ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0120.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: green nanotechnology; gold nanoparticles; biosynthesis; high resolution transmission electron microscopy; Cape flora
Online: 11 August 2016 (09:53:19 CEST)
The preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) involves a variety of chemical and physical methods. These methods use toxic and environmentally harmful chemicals. Consequently, the synthesis of AuNPs using green chemistry has been under investigation to develop eco-friendly nanoparticles. One method to achieve this is the use of plant-derived phytochemicals capable of reducing gold ions to produce AuNPs. The aim of this study was to implement a facile microtitre-plate method to screen a large number of aqueous plant extracts to determine the optimum concentration (OC) to bio-synthesize the AuNPs. Several AuNPs of different sizes and shapes were successfully synthesized and characterized from seventeen South African plants. The characterization was done using Ultra Violet-Visible Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. We also studied the effects of temperature on the synthesis of the nanoparticles and measured its effect on the particle size of the synthesized AuNPs and the data showed that changes in temperatures affect the size and dispersity of the generated AuNPs. Further, some of the synthesized AuNPs were stable upon incubation with different biological solutions in vitro.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0215.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: COVID-19; green finance; green banking; green economic recovery; financial institutions; Bangladesh.
Online: 16 December 2021 (12:36:55 CET)
The main purpose of study is to identify the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the green financing of banks and non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) in an emerging economy such as Bangladesh. Also, this study shows the green banking activities of the banks and NBFIs during the pandemic. To analyze the impact of the pandemic on green financing, secondary data were obtained from the quarterly and annual reports of Bangladesh Bank (BB) on green financing as well as the annual reports and websites of 61 banks and 34 NBFIs in Bangladesh for the period 2021–2019. Subsequently, the study deployed dependent t-test statistics, growth rate (year-on-year), descriptive statistics, relative percentage changes, and varying tables and graphs to analyze the obtained secondary data. The empirical findings revealed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase in green finance for all banks and NBFIs compared to before the epidemic, indicating that the pandemic had no negative impact on the total green finance growth of all banks and NBFIs. On the other hand, compared to the pre-pandemic period, bank-wise growth in green financing was higher for state-owned commercial banks (SOCBs), specialized banks (SDBs), and private commercial banks (PCBs) but lower for foreign-owned commercial banks (FCBs) during the COVID-19 epidemic. This suggests that the pandemic does not affect the expansion of green finance by SOCBs, SDBs and PCBs but significantly impacted the growth of green financing by FCBs. Furthermore, the research findings showed that the total outstanding and classified loans within the green finance investment decrease for both banks and NBFIs during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicated that the Bangladeshi banks’ level of automation towards green banking were satisfactory during the pandemic. Therefore, major policy implications for the green economic recovery by the government, BB, and managers of the banks and financial institutions in emerging economies like Bangladesh were discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0197.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: lean manufacturing; green manufacturing; lean-green manufacturing; sustainability
Online: 17 November 2019 (09:34:54 CET)
The current rapidly changing and highly competitive market has put companies under a great pressure not only to be successful, but also to sustain their success into the future. In addition, in recent years, companies have become more aware of the fact that it is no longer enough to take care of economic aspects, being crucial to also take care of environmental and social aspects in order to actually succeed and lead in the current and future markets. In this context, companies are urged to move towards more innovative manufacturing practices that maintain a healthy balance among economic, environmental and social performances, which are the three pillars of the sustainability performance. To give some insight into this issue, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) is conducted in this paper regarding the current trends in the field, doing special focus on the link between lean-green manufacturing and the different sustainability aspects. The SLR concluded that lean and green implementations as stand-alone systems are usually not enough to ensure the required balance between the three pillars of sustainability, suggesting further combining them into a single approach. Researchers expect to achieve further improvements in the sustainability performance moving towards the next level of sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0122.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: green innovation; green organizational culture; sustainability; sustainability drivers
Online: 24 November 2016 (11:09:23 CET)
This study aims to examine Turkish companies from a sustainability and green innovation point of view. Through this purpose, this research’s objective is to find out relationship between sustainability drivers and green innovation and also to search for green organizational culture’s mediation effect in this relationship. Survey was carried in companies operating in Turkey which were listed among İstanbul Chamber of Industry (ICI) Top 500 companies for last 3 years successively and have ISO14001 Environmental Management Certificate. According to the survey results, it was manifested that factors directing companies to sustainability having a positive relationship with green organizational culture and green innovation. It is found that there is a partial mediation effect of green organizational culture between motivating factors for sustainability and green innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0074.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Green Dam; Green Walls; Desertification; Aleppo pine; Land degradation.
Online: 2 June 2021 (12:16:30 CEST)
Abstract: Green walls and green dams are increasingly being considered as part of many nation-al and international desertification initiatives. This paper studies the spatiotemporal evolution of the green dam in the Moudjbara region (Djelfa Province, Algeria) from 1972 to 2019 by using Landsat imagery, Land Change Modeler and Open Land package. The future evolution of pine plantations for the year 2029 was also forecasted, based on an anthropogenic scenario (i.e., an-thropogenic pressure is the main driver of the green dam destruction). Our findings revealed that the green dam project was successful for a few years, but after that, pine plantations deteri-orated significantly due to forest harvesting, livestock overgrazing, and the proliferation of the pine caterpillar processionary, which destroyed most of the reforestation. Land Change Modeler predicted a huge degradation of pine plantations for the year 2029, and if the deforestation con-tinues at the same rate, the green dam will disappear in the Moudjbara region during the next few decades. Aware of this threat, the Algerian authorities are now planning to reforest more than 1.2 million ha under the latest rural renewal policy by introducing new principles related to sustainable development, fighting desertification, and climate change adaptation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0036.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: carbon credits; green polyethylenes; Braskem; I’m green; BRKM5; patents
Online: 1 December 2020 (15:28:11 CET)
Braskem is the only company in the world that produces green polyethylenes (HDPE – high density polyethylene and LLDPE – linear low density polyethylene) derived from the dehydration of sugarcane ethanol. Although the performance of green and fossil nominally same polyethylenes are equivalent, commercial clients may use blends of up to 51% of green polyethylenes and 49% of fossil polyethylenes and still have the right to use the I’m greenTM label which appeals to environmental conscious consumers and places these companies in a noticeable position. The Annual Income Statement - AISs from 2010, when Braskem started production of green PE, until 2018, show there was growth of revenues. Despite of the production of polyethylenes have continued stable and the number of green polyethylenes patents have decreased since 2014, the profits with the BRKM5 stocks increased. There is no transparency of how carbon credits were gained and in the AIS. Investments in securities in the Brazilian financial market (BRKM5 and carbon credits) are much more attractive than the investment in new patents, because they generate greater gains (268% increase in the average share price of BRKM5 from 2012 to 2018) and do not require large investments in R&D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: European Green Deal; Recovery Plan; Green Jobs; Skills; Wellbeing Economics.
Online: 7 June 2021 (15:47:01 CEST)
This is a paper of Political Economy and Economic Policies into the European Green Deal framework to improve the Recovery Plan post-COVID-19. This paper is focused on the green jobs opportunity for Europe, especially for Spain. It is offered a systematization of concepts and calculations in the issue (attending the international institutions and forums proposals) to harmonize the recovery plans, to apply them beyond the energy sector and to align public and private sector, as well other key stakeholders in achieving this goal. The obtained outcome gives the creation of around 350.000 new green jobs and the necessity of a new workforce reskilled. This result makes necessary to coordinate sectoral plans by the policymakers in which all the involved entities might express their needs and views on the best education approach to renewables sector and green jobs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0080.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: algal oil; green chemistry; green solvents; extraction; biofuel; bio compound
Online: 8 November 2019 (03:16:06 CET)
The procedures for the extraction and separation of lipids and nutraceutics from microalgae using classic solvents have been used many times. However, these production methods usually require expensive and toxic solvents. Based on our studies involving the use of eco-sustainable methodologies and alternative solvents, we select ethanol (EtOH) and cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) for extracting bio-oil and lipids from algae. Different percentage of EtOH in CPME favors the production of an oil rich of SFA useful to production biofuel or rich of compounds bioactive. The proposed method for obtain a rich extract of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids from dry algal biomass is disclosed is eco-friendly and allows a good extraction yield. The method is compared both in extracted oil percentage yield and in extracted fatty acids selectivity to extraction by supercritical carbon dioxide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0152.v1
Online: 10 February 2022 (12:10:52 CET)
A microwave assisted method for synthesis of 2-substituted benzimidazoles has been developed. The combination of molar ratio N-phenyl-o-phenylenediamine:benzaldehyde (1:1) using microwave irradiation and only 1% mol of Er(OTf)3 provide an efficient, environmental and mild access to a diversity of benzimidazoles under solvent-free conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0298.v1
Online: 13 August 2020 (10:22:24 CEST)
Green development ensures the socioeconomic development that incorporates environmental issues while remaining economically viable for owners and tenants. Government as the authority of the state should provide favorable incentives, policy and regulatory pressure for green development. The present study aims to investigate the government policies and regulations for green development in Bangladesh and make a critical discussion of the initiatives. The study is descriptive in nature and collects secondary information. Evidence suggests that environmental degradation and climate change related risks and vulnerabilities have intensified in Bangladesh. The government of Bangladesh (GOB) is concerned about green development and formulates various Acts, regulations and policy initiatives since 2010. Major green development initiatives observed in the financial institutions due to the mandatory requirements by Bangladesh Bank but green bond and green insurance in capital market are yet to be developed. The GOB required taking proper policy initiatives for the garments and leather industries to ensure pollution free production system which ensures green trade initiatives. The environmental taxes and ecological compensation mechanisms should be revised. Urban green space and Government green procurement are still less concerning matter. The GOB should make effective collaboration with all related stakeholders to ensure the green development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0207.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Green Initiatives; Economic Growth; Social Development; Green Economic Development Plan; Financial Performance
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:25:02 CET)
This study was conducted to propose the Green Economic Development Plan for Manufacturing S.M.E.s based on financial performance and operations thru Green Initiatives. The descriptive survey method used to gather data to determine the green initiative's implementation of small and medium (S.M.E.s) manufacturing enterprises. Green initiatives use as a basis for crafting a green economic development plan. Document analysis was also employed to obtain data from any available printed materials and records provided by the respondents. Such methods of gathering information used to validate data gathered from local and foreign-related literature. The observation also employed to survey the assets owned and validate any green initiatives practiced, including their implementation. The study's findings show that among the green initiatives implemented by SMMEs, which resulted in the reduction of total costs and expenses, were the proper disposal and segregation of waste materials, water management by recycling wastewater and using water-efficient equipment, natural resources, and raw materials management. SMMEs should encourage active participation and support of suppliers and customers in achieving G.E.D.'s objectives by developing incentive schemes.Furthermore, SMMEs should continue to benchmark with G.E.D. Practitioners are operating locally and abroad to adopt best greening strategies and regularly network with concerned government agencies for continuous updating on G.E.D. Initiatives that may benefit the firm. Further research may be conducted on green initiatives implemented by small and medium enterprises in other industry sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0130.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: blue-green infrastracture; nature-based solutions; urban green spaces; invasive trees; trampling
Online: 11 August 2019 (11:24:47 CEST)
Public access to high quality green environments has become a key issue for city managers and a matter of environmental justice. Remnants of natural ecosystems allow citizens a direct contact with nature, but conversely the presence of people contributes further to the existing disturbances. Urban pressures on ecosystem remnants may act to favour the expansion of some invasive species in cities. Whilst the negative impacts of invasive species on ecosystem function is well documented little is known how invasive species influence the use of green spaces by people. Here, we examined one of the few remnants of urban riparian forests in Europe, the Vistula river valley in Warsaw which has recently become an attractive recreation site. Despite their high ecological value, the poplar and willow forests have been increasingly taken over by the invasive tree species Acer negundo. We examined the status of the invasion process and the relationship between recreational ecosystem services and the characteristics of the tree stands – tree species, tree density and age and NDVI values. We found the willow forest to be more susceptible to invasion by A. negundo than the poplar forest, which was revealed in significantly higher share of the maple individuals and their greater volume per unit area. Presence of A. negundo affected biodiversity resulting in decreased undergrowth density and number of species. The use intensity by the public, assessed on the basis of trampling intensity and the density of existing informal tracks, were negatively correlated to the presence of A. negundo. This study highlights the need to integrate invasive species management into green infrastructure planning and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0002.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Green ICT; Sustainability; Green ICT maturity model; Sustainable ICT maturity model; SME;
Online: 1 September 2018 (13:45:28 CEST)
Green ICT has received significant attention in organizations to reduce global warming since last decade. Several maturity models have been proposed for tracking green ICT practices in organizations. Current literature shows that SMEs around the world try to follow some common strategies such as virtualization, consolidation of devices, energy efficiency and disposal of ICT equipment for greening ICT. The increasing interest for green ICT practices in organizations is not only due to the desire to attain environment-friendly atmosphere but mainly because of sustaining business goals such as cost reduction, competitive advantages and stakeholders’ pressure. Nevertheless, due to the lack of green ICT knowledge, organizations, specially SMEs, tend to ignore those practices. Therefore, this research proposes a framework that provides combination of existing green and sustainable ICT maturity models by mapping them with the strategies the businesses are already following. Out of this framework, a web application has been developed that provides questionnaire for SMEs to identify their present situation of green ICT practices and guidelines for improvement. The results have been analyzed by testing the application in some SMEs of Finland and Bangladesh. Finally, a survey has been conducted to attain SMEs’ perception about the possibility of sustainable development of businesses through this application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0074.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: solar energy; solar green roof; energy transition; biosolar roof; green roof; air pollution
Online: 7 February 2019 (13:02:10 CET)
Solar green roofs, namely rooftops functionalized with properly selected living vegetation and photovoltaic modules, achieve an ideal symbiotic relationship in which promotion of biodiversity and onsite renewable energy production are both enhanced whereas the roof provides a wide range of environmental, health, aesthetic and economic benefits. This study provides a unified outlook of this eminent sustainable technology at the dawn of its uptake across the world, especially in polluted urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0071.v1
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:35:42 CET)
The paper is an investigation on the impact of financial markets on the volatility of green bonds credit risk component, measured by the option-adjusted spread/swap curve (OAS) of the Global Bloomberg Barclays MSCI Green Bond Index, for both the non and pandemic periods. For these purpose, after observing the dynamic joint correlations between all the variables through a DCC-GARCH, we adopt GARCH(1,1) and EGARCH(1,1) models, putting the OAS as dependent variable. Our main results show that the conditional variance parameters are significant and persistent in both times, testifying the overall impact of the other markets on the OAS. In more detail, we highlight that the gamma in the two EGARCH models is positive: so the “green” credit risk volatility is more sensitive to positive shocks than negative ones. With reference to the conditional mean, we note that if during the non pandemic time only the stock market is significant, during the pandemic also conventional bonds and gold are impacting. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that analyzes the specific credit risk component of green bond yields: we deem our findings useful to observe the change of green bonds creditworthiness in a complex market context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: green credit policy; heavily polluted industries; green innovation efficiency; financing cost; R&D investment
Online: 9 August 2021 (15:02:50 CEST)
Green credit policy as an important tool to guide China's sustainable economic development, how to effectively play the function of capital deployment and improve the efficiency of industrial green innovation is an important issue facing the construction of ecological civilization. This paper uses China's Green Credit Guideline introduced in 2012 as a quasi-natural experiment , based on relevant panel data of industries from 2007 to 2018, uses the Super-SBM model including non-expected output to measure the green innovation efficiency of 35 industries in China, and constructs the PSM-DID model to explore how green credit policy impact on the green innovation efficiency of heavily polluted industries, the results show that : green credit policy significantly contributes to green innovation efficiency of heavily polluted industries with a lag. Further study finds that green credit policy pushes heavily polluted industries to improve green innovation efficiency by increasing financing cost and R&D investment; meanwhile, the heterogeneity test shows that the higher the state-owned share of industry, the greater the promoted effect of green credit policy on green innovation efficiency of heavily polluted industries. Finally, in order to accelerate the implementation of green credit policy and promote the green innovation efficiency of heavily polluted industries, relevant countermeasures are proposed from three aspects: banks, enterprises and government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0415.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Economics; SFC; Growth imperative; Steady state economy; Money stock; Money supply; Green economy; Green Growth
Online: 2 July 2021 (13:51:03 CEST)
“Money has always been something of an embarrassment to economic theory. Everyone agrees that it is important; indeed, much of macroeconomic policy discussion makes no sense without reference to money. Yet, for the most part theory fails to provide a good account for it.” (Banerjee and Maskin, 1996, p. 955)The debate about whether or not a growth imperative exists in debt based, interest bearing mone- tary systems has not yet been settled. It is the goal of this paper to introduce a new perspective in this discussion.For that purpose an SFC computational model is constructed which simulates a post Keynesian Endogenous Money system without including economic parameters such as production, wages, consumption and savings. A case is made that isolating the monetary system allows for better analysis of the inherent properties of such a system.Loan demands, which are assumed to happen, are the driving force of the model. Simulations can be run in two modes, each based on a different assumption. Either the growth rate of the money stock is assumed to be constant or the loan rate, expressed as a percentage of the money stock, is assumed to be constant.Simulations with varying parameters are run in order to determine the conditions under which the model converges to stability, which is defined as converging to a bounded debt rate.The analysis shows that stability of the model is dependent on net bank profit ratios, expressed relative to their debt assets, remaining below the growth rate of the money stock. Based on these findings it is argued that the question about the existence of a growth imperative in debt based, interest bearing monetary systems needs to be reframed. The question becomes whether a steady state economy can realistically support such a system without destabilising it. In order to answer this question real world behavior of economic actors must be included in the model.It is concluded that there are indications that it might not be feasible for a steady state economy to support a stable debt based, interest bearing monetary system without strong interventions. However, more research is necessary for a definite answer. Real world observable data should be analysed through the lens of the presented model to bring more clarity.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Green roof; Sheet metal; Thermal insulation
Online: 15 March 2021 (11:28:53 CET)
The purpose of this study was to arrange a green roof on a sheet metal house to achieve winter heat preservation and summer thermal insulation using different plants and soil media, and to maintain the advantage of cost-saving and quick installation of sheet metal houses. In terms of the research method, the roof insulation, heat preservation and plant growth index were tested. Plants were grown in 10 container-type green roofs on the sheet metal house roof, and the physical environment of the building was monitored for one year. Five containers of commercially-available culture soil and five containers of sustainable composite were used as the media for growing five kinds of plants, respectively. The control group only had a sheet metal house roof. There were 11 experimental modules for testing whether the green roofs had thermal insulation, heat preservation and plant growth effects on a general sheet metal house. The results showed that, regarding the thermal insulation benefit assessment, the Sedum acre cv. robustum of green roof Groups B to D caused the temperature to be 38.29°C lower than the surface of the simple sheet metal house roof in August, showing a temperature difference of 54%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Obesity; Garcinia cambogia; Green Coffee; Pakistan
Online: 21 October 2020 (16:52:38 CEST)
Introduction: Various studies have widely documented how weight (being overweight, underweight or obese) plays a significant role in increasing health problems and adversely affects the quality of life. Out of all the weight-related issues, obesity is the number one contributing factor for causing health problems. To overcome this factor, a trial was conducted where a drug 'Lite plus’ (Garcinia Cambogia and Green Coffee bean) was given to a select number of people for a period of three months. Materials and Methods: 'Lite Plus' is a drug which contains Garcinia cambogia 500 mg + Green Coffee Bean Extract 400 mg, with a recommended dosage of 2 tablets/day with or before meals for 3 months. Most of the patients included in our study were females suffering from obesity-related problems such as PCOs and Infertility. During the trial, all patients were given the recommended dosage of 'Lite plus', while those with diabetes had the dose amended accordingly. Results: As a result of this trial, it was found that the use of 'Lite Plus' was very effective in decreasing weight/BMI with continuous use. After 6 weeks, out of the 250 respondents participating in the trial, 232 got a reduction in their BMI, and after 12 weeks (end of the trial), 29 respondents (11.6%) reached the desired level of BMI. Conclusion: Garcinia cambogia and Green Coffee bean are effective and safe in weight reduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0171.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: adaptation; climate change; green economy; agriculture
Online: 15 April 2019 (12:30:46 CEST)
An opinion dependent cross sectional survey was conducted among charland peoples of Noakhali, Bangladesh with a view to identify the factors that affect green economy. Nijhumdwip Island and Tamaruddi union are highly affected by cyclone and soil salinity. Unpredictable rainfall is the most acute in Nijhumdwip. Lack of information the main problem in Nijhumdwip Island. Farmers are found less interest in integrated farming and crop diversification. Few farmers from Sonadia Union are involved in homestead gardening. Regression analysis have shown a negative relationship (p<0.001) between education of stockholders and decrease of crop production. On the other hand education level of stockholders is to be found positively (p<0.05) varied with decrease of food insecurity. So it can be said that educated farmers are more adaptive against climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0312.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: green business models; decarbonization; SMEs; Size
Online: 23 May 2018 (05:36:46 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to analyze how Green Business Models (BMs) established by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) can incorporate product and process decarbonization in their components (value proposition, creation and capture) and to what extent this incorporation is affected by SME size. We use a database comprising 1,161 observations of SMEs, 466 in 2014 and 695 in 2016. The results show that SMEs’ value propositions give an intermediate valuation to both legally required and voluntary reduction of environmental impact, irrespective of SME size and the year analyzed. Regarding value creation, SMEs adopt practically no environmental practices, and there are significant differences according to size, with more difficulties than advantages stemming from small size. The study also shows that such environmental practices are not effective in reducing carbon. This diagnosis indicates that SMEs need help from the administration if they are to play a key role in the process of transformation toward a low-carbon economy. Legislative actions involving harsher environmental protection measures might help shape value propositions that place greater importance on reducing environmental impact, whereas training actions on available environmental techniques, promotion of research on how to adapt such techniques to SMEs and the development of specific practices for SMEs might enhance environmental value creation and capture in their BMs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0144.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Green Space; NDVI; Per Capita; Urbanization
Online: 29 December 2016 (16:04:18 CET)
Green spaces take part a vital role in reducing the harmful effects occurred through the process of rapid urbanization. This study focuses on evaluating the change of green space and per capita green space in Colombo District, Sri Lanka in between 2008 and 2015 using Landsat images. The NDVI differencing method and classification method were used to detect the change of land cover. According to the results, a gradual decline of green space from 629.1km2 to 591.16km2 with a rate of 6.03% can be depicted. The change is considerable in Kaduwela, Moratuwa and Maharagama DSDs and quite better in the areas such as Avissawella, Homagama and Padukka. The per capita green space has been decreased from 272.361 m2 to 248.811 m2. Though these rates are very well higher than the UN, EU and WHO standards for the district, Colombo DSD do not comply with UN and EU standards. The case would turn into worst in 2025, as the predictions with current rates. Therefore, the study recommends taking immediate actions to make a greener city. Further, a tax system is proposed to get the attraction of the general public.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0167.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: green hotel; environmental awareness; environmental knowledge
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:12:57 CEST)
There has been a growing awareness of the need to implement environmentally friendly operations in the hotel industry, but most studies focus on guest behaviors. Only a few studies investigate employees’ willingness to comply with hotels’ green practices. This study seeks to further the investigation from the human resource perspective. Using alumni from a tourism and hospitality programs, this study collected 233 responses. The study hypothesizes that the employees’ green ability consisting of environmental awareness, environmental knowledge, and environmental skill creates a positive impact on hotels’ green ability. The results indicate that employees contribute approximately a fifth of hotels’ ability to implement greener practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0243.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Political Economy; Economic Policies; European Green Deal; Recovery Plan; Green Jobs; Wellbeing Economics; Tourism & Hospitality Sector
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:20:01 CEST)
This is a paper on Political Economic and Economic Policies into the European Green Deal framework and the Spanish recovery plan, with special attention to the tourism sector. First, there is a literature review, combining the scientific production with professional and institutional literature, to understand the topic development, from the former restrictive point to the current view at large. Second, it is offered a case study about the green jobs opportunity, according to wellbeing economics, for the Spanish tourism sector renewal. The paper provides valuable information to improve sectorial recovery plan, to coordinate the policymakers and the business managers and entrepreneurs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0066.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chitin; chitosan; cosmetics; biodegradability; biomaterials; polysaccharides; green technology; marine cosmetic ingredients; marine green source; marine resources
Online: 6 May 2019 (12:37:44 CEST)
Huge amounts of chitin and chitosans can be found in the biosphere as important constituent of the exoskeleton of many organisms, as well as waste by worldwide seafood companies. Nowadays, politicians, environmentalists, and industrialists encouraged the use of these marine polysaccharides as renewable source, particularly when developed by alternative eco-friendly processes, especially in the production of regular cosmetics. The aim of this review is to outline the physicochemical and biological properties and the different bioextraction methods of chitin and chitosans sources, focusing on enzymatic deproteinization, bacteria fermentation, and enzymatic deacetylation methods. Thanks to their biodegradability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and bioactivity, the application of these marine polymers is widely used in the contemporary manufacturing of biomedical and pharmaceutical products. In the end, advanced cosmetic products based on chitin and chitosans are presented, analyzing different therapeutic aspects about skin, hair, nail, and oral care. The innovative formulations described can be considered as excellent solutions regarding problems in the various body anatomical sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0232.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: green entrepreneurial orientation; supply chain learning; green innovation entrepreneurship; inter-organizational learning; learning capacity; technology innovation
Online: 16 May 2018 (11:09:08 CEST)
As a combination of both concepts of innovation and environmental development, green innovation is of great significance to the sustainable development of the country and industry. Previous literatures have found the separate roles of green entrepreneurial orientation and inter-organizational learning in understanding green innovation issues. However, few studies have done a comprehensive analysis of integrating three streams of research: green entrepreneurial orientation, green innovation and supply chain learning capability. Based on the resource-based view and dynamic capability theory, we examine the direct of green entrepreneurial orientation on green innovation as well as indirect effect through the mediation of supply chain learning capability. Meanwhile, an empirical data set of 228 manufacturing companies in China (Shaanxi, Guangdong, Hebei, Jiangsu, and Shandong) was used to test our hypotheses. Findings from our empirical study suggest that supply chain learning capability partially mediates the positive relationships between green entrepreneurial orientation and its two consequences—green incremental innovation and green radical innovation. In addition, this research implies that when enterprise has a strong green entrepreneurial orientation, the enterprise should make an effort to enhance the level of supply chain learning capability so as to fully develop their green innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0013.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: green infrastructure; riparian restoration; green corridor; drainageway; urban valley; stormwater management; flooding; arid landscape; sustainability; urban ecosystem
Online: 3 September 2018 (07:57:32 CEST)
This paper describes the feasibility and probable benefits associated with greening the Tahliah Channel, a concrete drainage channel that was originally built to relieve urban flooding in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. It includes an estimation of irrigation needs for channel greening based on a standardized planting specification. The study also demonstrates alternative strategies for meeting the required irrigation demand, including water harvesting and graywater reuse on a residential scale. The study shows that greening Tahliah Channel is possible relying mainly on graywater reuse from the surrounding buildings. Also, the study shows that rainwater harvesting is not a reliable source for irrigation. Rather, it can cover only part of the irrigation needs (6%) and so can be used as a secondary supporting source. The positive results of this case study will be of interest to those in arid countries who are looking to upgrade and replace traditional, single function drainage infrastructure with more sustainable, green infrastructure systems. More specifically, the objectives of the study are consistent with the goals of the Saudi government’s ongoing initiative that advocates for more resilient and sustainable cities. (Vision 2030 year).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0098.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Green Infrastructures; Slow Tourism; Rural Tourism; Bioregion
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:55:00 CET)
In European countries many measures are carried out to improve the disadvantaged conditions and socio-economic marginality of rural areas in comparison with central places. These conditions also affect the quality of travel for visitors and tourists. Therefore, in response to a 'new' tourist demand, motivated also by the restrictions following the spread of the Covid-19 virus in recent years, the institutions and the different local actors are working more incisively to improve rural areas. The rural tourism services offer, combined with the Green Infrastructure (GI) project, at different scales - from local to regional - prove to be interesting territorial development strategies to achieve the Agenda 2030 objectives. This contribution considers the Sulcis Iglesiente - Guspinese area, in the Sardinia Region (IT), as a case study. In this area, the landscape context is marked by past mining activity and the project of a path of historical, cultural and religious values has proved to be an activator of regenerative processes, in environmental, social and economic terms. The present study proposes a methodological approach to develop an index (FI - Feasibility Index) to assess the feasibility of the Stop Places (SPs) schemes along a horse trail to integrate the current slow mobility by bicycle and pedestrian in the bioregion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0009.v1
Online: 1 December 2022 (04:00:13 CET)
Glyphosate (GLYP) is a broad-spectrum, non-selective, organic phosphine post emergence herbicide registered for use on many food and non-food field. Herein, we developed a biosensor (Mbs@dsDNA) based on carboxylated modified magnetic beads incubated with NH2-polyA and then hybridized with polyT-glyphosate aptamer and complementary DNA. Afterward, a quantitative detection method based on qPCR was established. When the glyphosate aptamer on Mbs@dsDNA specifically recognized glyphosate, a complementary DNA is released and then enters the qPCR signal amplification process. The linear range of the method was 0.1-5 μg/mL, and the detection limit was set at 0.1 μg/mL. The recoveries in tap water were ranged from 103.4 ~ 104.9%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were < 1%. The aptamer proposed in this study has a good potential for recognizing glyphosate. The detection method combined with qPCR might have a good application prospect in detecting and supervising other pesticide residues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0400.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke; green mass; tubers; feed value
Online: 24 December 2021 (10:58:03 CET)
Being a valuable source of inulin, fructose and pectin, Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is one of the most promising bioenergy crops for common usage. Animals have been reported to eat both Jerusalem artichoke green mass and tubers with pleasure. On the one hand, Jerusalem artichoke is cultivated on the area of about 3 thousand hectares in Russia. On the other hand, there are more than 200 crop species. So it is critical to choose a proper variety suitable both for soil and climatic conditions. The purpose of the research is to study Jerusalem artichoke, taking into account varietal characteristics appropriate for forage production. Research objects – varieties of Jerusalem artichoke: early ripening Skorospelka (RF); mid-early Vylgortskiy (RF); mid-season Dieticheskiy (RF), Kaluzhskiy (RF), Korenevskiy (RF), Nadezhda (RF), Nakhodka (RF), Podmoskovniy (RF), Sireniki (RB), Blank Brekos (France), Violet de Rense (France); late ripening Interest (RF), Interest 21 (RF), Novosti VIRa (RF), Tadzhikskiy Krasniy (USSR), Spindle (Germany). The soil for evaluating Jerusalem artichoke varieties was from experimental plot base "Korenevo". It is characterized as sod-slightly podzolic sandy loam. The field trial was established and the records and observations were carried out in accordance with the requirements of the field experiment methodology (1985), and the Program and methodology for evaluating Jerusalem artichoke varieties in test nurseries (2014). The varieties Vylgortskiy, Dieticheskiy, Nadezhda, Nakhodka, Sireniki, Skorospelka, Blank Brekos and Kaluzhskiy were found to reach due height of 155 - 170 cm at the end of the growing season; the varieties Podmoskovniy, Interest reached proper height of 175 - 208 cm; the varieties Interest 21, Tadzhikskiy and Violet de Rense were about 220 - 235 cm in hight; as for the varieties Korenevskiy, Novost VIRa, Spindlу their hight was 270 - 280 cm. According to aggregate amount of feed units per 1 ha, the following varieties have been shown to be the most reasonable for fodder production: Novost VIRa (22,438 fodder units), Nadezhda (19,928 fodder units), Korenevskiy (17,798 fodder units), Shpindle (16,887 fodder units), Dieticheskiy (16,395 fodder units), and Interest (16,116 fodder units). The highest total coefficient of energy efficiency has been found in the following varieties: Novost VIRa – 3.09, Tadzhikskiy – 2.78; Spindle – 2.68; Korenevskiy – 2.43; Interest – 2.10; Skorospelka – 1.98. The results of experimental and theoretical studies obtained were verified on-the-farm conditions based on a seed-speciality farm LLC Kaluga-Agro (the Kaluga region) and demonstrated beneficial effect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0216.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: antivirals; green chemistry; selectivity; asymmetric synthesis; organocatalysis
Online: 14 October 2021 (11:05:51 CEST)
Viral infections inflict many serious human diseases, being responsible for remarkably high mortality rates. In this sense, both the academy and the pharmaceutical industry are continuously searching for new compounds with antiviral activity, and in addition, face the challenge of developing greener and more efficient methods to synthesize these compounds. This becomes even more important with drugs possessing stereogenic centers as highly enantioselective processes are required. In this minireview, the advances achieved to improve synthetic routes efficiency and sustainability of important commercially antiviral chiral drugs are discussed, highlighting the use of organocatalytic methods.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bee pollen; nanofiber; biomaterial; green production; electrospinning
Online: 7 May 2021 (15:37:46 CEST)
Green electrospun materials are gaining popularity in the quest for a more sustainable environment for human life. Bee pollen (BP) is a valuable apitherapeutic product, and has many beneficial features such as, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Alginate is a natural and low-cost polymer. Both natural materials show good compatibility with human tissues for biomedical applications and have no toxic effect on the environment. In this study, bee pollen-loaded sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (SA/PVA) nanofibrous mats were fabricated by the electrospinning technique. The green electrospun nanofibrous mats were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). According to the findings of the study, the toxin-free electrospinning method is suitable for producing green nanomaterial. Because of the useful properties of the bee pollen and the favorable biocompatibility of the alginate fibers, the bee pollen-loaded SA/PVA electrospun mats have the potential for use in a variety of biomedical applications
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0304.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Cypermethrin; green chemistry; photocatalysis; sunlight; flat plate
Online: 26 July 2019 (17:37:11 CEST)
In this research, the photocatalytic degradation of cypermethrin using Fe-TiO2 nanoparticles supported in a biomaterial was evaluated. The nanoparticles of TiO2 were synthesized by the green chemistry method assisted by ultrasound and doped by chemical impregnation using molar ratios Fe:Ti of 0, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1, to make efficient use of direct sunlight (λ>310 nm). All nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of spathe of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). The degradation was carried out at room temperature and natural pH in a flat plate solar reactor, on which the composite material was subjected. The concentration of cypermethrin was determined after 12000 J/m2 of accumulated radiation from GC-MS and the resulting material was characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectrophotometry of diffuse reflectance and BET surface area BET surface area. The best results were achieved with the use of Degussa TiO2 P-25, Fe:Ti=0 and Fe:Ti=0.05 in suspension, with percentages of degradation of cypermethrin of 99.84, 99.62, and 100%, respectively. However, the materials supported on the biomaterial of coconut, they allowed to reach degradation percentages higher than 80% with the advantage that it minimizes operating costs, since they are not necessary filtering or centrifuging processes to separate the catalyst.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0282.v1
Online: 16 September 2018 (10:02:14 CEST)
Background. Nanotechnology is promising field for generating new applications. A green synthesis of nanoparticles through biological methods using plant extract have a reliable and ecofriendly approach to improve our global environment. Methods. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using aqueous extract of Anagalis arvensis L and silver nitrate and were physicochemically characterized. Results. The stability of AgNPs toward acidity, alkalinity, salinity and temperature showed that they remained stable at room temperature for more than two months. The SEM and TEM analysis of the AgNPs showed that they have a uniform spherical shape with an average size in the range of 40–78 nm. Further 1-Dibhenyl-2-Picrylhydrazl radical in Anagalis arvensis L.mediated AgNPs showed a maximum activity of 98% at concentration of 200μg/mL. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay in Anagalis arvensis L. mediated AgNPs showed a maximum activity of 85% at concentration of 200μg/mL. Reducing power of Anagalis arvensis L.Ag NPs exhibited a higher activity of 330 μg/mL at concentration of 200 μg/mL. These NPs have cytotoxic effects against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii with a value of 53% LD 178.04μg/mL. Conclusion. The AgNPs synthesized using Anagalis arvensis L. extract demonstrate a broad range of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0043.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: DPSIR model; green mine; principal component analysis
Online: 8 June 2017 (16:29:56 CEST)
Strategic researches on green mine construction are of great theoretical and practical significance to the sustainable development of China's mining industry as well as the great-leap-forward development strategies of China. Strategies of green mine construction in China are methods summarized to solve all potential problems from mine production to ecological restoration. At present, strategies of green mine construction in China are not fully evaluated and studied yet. Therefore, on the basis of green mine construction related literatures carried out by researchers in China and abroad, this study took the green mine of Yongcheng City in China as the research object to evaluate the current situation of green mine construction in Yongcheng City and put forward corresponding countermeasures. First of all, driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) model was introduced for the construction of evaluation index system; construction principles and selection methods of indexes and the index system based on driving force, pressure, state, impact and response were constructed. Secondly, principal component analysis (PCA) was adopted to calculate and evaluate data of green mine of Yongcheng City in recent years, and construction state of green mine in Yongcheng City was analyzed concretely according to the evaluation results. Empirical results showed that, the evaluation system constructed in this study was feasible, which could be applied to evaluate construction of green mine effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0224.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Thorium; speciation; toxicity; green algae; Chlorella pyrenoidosa
Online: 31 March 2017 (08:18:20 CEST)
Thorium (Th) is a natural radioactive element present in the environment and has a potential to be used as a nuclear fuel. Relatively little is known about the influence and toxicity of Th in the environment. In the present study, the toxicity of Th to the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. Pyrenoidosa) was evaluated by algal growth inhibition, biochemical assays and morphologic observations. In the cultural medium (OECD TG 201), Th(NO3)4 was transformed to amorphous precipitation of Th(OH)4 due to hydrolysis. Th was toxic to C. Pyrenoidosa, with a 96 h half maximum effective concentration (EC50) of 10.4 μM. Scanning electron microscopy shows that Th-containing aggregates were attached onto the surface of the algal cells, and transmission electron microscopy indicates the internalization of nano-sized Th precipitates and ultrastructural alterations of the algal cells. The heteroagglomeration between Th(OH)4 precipitation and alga cells and enhanced oxidative stress might play important roles in the toxicity of Th. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the toxicity of Th to algae with its chemical species in the exposure medium. This finding provides useful information on understanding the fate and toxicity of Th in the aquatic environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0275.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: biodiversity; human health; green space; urban green space; microbiome; urban microbiome; COVID-19; EcoHealth; planetary health; nature connectedness
Online: 19 October 2022 (09:55:39 CEST)
Mounting evidence supports the connections between exposure to environment types––such as green spaces and biodiversity––and human health. However, the mechanistic links that connect biodiversity (the variety of life) and human health, plus the level of supporting evidence, are less clear. Here, we undertook a scoping review to map the links between biodiversity and human health and summarise the levels of associated evidence using an established weight of evidence framework. Distinct from other reviews, we provide additional context regarding the environment-microbiome-health axis, evaluate the environmental buffering pathway (e.g., biodiversity impacts on air pollution), and draw upon expert opinion to provide case studies on three underrepresented linkages. The case studies include (1) biodiversity and Indigenous Peoples’ health, (2) biodiversity and urban social equity, and (3) biodiversity and COVID-19. We observed a moderate level of evidence to support the environmental microbiota-human health pathway and a moderate-high level of evidence to support broader nature pathways (e.g., green space) to various health outcomes, from stress reduction to enhanced wellbeing and improved social cohesion. However, studies of broader nature pathways did not typically include specific biodiversity metrics, indicating clear research gaps. Further research is required to understand the connections and causative pathways between biodiversity (e.g., using metrics such as taxonomy, diversity/richness, structure, and function) and health outcomes. There are well-established frameworks to assess the effects of broad classifications of nature on human health. These can assist future research in linking biodiversity metrics to human health outcomes. Our case studies on underrepresented linkages highlight the roles of biodiversity and its loss on urban lived experiences, infectious diseases, and Indigenous Peoples’ sovereignty and livelihoods. More research and awareness of these socioecological interconnections are needed.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0560.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: MIGI; microbiome-inspired green infrastructure; microbiome; urban microbiome; nature-based intervention; biodiversity; greenspace; green infrastructure; multispecies urbanism; EcoHealth
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:01:13 CEST)
Background: Microbiome-Inspired Green Infrastructure (MIGI) was recently proposed as an integrative system to promote healthy urban ecosystems, through multidisciplinary design. Specifically, MIGI is defined as nature-centric infrastructure restored and/or designed and managed to enhance health-promoting interactions between humans and environmental microbiomes, whilst sustaining microbially-mediated ecosystem functionality and resilience. MIGI also aims to stimulate a research agenda that focuses on considerations for the importance of urban environmental microbiomes. Objectives: In this paper we provide details of what MIGI entails from a bioscience and biodesign perspective, highlighting the potential dual benefits for human and ecosystem health. We present ‘what is known’ about the relationship between urban microbiomes, green infrastructure and environmental factors that may affect urban ecosystem health (ecosystem functionality and resilience as well as human health). We discuss how to start operationalising the MIGI concept based on current available knowledge, and present a horizon scan of emerging and future considerations in research and practice. We conclude by highlighting challenges to the implementation of MIGI and propose a series of workshops to discuss multi-stakeholder needs and opportunities. Discussion: This article will enable urban landscape managers to incorporate initial considerations for the microbiome in their development projects to promote human and ecosystem health. However, overcoming the challenges to operationalising MIGI will be essential to furthering its practical development. Although the research is in its infancy, there is considerable potential for MIGI to help deliver sustainable urban development driven by considerations for reciprocal relations between humans and the foundations of our ecosystems –– the microorganisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0439.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: acetylcholine binding protein; acetylcholinesterase; green pesticide, molecular docking
Online: 26 August 2022 (03:21:21 CEST)
2-Methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one was prepared by reaction of anthranilic acid, acetic anhydride and ammonium acetate. The reaction of 2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one with N-aryl-2-chloroacetamides in acetone in the presence of potassium carbonate gave nine N-aryl-2-(2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)acetamide compounds. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HR-MS spectral data. These synthesized compounds containing the 2-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-one moiety exhibited excellent activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae with LC50 values in the range of 2.085-4.201 μg/mL after 72 h exposure. Interestingly, these compounds did not exhibit toxicity to the non-target organism Diplonychus rusticus. In silico molecular docking revealed acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to be potential molecular targets. These data indicated the larvicidal potential and environmental friendliness of these N-aryl-2-(2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)acetamide derivatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0088.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: ecological corridors; green infrastructure; protected areas; landscape components
Online: 7 May 2022 (03:21:34 CEST)
An important set of Ecosystem services (ES) provided by Green infrastructures (GI) consists of habitats and species protection and improvement, which coincides with biodiversity conservation and enhancement. From this perspective, one of the most outstanding features of GI is its attitude towards addressing the negative impacts of habitat fragmentation on the supply of ES related to biodiversity by strengthening the effectiveness of connections between protected areas. Building on a methodological approach defined in previous studies by Cannas, published in a set of articles between 2017 and 2018 [1–4], this study identifies ecological corridors (EC) with reference to the spatial layout of a set of protected areas. Moreover, such methodological approach is implemented into the context of the Sardinian region to map EC, which form, together with protected areas, a network representing the spatial framework of a regional GI. Finally, the relation between the EC and the spatial taxonomy of the landscape components featured by environmental relevance (LCFER), identified by the Regional Landscape Plan is analyzed, in order to assess if, and to what extent, the present regional spatial zoning code can be used as a basis to implement regulations aimed at protecting EC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0486.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Pectin; Food hydrocolloid; Green extraction; Heteropolysaccharide; Citrus; Bioeconomy
Online: 25 November 2021 (16:09:20 CET)
From new understanding of pectin molecular structure and physiological effects on man up to new production methods and new applications, significant new knowledge of pectin has emerged in the last two decades (2010-2020). These developments open the route to new and unexpected applications of this uniquely complex heteropolysaccharide ubiquitous in plants and fruits well beyond its traditional use as food hydrocolloid. This study provides a unified perspective on the new science and technology of pectin. Furthermore, we offer an insight into forthcoming pectin uses from an expanded perspective taking into account selected technology and economic factors that, we argue in this study, will shortly impact the pectin production and uptake in many countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0451.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: AnchoisFert; Fish waste; Green extraction; Limonene; Organic fertilizer
Online: 24 November 2021 (10:32:23 CET)
Is the production of the “AnchoisFert” organic fertilizer via the circular economy process based on omega-3 lipid extraction of milled anchovy fillet leftovers with citrus limonene followed by mild drying economically and technically viable? This study answers this question and identifies the main obstacles, chiefly of economic and organizational nature, to be overcome prior to commercialization of this new organic fertilizer. Along with non-variable and proven efficacy, successful competition with conventional organic and inorganic fertilizers requires affordable cost and regular supply. This, inter alia, requires to establish new and mutually beneficial relationship between bioeconomy firms and fish processing companies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0350.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Heterocycles; Coumarins; Dihyfropyrimidinones; Imidazoles; Isoxazoles; Benzimidazoles; Green Chemistry
Online: 14 June 2021 (10:39:56 CEST)
Heterocycles are unique precursors for the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals particularly those possessing N- or O- moieties. The development of methods to prepare heterocycles is of great importance in synthesis of organic compounds, especially the heterocycles which can be found in natural products. The synthesis of nitrogen and oxygen containing heterocycles viz. coumarins, dihydropyrimidinones, imidazoles, isoxazoles and benzimidazoles represented an attractive and demanding work for chemists as these nucleus has found extensive applications in several fields such as material science, analytical chemistry and most importantly in medicinal chemistry. Organic synthesis has been attracted towards the development of new environmental friendly procedures to achieve the goals of green chemistry. The fundamental aspects of green chemistry are use of biocatalysts and environmental benign solvents under mild conditions. The present review article summarized the green synthetic methods and biological activities of nitrogen and oxygen containing heterocycles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0469.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Environmental Entrepreneurship; Poverty alleviation; Green Entrepreneurship; Economic growth
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:55:06 CEST)
World Economy today depends on business investments that are propelled by Green technology, innovations and entrepreneurial activities. In recent years, developing economies in Asia, Africa and Latin America have embarked on easy capital access to Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to facilitate their economic growth. Kenya is among the Middle Level Income Countries that have gained global recognition through entrepreneurial innovations. In this study we assess the role of entrepreneurship towards poverty alleviation in Kenya. The objectives of the study were: to evaluate the role of entrepreneurship in poverty alleviation in Kenya; to identify entrepreneurship innovations and their economic contribution in Kenya and to determine the significance of entrepreneurship to Kenyan economy. Methodology of study took a parametric approach through pure desktop studies on entrepreneurship cases in Kenya. Success case studies of entrepreneurial innovations like M-pesa, M-soko and Uwezo Fund initiatives were assessed. The paper notes that activities undertaken in each of these case studies have made great contributions to poverty alleviation and economic development in both urban and rural areas of Kenya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0341.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: cyanide attenuation, waste water, light irradiation, green chemistry
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:27:45 CEST)
Cyanides, though naturally occurring, are environmental pollutants when not treated properly. Some methods used to attenuate cyanides in waste waters from industrial processes are based simply on changing the physico-chemical properties of the waste water such as the pH and temperature. The effectiveness of these methods are based on hydrolysis of the cyanide and volatilization of the hydrogen cyanide formed. Another reaction which takes place simultaneously is ultraviolet-catalysed oxidation which converts the cyanide to bicarbonates and carbonates.The changes in the cyanide degradation rate approaches a minimum faster if the cyanide solution is maintained at a higher than ambient constant temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0208.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Blockchain; SDGs; Innovation; COVID-19; Green Recovery; Scorecard
Online: 8 March 2021 (10:02:42 CET)
As the world is striving to recover from the shockwaves triggered by the Covid-19 crisis, all hands are needed on deck to transition towards a green recovery and make peace with nature as prerequisites of a global sustainable development pathway. In this paper, we examine the blockchain hype and the gaps in data and tools to build promising use cases for blockchain technology to accelerate global efforts in the decade of action towards achieving the SDGs. We attempted to break the hype-cycle portraying blockchain’s superiority by navigating a rational blockchain use case development approach. By prototyping an SDG Acceleration Scorecard to use blockchain-enabled solutions as SDG accelerators, we aim to provide useful insights towards developing an integrated approach that is fit-for-purpose to guide organizations and practitioners in their quest to make informed decisions to design and implement blockchain-backed solutions as SDG accelerators. Acknowledging the limitations in prototyping such tools, we believe these are minimally viable products and should be considered as living tools that can further evolve as the blockchain technology is getting mature, its pace of adoption increasing, and its lessons learned, good practices and standards widely shared and internalized by teams and organizations working on innovation for development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0390.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: fragmentation; Green Infrastructure; ecosystem; edge effect; spatial planning
Online: 15 December 2020 (16:00:29 CET)
This paper discusses Green Infrastructure, which can be considered a useful tool in the process of ensuring the sustainable development of urban structures in the Carpathian region. It allows for achieving a better quality of the environment of human life and healthy wildlife linkages. The element that supports defining information about the existing state of Green Infrastructure and its resources is the Green Infrastructure fragmentation coefficient based on edge effect calculations, which is the relation between the edge of the patch (circumference) to its surface area [1, 2]. With the use of model analysis of Green Infrastructure, it is possible to implement the provisions of the Carpathian Convention and coordinate planning documents that facilitate the sustainable development of spatial structures. Our study on the state of Green Infrastructure in rural areas of the Polish Carpathian Mountains is a source of knowledge about the quality of this area, its natural environment and fragmentation. Determining the territory’s Green Infrastructure fragmentation coefficient provides an opportunity for higher-precision studies and the detection of threats and integration of GI fragments and addressing proper solutions in conflict areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0538.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Green space; Arid; Diabetes; Hispanics; Built Environment; Biophilia
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:25:55 CET)
Evolutionary psychology theories propose that contact with green, natural environments may benefit physical health, but little comparable evidence exists for brown, natural environments, such as the desert. In this study, we examined the association between “brownness” and “greenness” with fasting glucose among young residents of El Paso, Texas. We defined brownness as the surface not covered by vegetation or impervious land within Euclidian buffers around participants’ homes. Fasting glucose along with demographic and behavioral data was obtained from the Nurse Engagement and Wellness Study (N = 517). We found that residential proximity to brownness was not associated with fasting glucose when modeled independently. In contrast, we found that residential greenness was associated with decreased levels of fasting glucose, despite the relatively low levels of greenness within the predominantly desert environment of El Paso. A difference between the top and bottom greenness exposure quartiles within a 250 m buffer was associated with a 3.5 mg/dL decrease in fasting glucose levels (95% confidence interval: -6.2, -0.8). Our results suggest that within the understudied context of the desert, green vegetation may be health-promoting to a degree that is similar to other, non-desert locations in the world that have higher baselines levels of green.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0374.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: natural cosmetics; organic cosmetics; green cosmetics; cosmetology; certification
Online: 27 May 2020 (05:02:20 CEST)
The market of natural and organic cosmetics has been growing in last decades. The increase in interest in this type of product is a consequence of the concern that consumers have been presenting in relation to the environment and health. In addition to the appreciation the use of sustainable ingredients in cosmetic formulations, the consumers are also concerned about pollution caused by the use of plastics, which leads industries to reinvent themselves and rethink about the composition of packaging. The factor that most drives the purchase of natural and organic cosmetics is the fact that the consumer, in addition to contributing to the preservation of the environment, is also using a sustainable product. The growing demand for natural and organic cosmetics results in a concern of the brands with the organic issue, with the decreased use of animal derived ingredients and with the updating the parameters required for certification of a cosmetic as natural or organic. Due to the few studies available in this area, the importance of clarifying the definitions and concepts of natural and organic cosmetics is evident, in order to contribute with accurate information for the cosmetic sector.
Online: 10 May 2020 (16:47:52 CEST)
The present article analyzes the integration of green building policy and practice with the largest low-income housing production program in the US and the innovativeness of its housing agencies. Drawing on policy innovation literature, panel data and regression analysis are employed to quantify associations between state-level characteristics and the adoption of green building criteria into the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program. Results show that, on average, housing agencies have increasingly adopted green building criteria, and most have identified co-benefits from energy-efficient buildings and smart growth. Despite overall progress, the rate of adoption of green building criteria has decreased, few states have comprehensive criteria, and many have dropped important criteria, such as on-site renewable energy generation. Results are consistent with hypotheses derived from the literature and suggest the integration of green building with LIHTC developments is significantly associated with government motivation, financial resources, and exogenous characteristics that affect the demand for green building. Future research should explore organization-level factors that affect environmental policy innovation. It is recommended that LIHTC housing agencies require compliance with green building rating systems and periodically reconfigure green building criteria based on planned evolutionary change, data-driven strategies, and life-cycle analyses towards zero net energy consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Green campus; Sunlight hour; Solar radiation; Building reconfiguration
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:27:13 CET)
Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) is implementing the concept of green campus by various means including through elements in its sustainable campus development plan. With regards to several factors related to Energy and Climate Change indicators set by UI GreenMetric, this research examined the existing condition of the area of UGM which belongs to academic zone in order to construct a proposal based on a building mass reconfiguration. This proposal was aimed to improve the implementation of energy-specific green campus concept within the Forestry cluster area as a sample case study. This selection was based on the average value of the Building Coverage Ratio (BCR) values in all of the clusters; thus, the scenario was relevant for generalization and could be replicated in other clusters in the university. The study was done in three stages of simulation, and was based on a series of digital simulation of sunlight hour and solar radiation run in Grasshopper using Lady Bug environmental analysis plug-in for a period of five summer months during the building office hours. Following the reconfiguration, results had shown a similar downtrend between the amount of sunlight hour and solar radiation in the area (up to 49% and 45% respectively on building envelopes, and up to 44% and 42% respectively on landscaping surfaces). This reduction indicated a potential of energy efficiency by applying selective building mass reconfiguration as a passive design strategy that goes hand in hand with the campus’s development policy to optimize the use of BCR for a greener UGM campus through its many undergoing and upcoming redevelopment projects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0364.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: 2019-nCoV; SARS-CoV; drought; bat; green light
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:31:47 CET)
The new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan has caused virus outbreaks in many provinces and cities in China, and several neighboring countries were also affected. In recent years, coronavirus several outbreaks around the world were reported, however researchers could not predict its onset. Coincidentally, the birthplace of another coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that causes serious public health problems is also in China. This review compares and analyzes the external environment, natural hosts, intermediate hosts, and susceptible populations when these two coronaviruses occurred. Based on the analysis results, we found that the 2019-nCov virus outbreak in Wuhan was not an accidental phenomenon, but a result of a combination of factors. At the same time, through the conclusions of these analyses, we will be able to get a glimpse of the trajectories of new coronaviruses and curb the virus outbreak in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0140.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: biomass; green chemistry; biopolymers; humins; epoxy resins; thermosets.
Online: 12 October 2019 (06:00:19 CEST)
The combination of eco-respectful epoxy compounds with the humins, a by-product of biomass chemical conversion technologies, allow the obtention of materials with high added value. In this work, we propose the chemical connection study of humins with two aliphatic diepoxides through the copolymerization reactions to synthesize sustainable bio-based thermosets. The mechanism insights for the crosslinking between the epoxides and humins was proposed considering the different functionalities of the humins structure. FT-IR spectroscopy, 1 D and 2 D NMR spectroscopy techniques were used to build the proposed mechanism. By these techniques, the principal chain connections and the reactivity of all the components were highlighted in the synthesized networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: supply chain architecture; green-field strategic engi-neering
Online: 10 April 2019 (08:49:58 CEST)
This paper developed a new theory for supply chain architecture, and engineering design that enables integration of the business and supply chain strategies. The architecture starts with individual supply chain participants and derives insights into the complex and abstract concept of green-field integration design. The paper presented a conceptual system for depicting the interactions between business and supply chain strategy engineering. The system examines the decisions made when engineering the business strategy, with regards to the supply chain design. The system derived with a new understanding of how strategies are integrated, and what are the implications for engineering successful strategies. The study revealed that supply chain design is not considered in great detail before architecting the business strategies. Thus, companies consequentially experience supply chain problems that are likely to be detrimental to the growth potentials. The paper also derived with the findings that proactive and pre-emptive involvement of supply chain participants in the strategy engineering process, would lead to a more robust strategic design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0259.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Green pesticides; Agricultural subsidies; Product certification; Laboratory experiment
Online: 27 February 2019 (15:08:30 CET)
This paper studies the impact of agricultural subsidies and product certification on the use rate of green pesticides based on experimental economics. We found that agricultural subsidies effectively increased the utilization rate of green pesticides. If the agricultural subsidies raised from 20% to 100%, the green pesticides’ using rate increased by 438.51%. We also found that product certification increased the utilization rate of green pesticides by 376.16%%.The increase of agricultural subsidies is more effective than the product certification. Under a higher proportion of agricultural subsidies, farmers’ behavior will maintain “status bias”. Therefore, there are three suggestions proposed. Firstly, because of high price of green pesticides and lower production, the subsidies for agricultural materials should raise greatly to effectively improve the utilization rate of green pesticides. It is recommended that green pesticide provided free of charge in some wealthy areas. Secondly, both subsidies and product certification can improve the use rate of green pesticides. However, since the effect of agricultural subsidies is better than product certification, and farmers may have status bias. Therefore, it is recommended to give priority to the substantial increase on the proportion of agricultural subsidies, and then to product certification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0175.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, flow chemistry, green chemistry, fine chemicals
Online: 17 January 2019 (08:37:02 CET)
Due to metal leaching and poor catalyst stability, the chemical industry’s fine chemical and pharmaceutical sectors have been historically reluctant to use supported transition metal catalysts to manufacture fine chemicals and active pharmaceutical ingredients. With the advent of new generation supported metal catalysts and flow chemistry, we argue in this study, this situation is poised to quickly change. Alongside heterogenized metal nanoparticles, both single-site molecular and single-atom catalyst will become ubiquitous. This study offers a critical outlook taking into account both technical and economic aspects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: benzotriazole; biofilter; bioretention; green infrastructure; phytoremediation; sorption; stormwater
Online: 1 October 2018 (11:55:42 CEST)
Urban stormwater runoff is a significant source of pollutants into surface water bodies. One such pollutant, 1H-benzotriazole, is a persistent, recalcitrant trace organic contaminant commonly used as a corrosion inhibitor in airplane deicing processes, automobile liquids, and engine coolants. This study explored the removal of 1H-benzotriazole from stormwater using bench-scale biofilter mesocosms planted with California native sedge, Carex praegracilis, over a series of three storm events and monitoring period. Benzotriazole metabolites glycosylated benzotriazole and benzotriazole alanine were detected and benzotriazole and glycosylated benzotriazole partitioning in the system were quantified. With a treatment length of seven days, 97.1% of benzotriazole was removed from stormwater effluent from vegetated biofilter mesocosms. Significant concentrations of benzotriazole and glycosylated benzotriazole were observed in the C. praegracilis leaf and root tissue. Additionally, a significant missing sink of benzotriazole developed in the vegetated biofilter mesocosms. This study suggests that vegetation may increase the operating lifespan of bioretention basins by enhancing degradation of dissolved trace organic contaminants, thus increasing the sorption capacity of the geomedia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: optical, green, colour difference, chromaticity, just noticeable difference
Online: 10 September 2018 (14:10:34 CEST)
Among colours, the green has the most sensitivity in human vision so that green defects on displays can be effortlessly perceived by a photopic eye with the most intensity in the wavelength 555 nm of the spectrum. With the market moving forward to high resolution, displays can have resolutions of 10 million pixels. Therefore, the task detects the appearance the panel using ultra-high resolutions in TFT-LCD. The machine vision associated with reflective chromaticity spectrometer quantises the defects are explored, such as blackening and whitening. The result shows the significant phenomena to recognize the non-uniformity film-related chromatic tendency. In contrast, the quantitative assessment illuminates that the chromaticity CIE xyY at 0.001 is a just noticeable difference (JND) and detects even more sensitivity. Moreover, an optical device associated with a 198 Hg discharge lamp calibrates the spectrometer accuracy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0204.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass; laccases; peroxidases; green biochemical; acidophilic microbes
Online: 15 June 2018 (05:51:17 CEST)
The processing of fossil fuels is the major environmental issue today which should be lessen. Biomass is gaining much interest these days as an alternate to energy generation. Lignocellulosic biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) is abundant and has been used for a variety of purposes. Among them, the lignin polymer having phenyl-propanoid subunits linked together through C-C bonds or ether linkages, can produce numerous chemicals. It can be depolymerized by microbial activity together with certain enzymes (laccases and peroxidases). Both acetic acid and formic acid production by certain fungi contribute significantly to lignin depolymerization. Natural organic acids production by fungi has many key roles in nature that are strictly dependent upon organic acid producing fungus type. Fungal enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic is beneficial over other physiochemical processes. Laccases, the copper containing proteins oxidize a broad spectrum of inorganic as well as organic compounds but most specifically phenolic compounds by radical catalyzed mechanism. Similarly, lignin peroxidases (LiP), the heme containing proteins perform a vital part in oxidizing a wide variety of aromatic compounds with H2O2. Lignin depolymerization yields value-added compounds, the important ones are BTX (Benzene, Xylene and Toluene) and phenols as well as certain polymers like polyurethane and carbon fibers. Thus, this review will provide a concept that biological modifications of lignin using acidophilic microbes can generate certain value added and environment friendly chemicals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0131.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: green synthesis; silver nanoparticles; particle size; antibacterial efficacy
Online: 17 May 2017 (11:22:09 CEST)
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been demonstrated to restrain bacterial growth while maintaining the minimal risk in development of bacterial resistance and human cell toxicity that conventional silver compounds exhibit. Several physical and chemical methods have been reported to synthesize AgNPs. However, these methods are expensive and involve heavy chemical reduction agents. An alternative approach to produce AgNPs in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way employs a biological pathway using various plant extracts to reduce metal ions. The size control issue and the stability of nanoparticles remain some of the latest challenges in such methods. In this study, we used two different concentrations of fresh leaf extract of the plant Arbutus Unedo (LEA) as a reducing and stabilizing agent to produce two size variations of AgNPs. UV-Vis spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, Transmission Electron Microscopy and zeta potential were applied for the characterization of AgNPs. Both AgNP variations were evaluated for their antibacterial efficacy against the gram-negative species Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as the gram-positive species Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Although significant differences have been achieved in the nanoparticles’ size by varying the plant extract concentration during synthesis, the antibacterial effect was almost similar.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0195.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: green anole; tail autotomy; regeneration; microRNAs; Anolis carolinensis
Online: 23 August 2016 (11:25:42 CEST)
Regeneration of lost tail is of great importance to lizards. Anolis carolinensis, a green lizard, is capable of regenerating its tail efficiently after autotomy. Hence, it is considered as a model organism in regeneration study. A. carolinensis shed its tail in order to distract the predator’s attention and thus makes a way to escape. Restoring of the amputated tail takes several days and the mechanism is currently clearly understood. Although save its life, tail regeneration is associated with the impairment of several vital functions in Anoles. In addition, various differences have been observed between original and regenerated tail in terms of mechanism and structure. To date, very little work has been conducted on tail autotomy and regeneration at molecular and genetic level. The genes responsible for regeneration in anoles are identified recently. These genes are evolutionarily conserved through all tetrapod vertebrates. They are, however, in a state of ‘switched-off’ in other vertebrates including humans. Consequently, a throughout study of these so called ‘switched-off’ genes may provide a way of restoring lost organs in human, and thus could revolutionize the modern medical science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0803.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: educational concept; green business school; new green deal; interdisciplinary capacity and movement building; green failure; young generation collaboration network; prevent big ideas from failure, theory U, science and action-based research, design thinking
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:44:11 CET)
This article addresses the question why initiatives in the field of green business and sustainable development often fail. Therefore, it dismantles some typical patterns of failure and shows – as a case study – how these patterns can be challenged through an innovative educational concept: the green business and sustainable development school. The applied methodology is a real-life project that is designed through blended, interdisciplinary elements from business model canvas, Theory U, participation and design thinking. The results of the school initiative are discussed and evaluated by four distinctive stakeholder groups and outline the school’s supporting potential to overcome typical patterns of failure by the younger generation in the future. This article concludes with ideas to enhance the school concept reaching out to even more stakeholder-groups to increase its reliability and viability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0499.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Green hydrogen; Photoreforming; ball milling; cuprous oxide; solar photocatalysis
Online: 27 January 2023 (09:53:35 CET)
Several studies have shown that combining TiO2 and Cu2O enhances the photocatalytic activity of the material by generating a heterojunction capable of extending the light absorption in the visible and reducing the electron-hole recombination rate. Ball milling has been chosen as an alternative methodology for photocatalyst preparation, among the several techniques documented in the literature review. The results of a previously reported investigation enabled the identification of the most effective photocatalyst that can be prepared for hydrogen generation by combining Cu2O and TiO2 (i.e., 1%wt Cu2O in TiO2 photocatalyst prepared by ball-milling method at 200 rpm and 1 min milling time). To optimize photocatalytic hydrogen generation in the presence of the greatest photocatalyst, the effects of (i) sacrificial species and their concentration, (ii) temperature, and (iii) pH of the system are taken into account, resulting in a light-to-chemical energy efficiency of 8% under the best-tested conditions. Last but not least, the possibility of using the present photocatalytic system under direct solar light irradiation is evaluated: the results indicate that nearly 60% of the hydrogen production recorded under sunlight can be attributed to the visible component of the solar spectrum, while the remaining 40% can be attributed to the UV component.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0411.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: small urban green areas; timeseries; GEOBIA; NDVI; MSAVI2; Planet
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:59:34 CEST)
The importance of small urban green areas has increased in the context of rapid urbanization and densification of the urban tissue. The analysis of these areas through remote sensing has been limited due to the low spatial resolution of freely available satellite images. We propose a timeseries analysis on 3 m resolution Planet images, using GEOBIA and vegetation indices, with the aim of extracting and assessing the quality of small urban green areas in two different climatic and biogeographical regions – temperate (Bucharest, Romania) and mediterranean (Athens, Greece). Our results have shown high accuracy (over 91%) regarding the extraction of small urban green areas in both cities, across all analysed images. The timeseries analysis showed consistency in location for around 55% of the identified surfaces throughout the entire period. The vegetation indices registered higher values in the temperate region, due to the vegetation characteristics and the planning of the two cities. For the same reasons, the increase in vegetation density and quality, as a result of the distance from the city centre and the decrease in the density of built-up areas is more obvious in Athens. The proposed method provides valuable insights in the distribution and quality of small urban green areas at city level and can represent the ground basis for many analyses, currently limited by poor spatial resolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0054.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: generative adversarial networks; NDVI; green areas; orthophoto; artificial datasets.
Online: 19 April 2022 (10:11:20 CEST)
Generative adversarial networks (GAN) opened new possibilities for image processing and analysis. Inpainting, dataset augmentation using artificial samples or increasing spatial resolution of aerial imagery are only a few notable examples of utilizing GANs in remote sensing. This is due to a unique construction and training process expressed as a duel between GAN components. The main objective of the research is to apply GAN to generate an artificial Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using panchromatic images. The NDVI ground-truth labels were prepared by combining RGB and NIR orthophoto. The dataset was then utilized as input for a conditional generative adversarial network (cGAN) to perform an image-to-image translation. The main goal of the neural network was to generate an artificial NDVI image for each processed 256px × 256px patch using only information available in the panchromatic input. The network achieved 0.7569 ± 0.1083 Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM), 26.6459 ± 3.6577 Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PNSR) and 0.0504 ± 0.0193 Root-Mean-Square Error (RSME) on the test set. The perceptual evaluation was performed to verify the usability of the method when working with a real-life scenario. The research confirms that the structure and texture of the panchromatic aerial remote sensing image contains sufficient information for NDVI estimation for various objects of urban space. Even though these results can be used to highlight areas rich in vegetation and distinguish them from urban background, there is still room for improvement in terms of accuracy of estimated values. The purpose of the research is to explore the possibility of utilizing GAN to enhance panchromatic images (PAN) with information related to vegetation. This opens interesting possibilities in terms of historical remote sensing imagery processing and analysis. The panchromatic orthoimagery dataset was derived from RGB orthoimagery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0130.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: biorefining; bran; enzymatic hydrolysis; green-extraction; hydroxycinnamates; sustainability; valorization
Online: 8 November 2021 (12:04:08 CET)
Biorefining by enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) of lignocellulosic waste material due to low costs and affordability has received enormous interest amongst scientists as a potential strategy suitable for the production of bioactive ingredients and chemicals. In the present study, a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to the extraction of bound ferulic acid (FA) has been demonstrated using a single-step EH by a mixture of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. For comparative purposes of the efficiency of EH, an online SFE-SFC-MS extraction and analysis approach was applied. The experimental results demonstrated up to 369.3 mg 100 g−1 FA released from rye bran after 48 h EH with Viscozyme L. The EH of wheat and oat bran with Viscoferm for 48 h resulted in 255.1 and 33.5 mg 100 g−1 of FA, respectively. The extraction of FA from bran matrix using the SFE-CO2-EtOH delivered up to 464.3 mg 100 g−1 of FA, though the extractability varied depending on the parameters used. The 10-fold and 30-fold scale-up experiments confirmed the applicability of EH as a bioprocessing method valid for industrial-scale. The highest yield of FA in both scale-up experiments was obtained from rye bran after 48 h of EH with Viscozyme L. In purified extracts, the absence of xylose, arabinose, and glucose as final degradation products of lignocellulose was proven by a HPLC-RID system. Up to 94.0% purity of FA was achieved by SPE using the polymeric reversed-phase Strata X column and 50% EtOH as eluent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: rESWT; biomineralization; mussel shell; calcein green; fracture non-union
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:25:32 CET)
Background Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) is an attractive, non-invasive therapy option to manage fracture nonunions of superficial bones, with a reported success rate of approximately 75%. Using zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), we recently demonstrated that induction of biomineralization after exposure to focused extracorporeal shock waves (fESWs) is not restricted to the region of direct energy transfer into calcified tissue. This study tested the hypothesis that radial extracorporeal shock waves (rESWs) also induce biomineralization in regions not directly exposed to the shock wave energy in zebra mussels. Methods Zebra mussels were exposed on the left valve to 1000 rESWs at different air pressure (between 0 and 4 bar), followed by incubation in calcein solution for 24 hours. Biomineralization was evaluated by investigating the fluorescence signal intensity found on sections of the left and right valves prepared two weeks after exposure. Results General linear model analysis demonstrated statistically significant (p < 0.05) effects of the applied shock wave energy as well as of the side (left/exposed vs. right/unexposed) and the investigated region of the valve (at the position of exposure vs. positions at a distance to the exposure) on the mean fluorescence signal intensity values, as well as statistically significant combined energy × region and energy × side × region effects. The highest mean fluorescence signal intensity value was found next to the umbo, i.e., not at the position of direct exposure to rESWs. Conclusions As in the application of fESWs, induction of biomineralization by exposure to rESWs may not be restricted to the region of direct energy transfer into calcified tissue. Furthermore, the results of this study may contribute to better understand why the application of higher energy flux densities beyond a certain threshold does not necessarily lead to higher success rates when treating fracture nonunions with extracorporeal shock wave therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0593.v1
Subject: Keywords: affordable housing; environmental justice; equity; green building; housing policy
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:45:31 CEST)
Research on green-certified buildings has often been focused on the benefits of green standards, such as energy efficiency, smart growth, resource conservation, and health protection. Recent studies suggest the adoption of a reductionist sustainability planning language can turn green-certified houses into luxury goods, attracting White, prime-age, college-educated households with some pro-environmental attitudes who replace existing long-term, lower-income residents in core urban areas. While many factors may work together in driving neighborhood change and gentrification in cities, the question this study aims to address is to what extent the supply of green-certified units can affect neighborhood change and gentrification? We use Central Virginia’s Multiple Listing Service (MLS) housing market transactions data and the U.S. Census Bureau’s socioeconomic data to present the differential effect of new construction of market-rate, green-certified units in a natural experiment using difference-in-differences estimates. We find that neighborhoods that include new, green-certified units have experienced a statistically significant increase in population, supporting new construction and positively affecting house prices. We also detect some negative effects on minorities and minority owners, but these effects have not yet reached statistical significance. This study finds strong evidence of green housing providing the conditions that make areas ripe for gentrification, but more studies should follow up to better measure and generalize this finding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0008.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: European Union; Energy; Environment; Compliance; Green Deal; NECP; Strategy
Online: 16 July 2021 (16:39:03 CEST)
This paper analyses the EU’s policies for energy and climate, using Börzel's (2002) theoretical framework on Europeanisation, and examines member states’ Green Deal responses, strategies, and compliance. As expressed in their final NECPs, although member states’ responses vary, most of the critical components were partially addressed, while the others were largely addressed. We observe a considerable variation in Member State’s strategies. Member States classified as foot-dragging beforehand are fence-sitting now, while those previously categorised as fence-sitting are now either foot-dragging or pace-setting. The root cause of these classification changes for the member states within the EU can be traced back to their internal environments in which the involved stakeholders each have a different response pace regarding environment, climate, and energy. We present and analyse our theoretical context, discuss the EU’s energy policies and the NECPs, examine member states’ responses and compliance with this new framework, and propose several challenges.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Zinc nanoparticles; Plant extract; Green Synthesis; Characterization; Mechanism; Applications
Online: 28 May 2021 (09:58:44 CEST)
Background:Boom in nanotechnology in current era has sketched unforeseen transformations in number of fields, such as medicine, health care, food, space, agriculture, etc. The synthesis of nanoparticles with different chemical compositions, sizes, shapes and controlled disparities is an important area of research in this field. Over the last decade, the biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles has received considerable attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties, with various applications, over their bulk counterparts.Hypothesis: The nanoparticle can have huge application in the field of food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries and thus become a major area of research. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using plant extracts offers an eco-friendly and promising substitute to the conventional methods of chemical synthesis. Conclusion: In the arena of nanoparticle phytosynthesis, novel materials have been produced that are eco-friendly, cost-effective and stable. In the current situation, nanotechnology inspires progress in all spheres of life, and therefore the phytosynthetic path of nanoparticle synthesis has emerged as a safe and best alternative to conventional methods. This review summarizes the recent work in the field of zinc nanoparticle phytosynthesis and critically discusses the mechanism proposed behind it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0787.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Environmental disclosure; Green port; Environmental indicators; Port efficiency; DEA
Online: 31 December 2020 (11:24:24 CET)
The purpose of this article is to analyze, in a three-stage research, the relationships between environmental expenses, the improvements achieved in 5 environmental variables analyzed and efficiency, from an economic and operational perspective. The stages of this research are analyzing the sustainability reports to determine the level of information, analyzing the economic and operational efficiency, and analyzing the alignment with the environmental priorities of the Eco Ports-ESPO (European Sea Ports Organization). The results reveal that (1) the type of traffic does not condition environmental actions; (2) environmental performance (improvements) depends on environmental expenditures; (3) environmental spending and efficiency in port operations are correlated; and (4) environmental spending and port economic efficiency are correlated.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Biopesticides; Green chemistry; IPM; SDGs; Sustainable agriculture; Sustainable development
Online: 23 November 2020 (14:22:52 CET)
Intensive application of synthetic pesticides was the routine practice of commercial agriculture during the Green Revolution to boost agricultural productivity to meet global food demand. Alongside this, the application of chemical pesticides caused adverse effects on the environment and its ecoreceptors including human health. Negative externalities arising from conventional farming instigated the call for sustainable development during the sixties to promote and balance the nexus between socially acceptable economic growth and environmental protection. Consequently, a blueprint of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets including ecological stewardship and food security was drafted. Eight out of the 17 SDGs are directly linked to sustainable agriculture based on the direct impact of agriculture, judicious use of critical resources and conservation and the Principles of green chemistry. As a green chemical agent, biopesticides have been shown to have the potentials to substitute chemical pesticides with equal agricultural productivity. The adoption of bio-based pesticides via integrated pest management (IPM) has proven to be the most effective option to influence most dimensions of sustainable agriculture. Therefore, biopesticide-driven IPM if utilized with requisite education, skills and research would boost sustainable agriculture. This chapter reviews the prospects, importance, and limitations of biopesticides to sustainable agriculture and how sustainable agriculture is connected to sustainable development, Green Chemistry, and integrated pest management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0193.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Environmental regulation; green total factor productivity; Dynamic panel model; Environmental decentralization
Online: 25 November 2020 (11:08:10 CET)
Environmental decentralization (ED), or the allocation of environmental protection affairs and responsibilities among various administrative authorities, affects the effectiveness of environmental regulation in promoting green total factor productivity (GTFP). Based on panel data of 30 Chinese provinces from 2001 to 2015, this paper employs dynamic panel models to test the effects of environmental regulations (environmental protection investment, ENV; pollutant discharge fees, PDF) on GTFP, with or without being influenced by ED. Without the impact of ED, GTFP is significantly inhibited by ENV while significantly promoted by PDF. Considering the impact of ED, with the strengthening of ED, the negative effects of ENV on GTFP is significant; contrarily, the positive effects of PDF on GTFP is significant; improving provincial ED adds negative effects of ENV, while reduces the positive effects of PDF; increasing prefectural ED reduces negative effects of ENV; expanding county-level ED adds the positive effects of PDF. Therefore, to boost GTFP growth, prefectural environmental protection authorities should have more autonomy in ENV, while the county-level should have more autonomy in PDF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0231.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: green bitter weed; Hymenoxys odorato; liver and kidney toxicity
Online: 14 June 2018 (11:07:44 CEST)
Background: Medicinal plants are of great importance to health of individual and communities. About 80% of the population in Uganda relies on traditional medicine because western-trained medical personnel are limited especially in villages. Most Ugandans use Hymenoxys odorato for medicinal purposes e.g. to treat colds, fever, coughs, anti-helminthes, locally used as tea, anti-allergy and also as an anti-venom to relieve snake bites. Method: A group of 25 male wistar rats of 150 g–210 g were kept for 14 days while being fed and treated with the extract. At 14th day, anesthesia was given and blood samples collected by cardiac puncture for hematological and biochemical investigations. Serum was analyzed for Alkaline Phosphatase, Aspartate Transaminase and Alanine Transaminase while whole blood was used for complete blood count. The liver and kidney were removed and placed in 10% formalin to prepare for histology staining using haematoxylin and eosin technique. Results: The extract elevated hepatic biomarker enzymes i.e. ALP, ALT and AST. The increase was found to be significantly different (P > 0.05) at 400 and 500 mg/kg doses as compared to the control group. Histological sections of the liver showed distortion of liver cytoarchitecture, steatosis, necrosis of hepatocytes and congestion of the sinusoids at high doses 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg body weight. In the sections of the kidney, there was mild distortion of the integrity of the kidney with glomerular hypercellularity at high doses (400 and 500 mg/kg per body weight). Conclusion: Hymenoxys odorato aqueous extract has toxic effects on the liver and kidney of wistar rats. The effects were observed to be in a dose dependent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: green roof; water retention efficiency; runoff quality; hydrological performance
Online: 4 June 2018 (11:56:40 CEST)
This study assessed the hydrological performance and runoff water quality of 12 green roof (GR) modular systems located at the Universidad de los Andes campus (Bogotá, Colombia). Based on 223 rainfall events spanning a 3-year period, average rainfall retention was 85% (SD = 25%). T-tests, Welch Test, multiple linear regressions and correlation analysis were performed in order to assess the potential effect of air temperature, substrate type, vegetation cover, relative humidity, antecedent dry weather period (ADWP), rainfall duration and rainfall maximum intensity. In some cases, GR design variables (i.e. growing media and type of vegetation) were found to be significant for describing rainfall retention efficiencies and, depending on the GR type, some hydrological variables were also correlated with the rainfall retention. Rainfall and GR runoff were monitored for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Nitrates, Nitrites, Ammonia, Total Phosphorus (TP), Phosphates, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Color, Turbidity, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Coliforms, metals and Poliaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results obtained confirmed that GR systems have the ability to neutralize pH, but are source of the rest of the aforementioned parameters, excluding PAHs (with concentrations below detection limits), Ammonia, TSS, Se and Li, where differences with reference values (rainfall and plastic panel runoff) were not statistically significant. Substrate type, event size and rainfall regime are relevant variables for explaining runoff water quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: industrial agglomeration; FDI; green total factor productivity; spillover effect
Online: 16 May 2018 (10:54:56 CEST)
This paper studies the influence mechanism of industrial agglomeration and foreign direct investment (FDI) on green total factor productivity (GTFP). We use the SBM Directional Distance Function to measure the GTFP of Chongqing's manufacturing industry from 1999 to 2015. The results show that the level of GTFP in Chongqing's manufacturing industry is relatively low, which is contrary to the current green development mode. By clarifying the conduction path of industrial agglomeration and FDI on GTFP, we use the panel Tobit model to study the effect of industrial agglomeration and FDI on GTFP. The main findings are: the higher the level of industrial agglomeration, the more beneficial it is to increase GTFP. FDI has an inhibitory effect on GTFP. The spillover effect of FDI on GTFP is not significant. At the same time, FDI counteracts the role of industrial agglomeration in promoting GTFP. The findings in a present study indicate that, according to Chongqing's experience, the "pollution haven" is established. Therefore, relying solely on foreign technology to promote the development of the manufacturing industry has many drawbacks clearly. Only by improving the ability of independent innovation is the reliable way to enhance GTFP effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: sustainability; Green Engineering; curriculum development; chemical education; engineering education
Online: 17 February 2018 (13:23:39 CET)
The purpose of this study was to develop e-learning activities that integrated sustainability concepts and practices in process engineering education. Two blended courses were developed with two activities evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively to measure student engagement, quality of responses, and incorporation of sustainability in their arguments. Social network analysis and lexical analysis were used to assess students’ participation in discussions and peer reviews. In the online discussion, 97 comments were made averaging 120 words per comment. The participants averaged 3.88 comments, with the majority of comments exhibiting simple and complex argumentation, a deep reflection, and widespread use of terms associated with sustainability such as recycling, pollution, waste, and environment. Furthermore, evaluation of peer reviews revealed that the participants demonstrated they could identify errors and positives in an argument. Therefore, this study demonstrated that e-learning, particularly peer review and online discussion could help chemistry and engineering students understand sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0100.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: toxin release; blue-green algae; tetracycline antibiotics; environmental toxicology
Online: 23 January 2017 (09:42:15 CET)
The global usage of veterinary antibiotics is significant. These antibiotics can be released into the aquatic environment and exert toxic effects on non-target organisms. To explore the physiological effects of tetracycline antibiotics on aquatic life, the growth characteristics of and toxin release from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) were studied. Results showed that the toxicity order of the three target antibiotics was TC (tetracycline) > CTC (chlortetracycline hydrochloride) > OTC (oxytetracycline) in terms of inhibition occurrence time and the EC10 and EC25 values. Further, the target antibiotics regulated the production of MC-LR (microcystin-LR) to different degrees. CTC destroyed the M. aeruginosa cells and resulted in a decreased MC-LR release but stimulated the ability to synthesise MC-LR. OTC had a relatively weaker toxicity compared with CTC, while TC was the most toxic among the three antibiotics. Therefore, TC is friendly to the aquatic environment because it simultaneously reduced the intracellular and extracellular MC-LR content. These results aid our understanding of the effects of tetracycline antibiotics on Microcystis aeruginosa, which is important for environmental evaluation and protection. These results are also helpful for guiding the application of veterinary antibiotics in agricultural settings.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: green infrastructure; sustainable urban development; urban planning; landscape representations
Online: 11 January 2017 (07:44:52 CET)
In the quest for more sustainable urban landscape development, the concept of ‘green infrastructure’ (GI) has become central in policy documents and as a multifunctional general planning tool. GI is not however a simple and unambiguous solution. While there in policy documents are claims for more and connected GI, actual urban development takes another direction. The densifying imperative is hard to combine with an increased and more connected GI. This paper argues for a critical and diversified approach to the concept of GI, to facilitate its implementation in urban planning and management. While GI most often is seen as a common asset and a public good, the actual land use negotiations and management responsibilities cannot be limited to a public service discourse, but should address more clearly a variety of actors. Linguistic as well as spatial definitions of the two relevant dichotomies of ‘green-grey’ and ‘public-private’ are crucial in GI location, design, construction and management, it is argued. Overarching representations of GI will be needed, but also – and linked to it – a spatial storm water plan and an overall plan for public space. The development over time will need an intersectorial implementation and management program. Thus some of the GI intentions may be implemented in planning processes, some through reorganisation and redesign of public space, and some by agreements with landowners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0056.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: green manure; soil microbial communities; crop health; Illumina sequencing
Online: 18 September 2016 (08:56:53 CEST)
Green manure could improve soil nutrients and crop production, playing a significant role in sustainable agriculture. However, the impacts of green manure on crop health and the roles soil microbial communities play in the process haven’t been clarified clearly yet. In this study, we investigated soil microbial community composition and structure in four tobacco farmlands, which were treated with different green manure (control, ryegrass, pea and rape), using 16S rRNA gene amplicons sequencing. Results showed that green manure had significant impacts on soil properties, microbial communities and tobacco health. First, soil total C, N and Ca content increased significantly in groups treated with green manure than control. Second, soil community diversity was significantly higher in groups treated with green manure. Third, green manure especially ryegrass, decreased tobacco disease (bacterial wilt) rate dramatically, and the process might be mediated by soil microbial communities. On the one hand, several microbial populations were found to be potentially disease inducible or suppressive. For example, the abundances of Dokdonella and Rhodanobacter were positively correlated to tobacco disease rate, while Acidobacteira_Gp4 and Gp6 had negative correlations with tobacco disease. On the other hand, soil microbial communities were shaped by soil properties (e.g., pH, C and N content). In conclusion, our research showed that green manure could increase soil nutrients directly, and further improve tobacco health mediated by soil microorganisms, which may shed light on revealing interactions among soil properties, microorganisms and plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0556.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Green deal; GHG emissions; carbon neutrality; EU ETS; TIMES-CZ
Online: 30 January 2023 (11:37:56 CET)
The Green Deal for Europe aims to achieve climate neutrality by 2050 and sets a binding EU target of a 55% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The contributions of EU Member States to this target will be partly determined by the market through the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. For the remaining part of greenhouse gas emissions outside the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, the Effort Sharing Regulation sets binding national reduction targets. The paper applies an energy optimization model to analyze the ability of the Czech Republic to meet the climate targets. Given the high level of GHG emissions in 1990 and the significant reduction of GHG emissions in the 1990s, Czechia could achieve a 55% reduction by 2030. However, further decarbonization will be quite challenging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0107.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: green infrastructure; transdisciplinary; water systems; Costa Rica; co-design; prototype
Online: 27 December 2022 (01:55:16 CET)
The management of urban water has evolved from single-function systems to more sustainable designs promoting society and nature as inputs to engineer novel infrastructure. In transdisciplinary research, co-design refers to a design thinking strategy in which people jointly frame a problem-solution. This article presents a conceptual framework to assess a case study focusing on the process of co-design and implementation of green infrastructure as a prototype for stormwater management. The evaluation is carried out from a self-reflective post-implementation perspective. Research activities are translated into the framework to evaluate conditions shaping the trajectory of the prototype. As a result, key aspects driving the research regarding levels of stakeholder participation and dimensions of power are identified. Planning resilient co-design strategies to retrofit urban spaces is necessary to avoid unintended consequences, especially at the initial experimental stages. This study aims to contribute to the continuous improvement of pilot strategies in urban spaces by providing a framework for a structured evaluation of research experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy Management System; Digital Twins; General Additive Models; Green H2.
Online: 1 November 2022 (10:08:06 CET)
With increasing constraints on energy and resource markets and the non-decreasing trend in energy demand, the need for relevant clean energy generation and storage solutions is growing and is gradually reaching the individual home. But small-scale energy storage is still an expensive investment in 2022 and the risk/reward ratio is not yet attractive enough for individual homeowners. One solution is for homeowners not to store excess clean energy individually but to produce hydrogen for mutual use. In this paper a collective production of hydrogen for a daily filling of a bus is considered. Following our previous work on the subject, the investigation consists of finding an optimal buy/sell rule to the grid, and the use of the energy with an additional objective: mobility. The dominant technique in the energy community is reinforcement learning, which is however difficult to use when the learning data is limited as in our study. We chose a less data-intensive and yet technically well-documented approach. Our results show that rulebooks, different but more interesting than the usual robust rule, exist and can be cost-effective. But they require fine-tuning as to not deteriorate system performance. In some cases, it is worth missing the H2 production requirement in exchange for higher economic performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0379.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: SDGs; Green Deal; simulation modeling; soil survey interpretation; land evaluation
Online: 29 March 2022 (09:57:22 CEST)
Reaching the land-related UN-Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and similar goals articulated by the EU-Green Deal (GD) by 2030 presents a major challenge and requires a pragmatic approach to be focused on joint learning by land users (mostly farmers), researchers and other stakeholders in “Living Labs” and system experiments at experimental farms of research organizations. Defining specific indicators and thresholds for ecosystem services in line with land-related SDGs, are crucial to establish: “Lighthouses” that can act as inspiring examples if they meet the various thresholds. This exploratory paper discusses indicators and thresholds for an arable farm operating on marine, calcareous light clay soils in the Netherlands. Studies of a system experiment are used to discuss and test operational methodology to be widely applied when characterizing many “Living Labs” in future as planned by the European Union. The important role of soils, contributing to ecosystem services, is discussed in terms of soil health. Recommendations are made for innovative methodology to be associated with all land-related SDGs. Satisfying thresholds of ecosystem services, that will vary by soil type, region and farm-type, can be the basis for farm subsidies such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Research on Living Labs and in system experiments has to be judged by different criteria than those associated with traditional linear research. Important contributions by soils to achieve ecosystem services are framed in terms of soil health and are the most effective way to promote soil science in a by now widely desired inter- and transdisciplinary context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0261.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: energy saving; lighting control; smart lighting; green buildings; building automation
Online: 18 March 2022 (04:19:49 CET)
Global temperature rise due to hydrocarbon gases emission that are produced by generating the electrical power has a great attention by the researchers to reduce it till zero emission is successfully achieved. Sustainable energy source such as solar energy, wind, hydro-energy and sea wave energy are focal areas to replace the fossil fuel by clean energy. In this article, daylight is used to minimize the power consumption that required for indoor lighting using electric roller blind. Smart controller is designed to adjust the position of the roller blind stepper motor, and hence, adjust the roller blind opening, based on the preset light intensity, to achieve precise utilization of daylight inside the room. If the desired Lux is not achieved for any reason, the smart controller adjusts the LED circuit current to boost the light intensity to achieve precisely the desired Lux. Comprehensive test cases using MATLAB-Simulink is carried out to verify the performance of the proposed smart controller. Techno-economic analysis is introduced to evaluate the benefits of installing the controller. Summary and recommendation are given at the end.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0056.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Green synthesis; Plant extract; Reduced graphene oxide; Applications; Graphene oxide
Online: 2 November 2021 (22:50:53 CET)
Graphene is a remarkable material with numerous applications. Due to its thin and lightweight design, it is ideal for a variety of applications. The synthesis of high-quality graphene in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner continues to be a significant challenge. Chemical reduction is considered to be the most advantageous method for preparing reduced graphene oxide (rGO). However, this process necessitates the use of toxic and harmful substances, which can have a detrimental effect on the environment and human health. Thus, to accomplish the objective, the green synthesis principle has prompted researchers worldwide to develop a simple method for green reduction of graphene oxide (GO), which is readily accessible, sustainable, economical, renewable, and environmentally friendly in nature. For example, the use of natural materials such as plants is generally considered safe. Furthermore, plants contain reducing and capping agents. The current review will focus on the discovery and application of rGO synthesis using extracts from a variety of different parts of the plant. The review aims to aid current and future researchers in their search for a novel plant extract that acts as a reductant in the green synthesis of rGO. The review aims to assist current and future researchers in their research for a novel plant extract that acts as a reductant in the green synthesis of rGO as well as their potential applications in a variety of industries.
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: ecosystem disservices; green infrastructure; site design; tree selection; urban forestry
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:42:48 CEST)
As urban development increases in density, the space to grow urban trees becomes more constrained. In heavily developed areas, small stature trees can be planted to reduce both above- and below-ground conflicts with infrastructure elements. However, even these species have their limits when placed in extremely confining conditions. In this study, we build on past work to determine the minimum planting widths of small stature urban trees. We found that species, stem diameter, and the height at which stem diameter measurements occurred were all strong predictors of trunk flare diameter (adjusted R2 of 0.843). Additionally, we modelled the relationship between planting space and the presence or absence of hardscape conflicts – using the predictions derived from this effort to project the potential cost savings in two United States cities. Study results provide a guideline to create sufficient space for urban trees and minimize infrastructure damage and associated cost savings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0328.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: green supply chain; manufacturer’s fairness preferences; leading retailer; Stackelberg Game
Online: 14 July 2021 (12:14:03 CEST)
This study investigates optimal decisions in a green supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a leading retailer considering the green marketing and fairness preferences of member firms. Four Stackelberg game decision models are constructed in which the manufacturer and the re-tailer engage in green marketing separately when the manufacturer has no and has fairness preferences. The impacts of fairness preferences and green marketing on the optimal decision in the green supply chain are comparatively analyzed. The study finds that member firms perform green marketing regardless of the presence or absence of fairness preferences and that such be-havior increases the wholesale price, retail price, and market demand of low-carbon products as well as the profits of member firms and the supply chain. A more interesting finding is that the profit growth of member firms and the supply chain due to the manufacturer’s green marketing is more pronounced than that due to the retailer’s green marketing. When the retailer and the manufacturer engage in conduct green marketing, the manufacturer's fairness preferences have different effects on the wholesale price, retail price, market demand, level of green marketing efforts, member enterprises and profits of supply chain. Therefore, firms should consider the impact of green marketing and fairness preferences to make pricing and performance decisions, so as to achieve efficient operation of the whole supply chain and avoid double marginal effects. Finally, the above conclusions are verified through numerical simulation, providing a reference for the decision-making of member firms in the green supply chain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0027.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Heterogeneous catalysis; green chemistry; organosilica; flow chemistry; sol-gel; nanocatalysis
Online: 1 April 2021 (14:46:48 CEST)
Removing one key barrier to the industrial uptake of green chemistry and nanocatalysis in the fine and specialty chemical industry requires to fill an ongoing “talent shortage” via expanded chemistry education. In this study we show how the use of hybrid sol-gel catalysts to synthesize fine chemicals and active pharmaceutical ingredients in flow chemistry reactors illustrates new ideas to reshape chemistry education based on recent research outcomes, visualization and digital tools. Several lessons learned from the industrial and academic utilization of these materials in continuous-flow conversions conclude the study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0380.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: nanoparticle; transition-metal; transition-metal oxides; plants; green synthesis; factors
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:49:49 CET)
In recent years, many researchers have begun to shift their focus onto the synthesis of nanomaterials as this field possesses immense potential that may provide incredible technological advances in the near future. The downside of conventional synthesis techniques, such as co-precipitation, sol-gel and hydrothermal methods, is that they necessitate the use of toxic chemicals, produce harmful by-products and require a considerable amount of energy; therefore, more sustainable fabrication routes are sought after. Biological molecules have been previously utilised as precursors to nanoparticle synthesis, thus eliminating the negative factors involved in traditional methods. In addition, transition-metal nanoparticles possess a wide scope of applications due to their multiple oxidation states and large surface areas; thereby allowing for a higher reactivity when compared to their bulk counterpart and rendering them an interesting research topic. However, this field is still relatively unknown and unpredictable. Therefore, this review aims to obtain a better understanding on the plant-mediated synthesis process of the major transition-metal and transition-metal oxide nanoparticles, and how different parameters affect their unique properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0377.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: limonene; green extraction; essential oil; citrus processing waste; p-cymene
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:39:24 CET)
A renewable cyclic monoterpene obtained from citrus peel, limonene is widely used as a fra-grance, nutraceutical ingredient, antibacterial, biopesticide, and green extraction solvent. Indus-trial demand largely exceeds supply. After reviewing recent advances in the recovery of limonene from citrus peel and residues with a particular attention to benign-by-design extractive processes, we focus on the latest results in its dehydrogenation to p-cymene via heterogeneous catalysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0206.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: urban green spaces; cancer; risk factors; contributing factors; scoping review
Online: 11 January 2021 (17:47:23 CET)
This scoping study aims to explore the relationships between urban green spaces (UGSs) and cancer. We followed the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (protocol published in 2018). Eligibility criteria for papers were: 1) to be concerned with UGSs, 2) reporting effects of UGSs on cancer-related outcomes including direct or indirect measures, 3) reporting randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, case studies, observational studies, non-comparative studies, 4) in English or French. The search covered primary studies in the published and unpublished (grey) literatures searching by hand and electronic databases (MEDLINE, Green File, CINAHL and ScienceDirect). Among 1703 records screened by two reviewers independently, 29 were included for qualitative synthesis. We classify the cancers concerned and the effects reported i.e. protective effect, risk or without association. The most investigated cancers are bladder, breast and lung cancer. Our study also identified contributing factors and their mediating effects between UGSs and cancer. Results highlight the wide variety of possible mediating factors between the use of green spaces and cancer occurrence, remission and/or prevention. Knowledge gaps and future research perspectives should be oriented to qualitative research on protective factors, the role of mental health in recovering from cancer and health inequalities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0519.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Burn wounds; ZnO NPs; Plant-based Green Synthesis; Wound healing
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:10:15 CEST)
In this changing world, we all are surrounded by the surmountable risk of getting injured. Amongst various risk factors, major burns are the most distressing and catastrophic. Burn wounds are not easy to heal via natural healing process and ultimately ended up with scar formation. If the degree of burn is high then the loss of tissue and its function is very common. To fasten-up the natural burn wound healing; zinc, an essential trace element is found to be very much effective. But due to its’ particle size limitation, less contact with wounded cells and tissues, and high inherent toxicity restrict its use. Needlessly, zinc is an element with dual action i.e. both antimicrobial and wound healing it is a prime choice to apply its aptitude in burn wound healing. To overcome the documented limitations zinc has converted to nanoparticle form. Zinc oxide nanoparticles, in particular, have attained ample of interest due to their unique properties and potential antimicrobial activity along with wound healing activity which makes it promising for the healing of topical burn wounds. Plant mediated green synthesis of nano-metal oxide particles is gaining a lot of significance due to its simplicity, eco-friendliness and extensive antimicrobial activity and recommended as an appealing substitute to not only physical methods but also chemical methods avoiding the use of the high rate of toxic chemicals and extreme surroundings. This study includes ZnO NPs role in burn wound healing with Phyto-mediated synthesis methods to provide evidence of their potential applications. Additionally, it provides an overview of traditional methods used for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and characterization techniques to obtain information concerning the size, shape and optical properties along with toxicity and safety concern of ZnO NPs and its biomedical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0266.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: deep eutectic solvents; absorption; biogas; dimethyl disulfide; green solvents; desulfurization
Online: 18 February 2020 (11:10:40 CET)
The paper presents a synthesis of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) as hydrogen bond acceptor and phenol (Ph), glycol ethylene (EG), and levulinic acid (Lev) as hydrogen bond donors in 1:2 molar ratio. DESs were successfully used as absorption solvents for removal of dimethyl disulfide from (DMDS) from model biogas steam. Several parameters affecting the absorption capacity and absorption rate has been optimized including kind of DES, temperature, the volume of absorbent, model biogas flow rate, and initial concentration of DMDS. Furthermore, reusability and regeneration of DESs by means of adsorption and nitrogen barbotage followed by the mechanism of absorptive desulfurization by means of density functional theory (DFT) as well as FT-IR analysis were investigated. Experimental results indicate that the most promising DES for biogas purification is ChCl:Ph, due to high absorption capacity, relatively long absorption rate, and easy regeneration. The research on the absorption mechanism revealed that van der Waal interaction is the main driving force for DMDS removal from model biogas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0140.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: shallot; cabbage; green peach aphid; lacewing; bio-stress; companion planting
Online: 13 January 2020 (15:47:15 CET)
Phloem-feeding insects strive to offset the disadvantageous effects of stressors to sustain their offspring and survive. Adaptive responses to environmental stress are not well understood under complex influences of companion planting, natural enemies, and host gradient. In this study, under predation by lacewing Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), we survey the responses of green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), reared on different densities of cabbage Brassica oleracea L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) to its shallot companion Allium cepa (L.) var. aggregatum G. Don (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae). Firstly, aphid aggregative abundance was strongly influenced by shallot perturbation, predator presence and changes in cabbage-host biomass, altering aphid phenotypic plasticity. Interestingly, the shallot and predation negative impacts can be of similar magnitudes. Secondly, changes in the cabbage-host availability and biomass, especially under predation, had a strong impact on aphid traits. Our study underscores the benefits of including shallots as crop-companions in augmenting pest control, but also suggests that the outcome of coupling companion planting with natural enemies is context-dependent and thus should be empirically applied. At the confluence of ecology and agronomy, this work provides insights on how manipulated functional biodiversity may function as an alternative strategy for pestilent herbivory management in model and green-house systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: density incentive; earthcraft; energystar; green premium; hedonic pricing; LIHTC; rehabilitation
Online: 15 October 2019 (04:00:55 CEST)
In the year 2017, about 89 percent of the total energy consumed in the US was produced using non-renewable energy sources, and about 43 percent of tenant households were cost-burdened. Local governments are in a unique position to facilitate green affordable housing that could reduce cost burdens, environmental degradation, and environmental injustice. Nonetheless, limited studies have made progress on costs and benefits of green affordable housing to guide decision-making, particularly in small communities. This study investigates density bonus options for green affordable housing by analyzing construction costs, sale prices, and spillover effects for green certifications and affordable housing units. The authors employ construction costs and sale data from 422 Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) projects and 11,418 Multiple Listing Service (MLS) transactions in Virginia. Using hedonic regression analyses controlling for mediating factors, we find that the new construction of market-rate green certified houses is associated with small upfront costs but large and statistically significant price premiums. The construction of market-rate green certified houses has large and statistically significant spillover effects on existing non-certified houses. Existing non-certified affordable housing units show small and statistically insignificant negative price impacts on transactions of surrounding properties. The magnitude of social benefits associated with green building justifies the local provision of voluntary programs for green affordable housing where housing is expensive relative to its basic costs of production to promote sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0231.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: benzimidazoles; deep eutectic solvents; green chemistry; aromatic amines; heterocyclic moiety
Online: 22 July 2019 (07:35:15 CEST)
The exploitation and use of alternative synthetic methods, in the face of classical procedures that do not conform to the ethics of Green Chemistry, represent an ever present problem in pharmaceutical industry. The procedures for the synthesis of benzimidazoles have become a focus in synthetic organic chemistry, as they are building blocks of strong interest for the development of compounds with pharmacological activity. Various benzimidazole derivatives exhibit important activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and analgesic and some of the already synthesized compounds have found very strong application in medicine praxis. Here we report a selective and sustainable method for the synthesis of 1,2-disubstituted or 2-substituted benzimidazoles, starting from o-phenylenediamine in the presence of different aldehydes. The use of deep eutectic solvent (DES) both as reaction medium and reagent without any external solvent provides advantages in terms of yields as well as in the work up procedure of the reaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0020.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: BIM; SOLO; threshold concepts; green buildings; certificate systems; higher education
Online: 1 July 2019 (15:16:28 CEST)
Sustainable development (SD) is essential to reduce and mitigate climate change impacts, environmental deterioration and to increase social sustainability. SD is therefore highly relevant for the engineering profession and is today found integrated with the higher education of specific engineering programs. This paper investigated the knowledge of SD for students entering the master’s program in Sustainable Building Information Management (BIM) by comparing levels of knowledge at the start and end of the first course Sustainability, Analyses and Simulations. The level of knowledge of SD was analyzed by classifying students’ conceptions of sustainability using SOLO taxonomy and the spectrum of liminality and the threshold concept. Students written responses to the question “What do you know about sustainability?” and written group project reports were used for analyzing levels of knowledge of SD. Levels of knowledge of SD was classified as pre (pre-liminal or pre-structural); uni-structural, multi-structural, relational and post-stages (extended abstract or post-liminal). In total, 68% of the students entering the master’s program in 2017 and 88% in 2018 showed a pre-structural, uni-structural and multi-structural SD knowledge. In general, few students entering the program showed relational and post-stages of SD knowledge, 32% and 12% of the students in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The students at the post-stage were able to express themselves more individually and creatively compared to previous levels in that they could connect the dimensions of SD to the context of SD of buildings, but also argue why SD of buildings was important and they could also suggest actions or tools for improved SD that engineers should use. Only one group of five (in 2017) showed a post-stage level of knowledge in the group project report. It is likely that the student’s general approach to the work with the reports was to mainly cope with the course requirements which is a sign of surface approach to learning. It, therefore, seems reasonable that future developments of the course should ensure that the students use the scientific literature in their group project reports to make it easier for them to understand the relationship between software use and the connection to green buildings certificate systems and SD of buildings. By making it mandatory to include scientific literature in the reports the students will be encouraged to read and think critically, and deeper, and to put the practical implementation of the software analysis results into a scientific context of SD and BIM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0183.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; biogas; green energy; municipal solid waste; organic waste
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:33:58 CEST)
Global waste generation keeps increasing over the year and requires innovative solutions to minimize their impacts on environmental quality and public health. Predicted 2.2 billion tonnes per year of global municipal waste generation in the year 2025 which 1.6 fold is higher than in 2012. Hence, a strategic plan must be ascertained to overcome the future challenges of MSW locally and globally. Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) coined an initiative to demonstrate a showcase pilot plant for green energy production from MSW. Therefore, the data was obtained from the survey and actual sampling within the UPM compound to estimate the MSW generated and it's potentially used for green energy production. It is estimated that 5.0 – 7.0 tonne per day of MSW generated which about 30 - 35% is an organic fraction. Upon separation, the organic fractions were digested into biogas through anaerobic. At the maximum conversion of organic fraction, about 775 kWh of electricity may able to generate from the waste. In this study, the complete biorefinery setup and utilize organic components from the MSW generated in UPM was proposed that the biogas subsequently will be used to produce green energy in the form of electricity or cooking fuel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0030.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: green building; risk management; risk factors, risk mitigation measures; architect
Online: 2 May 2018 (16:55:58 CEST)
The number of green buildings has increased to address the global environmental crisis. However, green buildings face risks resulting from new materials and methods. In addition, these buildings are expected to perform at higher levels than traditional ones. The objectives of this study are to identify the possible risk factors for architects developing green building projects in South Korea and to assess risk mitigation measures. To attain this goal, fourteen risk factors and twelve mitigation measures were identified from a comprehensive literature review. A questionnaire survey was administered to architects practicing green building design. Findings revealed the ‘adoption of new technology and processes’ was the largest difference between green and traditional building projects. This study identified ‘financial risk,’ ‘design changes,’ and ‘client’s goal uncertainty’ as the top three risk factors in green building design. Additionally, the survey proposed the four most effective risk mitigation measures for green building projects: (1) ‘contract indicating each party’s roles, liabilities and limitations clearly’; (2) ‘utilizing integrated design process’; (3) ‘understanding client’s goal in green building projects’; and (4) ‘improving communication and coordination among stakeholders.’ There are a few studies focusing on the architects’ perceived risk concerning green building projects; however, this study expands the knowledge and fills the literature gap. Additionally, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of critical risks and mitigation measures that can benefit South Korea’s green building design practice through better risk management.