ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0258.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Claude Shannon; Gregory Bateson; communication; information; infoautopoiesis; semantic; syntactic
Online: 12 April 2023 (08:10:52 CEST)
Recent developments, begun by the ascending spiral of the anticipated endless prospects of ChatGPT, promote artificial intelligence (AI) as an indispensable tool and commodity whose time has come. Yet the sinister specter of a technology that has hidden and unmanageable attributes that might be harmful to society looms in the background. As well as the likelihood that it will never deliver on the purported promise of artificial general intelligence (AGI). Currently the prospects for the development of AI and AGI are more a matter of opinion than based on a consistent methodological approach. Thus the need to take a step back to develop a general framework from which to evaluate current AI efforts, which also permits the determination of the limits to its future prospects as AGI. To gain insight into the development of a general framework, a key question that needs resolution is, what is the connection between human intelligence and machine intelligence? This is the question that needs a response because humans are at the center of AI creation and realize that without an understanding of how we become what we become, we have no chance of finding a solution. This work proposes infoautopoiesis, the self-referential, recursive and interactive process of self-production of information, as the needed general framework. Infoautopoiesis shows how the key ingredient of information is fundamental to an insightful resolution to this crucial question and allows predictions as to the present and future of AGI.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: heuristic model; system; complexity; method; intercultural communication studies; gregory bateson; anthropology; informational realism; Quebec
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:23:37 CEST)
This article focuses on methods for designing heuristic models within the paradigm of systems theory and in the disciplinary context of intercultural communication. The main question arises from the striking observation that the common language is insufficient to develop knowledge about human communication, especially when many factors of complexity (such as ambiguity, paradoxes, or uncertainty) are involved in the composition of an abstract research object. This epistemological, theoretical, and methodological problematic is one of the main challenges to the scientificity of anthropological theories and concepts on culture. Moreover, these questions lie at the heart of research in intercultural communication. Authors and theorists in the complexity sciences have already stressed the need, in such case, to think in terms of models or semiotic representations, since these tools of thought can mediate much more effectively than unformalized language between the heterogeneous set of perceptions arising from the field of experience, on the one hand, and the philosophical principles that organize speculative thought, on the other. This sets the scene for a reflection on the need to master the theory of heuristic models when it comes to developing scientific knowledge in the field of intercultural communication. In this essay, my first aim is to make explicit the conditions likely to ensure the heuristic value of a model, while my second aim is to clarify the operational function and required level of abstraction of certain terms such as concepts, categories, headings, models, systems, or theories that are among the most commonly used by academics in their descriptive accounts or explanatory hypotheses. To achieve this second objective, I propose to create cognitive meta-categories to identify the three (nominal, cardinal or ordinal) roles of words in the reference grids we use to classify our ideas, and to specify how to use these meta-categories in the construction of our heuristic models. Alongside the theoretical presentation, examples of application are provided, almost all of which are drawn from my own research into the increased cultural vigilance of the majority population in Quebec since the reasonable accommodation crisis in this French-speaking province of Canada. The typology I propose will perhaps help to avoid the confusions regularly committed by authors who attribute only cosmetic functions to words that nevertheless have a highly heuristic value, and who forget to consider the logical leaps of their theoretical thinking in the construction of heuristic models.