REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0174.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Calcium channels; somatic exocytosis; serotonin; extrasynaptic release; leech
Online: 10 December 2021 (12:16:40 CET)
The soma, dendrites and axon of neurons may display calcium-dependent release of transmitters and peptides. Such release is named extrasynaptic for occurring in the absence of synaptic structures. This review describes cooperative actions of three calcium sources on somatic exocytosis. Emphasis is given to the release of serotonin by the classical serotonergic leech Retzius neuron, which has allowed detailed studies of each step between excitation and exoctytosis. Trains of action potentials induce transmembrane calcium entry through L-type channels. If the frequency of action potentials is above 5 Hz, summation of calcium transients upon individual action potentials increases the intracellular calcium concentration to activate calcium–induced calcium release. The amplified calcium wave activates motochondrial ATP synthesis that fuels the transport of vesicles to the plasma membrane. Serotonin that is released activates autoreceptors coupled to phospholipase C. Production of IP3 produces release of calcium that sustains the large-scale exocytosis. The swiss-clock workings of the release machinery for somatic exocytosis has a striking disadvantage. The essential calcium-releasing endoplasmic reticulum that lays between resting vesicles and the plasma membrane becomes an obstacle for the vesicle transport. Such architecture reduces drastically the thermodynamic efficiency of the vesicle transport and elevates its energy cost..
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0401.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: SNAP25; linker; protein lipid interaction; acceptor complex; exocytosis; fusion
Online: 27 March 2020 (02:56:59 CET)
A recent paper demonstrates the importance of the linker region joining the two SNARE motifs of the neuronal t-SNARE SNAP25 for maintaining rates of secretion with roles for distinct segments in speeding fusion pore expansion (Shaaban et al., 2019, Elife. 8). Remarkably, lipid perturbing agents rescue a palmitoylation-deficient phenotype that includes slow fusion pore expansion, suggesting that protein-protein interactions have a role not only in bringing together the granule or vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane but also in orchestrating protein-lipid interactions leading to the fusion reaction. Furthermore, biochemical investigations demonstrate the importance of the C-terminal domain of the linker in the formation of the plasma membrane t-SNARE acceptor complex for synaptobrevin2 (Jiang, et al., 2019, FASEB J. 33:7985-7994;Shaaban et al., 2019, Elife. 8). This insight, together with biophysical and optical studies from other laboratories (Wang, et al., 2008, Molecular Biology of the Cell. 19:3944-3955; Zhao, et al., 2013, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110:14249-14254) suggests that the plasma membrane SNARE acceptor complex between SNAP25 and syntaxin and the resulting trans SNARE complex with the v-SNARE synaptobrevin form just milliseconds before fusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0003.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: calcium; protons; exocytosis; tip growth; Lilium; pollen; respiration; perturbation analysis
Online: 1 November 2016 (05:25:42 CET)
Pollen tubes grow by spatially and temporally regulated expansion of new material secreted into the cell wall at the tip of the tube. A complex web of interactions among cellular components, ions and small molecule provides dynamic control of localized expansion and secretion. Cross-correlation studies on oscillating lily (Lilium formosanum Wallace) pollen tubes showed that an increase in intracellular calcium follows an increase in growth, whereas the increase in the alkaline band and in secretion both anticipate the increase in growth rate. Calcium, as a follower, is unlikely to be a stimulator of growth, whereas the alkaline band, as a leader, may be an activator. To gain further insight herein we reversibly inhibited growth with potassium cyanide (KCN), and followed the re-establishment of calcium, pH and secretion patterns as growth resumed. While KCN markedly slows growth and causes the associated gradients of calcium and pH to sharply decline, its removal allows growth and vital processes to fully recover. The calcium gradient reappears before growth restarts, however it is preceded by both the alkaline band and secretion, in which the alkaline band is slightly advanced over secretion. Thus the pH gradient, rather than the tip-focused calcium gradient, may regulate pollen tube growth.