Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Management; entrepreneurial behavior; leadership; SMEs; innovation
Online: 24 December 2020 (08:48:59 CET)
The objective of this study is to identify how demographic characteristics (gender, age, seniority at work, and educational level) are related to the entrepreneurial behavior of companies. To comply with the above, a quantitative, transversal, and non-experimental research was carried out, which consisted in applying an instrument to 262 managers of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in a northern city in Mexico. The collected information was analyzed in the software SPSS, version 26 with statistical testing by the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis. The main findings dermore highly educated managers are those who contribute to this behavior of the studied companies, while gender and seniority at work are not differentiating elements in relation to the above. This research generates different possibilities of studies to be carried out in large companies from other sectors, as well as to include behavioral characteristics as study variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial competency; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial mindset; SEM; sustainable entrepreneurship
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:28:34 CEST)
Entrepreneurship has been viewed as an opportunity for economic development and changing economic scenarios in global markets. Women are viewed as a reservoir of entrepreneurial talent, so they can be growth engines in novel markets. Previous studies have considered entrepreneurship as the most effective way towards the economic empowerment of women. Female students engaged in entrepreneurial education have been addressed persistently, while what transforms them in an education process is still unclear. Considering the transforming global economy and its influence on higher education, this study aims to detect female students transforming entrepreneurial competency, mindset, and intention into sustainable entrepreneurship. Using a self-compiled survey, we targeted 752 female students to investigate their entrepreneurial competency, mindset, and intention. SPSS and AMOS were used to transform the data for interpretation. We assumed that the impact of female students’ entrepreneurial competency could be modified by an entrepreneurial mindset and result in entrepreneurial intention. To detect this causal relationship, this study employed reliability, factor, structural equation modeling (SEM), and bootstrap-ping analyses to verify the evidence. The result of the SEM confirms that female students’ entrepreneurial competency will, through their entrepreneurial mindset, impact entrepreneurial intention. With bootstrapping, 5000 samples were collected, and it was demonstrated that the measure constructs were still reliable in the model. This study found that there is a mediation effect between entrepreneurial competency and entrepreneurial intention. The entrepreneurial mindset plays a crucial role in the transformation process. Without an entrepreneurial mindset, entrepreneurial competency cannot exert a significant effect on entrepreneurial intention. The findings can help reinvent related entrepreneurial education in higher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0263.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: youth; secondary education; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial interest; psychological variables
Online: 23 January 2020 (10:02:46 CET)
Introduction: Studies of the socio-economic function of entrepreneurship have emphasized the critical role that entrepreneurial competence and its implementation play at different stages of the education system. In this paper, we seek to determine the entrepreneurial interest of Spanish youth aged between 15 to 18 years of age, who find themselves in the state-regulated education system, at an initial stage in the development of entrepreneurship. A previously validated ad hoc questionnaire was applied through simple random sampling to 1,764 students at a secondary school in Spain. The analysis is done with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), a technique that reduces the high dimensionality of data through Cooperative Maximum Likelihood Hebbian Learning (CMLHL), applying neurocomputational methods to the educational sciences. Spanish youth expressed a medium level of interest in entrepreneurship. Analysis with ANN shows that education in entrepreneurial competence is an influential aspect of interest in entrepreneurship. As conclusion, educational and curricular reforms must be undertaken to promote the development of entrepreneurial competence at various stages of compulsory education to increase interest in entrepreneurship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0049.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: youth; secondary education; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial interest; psychological variables
Online: 7 January 2019 (06:45:40 CET)
Background: Despite the abundant scientific literature on entrepreneurship, there is still only limited information on young students’ entrepreneurial intentions. The reasons may be generally found in the different conceptual approaches to entrepreneurial intention and particularly in the variables that regulate and act as antecedents to such intentions. This bias has generated different lines of investigation into the factors relating to entrepreneurial intention among students: one is centered on the variables that influence entrepreneurial intention, in particular, relational, educational, and psychological variables; and the other is centered on the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention, among which is entrepreneurial interest. Methods: In the present paper, we seek to analyze the relationship between the entrepreneurial interest of Spanish youth and a set of socio-educational, psychological, and health-related variables using principal component analysis. A previously validated ad hoc questionnaire was administered to 1764 students (15–18 years old). Results: Notably, few Spanish youth expressed significantly high entrepreneurial interest; those who did were mostly men with a family tradition of entrepreneurial parents, who held high perceptions of their health and quality of life and considered it important in business to detect opportunities beforehand and to create employment. Conclusions: Their principal motives were to improve their professional development, to put their ideas into practice, and to achieve economic independence. This paper proposes the early detection of entrepreneurial interests in young people in order to reinforce these interests as potential long-term initiatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0133.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial interest; youth, family; entrepreneurial eco-system; principal component analysis
Online: 10 February 2020 (15:52:32 CET)
As entrepreneurial interest is believed to represent a causal factor increasing entrepreneurship, research has begun to explore how family systems affect youth entrepreneurial interests. In the present study, we attempt to identify different types of family influence on the entrepreneurial interests of young people. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from 1,633 Spanish youths, who were 15 to 18 years old, and another questionnaire was used to obtain data from 839 parents. Principal Component Analysis identified unique family types and revealed that they have differential associations to entrepreneurial interest among youths. These findings reaffirm the influence of family on the entrepreneurial ecosystem and the promotion of an entrepreneurial family cuture. This study further suggests that early attention should focus on the detection of entrepreneurial interest among youths so that actions can be implemented in the families of low-interest youths to incentivize an entrepreneurial family culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0417.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: entrepreneurial skills; globalization; digital transformation; entrepreneurship education; entrepreneurial profile; frame of reference
Online: 18 May 2021 (11:02:33 CEST)
For most professionals to be successful in the current job market, they need some entrepreneurial skills (ES). This study aimed to describe and systematize these skills, considering the current globalization and digital transformation phenomena. The documental analysis and the critical reflection on the collected data allowed us to identify the socio-economic and socio-cultural reasons for the relevance of this problem. Consequently, to elaborate a frame of reference that is intended to be adequate to the needs of the professionals of the current global and digital era. The results pointed to a tripartite ES model - to be open to novelty, to create solutions to emerging problems, and to communicate effectively - which integrates the following skills: creativity and innovation, the spirit of initiative, self-efficacy and resilience, strategic planning, and evaluation, resolution of problems and decision-making, transformational leadership, clear and visual communication, teamwork and networking, and digital communication. In the continuation of this study, an ES scale will be created and validated according to this model, which will make it possible to measure the degree of development of these competencies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0432.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: entrepreneurial programs; pedagogical interventions; educational interventions; entrepreneurship education; entrepreneurial culture; effectiveness; globalization
Online: 16 April 2021 (10:33:48 CEST)
The number of entrepreneurship education programs (EEP) has increased exponentially over the past two decades. However, a systematic review has not yet been carried out to confirm the effectiveness of EEPs and their presence in the current global world. The main objective of this study was to provide a systematic synthesis of EEP, exploring their characteristics and effectiveness. The search was carried out in the following databases: Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest and ERIC. Twenty-nine articles were included, with programs developed mainly in European (n=15), Asian (n=6) and American (n=5) countries. The programs were mainly aimed at higher education students (n=17), addressing the development of business plans and entrepreneurial skills. However, greater attention is paid to the entrepreneurial skills in both basic and secondary education. The development of the programs under analysis varied between one week and two years. The results of the studies showed the effectiveness of most of these programs in promoting entrepreneurial skills at all levels of education. In turn, there was not a verified increase in the intention to start a business, since this intention is determined by predisposition, namely socio-cultural and family aspects. This systematic review of the EEP points to the need for this type of program to be preferentially developed since the early school years, since it is at that time that predispositions are created for the development of entrepreneurial skills and intentions. This condition is corroborated by the global geography of the EEP, which demonstrates that, where there is currently an entrepreneurial culture, countries have made a long educational journey, with strategic options from the perspective of educational policies defending entrepreneurship among the younger generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0661.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: Teaching materials, Mathematical literacy, Entrepreneurial Spirit
Online: 26 March 2021 (12:10:34 CET)
Mathematical literacy is a very hot issue in the development of mathematics learning, apart from mathematical literacy, another interesting thing is the entrepreneurial spirit that must be given from an early age, especially for vocational students. This research was conducted at SMK Rosma Karawang in the Department of Computer and Network Engineering, West Java Province with the XI grade students. The teaching materials developed by applying the principles of the development model developed with the ADDIE model consist of analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. This research and development model is considered suitable for developing teaching tools and materials which is used for the purposes of the learning process. Based on the results of data analysis and processing that have been carried out in this study, the development of teaching materials using the ADDIE model has met the appropriate and valid criteria by media, language and media expert valuators. Another result of developing this teaching material besides meeting the eligibility criteria is that the teaching materials developed are able to increase mathematical literacy and instill entrepreneurial spirit for students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0373.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: habitual entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial process; novice entrepreneurs
Online: 17 October 2018 (06:07:08 CEST)
Habitual entrepreneurs became an important group of entrepreneurs who make a large contribution to the process of wealth creation. Previous studies have indicated that habitual entrepreneurship is a widespread phenomenon. It highlights the need to focus on the habitual entrepreneurs to understand the dynamic aspect of entrepreneurship. The aim of the article is to present the results of preliminary research on the relationships of entrepreneurial behavior of novice entrepreneurs and habitual entrepreneurs, in particular their motivation and impact on the entrepreneurial process. Research were conducted on a sample of 373 small innovative enterprises in the fourth quarter of 2017. The scale of habitual entrepreneurs in the examined sample is 32.44% and is comparable with research carried out in other countries. Survey results reveal that habitual entrepreneurs have greater tendency to create opportunities (introduction new products or services) than novice entrepreneurs. Habitual entrepreneurs also have higher development rate (increase of turnover) and larger share in the international market than novice entrepreneurs. The article also contains indications for further research into the phenomenon of multiple entrepreneurship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0353.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: SMEs; Access to finance; SME’s entrepreneur; Entrepreneurial characteristics
Online: 25 October 2021 (12:59:01 CEST)
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) help and support the country in financial and business aspects and employs in the country, overcomes unemployment, and creates job opportunities in different sectors of the country. The study aims to know the entrepreneurial-specific factors like age, gender, education, experience, and skills used as predictors for access to financing of small firms in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The questionnaire is used for data collection, and about 204 questionnaires were distributed, of which 192 returned and analyzed through binary logistic regression. The study results reveal that age and level of education have been found significant while gender, experience and skills have insignificant with the access to finance in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: entrepreneurial culture, persistence, innovation capability, patent, high-tech industry
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:51:32 CEST)
Currently the rapid growth of global economy has the competition among high-tech industries develop from regional to global, and the competition becomes fierce. In face of such fierce competition in global high-tech industry, it is realized that tangible assets could no longer be the differentiation basis, but intangible assets are regarded as the differentiation capital. An enterprise with sustainable innovation would dominate the world market and enhance the international competitiveness of domestic economy. When internal entrepreneurial culture is prevalent, an enterprise would naturally promote the innovation capability. Such a point of view also explains more popular of the innovative products or services of some enterprises than those with larger scales. Aiming at employees in high-tech industry in Guanxi Province, total 500 copies of questionnaire are randomly distributed, and 337 valid copies are retrieved, with the retrieval rate 67%. The research results reveal significantly positive correlations between 1.entrepreneurial culture and sustainable innovation capability, 2.sustainable innovation capability and patent, and 3.entrepreneurial culture and patent. According to the results, suggestions are proposed, expecting to explain how a high-tech business outperforms in the changeable digital era and acquires the sustainable innovation capability and patent to grasp the opportunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0290.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: sustainable development agenda; higher education; employability competencies; entrepreneurial skills training
Online: 22 December 2019 (02:05:11 CET)
The objective of this paper is to analyze students’ assessments of the attainment of skills acquired by university graduates enrolled in a Training Programme (TP) to develop entrepreneurial skills and transversal employability competencies. Both of which are vital for the success of today's societies and play an important role in the sustainable development agenda. The TP was a twelve-week programme with six modules combining entrepreneurship training and traditional teaching methods. There were nine editions and 148 students worked in teams preparing business plans to present to consultants and potential investors. The Focal Group method was used to identify competencies and a survey was designed to identify the level to which skills were attained. The results suggest that the students attained both types of skills, acquiring a higher level of proficiency in entrepreneurial skills and those transversal competencies most connected to entrepreneurship. Additionally, different levels of attainment of entrepreneurial skills were found in different groups. We provide new evidence that TPs, as compulsory subjects in the core curriculum of degree programmes, will help accomplish both objectives: the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills and generic university educational competencies. The overall outcome of this research highlights the value added by the TPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0287.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Institutional support; new ventures; entrepreneurial orientation; innovation resource acquisition; innovation performance.
Online: 20 January 2022 (08:12:07 CET)
Based on the institutional theory and resource-based theory and the "institution-strategy-performance" research paradigm, this research explores the mechanism of institutional support on the innovation performance of new ventures, focusing on the mediating role of entrepreneurs and the moderating role of innovative resource acquisition. An empirical analysis based on 278 survey samples shows that: ① (formal/informal) institutional support positively affects the innovation performance of new ventures; ② entrepreneurial orientation plays an intermediary role between institutional support and innovation performance of new ventures; ③ innovation resource acquisition not only positively regulates the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and innovation performance of new ventures, but also enhances the mediation of entrepreneurial orientation between institutional support and innovation performance. The conclusion shows that institutional support plays an important role in the innovation practice of new ventures, and can provide guidance for the innovation management practices of new ventures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0276.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: entrepreneurial university; entrepreneurship; faculties of education; self-perception; triple helix; third mission; teacher training.
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:03:53 CEST)
Universities have increasingly incorporated a third mission into their strategic planning. In addition to teaching and research, they have emphasised the training of entrepreneurs. However, there is still a lot of work to be done, as this process is facing resistance. The Entrepreneurial University covers all disciplines, including faculties of education. However, it has been shown that entrepreneurship tends to be more related to the faculties of economics and engineering, with a lesser presence in the faculties of education for various reasons: they consider entrepreneurship to be alien to their teaching role, there is a lack of entrepreneurial culture, and the objective of the Entrepreneurial University is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyse the level of entrepreneurship in Spanish faculties and schools of education. Forty deans and heads of education faculties in Spain took part in the survey. The results indicated a sufficient level of entrepreneurship; the dimensions related to active methodologies, and mission and strategy were the most developed, whereas entrepreneurship funding and entrepreneurship training for faculty employees were the least developed areas. Some deans noted that entrepreneurship was alien to their professional performance, although courses and good practices for the development of entrepreneurial initiative are gradually being implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0279.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Three Seas Initiative; entrepreneurial potential; synthetic measure of economic anchor; economic lockdown; economy after COVID-19
Online: 14 January 2021 (16:17:12 CET)
This research is aimed at determining the characteristics of the current level of entrepreneurial potential of the Three Seas Initiative (3SI) countries, the ability to overcome the consequences of extraordinary events, such as COVID-19 and prospects for the return to an accelerated development once the destabiliser of the economic system, the coronavirus pandemic, has ceased. Eurostat, World Bank and the World Economic Forum data for 2015-2019 were used for the purpose of the research. The research was divided into three stages, i.e. assessment of economic development on the basis of a synthetic ratio of economic anchor development, for which a relative benchmark method based on spatial median (so-called L1 median or Weber point) was used, identification of conditions for the development of entrepreneurial capacity and statistical analysis showing the correlation between economic anchor measures and selected factors of the 3SI countries economic development. Our study found that the entrepreneurial capacity of the 3SI countries in 2015-2019 was determined by nine characteristics, belonging to six areas, i.e. local economy, demographic situation, social situation, trade exchange, innovation and tourism economy. The entrepreneurial potential of the 3SI countries was spatially diversified, and its development was determined, among others, by the entrepreneurial activity of residents (entrepreneurship index) and the conditions for running a business.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0232.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: green entrepreneurial orientation; supply chain learning; green innovation entrepreneurship; inter-organizational learning; learning capacity; technology innovation
Online: 16 May 2018 (11:09:08 CEST)
As a combination of both concepts of innovation and environmental development, green innovation is of great significance to the sustainable development of the country and industry. Previous literatures have found the separate roles of green entrepreneurial orientation and inter-organizational learning in understanding green innovation issues. However, few studies have done a comprehensive analysis of integrating three streams of research: green entrepreneurial orientation, green innovation and supply chain learning capability. Based on the resource-based view and dynamic capability theory, we examine the direct of green entrepreneurial orientation on green innovation as well as indirect effect through the mediation of supply chain learning capability. Meanwhile, an empirical data set of 228 manufacturing companies in China (Shaanxi, Guangdong, Hebei, Jiangsu, and Shandong) was used to test our hypotheses. Findings from our empirical study suggest that supply chain learning capability partially mediates the positive relationships between green entrepreneurial orientation and its two consequences—green incremental innovation and green radical innovation. In addition, this research implies that when enterprise has a strong green entrepreneurial orientation, the enterprise should make an effort to enhance the level of supply chain learning capability so as to fully develop their green innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0140.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: entrepreneurial sustainability strategy; system thinking; business process management; process improvements; innovation in higher education; sustainable organizational performance
Online: 16 January 2018 (10:44:40 CET)
The sustainable development of our world has gain particular attention of a wide range of decisional factors, civil society, business sector, and scientific community, seeing that the prosperity of people and society is possible with the aid of sustained and inclusive economic growth of all countries and regions. Educational environment has a decisive impact on changes in the way that societies are coping with national, regional, and global challenges and opportunities brought by sustainable development. Looking at the implications of HE on the progress of society, the paper addressed the lack of HE institutional capacity to integrate the principles and practices of sustainable development into all aspects of education and learning. The scope of research problem was bounded on the capability of HEI as organization and school to act as entrepreneurial university by combining the scope of its responsibility within the value chain through a practical and effective mechanism needed to align the strategy with sustainable development goals (SDGs). Embarking on the path of SDGs requires HEI to design, launch, implement, and customize specific processes architectures to govern the advance of sustainability approach. The authors applied the process scoping diagram to capture and conceptualize the educational model needed to guide the HEI through the process of change to embrace sustainability into organizational culture and daily operations. It has been used the SIPOC method (Supplier, Input, Process, Output, Customer) with Visio software tool to articulate processes relationships embedded in the educational model of HEI. The benefits relied on the organized view of the work processes needed to be performed to incorporate SDGs into the strategy of any entrepreneurial HEI. Finally, the authors shared their views on the scalability of the model which may be customized and harmonized in accordance with different HE circumstances and priorities. Implementing the proposed educational model requires long-term institutional commitment, transparency, continuous performance improvement, and communicating the strategy for SDGs and its achievements to wider stakeholders.