic evolutionary null models. I discuss theoretical/empirical evidence that evolution is neither stochastic, nor Darwinistically-determined, but idiosyncratic. Idiosyncraticity describes the outcome of a stochastically perturbed nonlinear chaos-like process. The Principle of Evolutionary Idiosyncraticity (PEI) is based on the evolutionary theory of Natural Drift, which maintains that determinism in evolution is a property of the organism and not, as maintained by the theory of Natural Selection, its traits or its milieu. This determinism is characteristic of chaotic functions, which are absolutely determinate, generate self-similarity, but remain absolutely unpredictable. PEI explains precisely observations that evolution proceeds not linearly, but chaotically, producing both quasi-linear fractal-like patterns and non-linear jumps. PEI has ramifications for all areas of macroevolutionary research. In particular, it demonstrates both the fallacy and futility of the statistical PhCA approach that interprets evolutionary causes in terms of evolutionary correlations. However, statistical methods of PhCA can be applied heuristically and fruitfully to reveal idiosyncraticity and discover evolutionary novelty. This, in turn, is demonstrated by the emergence of statistical anomalies in evolutionary analyses of Montiaceae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: epidemiological history of HCV-2; HCV-2 subtypes; evolutionary demography of HCV-2; phylodynamics of HCV-2 in Italy and Albania; HCV-2 Re estimation
Online: 11 January 2021 (13:10:30 CET)
Newly characterising 245 Italian and Albanian HCV-2 NS5B sequences collected between 2001 and 2016 was used to reconstruct the origin and dispersion pathways of HCV-2c. The tree of a subset of these sequences aligned with 247 publicly available sequences was reconstructed in spatio-temporal scale using the Bayesian approach, and the effective replication number (Re) was estimated using the birth-death model. Our findings show that HCV-2c was the most prevalent subtype in Italy and Albania, and that GT2 originated in Guinea Bissau in the XVI century and spread to Europe in the XX century. The HCV-2c subtype had two internal nodes respectively dating back to the 1930s and 1950s having as most probable locations Ghana and Italy, respectively. Phylodynamic analysis revealed an exponential increase in the effective number of infections and Re in both Italy between the 1950s and 1980s, and Albania between the 1990s and the early 2000s. It seems very likely that HCV-2c reached Italy from Africa at the time of the second Italian colonisation (1936-1941), but did not reach Albania until the period of dramatic migration to Italy in the 1990s.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0391.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: bushfires; forest fires; climate change; natural hazard characterisation; hazard magnitude; intensity; impact; history of fires and droughts; fire magnitude and intensity vs global temperatures; causes of bushfires
Online: 19 October 2020 (15:17:34 CEST)
Historical analysis of Australian bushfire data spanning 170 years addresses whether the strength of recent fire events has been exacerbated by human-induced climate change. The question of “cause” looks at the characteristics of a wider range of natural hazards. Fire characteristics are compared with earthquake hazard characteristics: (1) energy – termed “magnitude”; (2) severity – termed “intensity”; and (3) resultant damage to people and structures – termed “impact”.Published global, Northern and Southern hemisphere temperature data are shown to vary consistently in phase over 170 years, but vary in amplitude with statistical significance. CO2 levels north and south of the Equator have tracked quite consistently. Thus, Southern Hemisphere bushfire magnitude and intensity is compared with the Southern Hemisphere climate record, rather than a global data set.28 major bushfires and associated droughts since 1850 show neither apparent drought extent, nor area burned, nor bushfire intensity, correlates with changes in Southern Hemisphere climate. Average rainfall from 1900 shows a wetter, rather than drier trend. Cyclone energy shows no significant trend with climate. Planet-wide “greening”, through CO2 fertilisation, is an insignificant contributor to bushfire magnitude. Combustion theory shows recorded “global warming” could have had no significant influence on bushfire magnitude or intensity. Any increase in Australian bushfire impact, as judged by lives lost, similarly, shows no correlation with bushfire magnitude, nor indeed, any observed Southern Hemisphere global warming.Thus, bushfire magnitude seems much more likely driven by fuel load and any anomalous bushfire intensity is likely driven by anomalous ground level fuel load. The evidence suggests that any CO2 emissions reduction will have no impact on future bushfire “severity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0205.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: History of technology; Computer Vision; Photogrammetry; Endoscopy; Computed Tomography; Convolutional Neural Networks; Structure-from-Motion; Dense Image Matching; Data Fusion; Sensor Fusion; Digital Twin; Navigation Instruments; Inertial Sensors
Online: 8 December 2020 (16:18:53 CET)
Gyroscopes are fascinating instruments with a history of about 200 years. When J.G.F. Bohnenberger presented his machine to his students in 1810 at the University of Tuebingen, Germany, nobody could have foreseen that this fascinating development would be used for complex orientation and positioning. At the University of Stuttgart, Germany, a collection of 160 exhibits is available and in transition for a sustainable future. Here, the systems are digitized in 2D, 2.5D and 3D and are made available for a world-wide community using OpenAccess platforms. The technologies being used are Computed Tomography, Computer Vision, Endoscopy and Photogrammetry. The workflows for combining voxel representations and colored point clouds are described, to create Digital Twins of the tangible assets. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed und work for near future is outlined in this new and challenging field of Tech Heritage digitization.