ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0232.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: geodetic network; outlier; reliability; reference points; surveying; quality control
Online: 18 December 2019 (03:12:56 CET)
Geodetic networks are essential for most geodetic, geodynamics and civil projects, such as monitoring the position and deformation of man-made structures, monitoring the crustal deformation of the Earth, establishing and maintaining a geospatial reference frame, mapping, civil engineering projects and so on. Before the installation of geodetic marks and gathering of survey data, geodetic networks need to be designed according to the pre-established quality criteria. In this study, we present a method for designing geodetic networks based on the concept of reliability. We highlight that the method discards the use of the observation vector of Gauss-Markov model. In fact, the only needs are the geometrical network configuration and the uncertainties of the observations. The aim of the proposed method is to find the optimum configuration of the geodetic control points so that the maximum influence of an outlier on the coordinates of the network is minimum. Here, the concept of Minimal Detectable Bias defines the size of the outlier and its propagation on the parameters is used to describe the external reliability. The proposed method is demonstrated by practical application of one simulated levelling network. We highlight that the method can be applied not only for geodetic network problems, but also in any branch of modern science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0155.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: CLC 2018 level of detail; comparison of remote sensing and geodetic data; settlement; land use monitoring; urban sprawl
Online: 9 May 2020 (08:22:55 CEST)
The article describes the results of comparison of occurence of buildings (and address points) in Poland with delimitations of land use belonging to particular classes in the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) 2018 dataset. Large discrepancies have been identified, which reach on average approx. 34% of addresses and 35% of buildings located outside class 1 (artificial surfaces), mainly on terrains of class 2 (agricultural areas). Among single-family buildings it was 37% and among new addresses (forecasted or ‘under construction’ buildings) – as much as 50%. This puts a question mark over the possibility of using CLC data with resolution of 25 ha for monitoring of spatial planning and development in Poland for purposes of the diagnosis and assessment of the scale of dispersion of built-up areas. It is worth carrying out similar analyses in other countries, known for the deconcentration processes and a relatively large share of dispersed settlement e.g. other CEE countries, Spain, Portugal, Italy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0398.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: fractal; General Relativity; exact solutions; geodetic vector; cosmic web; quasi-periodic distribution of matter; deformation tensor of space-time
Online: 29 June 2022 (08:14:59 CEST)
Abstract: A new method for constructing exact solutions of the General Relativity equations for a dusty matter with fractal property is proposed. This method allows to find the solution of the GR-equations in terms of matter velocities : the connection coefficients and the Ricci tensor of space-time are expressed in terms of matter velocities; the metric tensor and the matter density are found as functions of velocity from the GR-equations. The connection coefficients and the Ricci tensor are invariant with respect to the discrete scaling transformation of velocity , where is constant. Therefore, the found solution can be used to simulate the fractal properties of the cosmic web in terms of matter velocities. This solution includes isotropic and anisotropic distributions of matter density. In an isotropic case, there is a class of exact solutions including both the well-known Friedmann’s solution and a solution with a periodic distribution of the matter density in space. This last solution may be used to simulate the quasi-periodic distribution of matter in the cosmic web. It is possible that, the cosmic web and its fractal properties are the space-time primary properties. These properties are described with a deformation tensor of the space-time.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0371.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: monad and dyad methods; effective rest mass concept; scalar gravitational field; 5D geodetic equation; cylindrical symmetry condition; 5D Ricci identities; Maxwell equations; magnetic monopole; topological second-order transition in cosmology
Online: 6 August 2021 (11:10:50 CEST)
It is shown that the 5D geodetic equations and 5D Ricci identities give us a way to create a new viewpoint on some problems of Modern Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology. Specifically, the application of the 5D geodetic equations in (4+1) and (3+1+1) splintered forms obtained with the help of the monad and dyad methods made it possible to introduce a new, effective generalized concept of the rest mass of the elementary particle. The latter leads one to novel connections between the General Relativity and quantum field theories, as well as all of that, including the (4+1) splitting of the 5D Ricci identities, brings about a better understanding of the magnetic monopole problem and the vital difference in the origins of the Maxwell equations and gives rise to surprising connections between them. The obtained results also provide new insight into the mechanism of the 4D Universe’s expansion and its following acceleration.