Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: low intensity exercise; intestine; sodium-dependent glucose transporter; glucose transporter 2; glucagon like peptide 2
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:48:02 CEST)
Exercise affects various organs. However, its effects on nutrient digestion and absorption in the intestinal tract are not well understood. A few studies have reported that exercise training in-creases the expression of carbohydrate digestion and absorption molecules. Exercise was also shown to increase the concentration of blood glucagon like peptide-2(GLP-2), which regulates carbohydrate digestion and absorption in small intestinal epithelium. Therefore, we investigated the effects of exercise on intestinal digestion and absorption molecules and the levels of GLP-2. 6-wk-old of male mice were divided into 2 groups; sedentary (SED) and low-intensity exercise (LEx). LEx mice were required to run on a treadmill (12.5 m/min, 60 min), whereas SED mice rested. All mice were euthanized 1 h after exercise or rest and plasma, jejunum, ileum, and colon were sampled. Samples were analyzed using EIA and immunoblotting. The levels of plasma GLP-2 and the expression of the GLP-2 receptor, sucrase-isomaltase (SI), and glucose transporter (GLUT2) in the jejunum were increased in LEx group. We showed that acute low-intensity exer-cise affects the intestinal carbohydrate digestion and absorption molecules via GLP-2. Our results suggest that exercise might provide new benefits to the small intestine for people with intestinal frailty.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: cardiovascular risk; dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors; glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists; sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors; type 2 diabetes mellitus
Online: 24 November 2019 (04:26:47 CET)
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease. Contributing pathophysiologic factors include endothelial dysfunction caused by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased activity of nuclear factor kB (NFkB), altered macrophage polarization, and reduced synthesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Consequently, there can be a potentially rapid progression of the atherosclerotic disease with a higher propensity to unstable plaque, leading to increased cardiovascular mortality. Management is aimed at prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of hyperglycemia and vascular complications. Innovative therapeutic approaches for T2DM seek to customize the antidiabetic treatment to each patient in order to optimize glucose-lowering effects, minimize hypoglycemia and adverse effects, and prevent cardiovascular events. The newer drugs (Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists, GLP-1 RAs; Sodium GLucose coTransporter-2 inhibitors, SGLT2is; DiPeptidyl Peptidase-4 inhibitors, DPP4is) impact body weight, lipid parameters, and blood pressure, as well as endothelial function, inflammatory markers, markers of oxidative stress, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The present review summarizes the results of trials that evaluated the cardiovascular safety of these drugs and found them to be safe from the CV standpoint.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4; Fibroblast growth factor; Gastrointestinal peptide; Glucagon-like peptide 1; Glucagon receptor; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; Sodium glucose cotransporter
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:44:49 CET)
Liver related diseases are the 3rd leading causes (9.3%) of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japan. T2DM is closely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which is the most prevalent chronic liver disease worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic failure. There are no established pharmacotherapies for NASH patients with T2DM. Though vitamin E is established as a 1st line agent in NASH without T2DM, its efficacy was recently denied in NASH with T2DM. The effects of pioglitazone on NASH histology with T2DM have extensively been established, but several concerns exist such as body weight gain, fluid retention, cancer incidence, and bone fracture. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are expected to ameliorate NASH (LEAN study, LEAD trial, and E-LIFT study). Among a variety of SGLT2 inhibitors, dapagliflozin have already entered phase 3 trials (DEAN study). A key clinical question is what kinds of anti-diabetic drugs are the most appropriate for the treatment of NASH to prevent progression of hepatic fibrosis resulting in HCC/liver-related mortality without increasing risk at cardiovascular or renal events. The combination therapies such as glucagon receptor agonist/GLP-1 or gastrointestinal peptide /GLP-1 will be under development. This review focuses on antidiabetic agents and future perspectives on the view of the treatment of NAFLD with T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Ochratoxin A, insulin, glucagon, glucose, rat plasma, pathology, immunohistochemistry
Online: 13 April 2017 (11:46:19 CEST)
In this study, diabetogenic effects of long term Ochratoxin A (OTA) administration in rats were investigated and its role in the etiology of diabetes mellitus (DM) was examined utilizing 42 female Wistar rats for these purposes. The rats were divided into 3 different study and control groups according to the duration of the OTA administration. Rats received 45 μg OTA daily in their feed for 6, 9 and 24 weeks study groups. Three control groups without any treatment were also used in the same periods. Blood and pancreatic tissue samples were collected during the necropsy at the end of 6, 9 and 24 weeks. Plasma values of insulin, glucagon and glucose in study and control groups were determined. Pancreatic lesions were evaluated by histopathological examination; then insulin and glucagon expression in these lesions were determined by immunohistochemical methods. Statistically significant decrease in insulin levels in contrast to increases in glucagon and glucose levels in blood were observed. Slight degeneration in Langerhans islet cells were observed at the histopathological examination in all OTA treated groups. Immunohistochemistry of pancreatic tissue revealed decreased insulin and increased glucagon expression. This study demonstrated that OTA may cause pancreatic damage in Langerhans islet and predispose rats to DM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: enteric nervous system; ENS; gastrointestinal tract; GI; glucagon-like peptide 2; GLP-2
Online: 11 June 2020 (11:58:03 CEST)
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is innervated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), an extensive neuronal network that traverses along its walls. Due to local reflex circuits, the ENS is capable of functioning with and without input from the central nervous system. The functions of the ENS range from the propulsion of food to nutrient handling, blood flow regulation and immunological defense. Records of it first being studied emerged in the early 19th century when the submucosal and myenteric plexuses were discovered. This was followed by extensive research and further delineation of its development, anatomy, and function during the next two centuries. The morbidity and mortality associated with the underdevelopment, infection or inflammation of the ENS highlights its importance and the need for us to completely understand its normal function. This review will provide a general overview of the ENS to date and connect specific GI disorders such as short bowel syndrome with neuronal pathophysiology. Exciting opportunities in which the ENS could be used as a therapeutic target for common GI diseases will also be highlighted, as the further unlocking of such mechanisms could open the door to more therapy-related advances, and ultimately change our approach to GI disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus; carotid intima-media thickness; glucagon-like peptide-1; dipeptidyl peptidase-4; clusterin; amylin; secreted Frizzled-related protein-4
Online: 29 August 2018 (09:38:37 CEST)
Objective: Diabetes is associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease-related mortality. We investigated the association between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) with clusterin (CLU), amylin, secreted frizzled-related protein-4 (SFRP-4), total and active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) individuals with or without coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: This study consisted of four groups in Medicine Hospital between April- October, 2017: Control group (mean ages: 50.3 ± 10.7 years, 20 females and 15 males), diabetic group (DM) (mean ages: 53.9 ± 11.1, 14 females and 23 males), CAD group (mean ages: 62.6 ± 11.8, 17 females and 17 males) and CAD+ DM group: (mean ages: 62.6 ± 11.8 years, 18 females and 18 males). Results: Both CAD and CAD+DM groups have higher CIMT levels than controls. CAD+DM group have also significantly higher CIMT levels than DM group. Left external carotid artery (ECA) was only found different in DM group from controls. When compared with controls, DM, CAD groups have low DPP-4 and GLP-1total concentration. Control group have significantly lower SFRP-4 levels than DM, CAD and CAD+DM (p<0.001) groups. Serum GLP-1total levels were found to be significantly low in CAD+DM group when compared to control group. Conclusion: DPP-4 and SFRP-4 levels are predictive marker for atherosclerosis in diabetes, correlates well with HOMA-IR particularly in diabetes. CIMT has the potential to be a clinically useful predictor of vascular risk in diabetic patients with CAD. Large cohorts and at-risk populations are needed to confirm the predictive value of these findings.