ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0532.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Vaccine access issues; vaccine uptake; vaccine hesitancy; vaccination hesitancy; measles; media-tion analysis
Online: 31 August 2022 (03:53:25 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to evaluate whether measles vaccine uptake can be predicted directly or indirectly by parental perceptions about the availability of measles vaccine services with parental hesitancy towards the measles vaccine as a potential mediator. Methods: This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted at Omdurman locality in Khartoum state, Sudan in February 2019. The study population included parents/ guardians having at least one child aged 2 -3 years old. Mediation analysis was conducted using two models, the ordinary least squares path analysis and multiple logistic regression. Results: a total of 495 responded and the mean age of the mothers who participated in the study was 31.1 (SD=5.73). A half of the respondents (50.1%) completed university education and nearly three-quarters of the respondents (74.7%) were housewives. After controlling for the other factors, including the mother’s age and the number of children, parental perception about the accessibility and availability of the measles vaccine influences the uptake of the measles vaccine indirectly through the mediation effect of measles vaccine hesitancy. Conclusions: We suggest that intervening in measles vaccine hesitancy in addition to measles vaccination access issues will have positive impact on the uptake and coverage of the measles vaccine in Sudan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1465.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; influenza; vaccine hesitancy
Online: 21 September 2023 (10:34:49 CEST)
Vaccine hesitancy substantially impacts global vaccination rates. During the COVID-19 pandem-ic in Germany, vaccination uptake exhibited considerable regional disparities. To assess the fac-tors contributing to this variation, we examined the influence of sociodemographic variables on COVID-19, COVID-19 booster, and influenza vaccinations within a cohort of 37,078 participants from 13 German federal states in the digital health cohort study, DigiHero. Our findings re-vealed variations in vaccination rates based on sociodemographic factors. However, these fac-tors had limited explanatory power regarding regional differences in vaccine uptake. In contrast, we found substantial correlations between regional support of specific parties during last local elections and the vaccination uptake at Landkreis-level. In conclusion, sociodemographic factors alone did not suffice to explain the regional disparities in vaccine uptake. Political stances can play a major role, but the current investigation did not assess the individual political orienta-tion, but used only ecological approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0966.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Vaccination; COVID-19; EMA; Misinformation; Hesitancy
Online: 14 August 2023 (02:56:05 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic made it harder to communicate accurate information about vaccines because of the spread of misinformation. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) tried to reas-sure the public by communicating about the development and approval of COVID-19 vaccines. They surveyed patients/consumers, healthcare professional organizations, and individual stake-holders to see if their core information materials were informative and well understood. They also asked about the public's preferred communication channels. The surveys showed that indi-vidual patients/consumers generally prefer to get information about COVID-19 vaccines from the internet or mass media. Organizations and individual healthcare professionals prefer to get in-formation from national and international health authorities' sources. This supports EMA's ap-proach of using media, stakeholder engagement, and web-based formats to communicate about COVID-19 vaccines. Both at the EU and local levels, participants had a good understanding of the key messages from regulators and found the materials useful and relevant. However, some im-provements were recommended to the visuals, texts, and dissemination formats. These recom-mendations were generally consistent in both contexts. User-testing of proactive communication materials aimed at prebunking misinformation during a public health crisis helps to ensure that users understand the development and safety safeguards of novel vaccine technologies. This in-formation can then be used as a basis for evidence-based communication activities by regulators and public health bodies in an emergency context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0346.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: HPV vaccine; Vaccine awareness; Vaccine hesitancy
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:12:21 CEST)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a widespread sexually transmitted infection linked to various types of cancers. Although vaccination against HPV is available, global HPV vaccination rates remain low. This study aimed to evaluate the awareness and knowledge of the HPV vaccine and to identify predictors associated with vaccine hesitancy among health college students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to students enrolled in health colleges. The association of vaccine hesitancy with sociodemographic characteristics was examined using logistic regression analysis. The study found that approximately half of the students (49.9%) were aware of the HPV vaccine. Students from the College of Medicine showed the highest level of knowledge. Only a small proportion (5.2%) reported receiving the vaccine. The overall HPV vaccine hesitancy was 59.1% (43.9% for women and 75.9% for men). The most common reasons for vaccine hesitancy was not knowing enough about it. Men were twice as likely as women to believe that they did not need the HPV vaccine. The odds for HPV vaccine hesitancy were greater among men and younger age group compared to women and older age group. In conclusion, the study underscores the importance of awareness campaigns on HPV vaccination, targeting primarily male students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0087.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine freedom
Online: 4 November 2022 (04:12:38 CET)
Despite the availability of effective vaccines that lower mortality and morbidity associated with COVID-19, many countries including Italy adopted strict vaccination policies and mandates to increase the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine. Such mandates have sparked debates on the freedom to choose whether or not to get vaccinated. In this study, we examined the people’s belief in vaccine choice as a predictor of willingness to get vaccinated among a sample of unvaccinated individuals in Italy. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in Italy in May 2021. The survey collected data on respondents’ demographics and region of residence, socioeconomic factors, belief in the freedom to choose to be vaccinated or not, risk perception of contracting and transmitting the disease, previous vaccine refusal, opinion on adequacy of government measures to address the pandemic, experience in requesting and being denied government aid during the pandemic, and intent to accept COVID-19 vaccination. The analysis employed binary logistic regression models using a hierarchical model building approach to assess the association between intent to accept vaccination and belief in the freedom to choose to vaccinate, while adjusting for other variables of interest. 984 unvaccinated individuals were included in the study. Respondents who agreed that people should be free to decide whether or not to vaccinate with no restrictions on their personal life had 85% lower odds of vaccine acceptance (OR=0.15 ;95% CI,0.09,0.23) after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors and their risk perception of contracting and transmitting COVID-19. Belief in the freedom to choose whether or not to accept vaccinations was a major predictor of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among a sample of unvaccinated individuals in Italy in May 2021. This understanding of how individuals prioritize personal freedoms and the perceived benefits and risks of vaccines, when making health care decisions can inform the development of public health outreach, educational programs and messaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: influenza vaccine; HIV; vaccine hesitancy; Italy
Online: 4 October 2021 (09:44:35 CEST)
There are scarce data regarding flu vaccination among people with HIV infection (PWHIV). The goal of this explorative study is to assess hesitancy toward influenza vaccination in a group of PWHIV during the pandemic. A questionnaire was administered to 219 patients vaccinated at our clinic during the 2020-2021 campaign. It evaluated subjects’ adherence over the last 3 seasonal vaccination campaigns, vaccine confidence, complacency and convenience, and the effect of the pandemic on the choice to vaccinate. The population was divided into two groups: fully adherent (all 3 campaigns, 117 patients) and non-fully adherent (1 or 2 campaigns, 102 patients). Adherence increased in non-fully adherent group in 2020-2021, but the pandemic did not affect the choice. Misbelieves emerged: influenza vaccine was considered protective SARS-CoV-2 (22.8% of total population); almost half of all patients thought influenza vaccine could improve their CD4+ cell level (57.3% in fully adherent, 40.2% in non-fully adherent, p<0.05). A quarter of the non-fully adherent group would not have vaccinated in a location other than our clinic (24.5% vs 11.9% in fully adherent group, p<0.05). Conclusively, offering a secure and private space for vaccination seems to encourage vaccination; healthcare professionals should improve counselling to increase adherence and correct misbeliefs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1374.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Information; Sources of information; COVID-19; Vaccine hesitancy
Online: 19 May 2023 (04:20:44 CEST)
Vaccine hesitancy remains a public health challenge. It has been argued that the sources of vaccine-related information may serve as important condiments to one’s decision to be vaccinated. However, little empirical attention is given to the subject. We contribute to this debate by assessing the level of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and the role of information explaining hesitancy, using the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality of South Africa as a case study. Findings confirm high level of vaccine hesitancy, representing 78.8 percent of the respondents (which is above the national level of 41%). Furthermore, findings reveal that vaccination decisions are influenced by family, which is the most trusted among all institutions in the society, especially on sensitive matters and those shrouded by myths and misinformation. Additionally, the majority trusts health care workers and mass media as sources of health-related and general information; however, the use of popular personalities to convey health information is not supported. The findings reveal key socio-demographic and institutional drivers of COVD-9 vaccine hesitancy, such as age, inadequate information on the vaccine, trust issues, conspiracy beliefs, vaccine-related factors, and perceived side effects associated with the vaccine. Recommendations based on the findings are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0988.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccine hesitancy; Implication; Consequences; Economic recovery
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:37:36 CEST)
The phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy is a growing threat to public health with far-reaching implications. The widening gap between the vaccinated and the proportion needed for herd immunity raises two critical research questions that are of interest to practitioners, researchers, and policymakers: (1) What determines one’s decision to be vaccinated? and (2) What is the implication of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy on economic recovery? In this study, we use empirical data in the context of South Africa to investigate factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and their implications for economic recovery. Findings reveal key socio-demographic and institutional drivers of COVD-9 vaccine hesitancy, which include age (the youth are more hesitant), inadequate information on the vaccine (those who perceive they have adequate information are vaccinated), trust issues in government institutions, conspiracy beliefs, vaccine-related factors, and perceived side effects associated with the vaccine. Additionally, an individual’s decision to remain hesitant about COVID-19 vaccination has implications for businesses and the economy by limiting movement and trade, increasing unemployment, and causing a resurgence of new variants. Based on the findings, action plans such as information dissemination, convenience vaccination centers, consistency communications, and targeted campaign strategies are recommended for improving vaccine intakes and a positive economic recovery.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccine; Vaccine hesitancy; ChatGPT; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 5 April 2023 (11:55:54 CEST)
The global COVID-19 pandemic has affected all spheres of human life, resulting in millions of deaths and overwhelming medical facilities. Moreover, the world has witnessed great financial hardship because of job losses resulting in economic havoc. Many sections of society have contributed in different ways to slow the spread of the virus and protect public health. For example, medical scientists are praised for their efforts to develop COVID-19 vaccines. Clinical trials have shown that the COVID-19 vaccines are highly effective in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 infections. However, many people around the world have been hesitant to get vaccinated. Vaccine misconceptions have emerged and increased due to a combination of factors, including the availability of information on the Internet and the influence of celebrities and opinion leaders. In this context, we have analyzed ChatGPT responses to relevant queries on vaccine misconceptions. The positive responses and supportive opinions provided by the AI chatbot could be instrumental in shaping people’s perceptions of vaccines and in encouraging users to get vaccinated and reduce misconceptions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0425.v1
Online: 24 January 2023 (08:14:15 CET)
While vaccines are a well-established method of controlling the spread of infectious diseases, vaccine hesitancy jeopardizes curbing the spread of COVID-19. Through the Vaccine Information Network (VIN), this study explored barriers and motivators to COVID-19 vaccine uptake. We conducted 18 focus group discussions with male and female community members, stratified by country, age group, and—for Zimbabwe only—by HIV status. Participants’ median age across both countries was 40 years (interquartile range of 22–40) and most (65.9%) were female. We conceptualized the key themes within the World Health Organization’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) 3Cs (convenience, confidence, complacency) vaccine hesitancy model. Barriers to vaccine uptake—lack of convenience, low confidence, and high complacency—included inaccessibility of vaccines and vaccination sites, vaccine safety and development concerns, and disbelief in COVID-19’s existence. Motivators to vaccine uptake—convenience, confidence and low complacency—included accessibility of vaccination sites, user-friendly registration processes, trust in governments and vaccines, fear of dying from COVID-19 and knowing someone who had died or become infected with COVID-19. Overall, vaccine hesitancy in South Africa and Zimbabwe was influenced by inconvenience, a lack of confidence, and high complacency around COVID-19 vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0408.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: hesitancy; covid-19; post-covid; medical doctors; indonesia
Online: 13 September 2022 (05:13:14 CEST)
This study is a cross-sectional survey involving physicians around Indonesia aimed to explore physician hesitancy to treat COVID-19 patients after experiencing COVID-19 infection coupled with associated occupational risk factors. The questionnaire was distributed via contact information from the Indonesian Physician Association database. Out of 383 participants, 25.6% suffered from moderate symptoms of COVID-19 and 2.9% were admitted for critical care. Hesitancy to treat suspected, probable, or confirmed COVID-19 patients was found in 20.3% of physicians. A higher hesitancy rate was found in older physicians and those with less experience in treating COVID-19 patients. Specialist trainees and those who work in public hospitals were physicians with the lowest hesitancy in treating COVID-19 patients. There is a significant hesitancy in treating COVID-19 patients among physicians who have suffered from COVID-19 which calls for further action by management and policy makers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; children; pediatrics; public health
Online: 1 September 2022 (02:25:22 CEST)
Background: This study describes the attitudes and practices of Brazilian adults regarding the mandatory vaccination for COVID-19 and the hesitancy to children´s vaccination. Methods: The participants answered an online questionnaire disseminated on social networks. An adaptation of the SAGE-WG questionnaire was used to measure the children's vaccination hesitancy. Results: Among 1,007 participants, 677 (67.4%) believed that vaccination for COVID-19 among adults should be mandatory. Just over half of the participants (51.5%) believe that parents and guardians should be free to decide whether their children should be vaccinated against COVID-19, and 9.1% were unsure about this. Younger, non-religious people who have higher self-perceptions of risk for COVID-19, and who evaluate the federal government's performance in combating the disease as bad or very bad, have a higher agreement with mandatory vaccination, a lower agreement that parents and guardians should be free to vaccinate their children, and lower child vaccination hesitancy scores. Conclusion: In Brazil, mandatory COVID-19 vaccination for adults is far from a consensus, and an expressive part of the population believes that parents and guardians should be free to choose whether or not to vaccinate their children. These perceptions and vaccine hesitancy for children are associated with religious and political inclinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy; Misinformation; Government Actions; Communication
Online: 21 March 2022 (10:29:33 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the adverse consequences created by an infodemic specifically on compliance with public health guidance and vaccine uptake. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a complex construct that is related to health beliefs, misinformation exposure, and perceptions of governmental institutions. This study draws on theoretical models and current data on the COVID-19 infodemic to explore the association between perceived risk of COVID-19, levels of misinformation endorsement, and opinions about the government response on vaccine uptake. We surveyed a sample of 2,697 respondents from the US, Canada, and Italy using a mobile platform between 21-28 May, 2021. Using multivariate regression, we found that country of residence, risk perception of contracting and spreading COVID-19, perception of government response and transparency, and misinformation endorsement was associated with the odds of vaccine hesitancy. Higher perceived risk was associated with lower odds of hesitancy, while lower perceptions of government response, and higher misinformation endorsement were associated with higher hesitancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; vaccines; hesitancy; attitudes; medical students; healthcare workers
Online: 31 July 2023 (02:20:29 CEST)
University students, particularly those in the healthcare disciplines, constitute a category of particular interest in regard to COVID-19 vaccines and the attitudes to vaccination, as their future professional role will enable them to inform and educate citizens regarding vaccination. The objectives of the study were to investigate the vaccination coverage with a COVID-19 vaccine among students from different degree programs at the Medical universities in Bulgaria behaviors and attitudes toward vaccination with a COVID-19 vaccine. A prospective cross-sectional study in the period September 2021- March 2022 was conducted. Information on demographics, university program, year of study, general attitudes and behavior towards vaccines and attitudes and personal experience with COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines were collected. The chi-square test was used to test for associations and binominal logistic regression was used to identify possible predictors for vaccination. A total of 3050 students with a median age of 22 years, predominantly female took part in the study. Three-thirds of the students (73.5%) have been vaccinated against COVID-19. The main reasons for vaccine hesitancy in both group of students were the fear of side effects and the doubts about the safety of the vaccines although non-vaccinated students significantly more frequently express those fears. Respondents who considered to have: a) limited access to sufficient information to inform COVID-19 vaccine uptake; b) lack of public awareness and education campaigns about effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines; c) insufficient information about COVID-19 vaccines during the University education; and d) had a positive COVID-19 diagnosis were less likely to be vaccinated. Students who have not completed the mandatory immunization cycle according to country schedule were also less likely to have completed COVID-19 vaccination. The students showed an overall positive attitude towards the COVID-19 vaccines. Promoting informational campaigns that emphasize the vaccine's safety will be more effective to further increase the vaccination coverage with COVID-19 vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0760.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; Adverse effect; Satisfaction; Hesitancy; Perception; India
Online: 12 July 2023 (08:06:11 CEST)
Background: Consumers' perception and satisfaction with the vaccination services is a critical and commonly used indicator to evaluate the quality of services provided by the concerned authorities. The present survey assessed social perception, satisfaction, hesitancy, and associated factors of COVID-19 vaccination provided at the primary health centers (PHC) of South India. Methods: We collected a validated data using data collection tool. The associated factors for the low and high satisfaction with the vaccination services were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. We performed Spearman's correlation test to identify the correlation between perception and satisfaction scores. Results: Of the 675 participants, 87.4% were satisfied with the vaccination services provided at the PHCs. The participants' satisfaction was significantly associated with the age group [Adjusted OR (AOR) = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.39 – 2.89, P = 0.037] and occupation status [AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.17 – 1.74, P = 0.024]. We found a significant positive correlation (Spearman's rho = 0.207, p < 0.001) between perception and satisfaction scores. Furthermore, 20.7% of participants were hesitant (too much and somewhat) to give recommended COVID-19 vaccines. Conclusion: We recommend targeted health education programs for social population to improve their perceptions and the importance of all recommended COVID-19 vaccines. Next, we suggest continuing social satisfaction assessment to enhance and maintain the quality of vaccination services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1441.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Vaccine hesitancy; Vaccination, COVID-19; Predictors; Prevalence; Health workers
Online: 19 May 2023 (11:58:06 CEST)
Introduction: COVID-19 vaccines have been the most effective means in curbing the infection, however, vaccine hesitancy has been seen as a threat to global health. Objective: the study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers in infectious disease centers in Ghana. Method: A cross-sectional study and proportionate stratified sampling method was used to recruit participants from various infectious disease centers. Result: data from 170 participants were analyzed, revealing a low prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (11.2%) among healthcare workers. However, only 31.1% of the fully vaccinated participants had taken the booster dose. Factors such as concerns about vaccine safety and side effects from previous doses, indecisiveness, a lack of time to receive the vaccine and lack of access to accurate information, prefered natural immunity were the significant predictors of vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers. Participants with good perception of the risk posed by COVID-19 was positively correlated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Conclusion: the study suggests that policies should be enacted to ensure health workers are vaccinated against highly contagious infectious diseases to prevent their spread among the general population. Training and health promotion campaigns should also be organized to encourage healthcare workers to accept and patronize the vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Influenza vaccines; Vaccine hesitancy; Healthcare workers (HCWs); South Africa
Online: 8 June 2022 (10:03:21 CEST)
Vaccination attitudes among healthcare workers (HCWs) is a vital factor for measuring their level of vaccination uptake and intention to recommend vaccinations to their patients. To our knowledge, no study has been conducted in South Africa to assess hesitancy to influenza vaccines among HCWs. We used questionnaire adapted from Betsch and colleagues to conduct an online and face-to-face cross-sectional study among HCWs at the start of COVID-19 vaccine roll-out prior to the flu season. Main outcome was influenza vaccine hesitancy. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess predictors of influenza vaccine hesitancy. Of 401 participants, 64.5% were women, 49.2% nurses, and 12.5% physicians. A total of 54.9% were willing to accept vaccination, 20.4% were undecided, and 24.7% intended to refuse. Older participants above 17-25 years and physicians were likely to receive the vaccine. Key predictors of vaccine acceptance were confidence in the effectiveness, consideration of benefits and risks, and willingness to be vaccinated to protect others. Influenza vaccine hesitancy was highest in those who did not trust that influenza vaccines are safe. For future flu seasons, tailored education programs targeting younger HCWs and more information about the composition of flu vaccines would be vital to improve vaccine uptake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: HPV vaccination; vaccine hesitancy; barriers; health literacy; cervical cancer
Online: 22 March 2022 (13:58:09 CET)
The incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer are rising among young women in Japan. In November 2021, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare reinstated the active recommendation for the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, which was discontinued in June 2013 due to reports of adverse reactions, including chronic pain and motor dysfunction, following vaccination. However, vaccine hesitancy among the younger generation remains, and it is essential to identify the barriers in vaccination uptake. Therefore, we aim to conduct a randomized study using different methods of providing educational contents to improve health literacy regarding cervical cancer and HPV vaccination among female students in Japan. Here, we present the results of our preliminary report and discuss current topics related to HPV vaccination in Japan. Data were collected from 27 female students—divided into three groups: no intervention, print-based intervention, and SNS-based intervention—using the Health Literacy Scale and Communicative and Critical Health Literacy scale. Our primary results indicate that participants’ knowledge and health literacy improved post intervention. Therefore, medical professionals must provide accurate scientific knowledge regarding routine HPV vaccination and the risk of cervical cancer to young women to improve their health literacy and subsequently increase the HPV vaccination rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0200.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: hesitancy; Guatemala; agricultural worker; COVID-10; SARS-CoV-2; access
Online: 11 April 2023 (05:24:35 CEST)
Despite offering free-of-charge COVID-19 vaccines starting July 2021, Guatemala has one of the lowest vaccination rates in Latin America. During September 28, 2021 to April 11, 2022, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of community members adapting a CDC questionnaire to evaluate COVID-19 vaccine access and hesitancy. Of 233 participants ≥12 years, 127 (55%) received >1 dose of COVID-19 and 4 (2%) reported prior COVID-19 illness. Persons ≥12 years old unvaccinated (n=106) were more likely to be female (73% vs 41%, p<0.001) and homemakers (69% vs 24%, p<0.01) compared with vaccinated participants (n=127). Among those ≥18 years, the main reported motivation for vaccination among vaccinated participants was to protect the health of family/friends (101/117, 86%); 40 (55%) unvaccinated persons reported little/no confidence in public health institutions recommending COVID-19 vaccination. Community- and/or home-based vaccination programs, including vaccination of families through the workplace, may better reach female homemakers and reduce inequities and hesitancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: south africa; COVID-19; vaccine acceptancy; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine denial
Online: 1 August 2022 (06:02:11 CEST)
Unprecedented in scale, immense COVID-19 immunization programmes have been rolled out globally. This article explores aspects of hypothetical vaccine acceptability in Soweto, South Africa, shortly before such vaccines became available. Whereas hypothetical acceptance was normative, this has not translated into uptake today, which remains concerningly low in South Africa, especially in Soweto. For that reason, we mobilise anthropological concepts to analyse acceptance, hesitancy, and denial, respectively, to gauge and understand public proclivity to inoculate. We find that COVID-19’s haphazard mediatization generated a ‘field of suspicion’ towards authorities and vaccination, which, amplified by dis- and misinformation, fostered othering, hesitancy, and denial considerably. It remains paramount during vaccination rollouts to unveil and address aspects detrimental to vaccine confidence and selectivity, especially in lower-income groups for underlying, context-specific cultural, spiritual, historical, and socioeconomic reasons. Appropriate mediazation alongside a debunking of counterfactual claims is crucial in driving forward immunization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0415.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; Vaccine hesitancy; COVID-19 Vaccine; Saudi Arabia
Online: 31 May 2022 (09:22:49 CEST)
On 11th March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. Vaccination programs have advanced greatly in the global health period, despite widespread anti-vaccination attitudes and misinformation. Vaccine hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine is currently a major issue in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was carried out from June 25, 2021 to October 2021 in order to investigate the knowledge levels of acceptance and hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine among Saudi’s nationals. The data was collected through a close-ended structured questionnaire from a total of 565 respondents. Overall, 78.41% respondents were female, 62.48% having university level education and 61.06% were unemployed. Majority of the participants 82.30% (n=465) think that Pfizer vaccine has the highest efficiency against COVID-19. Our study concludes that majority of the participants have satisfactory knowledge about COVID-19 vaccination. Concerns over vaccine components, effectiveness of vaccine and possible side effects are among the key causes for vaccine hesitancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19, vaccine/vaccination; stress; anxiety; hesitancy; preparedness; Jordan/Arab
Online: 6 May 2022 (14:06:14 CEST)
Although vaccinating the world is adopted by the WHO to limit COVID-19 transmission, people’s worries about vaccines may suppress their desire for vaccination despite vaccine availability. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of stress and anxiety among 250 Jordanians who received their first vaccine dose at a local community health center. The respondents completed the stress and anxiety subscales of the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale 21 (DASS-21) pre- and post-vaccination. The respondents expressed more moderate-severe levels of stress pre than post vaccination (20.8% and 13.2%, respectively). Meanwhile, 37.2% and 45.2% of the respondents expressed moderate-severe anxiety pre and post vaccination, respectively. Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed that the drop in the level of stress from pre (median (IQR) = 5 (1-8)) to post vaccination (median (IQR) = 3 (1-7)) was statistically significant (z = -3.81, p = 0.001, r = 0.17) while the increase in anxiety was not. Anxiety median significantly dropped among individuals experiencing mild to severe anxiety pre vaccination. Similarly, stress and anxiety significantly increased among individuals expressing normal anxiety pre vaccination (z = -3.57 and -8.24, p values = 0.001, r = 0.16 and 0.37, respectively). Age positively correlated with post vaccination anxiety among respondents with mild pre vaccination anxiety, and it negatively correlated with pre vaccination level of stress in the normal anxiety group. Gender, marital status, respondents’ level of education, and history of COVID-19 infection had no significant correlation with anxiety or stress at either point of measurement. Overcoming their hesitancy to receive COVID-19 vaccine, individuals with normal levels of anxiety experienced a rise in their distress symptoms following immunization. On the contrary, vaccination seemed to desensitize anxious individuals. Policymakers need to formulate a population-specific plan to increase vaccine preparedness and promote psychological well-being over all during the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0313.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Measles vaccine; Vaccine hesitancy; Measles vaccine uptake; Immunization; Sudan; PACV
Online: 20 December 2021 (13:58:34 CET)
Vaccine uptake is one of the indicators that has been used to guide immunization programs. This study aimed to evaluate whether the measles vaccine uptake is predicted by measles vaccine hesitancy. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in urban districts in Khartoum state in February 2019. Measles vaccine uptake among children was measured as either fully vaccinated or partially/not vaccinated. The Parents Attitude about Childhood Vaccination (PACV) scale was used to measure measles vaccine hesitancy. Multivariate logistic regression was run to identify the predictors of measles vaccination uptake controlling for sociodemographic variables and the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% CI were calculated. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was performed, besides area under the curve (AUC) for the PACV was computed. Data was collected from 495 participants. We found that measles vaccine hesitancy (PACV scores) predicted the uptake of measles vaccine after controlling other potential social confounders such as mother’s age and the number of children (aOR 1.055, 95% CI 1.028-1.028). Additionally, the ROC for the PACV yielded area under the curve (AUC 0.686 (95% CI 0.620-0.751, P <0.001). Our findings show that measles vaccine hesitancy in Sudan directly influences the uptake of the measles vaccine. Addressing the determinants of vaccine hesitancy through communication strategies will improve vaccine uptake.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0062.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: MMR; vaccine hesitancy; critical review; Wakefield; child immunisation; United Kingdom
Online: 2 April 2021 (12:19:07 CEST)
This review critically assesses the body of research about Measles-Mumps-and-Rubella (MMR) vaccine attitudes and uptake in the United Kingdom (UK) over the past 10 years. We searched PubMed and Scopus, with terms aimed at capturing relevant literature on attitudes, uptake, decision-making, and beliefs about the MMR vaccine. Two researchers screened for abstract eligibility and after de-duplication 934 studies were selected. After screening, 40 references were included for full-text review and thematic synthesis by three researchers. We were interested in the methodologies employed, and grouped findings by whether studies concerned: (1) Uptake and Demographics; (2) Beliefs and Attitudes; (3) Healthcare Worker Focus; (4) Experimental and Psychometric Intervention; (5) Mixed Methods. We identified group and individual level determinants for attitudes, operating directly and indirectly, that influence vaccine uptake. We found that access issues, often ignored within the public “anti-vax” debate, remain highly pertinent. Finally, a consistent theme was the effect of misinformation and lack of knowledge or trust in healthcare, often stemming from the Wakefield controversy. Future COVID-19 immunisation campaigns for children should consider both access and attitudinal aspects of vaccination, and incorporate a range of methodologies to assess progress, taking into account socio-economic variables and the needs of disadvantaged groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1297.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Vaccination hesitancy; Medical Mistrust; Cynical Distrust; Anger; Nurses; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:20:45 CEST)
During the pandemic, nurses experienced anger that stemmed from a sense of threat, frustration or even a sense of injustice. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vaccination hesitancy, anger, cynicism and medical mistrust among nurses, as there are no relevant studies in the literature. The study was conducted online by completing self-report questionnaires. The Dimensions of Anger Reactions-5, the 8-item "Cynical Distrust" scale and the Medical Mistrust Multiformat Scale were used. For vaccination hesitancy, two questions with a 5-point scale were used; one question examining hesitancy to get vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine, and another question examining hesitancy to get vaccinated with the influenza vaccine. 387 nurses (66 men and 321 women) participated in the study. Nurses showed statistically greater hesitancy for the COVID-19 vaccine compared to hesitancy for the influenza vaccine. The variation in Vaccine Hesitancy was explained by the scores in the Medical Mistrust Multiformat Scale, the Dimensions of Anger Reactions and the Cynical Distrust Scale. The Medical Mistrust Multiformat Scale mediated the relationship between Cynical Distrust Scale and Total Vaccine Hesitancy. The Dimensions of Anger Reactions Scale significantly moderated the indirect effect of Cynical Distrust Scale on Total Vaccine Hesitancy through the Medical Mistrust Multiformat Scale. In conclusion, it is highly likely that anger is involved in reported vaccine hesitancy both by activating schemas of distrust in others and by adopting antisystemic views of mistrust in the medical system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; young children; parents; health disparities, social determinants
Online: 2 August 2022 (09:22:32 CEST)
On 17 June 2022, the U.S. FDA authorized the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines for emergency use in children ages 6 months – 4 years. Seroprevalence has increased during the current Omicron variant wave for children under 5 years and the burden of hospitalization for this age group is similar or exceeds other pediatric vaccine preventable diseases. Research following the October 2021 approval of vaccines for children 5 – 11 indicates high prevalence of parental vaccine hesitancy and low uptake, underscoring the urgency of understanding attitudes and beliefs driving parental COVID-19 vaccine rejection and acceptance for younger children. One month prior to FDA approval, in the present study 411 U.S. female guardians of children 1 – 4 years from diverse racial/ethnic, economic, and geographic backgrounds participated in a mixed method online survey assessing determinants of COVID-19 pediatric vaccine hesitancy. Only 31.3% of parents intended to vaccinate their child, 22.6% were unsure, and 46.2% intended not to vaccinate. Logistic regression indicated significant barriers to vaccination uptake including: Concerns about immediate and long-term vaccination side effects for young children, the rushed nature of FDA approval and distrust in government and pharmaceutical companies, lack of community and family support for pediatric vaccination, conflicting media messaging, and lower socioeconomic status. Vaccine-resistant and unsure parents were also more likely to believe children were not susceptible to infection and that the vaccine no longer worked against new variants. Findings underscore the need for improved public health messaging and transparency regarding vaccine development and approval, the importance of community outreach, and increased pediatrician attention to parental concerns to better improve COVID vaccine uptake for young children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0099.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: diabetes; survey; sub-Saharan Africa; coronavirus; vaccine; hesitancy; refusal; qualitative; lockdown
Online: 15 June 2022 (05:56:25 CEST)
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with severe COVID-19 infection and complications. This study assessed COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy in diabetes and explored reasons for nonvaccinating. This was a web-based cross-sectional survey using a mixed-method approach conducted between March-May 2021 corresponding to most SSA countries' early vaccine rollout period. Participants were those aged ≥18 years with self-reported DM in 11 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Responses to comments on reasons for vaccine hesitancy and facilitators for vaccine uptake were analyzed. Of the 73 participants with DM, 65.8% were males older than 35 years (86.3%), had post-secondary education (90%), and a significant proportion was from South Africa (39.7%), Nigeria (28.8%) and Ghana (13.7%). 64.4% had COVID-19 symptoms, 46.6% were tested for COVID-19, of which 19.2% tested positive. Few participants (6.8%) had taken the COVID-19 vaccination, 65.8% were willing to take the vaccine, while 26.0% either refused or hesitated to take the vaccine. The main reasons identified for not taking the vaccine were: advice from religious leaders, concerns about the vaccine safety, its effects, and efficacy, mistrust of the pharmaceutical companies, the conspiracy theories around the vaccines, the process of production, and the personal belief of the participants. However, participants stated they would take the vaccine if given more education about it, receive positive feedback from those vaccinated, are rewarded for taking the vaccine or if vaccination becomes a condition for travel and employment. The findings of this study showed that uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine was very low in this high-risk group. It is imperative that efforts to increase the uptake of vaccines, such as the provision of education and relevant information, are made.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0338.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine attitudes; vaccine development; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 15 September 2020 (10:32:28 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to ravage the world, with the United States being highly affected. A vaccine provides the best hope for a permanent solution to controlling the pandemic. However, to be effective, a vaccine must be accepted and used by a large majority of the population. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the relationships of several factors with attitudes toward potential COVID-19 vaccination. The survey was administered to 316 respondents across the United States by a survey corporation. Prior vaccine usage and attitudes predicted attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination. Assessment of the severity of COVID-19 for the United States was also predictive. Approximately 68% of all respondents were supportive of being vaccinated for COVID-19, but side effects, efficacy, and length of testing remained concerns. Longer testing, increased efficacy and development in the United States were significantly associated with increased vaccine acceptance. Messages promoting COVID-19 vaccination should seek to alleviate the concerns of those who are already vaccine-hesitant. Messaging directed at the benefits of vaccination for the United States as a country would address the second predictive factor. Enough time should be taken to allay concerns about both short and long-term side effects before a vaccine is released.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0333.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Urban; rural; COVID-19; Knowledge; Attitudes; Practices; vaccine acceptability; Vaccine hesitancy; Kenya
Online: 18 August 2022 (07:46:00 CEST)
An important step towards COVID-19 pandemic control is adequate knowledge and adherence to mitigation measures, including vaccination. We assessed the level of COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices among residents from an urban informal settlement in the City of Nairobi (Kibera), and a rural community in western Kenya (Asembo). A cross-sectional survey was implemented from April to May 2021 among randomly selected adult residents from a population-based infectious diseases surveillance (PBIDS) cohort in Nairobi and Siaya Counties. Factors associated with the level of COVID-19 KAP, were assessed using multivariable regression methods. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was 83.6% for the participants from Asembo and 59.8% in Kibera. The reasons cited for vaccine hesitancy in Kibera were safety concerns (34.0%), insufficient information available to decide (18.0%), and a lack of belief in the vaccine (21.0%), while the reasons in Asembo were safety concerns (55.0%), insufficient information to decide (26.0%) and lack of belief in the vaccine (11%). Our study findings suggest the need for continued public education to enhance COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices to ensure adherence to mitigation measures. Urban informal settlements require targeted messaging to improve vaccine awareness, acceptability, and uptake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine; vaccine hesitancy; healthcare workers; primary care; general practice; Singapore
Online: 1 March 2022 (03:49:13 CET)
Background: COVID-19 booster uptake remained poor among healthcare workers (HCW) despite evidence of improved immunity against Delta and Omicron variants. While most studies used a questionnaire to assess hesitancy, this study aimed to identify factors affecting true booster hesitancy by examining actual vaccine uptake across time. Method: COVID-19 vaccination database records among HCW working at 7 Singaporean public primary care clinics between January to December 2021 were extracted, with gender, profession, place of practice, vaccination type and dates. Time to booster was calculated from the date of vaccination minus date of eligibility. Chi-square test was used to compare relationship between 1st dose and booster hesitancy, Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test were adopted to evaluate differences in cumulative booster uptake. Multivariate cox regression was used to investigate predictors for timely booster vaccination. Vaccination rate was charted across time and corroborated with media releases pertaining to legislative changes. Results: 877 of 891 (98.9%) primary care HCW were fully vaccinated, 73.8% of eligible HCW had taken the booster. HCW were less booster hesitant [median 16 (5-31.3) days] compared to the 1st dose [median 39 (13-119.3) days]. 1st dose hesitant HCW were more likely to be booster hesitant (OR=3.66, 95%CI 2.61-5.14). Adjusting for sex, workplace and time to 1st dose, ancillary (HR=1.53, 95%CI 1.03-2.28), medical (HR=1.8, 95%CI 1.18-2.74) and nursing (HR=1.8, 95%CI 1.18-2.37) received boosters earlier compared with administrative staff. No temporal relationship was observed between booster uptake, legislative changes and COVID-19 infection numbers. Conclusion: Vaccine hesitancy among HCW had improved from booster to 1st dose, with timely booster vaccination among medical and nursing staff. Tailored education, risk messaging and strategic legislation might help to reduce delayed booster vaccination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0702.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine acceptance; vaccine willingness; vaccine hesitancy; quantitative; online survey; Philippines
Online: 27 April 2021 (10:12:47 CEST)
With COVID-19 vaccines slowly being rolled out in many countries, it is important to understand the public’s acceptance of being vaccinated. This study aims to study the willingness and motivations among residents of the cities of Caloocan, Malabon, and Navotas, Philippines to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Based on an online survey of 137 respondents, who willingly participated in the study, 71% will take a COVID-19 vaccine if it becomes available, with similar rates among respondents from Caloocan (82%), Malabon (83 %), and Navotas (81%). If a vaccine is proven safe and effective, more respondents (82%) will take a COVID-19 vaccine. Furthermore, safety against COVID-19 as well as the safety and effectiveness of vaccines are the primary factors why respondents are willing or unwilling to get a vaccine. The results highlight the need for effective messaging that promotes COVID-19 vaccination, with emphasis on the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine, and its benefits to the public, especially that the vaccines that will be delivered in the country in the next few months are not the most preferred brands by the respondents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1496.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; IBD; Crohn’s disease; Ulcerative colitis; vaccine, vaccination; vaccine hesitancy; VZV
Online: 21 July 2023 (11:35:22 CEST)
Abstract: Background: The vaccination status of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) should be investigated before starting any treatment, and patients eventually vaccinated against vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). Vaccination rates in patients with IBD are known to be suboptimal. The aim of this study was to investigate the vaccination coverage, attitude towards vaccinations and its possible determinants among a national cohort of IBD patients. Methods: An anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent by the Italian IBD patients’ association (AMICI) in February 2021. Previous vaccination status and patients’ attitude towards vaccinations were rec-orded. The factors influencing their attitudes were examined using crude and adjusted odds ratios (AdjORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Among 4039 patients invited, 1252 patients (including 729 women, median age 47.7 [37–58]) completed the questionnaire, a response rate of 25.3%. Patients declared being vaccinated against: 74.1% tetanus, 67.7% flu (last season), 43.3% MMR, 37.1% HBV, 29.1% pneumococcus, 20% meningitis, 16% HAV, 15.3% VZV, 7.6% HPV. Two hundred and fifty-nine (20.7%) did not remember every previous vaccination. One thousand one hundred and twelve (88.8%) expressed a positive attitude towards vaccination, 91 (7.3%) were indifferent, 49 (3.9%) reported being opposed to vaccinations. The belief of possible return of VPDs with decline of vaccination coverage rates was the factor most strongly related to a positive at-titude towards vaccinations (AdjOR 5.67, 95% CI 3.45-9.30, p-value <0.001). Conclusions: A low vaccination rate against some VPDs was found among a national cohort of patients with IBD, despite a generally positive attitude towards vaccinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Influenza; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Green-Pass; Vaccination; Immunization; Vaccine-hesitancy; Pandemic
Online: 29 June 2023 (10:23:58 CEST)
The purpose of this work was to longitudinally investigate the dynamic evolution of vaccine hesitancy towards both COVID-19 and influenza. We followed a cohort of 479 adult patients at Udine Hospital (Italy) having in common a medical history of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020, during the first and most impactful pandemic wave. Vaccine attitude was assessed through standardized telephone interviews performed at 12 and 18 months after the acute illness. The background of the survey was represented by COVID-19 vaccination campaign, started with the approval of the first vaccine in December 2020 and bolstered by the introduction of Green Pass in July 2021, in a context where anti-vaccination beliefs and mistrust in healthcare system were rising. The first interview reported the success of the 2020/21 seasonal influenza immunization with 46.8% (224/479) of the participants showing a positive attitude, especially the elderly and people with comorbidities (p< 0.001). The investigation conducted at 18 months showed a drastic drop in flu shot acceptance (30/166, 18.1%), the reluctance being justified by the feeling of protection regardless of prevention (55.8%) and by concerns regarding vaccines safety and efficacy (23.3%). In parallel, a great increase in vaccinations against SARS-CoV2 occurred after the introduction of Green Pass (72.9% vs 26.7%), although only a minority of the participants identified in the restrictions induced by the certification the leading incentive to get immunized (22.3%). Vaccine hesitancy remains a dynamic and complex phenomenon, which is difficult to overcome with incentive or obligatory strategies alone. The purpose of achieving vaccine compliance should always take into account the social and political context, as well as the role of personal opinions and emotions.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine; vaccine hesitancy; Healthcare Workers; Flu vaccine; Influenza; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:33:15 CEST)
Despite the research conducted worldwide, there is no treatment specific for SARS-CoV-2 infection with efficacy proven by randomized controlled trials. A chance for a breakthrough is vaccinating the majority of the global population. The public opinion surveys on vaccine hesitancy prompted our team to investigate the Polish medical community's attitude towards the SARS-CoV-2 and influenza vaccinations. In-person and online surveys of Healthcare Workers (HCWs): doctors, nurses, medical students, and other allied health professionals (n=419) took place between 14.09.2020 and 5.11.2020. In our study, 68.7% of respondents would like to be vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine. The safety and efficacy of vaccination against COVID-19 would persuade 86.3% of hesitant and those who would refuse to be vaccinated. 3.1% of all respondents claimed that no argument would convince them to get vaccinated. 61.6% of respondents declared a willingness to receive an influenza vaccination, of which 83.3% were also inclined to receive the planned COVID-19 vaccination. Although a significant part of respondents - 62.5% (262/419) indicated, they trusted the influenza vaccine more than the COVID-19 vaccine in direct comparison, more respondents intended to get the COVID-19 vaccination than the influenza vaccine in the 2020/2021 season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1737.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Monkeypox virus; mpox; knowledge; attitude; vaccine acceptance; vaccine hesitancy; healthcare workers; doctors; nurses; pharmacists
Online: 8 September 2023 (13:09:12 CEST)
Abstract: Educating healthcare workers (HCWs) to take action against monkeypox (mpox) is an important part of public health prevention efforts. The study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to vaccinate against mpox among HCWs in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. This study utilized an online cross-sectional survey that was disseminated via Google Forms between November, 1, 2022 and January, 15, 2023, employing a convenience sampling method. The researchers utilized logistic regression to ascertain the factors associated with knowledge, attitude and willingness to vaccinate. A total of 637 HCWs were included in the analysis (ages ranged between 21 and 51 years old). The mean overall score and standard deviation of the knowledge, attitude, and willingness assessment on mpox were 8.18±3.37 out of (0–16), 3.40±1.37 out of (0–5), 2.41±1.25 out of (0–5), respectively. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HCWs who heard about mpox before 2022 had a higher level of knowledge (AOR: 4.85; 95% CI: 2.81-8.36; p < 0.001). In addition, those who had less than 1 year of practice had a positive attitude about mpox (AOR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.20-0.59; p < 0.01). Finally, none of the variable groups had the capacity to predict willingness to be vaccinated against mpox. The research revealed that HCWs exhibit a relatively low level of knowledge and attitude towards mpox, as well as a low level of willingness to receive mpox vaccinations. Further, there is an urgent need to increase their knowledge and attitude, as the success of efforts to control the global epidemic depends on them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1653.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccine uptake; reduction of barriers to vaccination; health misinformation; vaccine hesitancy; Kenya
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:35:18 CEST)
Ever since the tremendous success of the rapid vaccine development against COVID‑19, its availa-bility, distribution, and deployment have been a significant concern; however, evidence suggests that vaccine hesitancy has become a greater problem. Therefore, trust in vaccines is crucial and critically dependent on regimes' ability to communicate the benefits of immunization. This study investigated ideas on ways to reduce barriers to COVID-19 vaccination uptake. It explores methods to overcome COVID-19 vaccine barriers through qualitative research: interviews and group discussions involving healthcare providers, administration personnel, teachers, and individuals with chronic conditions across urban (Mombasa) and rural (Kilifi) Kenya. Audio-recorded discussions were transcribed and thematically analyzed across locations. Five themes emerged in our results regarding how to reduce barriers to the COVID vaccine in the context of Kenya, including awareness campaigns, engaging diverse stakeholders, using various communication techniques, capacity building to increase vac-cination centers and trained staff, and lastly, revising relevant government health policies and guidelines. These results indicate the importance of adopting multiple approaches, as no single strategy could boost vaccine acceptance. Moreover, this study provides recommendations for con-ceiving actionable interventions to potentially boost vaccine demand and maintain routine immun-ization in Kenya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0236.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccines; Vaccine Hesitancy; Healthcare workers; Vaccine acceptance; Vaccination; Vaccines; Arab Healthcare workers
Online: 9 April 2021 (08:41:36 CEST)
Background: Health Care Workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of acquiring and transmitting COVID-19 infection. Also, they present role models for communities with regards to attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination. Hence, hesitancy of HCWs towards vaccination can crucially affect the efforts aiming to contain the pandemic. Previously published studies paid little attention to HCWs in Arab countries, which has a population of over 440 million. Objectives: to assess the rates of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Arabic-speaking HCWs residing in and outside the Arab countries, and their perceived barriers towards vaccination. Methods: a cross-sectional study based on an online survey was conducted from 14-Jan 2021 to 29-Jan 2021, targeting Arabic-speaking HCWs from all around the world. Results: the survey recruited 5,708 eligible participants (55.6% males, 44.4% females, age 30.6±10 years) from 21 Arab countries (87.5%) and 54 other countries (12.5%). Our analysis shows a significant rate of vaccine hesitancy among Arabic-speaking HCWs residing in and outside Arab countries (25.8% and 32.8%, respectively). The highest rates of hesitancy were among participants from the west region of the Arab world (Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria). The most cited reasons for hesitancy were concerns about side effects and distrust in vaccine expedited production and healthcare policies. Factors associated with higher hesitancy included age of 30-59, previous or current suspected or confirmed COVID-19, female gender, not knowing the vaccine type authorized in the participant’s country, and not regularly receiving the influenza vaccine. Conclusion: this is the first large-scale, multinational, post-vaccine-availability study on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among HCWs. It reveals high rates of hesitancy among Arab-speaking HCWs. Unless addressed properly, this hesitancy can impede the efforts for achieving widespread vaccination and collective immunity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0717.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: vaccine hesitancy; vaccine acceptance; anti-vaccination; COVID-19; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine rejection
Online: 29 December 2020 (08:46:16 CET)
Utility of vaccine campaigns to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not merely dependent on vaccine efficacy and safety. Vaccine acceptance among the general public and the healthcare workers, appears to have a decisive role for successful control of the pandemic. The aim of this review was to provide an up-to-date assessment of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance rates worldwide. A systematic search of the peer-reviewed English survey literature indexed in PubMed was done on December 25, 2020. Results from 30 studies, met the inclusion criteria and formed the basis for final COVID-19 vaccine acceptance estimates. Results of an additional recent survey from Jordan and Kuwait was considered in this review as well. Survey studies on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates were found from 33 different countries. Among adults representing the general public, the highest COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates were found in Ecuador (97.0%), Malaysia (94.3%), Indonesia (93.3%) and China (91.3%). On the other hand, the lowest COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates were found in Kuwait (23.6%), Jordan (28.4%), Italy (53.7), Russia (54.9%), Poland (56.3%), US (56.9%), and France (58.9%). Only eight surveys among healthcare workers (doctors, nurses) were found, with vaccine acceptance rates ranging from 27.7% in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to 78.1% in Israel. In a majority of survey studies among the general public (62%), the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination showed a level of ≥ 70%. Low rates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance were reported in the Middle East, Russia, Africa and several European countries. This could represent a major problem in the global efforts that aim to control the current COVID-19 pandemic. More studies are recommended to address the scope of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Such studies are particularly needed in the Middle East Africa, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Middle and Latin America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0089.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Acceptance; COVID-19; Cross-sectional study; Federal University of Health Sciences Otukpo; Vaccine hesitancy; Nigeria
Online: 3 May 2023 (02:51:50 CEST)
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has had devastating impacts on the global economy and public health. This study aimed to assess the level of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, hesitancy, and associated factors among staff and students of the Federal University of Health Sciences Otukpo, Benue State, Nigeria. A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 2021 and April 2022, and data were collected and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Of the 150 completed and analyzed questionnaires, the majority of respondents (80.0%) were between 16 and 45 years old. The study found that 58.4% of participants indicated vaccine hesitancy, with skepticism about the vaccine's fast production/rollout and fear of vaccine side effects being the most common reasons for hesitation. Respondents' age, religion, and category were significant factors influencing vaccine acceptance and hesitancy (P < 0.05). The university community has a high level of awareness of COVID-19 but low vaccine acceptance, resulting in high levels of vaccine hesitancy. The study recommends that policymakers and public health officials should prioritize testing and vaccination for job categories with higher risk of exposure to COVID-19. They should provide accurate information about COVID-19 testing and vaccination and implement workplace-based testing and vaccination programs. These interventions can help to increase COVID-19 testing and vaccination uptake among the university community and mitigate the spread of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antibody; BNT162b2; coronavirus disease 2019; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine booster
Online: 25 February 2022 (10:01:23 CET)
This was a retrospective cohort study, which aimed to investigate the factors associated with hesitancy to receive the third dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. A paper-based questionnaire survey was administered to all participants. Accordingly, the study included participants who provided answer in the questionnaire whether they have an intent to receive the third dose of vaccine. Data on sex, age, area of residence, adverse reactions after the second vaccination, whether the third vaccination was desired, and reasons to accept or hesitate booster vaccination were retrieved. Among the 2439 participants with mean (±SD) age of 52.6±18.9 years, and median IgG-S antibody titer of 324.9 (AU/mL), 97.9% of participants indicated their intent to accept a third vaccination dose. The logistic regression revealed that younger age (OR=0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-1.00) and higher antibody level (OR=2.52; 95% CI: 1.27-4.99) are positively associated with the third vaccine hesitancy. The efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine and concerns about adverse reactions had significant impact on the third vaccination behavior. A rapid increase in the booster dose rate is needed to control the pandemic, and specific approaches should be taken in these groups that are likely to hesitate the third vaccine, subsequently increasing booster contact rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Human Papillomavirus; vaccine refusal; hesitancy; women; school based; Health Belief Model; gynaecologist; general practitioner; survey; catch up
Online: 27 February 2018 (09:02:41 CET)
In Italy HPV vaccination was implemented for girls since 2007 but its coverage was lower than recommended level. Sicily is one of the Italian administrative regions with lower vaccination coverage, ranging in the birth cohorts 1996–1999 from 59% to 62%. Aim of the study was to investigate factors associated with refusal of anti-HPV vaccination among young adult women of Palermo, Italy. A cross-sectional study was conducted through the administration of a telephone questionnaire, consisting of 23 items on HPV infection and vaccination knowledge based on Health Belief Model framework. The eligible population were young women with at least a previous vaccination among all included in Sicilian Vaccination schedule, without starting or completing anti-HPV vaccination schedule. Overall, 141 young women were enrolled, of them 84.4% were unvaccinated and 15.6% had at least one dose of HPV vaccine. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with the failure to perform the HPV vaccination were degree as school level (OR = 10.2, p = 0.041), lower participation at school seminar on HPV (OR = 0.2, p = 0.047) and lower perception of anti-HPV vaccine benefits (OR = 0.4, p = 0.048). Public health educational program focusing and tailored on benefits perception of anti-HPV vaccine and HPV disease severity, especially if carried out at school, can improve HPV vaccination uptake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0486.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; mental healthcare; primary healthcare nurses; Sub-Saharan Africa; challenges; adaptation; outreach; telehealth; vaccine hesitancy; mental health awareness
Online: 7 August 2023 (05:28:56 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the mental health of individuals globally, and primary healthcare (PHC) nurses play a critical role in providing mental healthcare services. However, limited research has explored the experiences of PHC nurses in providing mental healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study explored the experiences of PHC nurses in providing mental healthcare services during the pandemic in Durban, South Africa. The aim was to identify the challenges faced by healthcare providers and the potential for innovative approaches to improve access to care. A qualitative, exploratory design guided the study, and data were collected through in-depth interviews with twelve PHC nurses purposively selected. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings from interviews with primary healthcare nurses reveal that the pandemic exacerbated existing challenges, including medication adherence issues, fear and uncertainty among patients, vaccine hesitancy, decreased clinic visits, and the mental and emotional toll on both patients and healthcare workers. PHC nurses adapted their services by increasing outreach efforts, prioritising patient care, and utilising technology and non-governmental organisations’ (NGO) support. Challenges included reduced patient visits, complexities in healthcare provision, and lack of adequate support. Positive changes observed include increased mental health awareness among healthcare professionals and younger generations. Recommendations include implementing outreach and awareness campaigns, providing accurate information about COVID-19 and vaccinations, and promoting cultural sensitivity in mental healthcare provision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: vaccine side effects; inactivated COVID-19 vaccine; sinopharm vaccine; sinovac vaccine; whole attenuated vaccine; COVID-19 vaccination; vaccine hesitancy
Online: 2 September 2022 (05:12:45 CEST)
Vaccination is one of the most effective methods for preventing morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Vaccine hesitancy has led to a decrease in vaccine uptake; driven by misinformation, fear, and perceptions of vaccine safety. Whole inactivated vaccines have been used in one-fifth of the vaccine recipients in Africa, however there is limited real-world data on their safety. We evaluated the reported side effects and factors associated with reported side effects following vaccination with whole inactivated COVID-19 vaccines - BBiBP-CorV (Sinopharm) and CoronaVac (Sinovac). A quantitative survey evaluating attitudes and side effects from vaccination was administered to 1016 adults presenting at vaccination centers. Two follow-up telephone interviews were conducted to determine side effects after the first and second vaccination dose. Overall, the vaccine was well tolerated; 26.0% and 14.4% reported side effects after the first and second dose respectively. The most frequent local and systemic side effects were pain at the injection site and headaches respectively. Most symptoms were mild, and no participants re-quired hospitalization. Participants who perceived COVID-19 vaccines as safe or had a personal COVID-19 experience were significantly less likely to report side effects. Our findings provide data on the safety and tolerability of whole inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in an African population, providing the necessary data to create effective strategies to increase vaccination and support vaccination campaigns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0325.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Vaccination decision; Decision-making; Vaccination behavior; Nigeria; Vaccine hesitancy; Immunization demand; Immunization uptake; Vaccination; Caregivers; Mothers; qualitative research; focus groups
Online: 6 September 2023 (02:41:06 CEST)
Background: Since 2000, vaccine coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has surpassed multiple milestones. Its contribution to global health, especially in low-middle-income countries is one of the achievements in global governance of modern medicine, averting 2-3 million child deaths every year. However, in Nigeria, vaccine-preventable-diseases still account for one in eight child deaths before their fifth-year birthday and remains one of the ten countries where 4.3 million children under five are without complete immunization. The reasons for declining childhood vaccine demand are unclear. Therefore, the goal of this contribution is to shed light on the reasons to set a foundation for future interventions. Methods: Four focus group discussions were conducted. The primary targets were mothers of children 0 – 12 months old in Nigeria. A simplified quota sampling approach was used to select mothers in four geographical clusters of Nigeria’s Federal Capital Territory. At least six mothers from each cluster were randomly included, giving a total of 24 participants. An interview guide developed from the 5C psychological antecedence model was used (assessing confidence, complacency, calculation, constraints, collective responsibility); two additional variables were included that had proved meaningful in previous work (religion and masculinity). The data were analyzed using meta-aggregation approach such as framework synthesis, which summarized data in a stepwise fashion. Results: The sample was generally relatively positive towards vaccination. Still, mothers reported low trust in vaccine safety and the healthcare system (confidence). Yet, they had great interest in seeking additional information during antenatal visits (calculation), difficulties in prioritizing vaccination over other equally competing priorities (constraints) and were aware that vaccination translates into overall community health and wellbeing (collective responsibility). They had a bias towards God as ultimate giver of good health (religion) and reported that their husbands played a dominant role in vaccination decision-making (masculinity). Mothers perceived their children vulnerable to disease outbreaks, which motivated them to get them vaccinated (complacency). Conclusion: The 5C model and the added determinants provided a useful qualitative tool for understanding mothers’ vaccination decision-making in low resources settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0095.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Ethnic and Racial Minorities; Ethnicity; Covid-19; Covid-19 Vaccines; Vaccination Hesitancy; Health Inequities; Primary Health Care; Public Health; Health Promotion; Systemic Racism
Online: 3 July 2023 (13:55:22 CEST)
People from Black and Asian backgrounds are more likely to die from Covid-19 but less likely to be vaccinated, threatening to exacerbate health inequalities already experienced by ethnic minority groups. Literature suggests that mistrust rooted in structural inequality may be a key barrier to Covid-19 vaccine uptake. We need to better understand how structural inequalities influence vaccine confidence. Understanding and addressing these processes is likely to lead to longer-term impacts than information alone. We draw on health and sociological theories of structure and agency to inform our understanding of structural factors. We conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with 22 people from London and surrounding areas in December 2021 to March 2022. Fifteen participants were members of the public from ethnic minority backgrounds and 7 were professionals working with the public to address concerns and encourage vaccine uptake. Our findings suggest that people from ethnic minority backgrounds make decisions regarding Covid-19 vaccination based on a combination of how they experience external social structures (including political authority, social positioning and racial inequality) and internal processes (what they believe and understand about Covid-19 vaccines). We may be able to support knowledge accumulation through the provision of reliable and accessible information, particularly through primary and community care. But we recommend a number of changes to research, policy and practice which address structural inequalities. These include working with communities to improve ethnicity data collection, increasing funding allocation to health conditions where ethnic minority communities experience poorer outcomes, greater transparency and public engagement in the vaccine development process, and culturally adapted research recruitment processes.