ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0591.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: education; underemployment; health
Online: 22 April 2021 (08:52:40 CEST)
Under the dual background of underemployment and health inequality, this paper empirically analyzes the impact of education level on underemployed workers’ health based on CLDS2016 data. The results show that underemployment is significantly related to the decline of self-rated health, increased depression tendency, and morbidity in a certain period. The results indicate that underemployment can significantly reduce the health level of workers in the low education level group and the high education level group. However, it has no significant impact on workers’ health in the middle education level group; even if we change the measurement method of indicators and consider endogeneity, the research conclusion is still robust. Moreover, this kind of health inequality mainly comes from the difference in economic effect and leisure effect of underemployment to workers with different educational levels. This paper provides empirical support for increasing the labor protection mechanism of underemployed people and reducing the health inequality caused by educational level differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Assessment; Institutional Support; Online Education; Tertiary Education; Covid-19; Bangladesh
Online: 1 April 2021 (09:03:02 CEST)
Institutional support and quality education are linked in a significant way. During Covid-19, institutional support is critical to closing the huge academic gap that has emerged as physical academic practices have been moved to a virtual education system using technology. This research aims to assess institutional support for online education in Bangladesh during the Covid-19 pandemic. This analysis is focused on the three main elements of the Adapted Model of Institutional Support (AMIS) of Bond et al, 2007, and the Institutional Support Model (ISM) of Valverde and Rodriguez, 2002, namely Financial Support (FS), Technical Support (TS), and Mentoring Support (MS). According to the findings, a few universities in Bangladesh have provided average support for continuing online education, while others have just started taking online classes. Several problems have been discovered, such as the lack of dedicated software for conducting online academic activities, lack of training and grooming, lack of mentoring, poor internet access, lack of smartphones, high internet package rates, and so on. This study concludes with some policy recommendations for a smooth online education system in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0394.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional intelligence; happiness; education level; students; general population
Online: 21 December 2022 (08:55:30 CET)
Emotional intelligence and educational level are commonly associated with success in life and well-being. While multiple studies have explored these concepts independently, few studies have examined the impact of educational level on emotional intelligence and associated variables, such as well-being. A total of N = 202 participants were recruited online. Participants completed measures of emotional intelligence, well-being (i.e., happiness, self-esteem, personal growth). Overall, participants who previously obtained a bachelor’s degree displayed higher levels of emotional intelligence, happiness, self-esteem, and personal growth compared to those without an undergraduate degree. However, no differences were observed on any variable between individuals currently enrolled in a university and non-students. The results suggest that, while completing a university degree increases emotional intelligence and well-being, the stress of being a student may negatively impact the benefits obtained from attending university. Limitations and possible directions for future research are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0341.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Inequality; Lorenz Curve; Education; Equity; demand and supply; Ethiopia
Online: 24 June 2022 (16:03:48 CEST)
Globally, inequalities in educational provision are prevalent between genders, various geographical regions, and among different socio-economic backgrounds. Consequently, this study set-out to assess the level of disparity among the Federal Regional States of Ethiopia using Gini-coefficient and Lorenz curve from the statistical data of MoE. Moreover, data were collected from 656 respondents found in the sample regions. The result of the Gini-coefficient indicated that disparity in educational provision has been reduced over the past couple of decades both at primary (0.145 to 0.032) and secondary levels (0.277 to 0.126). Emerging regions are by far lagging behind the central and established regions. The sources of variation were mainly the demand-side variables, especially the economic and contextual related issues like drought and conflicts. Therefore, educational policies designed at the central level are advised to consider the strategies to bridge the existing inequalities through equitable provision of the education system to its citizen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0139.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: organizational commitment; academic staff; gender; level of education
Online: 11 April 2019 (10:27:55 CEST)
Academic staffs’ organizational commitment has been a critical issue to determine work performance for successes of University, as well as, to keep its Academic staffs motivation granted for achieving better work performance. This subject has therefore, been investigated so as to draw attention for enhancement of effective work performance and success. The main objective of this study was to assess academic staffs’ level of organizational commitment in Haramaya University. The study also investigated whether significant differences exist in academic staffs’ level of organizational commitment in reference to their gender and level of education. Researchers used cross-sectional research design. Primary and secondary data sources were used to study the problem. A commitment scale questionnaire was used to collect data from 275 participants who were selected from 877 target population of the study using stratified sampling technique; furthermore, focus group discussion and document review were also used to triangulate the data. The quantitative data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics; the qualitative data were also analyzed using narration methods of analysis. The study revealed that academic staffs of the university have moderate level organizational commitment. This implies relatively no more expected effective work performance for success of the institution; In addition, there were relative implications of turnover, turnover intention, absenteeism, and demotivation among staffs. The study further revealed that although there is no significance difference in employees’ level of commitment with reference to gender, their level of organizational commitment was significantly different in reference to level of education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0020.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: BIM; SOLO; threshold concepts; green buildings; certificate systems; higher education
Online: 1 July 2019 (15:16:28 CEST)
Sustainable development (SD) is essential to reduce and mitigate climate change impacts, environmental deterioration and to increase social sustainability. SD is therefore highly relevant for the engineering profession and is today found integrated with the higher education of specific engineering programs. This paper investigated the knowledge of SD for students entering the master’s program in Sustainable Building Information Management (BIM) by comparing levels of knowledge at the start and end of the first course Sustainability, Analyses and Simulations. The level of knowledge of SD was analyzed by classifying students’ conceptions of sustainability using SOLO taxonomy and the spectrum of liminality and the threshold concept. Students written responses to the question “What do you know about sustainability?” and written group project reports were used for analyzing levels of knowledge of SD. Levels of knowledge of SD was classified as pre (pre-liminal or pre-structural); uni-structural, multi-structural, relational and post-stages (extended abstract or post-liminal). In total, 68% of the students entering the master’s program in 2017 and 88% in 2018 showed a pre-structural, uni-structural and multi-structural SD knowledge. In general, few students entering the program showed relational and post-stages of SD knowledge, 32% and 12% of the students in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The students at the post-stage were able to express themselves more individually and creatively compared to previous levels in that they could connect the dimensions of SD to the context of SD of buildings, but also argue why SD of buildings was important and they could also suggest actions or tools for improved SD that engineers should use. Only one group of five (in 2017) showed a post-stage level of knowledge in the group project report. It is likely that the student’s general approach to the work with the reports was to mainly cope with the course requirements which is a sign of surface approach to learning. It, therefore, seems reasonable that future developments of the course should ensure that the students use the scientific literature in their group project reports to make it easier for them to understand the relationship between software use and the connection to green buildings certificate systems and SD of buildings. By making it mandatory to include scientific literature in the reports the students will be encouraged to read and think critically, and deeper, and to put the practical implementation of the software analysis results into a scientific context of SD and BIM.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: service-learning methodology; environmental sciences; higher education; sustainable development goals; rubric
Online: 14 November 2019 (11:07:55 CET)
The Bologna Process and the European Higher Education area require the application of new active methodologies in the classroom that place the student at the center of his or her learning process. In the present work we analyze the application of a Service-Learning methodology in the context of a Final Degree Dissertation (FDD) in the degree in Environmental Sciences at the University of Extremadura (Spain). The project deals with an isolated Kichwa community in Ecuador and involves the development of alternative science education materials for the capacitation of in-service science teachers. This paper evaluates how an FDD carried out according to self-learning (SL) principles can help in the acquisition of so-called soft skills and how these can be focused in the promotion of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) knowledge and achievement. To this end, a qualitative study of the experience and a deep evaluation, followed by a final reflection, were carried out. According to the preliminary results, we can conclude that Higher Education should include SDGs in its teaching praxis and could do this successfully using the SL methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: geography education; tourism education; curriculum; textbook; secondary education
Online: 19 December 2022 (10:09:48 CET)
Since the mid-20th century, tourism has become a strategic activity for the economy of the Balearic Islands, causing profound social, territorial and environmental transformations. This fact challenges local society, which must be aware of its environment in order to better face the future challenges posed by this economic activity. With this goal, the official curriculum has been analyzed, making it possible to ascertain the approach with which this subject is taught by the administration and what objectives are set. Furthermore, a review was carried out of the contents of geography textbooks in the third year of ESO and the second year of Baccalaureate, which correspond to the educational stages in which tourism aspects appear. The results obtained represent a fundamental strategic diagnosis in order to improve the teaching and learning of this key activity for the Balearic Islands, giving it more importance and adapting its approach to the current times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: General education; Basic education; School governance; Secondary education.
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:45:45 CEST)
In Vietnam, general education includes primary education, lower secondary education (the period of basic education) and upper secondary education (the period of vocational orientation education). In particular, primary education is compulsory for all children from 6 to 14 years old, is implemented in 5 school years, from first grade to fifth grade. The age of students entering first grade is six years old. Primary education aims to help students form the initial foundations for proper and long-term development of morality, intelligence, physicality, aesthetics and basic skills for students to continue high school. Secondary education is conducted in four school years, from grade six to grade nine. Students entering sixth grade must have an elementary school diploma. Secondary education aims to help students consolidate and develop the results of primary education; have basic secondary education and initial knowledge about technology and career to continue high school, vocational high school, vocational training or enter a working life. High school education is conducted in 3 school years, from grade ten to grade twelve. Students entering tenth grade must have a junior high school diploma. High school education is aimed at helping students consolidate and develop the outcomes of lower secondary education, complete high school education and common knowledge about technology and career guidance for further college education, college, professional secondary school, apprenticeship or enter the working life. Thus, the term general education is a term with broad connotation including primary education, lower secondary education (basic education period) and upper secondary education (education period) career orientation. Within the scope of this research, we use the term school governance used to mean a mode of action, which is directed toward the goal of being accomplished effectively, by and through others. Governance activities are indispensable activities that arise when people work together to accomplish goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: NEP; new education policy; Indian education system; technology in education; outcome based education
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:39:53 CEST)
Bridging the gap between traditional education and matching the pace of education with the rest of the world, Govt. of India implemented a new education policy this year which was much awaited for a long time. The new education policy is a big step to change India's overall education scenario by changing the examination pattern. However, this new type of decision-making process seeks to ensure that it achieves great benefits covering all uncovered elements while keeping technology as a parameter, so this new policy in the previous education system is also missing some key issues that must be addressed in the next amendments. Making it an example of impact, this paper describes salient issues where new educational policies are silent or those grey areas have been only superficially touched upon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sexual education; affective education; health education; school; qualitative research.
Online: 4 February 2021 (15:30:56 CET)
Sexual education is a part of the teaching-learning process that addresses cognitive, psychological, physical and social aspects of sexuality. The purpose of sexual education is to provide people with knowledge, abilities, attitudes and values that will help them to have good sexual health, well-being and dignity. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and opinions of primary school teachers regarding Sexual Education in school. A descriptive qualitative study was designed based on content analysis. Twelve open-ended interviews with primary school teachers were carried out, followed by inductive data analysis using ATLAS.ti software. Two key themes emerged from the analysis: ‘In search of a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education’ and ‘Barriers to Sexual Education in schools: From the lack of training to fear of the families’. We conclude that despite the efforts to implement a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education that recognises sexuality as a right, primary school teachers face difficulties in delivering Sexual Education in schools due to a lack of training and the fear that parents will reject their children being spoken to about sexuality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0515.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Positive education; Pygmalion effect; learned helplessness; lifelong education; adult education
Online: 29 November 2021 (07:52:15 CET)
Positive education is seen as a transformative methodological approach capable of improving the act of teaching and learning and, above all, essential for the development of students' personal skills and competences. However, few studies have been carried out on this subject in the field of lifelong and adult education. This study works with a sample of 399 people over 16 years of age and students of the Universidad Popular de Dos Hermanas in order to show the relationship between the Pygmalion effect and learned helplessness in the process of acquiring knowledge in adulthood. In this way, three tools were used: a questionnaire that showed teachers' perceptions of students' qualities and behaviour and two that provided information on self-concept, self-esteem, personal and social skills and other variables directly related to emotional intelligence and positive education. It shows how exposure to negative operational conditioning factors influences the psychosocial and socio-educational development of students in every possible way, while on the other hand, it indicates the importance of positive education to compensate for this phenomenology by improving the development and growth of those who study and participate in non-formal education. Likewise, the factorial interrelation of both positive and negative conditioning factors and their incidence on learning is shown; the importance of neutralising the negative components and strengthening the positive reinforcement and the role played by the community and education professionals as catalysts and behavioural modulators at any stage of learning and age group for the achievement of the objectives of the student and of education itself in a broad sense
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0562.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: ICT; digital competence; innovative education; primary education; early childhood education
Online: 23 March 2021 (10:40:16 CET)
Digital Educational Recourses (DER) have undergone a rapid evolution and integration into the educational contexts. Teachers play a fundamental role in incorporating technology into their classrooms, so it is important to identify the value that teachers on DER and reflect on the implications for their practice. Through the qualitative methodology the necessary data is obtained with open-response inter-views with teachers. This dataset was analysed and categorised using AQUAD. The results suggest that teachers acknowledge the importance of integrating digital re-sources into their classrooms, although there was no consensus regarding the appropriate level at which to do so. Further the inter-views revealed that younger teachers tend to use more self-elaborated or selected resources. Teachers noted the benefits of using technology, especially in regard to maintaining student motivation, how-ever they also highlighted a number of extrinsic challenges and limitations. The results indicate there is a relationship between teachers’ perceptions and their practice, although this could be improved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0551.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; preschool education; inclusion; public policies
Online: 9 May 2023 (03:41:10 CEST)
In this study, we analyze the perspectives of Early Childhood Educators, working in various teaching sectors, on Inclusion in Preschool Education, following the publication of Decree-Law No. 54/2018, of July 6th, at a time when Learning and Inclusion Support Measures are being extended to all children, and when the SARS-CoV-19 (COVID-19) pandemic prevails in Portugal and worldwide. Based on a mixed-methodological approach and the application of a questionnaire survey to 250 Early Childhood Educators, we reflect on the implementation of the legal framework, the involvement of the Multidisciplinary Learning and Inclusion Support Team (EMAEI), teacher training, pedagogical/collaborative work, and support mobilized for Preschool Education children. The results obtained indicate quality and effectiveness in the pedagogical plan and collaborative work between teachers and specialist technicians, although higher education in the field of Inclusive Education does not seem to provide professionals with the necessary and in-depth knowledge on the subject. They also indicate that, alongside dissatisfaction with the insufficient support provided to Preschool Education children, the relevant Diploma is not fully applied, with doubts still remaining about its application.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Medical education; Linking research and education
Online: 10 July 2020 (15:59:53 CEST)
On the 30thanniversary of the Karolinska Institutet Summer Research School for High School students an evaluation was carried out of the school’s activities. The evaluation was performed by questionnaire sent to 533 former students and also by searching the KI course registration database for all former students who went on to register in under- or postgraduate education at KI. Approximately half of all former Summer School students performed their undergraduate studies at KI, predominantly in the medical program. Those were far more likely to choose a research-oriented education than their peers. KI Medical students who previously attended the Summer School were also more likely to later register for PhD education than their peers who did not attend the summer school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0528.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education; Health; Emotions; Materials; Physical Education; Emotional Intelligence; Emotional Education; Elderly
Online: 31 August 2022 (02:46:14 CEST)
This research is aimed at the knowledge of the effectiveness of the material resources in the sensa-tions of exploratory procedures in 365 older people who take part in the physical activity that the Sport Municipal Institute (SMI) offers in the different sports centers assigned to it in the city of Se-ville, using a descriptive design and with a questionnaire developed and validated previously by the Delphi method; showing the relationship between the basic emotions that seniors experience when handling sport, and the materials. So it is claimed that exist a relation between older people, which practice exercise with the materials that they use on it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: mathematics education; special education; problem solving; critical mathematics education; disability studies
Online: 13 April 2017 (10:11:23 CEST)
Students with disabilities are often framed as “the problem” and have limited opportunities to engage in standards based mathematics, leading to persistent underachievement. In this paper, we investigate a research divide between mathematics educational research for students with and without disabilities, a divide with significant differences in the theoretical orientations and research methodologies used to understand learners. Based on an analysis of 149 mathematics educational research articles published between 2013 and 2015, we found significant differences between articles focused on learners with and without disabilities. For those with disabilities, mathematical problem solving was understood primarily from behavioral and information processing theoretical perspectives, while for those without disabilities, problem solving was understood primarily through constructivist and sociocultural perspectives. While 86% of research on problem-solving including students with disabilities was quantitative, only 35% of research on students without disabilities was quantitative. Fifty percent of problem-solving research on students without disabilities was qualitative, compared to only 6% of research on students with disabilities. Problem solving, then, is studied in very different ways for learners with and without disabilities. Students without disabilities are studied through close analysis of learning, often individual. Students with disabilities are most often studied quantitatively, in groups, with little analysis of individual thinking. By offering only a limited range of methods and theoretical orientations, this research divide reifies deficit constructions of students with disabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: circular economy; eco-design; business education; economics education; competencies; Management Education; ADKAR
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:57:09 CEST)
The Circular Economy is matter of recent discussions and quite popular, however the meaning has not been understood by most Business stakeholders. This Case study proposes to illustrate the Circular Economy importance and its status now. The contribution that UAE education sector can make to the Circular Economy is immense and is the focus of this study. Circular Economy awareness and its inner meaning can be only spread by the education sector and the author emphasizes the role of the education can play in implementing the Circular Economy. The study shows the way for the future Managers and Business stakeholders to participate in this crucial endeavor of Businesses to follow the Circular Economy. The ADKAR change management can be adopted to inspire the CE initiatives of the UAE Education sector.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0237.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Higher Education Act; Higher Education; Zambia; Universities
Online: 13 January 2023 (06:33:31 CET)
The higher education act of 2013 with its amendment act of 2021 was enacted to guide and regulate the provision of higher education in Zambia. This conceptual paper sought to assess the impact of this act in the higher education sector. It was qualitative in design and data was collected using content analysis. In this regard, literature regarding the Zambia higher education act and higher education provisions were scrutinised. The findings show that the higher education act has resulted in the creation of the higher education authority (HEA) which has brought sanity to the higher education sector by compelling all higher education institutions to be registering themselves and programmes with HEA. Further, the HEA has developed a policy for the promotion of academic staff in the higher education sector. However, the higher education act (the amended act of 2021) has negatively impacted the higher education sector. The amended act outlawed the spirit of accountability in the running of universities by removing stakeholders such as unions from sitting on the university council. Further, the act has reduced the number of councillors to sit on the council to run public universities from 16 to 8, thereby limiting the diversity of membership to the council. Furthermore, the higher education act has opened higher education institutions' affiliations to even private universities with little or no capacity, thereby further compromising the quality of higher. The Act has also increased the cost of running universities by introducing additional administrative structures in universities. Based on the above findings, the paper recommends that the Act be amended to remove the retrogressive clauses highlighted in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0257.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: health education; secondary school; physical education teacher
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:42:33 CEST)
Preparation of students for adult life also includes the area of health care. Health education is part of the core curriculum of Polish schools. The leading role of the health educator is assumed by the physical education teacher, but many other educational tasks are carried out by all school staff. The present study attempts to answer the question: How is health education implemented at school? The research project was carried out among students of various colleges in the city of Szczecin in Poland. At the same time, similar studies were conducted among students from other university in other cities. The research method was a diagnostic survey, with the main assessment tool being the ‘Questionnaire for Assessment of Implementation of Physical Education at Secondary School’ by Krystyna Górna-Łukasik from the Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice. On the basis of the study results, an attempt was made to determine the forms and methods of work and the involvement of various types of teachers in health education. The statistical analysis sought correlations between the students' opinions about the ways in which the curriculum content was implemented, university majors, and PE teachers’ sex.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0096.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: ESD; transformative education; transmissive education; SDGs; HEIs
Online: 9 September 2019 (09:47:00 CEST)
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is a global initiative towards transforming education for sustainability. The integration of SD into the education portfolio is considered to be an important approach that ensures strategic alignment of higher education with SDGs. A document review was used to identify and discuss the difference between transmissive and transformative education in relation to SDGs and in the context of Somali education. In this trajectory, it is expected that the concept of ‘‘transformative education is likely to become more common to meet the emerging social, economic and environmental issues, yet practical challenges remain in Somaliland HE sector. The roadmap towards addressing transformative education for sustainability is not included in the Somaliland national portfolios; particularly ESD has not been presented. In this regard, this paper proposed a generic framework that spotlights the integration of HEIs and the national development goals (NDGs) in Somaliland. Meanwhile, developed and developing countries are prioritizing structural transformation in their HEIs that are tailored to national and regional development programs. Consistent with the Rio + 20 outcomes, the authors analyzed the concept of the ‘‘sustainable university’’ and identified the fact that it is practically divided into three interrelated and complementary categories, namely social-, environmental-, and economic-oriented university in pursuit of actualizing SD. The paper recommends major reforms in the education sector including availing investment portfolios for R&D, renovation of education goals and transforming universities for sustainability
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0450.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable education; gender effect; physics education; sustainability
Online: 27 August 2018 (10:58:59 CEST)
Determination of the parameters of the movement of surrounding objects, and in particular their speed, is one of the basic skills of a human being. The study of development of basic concepts of motion has been done for years with different methods and in different contexts. We have analyzed the effect of the physical/scientific image of the world introduced to children by school education and its long- and short-term cognitive consequences. Our studies showed that children differentiate the concept of speed into two more specific concepts: average speed and instantaneous velocity. In the present work we present how the gender context is superimposed on this general picture. We found that initial, genuine pre-school concept of speed of girls and boys is, on average, different. Our analysis shows also that this gender effect vanishes quickly together with the appearance of physical definitions of kinematical quantities in physics/science curricula. We discuss also methodological aspect of the statistical ‘gender gap’ measure and we calculated the gender effect chance probability, p-value, to be slightly less than 0.001. The importance of observed effect for the sustainable science teaching processes is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: physical education, emotions, social skills, primary education
Online: 19 April 2018 (16:43:03 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to explore the intensity of emotions and social skills in a physical education teaching unit (PE). Two instruments of analysis are used: the GES (Games and Emotion Scale) to evaluate emotions and an ad-hoc questionnaire to measure the social skills of 21 students in the sixth year of primary education. The data analysis was carried out using a generalised estimating equation model (GEE), taking into account the correlation between the different scores of the same subject and the asymmetry of the data. The results show positive emotions to be significantly more intense than negative ones and ambiguous emotions are revealed throughout all the PE sessions.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0047.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Zambia’s Higher Education Policy; Policies in Higher Education; Education and Policies in Zambia
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:46:40 CET)
Policies are adopted and implemented to achieve specific goals. In this regard, the Government of Zambia in 2019 adopted the higher education policy with many objectives which include, the expansion of access to higher education; reduction of gender and other forms of inequity in accessing higher education; the improvement of quality of higher education by increasing funding to higher education institutions, construction, and repair of infrastructure in higher and improvement in the provision of learning materials in higher education institutions (HEIs).This paper, therefore, sought to evaluate the higher education policy of 2019. The four criteria were used namely; effectiveness, equity, policy sustainability, and consistency. Other principles such as political and social acceptability of a policy were not used because the policy is already adopted and being implemented. Further, the principle of efficiency was not used because it would have been problematic to gauge the expenditure against the outcomes.The findings have revealed that the policy to some extent has been effective; some of the objectives such as increased access to higher education and reduction of inequality have been partially achieved. It has been established that the number of students pursuing higher education has been increased to 114,049 in 2020 from 91,969 in 2017. Further, in 2021, 48.5% of scholarships in public universities were awarded to female students while 51.5% were awarded to female students. Further, more students are encouraged to pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and more women are pursuing studies in STEM-related fields. However, the policy has not helped to achieve the quality of higher education as funding in public HEIs has not improved. Further, infrastructure remains very poor and inadequate; and access to update and relevant learning materials also remains a challenge in HEIs. However, the policy seems to be duplicated by the recent re-launched Technical Education Vocation Entrepreneurship Training (TEVET) national policy.Given the above findings, it has been recommended that the government among other things improve funding and build infrastructure in public HEIs. There is also a need to harmonise the TEVET national policy with the higher education policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0050.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Religious Education; Catholic schools; Catholic education; ecclesiastical drift
Online: 2 November 2022 (08:39:55 CET)
Just when Catholic school Religious Education (RE) needs to be more outwardly focused on the contemporary search for meaning, its discourse has ‘drifted’ almost so exclusively into ecclesiastical terminology that its value as a spiritual/moral subject is being eroded –creating an ever widening discontinuity with classroom realities and young people’s spirituality. Religious educators’ perceptions of this problem, labelled as ‘ecclesiastical drift’, were investigated. While ecclesiastical terms were respected, issues related to their excessive usage were identified. By contrast, the unanimous, positive endorsement of educational terms raises the question why such language is largely missing from many Catholic accounts of RE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Diversity; Equality; Dental Education; Career Progression; Higher Education
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:40:53 CET)
IntroductionDiversity is known to be important but diversity of staff working in dental schools in the UK and Ireland is low in comparison with the dental profession and the overall population. AimsTo provide a detailed snapshot of the diversity of dental academic staff in 2021 including staff working in academic and clinical roles.MethodsAn online survey was circulated to dental schools by Dental Schools Council. Questions included dates of graduation and key career milestones, demographics and indicators of esteem. Free text questions were also included.ResultsThere was a high degree of variability in dental academic careers which made direct comparisons difficult. Neither gender nor race appeared to be associated with a faster career progression. Females and those of racialised minority were less represented at the most senior grades. For those who had completed specialty training, racialised minority staff were far less likely to be working at consultant grade than their White equivalents.ConclusionThere are differences in career progression between staff in dental schools. The high amount of individual variability makes these difficult to quantify except at the most senior positions. Qualitative information is needed to contextualise the results and provide additional information.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0167.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Anatomy; Medical Education; Teaching; Students; Graduate Medical Education
Online: 14 June 2020 (04:20:42 CEST)
Background: During anatomy (topographic) chair, we prepared an anatomic piece of an older female pelvis (unknown causa mortis). Here, we present an anatomic piece prepared by medical students that helped us to better understand hypertrophic bladder pathophysiology. Methods: A traditional corpse dissection guided by an assistant professor. Results: Corpse dissection enhanced our personal experience during the medical course. It also helped us to better visualize how big a hypertrophic urinary bladder can become as the etiologic cause is not taken care. Conclusions: Despite virtual and 3D anatomy lessons, we believe corpse dissection must remain as a teaching strategy that can help to build a new generation of surgeons as well as honor the History of Medicine.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0049.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Zambia; Higher Education and Quality Assurance; Zambia’s Higher Education
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:58:38 CET)
This paper discussed the concept of quality assurance (QA) in higher education and its implications to higher education institutions (HEIs) and the possible challenges. The study evaluated literature concerning QA in Zambia and elsewhere. The findings of the study show that QA is implemented through external and internal mechanisms such as accreditation, registration, institutional auditing, and the use of external examiners, self-evaluation, and peer reviews. The QA implications to HEIs in Zambia are that there is a need for accreditation of academic programmes with the Higher Education Authority (HEA) by HEIs. Further, HEIs should establish QA units to spearhead quality issues, reactive, and introduce the use of external examiners to ensure quality. The challenges identified in the implementation of QA in HEIs include inadequate funding, infrastructure, shortage of qualified academic staff, and lack of standalone QA units in some HEIs. In this regard, it has been recommended among other things, government improve funding in public HEIs, construct infrastructure, HEIs establish QA units, and recruit and retain qualified academic staff to ensure the quality of education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0988.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Augmented reality; Teacher Education; SLR; Digital technologies for education
Online: 26 April 2023 (12:39:33 CEST)
The Practicum is regarded as a fundamental aspect of the training of prospective teachers. In addition, digital tools are increasingly used to enrich a traditional face-to-face experience. However, the technological exploitation of augmented reality (AR) by undergraduate students studying early childhood and primary education is low. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) on the use of augmented reality (AR) in teacher training was conducted. Based on the overarching objectives of the ERASMUS+ project, entitled Digital Practicum 3.0 Exploring Augmented Reality, Remote Classrooms, and Virtual Learning to Enrich and Expand Preservice Teacher Education Preparation (2020-1-ES01-KA226-HE- 096120), the ultimate purpose of this study was to assess whether the use of this resource favors learning and expertise. Two main results are prominent. First, it is noteworthy how the use of this digital technology is limited, given the scarcity of studies. Second, the research studies available focus largely on the benefits of the use of AR in teacher education at a theoretical level. Thus, future research needs to further explore the use of AR in teacher training specially focused on the student teachers’ learning processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0212.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Education; effectiveness; intervention; food and nutrition education; knowledge; schoolchildren
Online: 9 September 2022 (07:43:19 CEST)
School-aged children may benefit from education interventions focused on healthy eating and physical activity to improve their quality of life. This article aims to review scientific evidence on food and nutrition education (FNE) in Spanish-speaking countries for the prevention of overweight and obesity in school-aged children (6-12 y). Articles were searched between April and August 2021. The searches were conducted using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and SciELO. The primary search for articles focused on the experience of FNE interventions in Spanish-speaking countries. Overall, 518 articles were found and 33 studies were eligible for data extraction. Forty-two percent of the studies had a focus on FNE and 64% were focused on describing the eating habits of schoolchildren. Nutritional assessments (anthropometric) were found frequently with 91% and 30% of the studies focused on physical activity. All interventions focused on preventing or reducing overweight and obesity in school-age children. Educational, cognitive, dietary, and physical activity practices were described, whit being educational the most frequent intervention. Interventions reported positive effects of FNE interventions to improve knowledge and practices of healthy lifestyles in school-age children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Catholic education; Catholic schools; Religious Education; de-traditionalised culture
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:37:19 CEST)
Philip Phenix’s (1964) book Realms of meaning started the ever growing movement concerned with how school education might help young people in their search for meaning in times of rapid social change. Today, in globalised, digital, secularised, de-traditionalised culture, the importance and urgency of this role have never been greater. Cultural change has accelerated exponentially, and for many – including students in religious/Catholic schools – traditional religious sources of meaning are no longer prominent or plausible reference points. Catholic schools, whether independent or semi-state institutions because of government funding, can make a valuable contribution young people’s spiritual/moral education, no matter what their level of religious affiliation or practice. This article argues that such a contribution requires change to the discourse or narrative of Catholic school Religious Education, with corresponding adjustments to content and pedagogy. Its present trajectory, which is excessively concerned with promoting a Catholic identity in students, needs to be modified. Both the religious and non-religious students, especially in the senior classes, would derive greater spiritual and religious benefit from the inclusion of more life-relevant and issue-related content, together with a critical, research-oriented pedagogy. Such an approach proposes that the Catholic Church’s schools should offer unconditionally a meaningful spiritual/moral education that is relevant to all students, rather than a traditional one which seemed to presume that all students are, or should be practising Catholics. This does not minimise attention to the Catholic tradition, but it allows for a study of how people negotiate the task of constructing meaning and values in a complex culture. The article also looks at the ‘headwinds’ that hinder the implementation of this approach. The article is focused specifically on the Australian context where Catholic schools are semi-state institutions because they are funded by both state and federal governments. The issues are still likely to be pertinent to Catholic education in other countries, while taking into account significant contextual differences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0280.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: serious games; science education; games in education; augmented reality
Online: 9 November 2020 (11:29:49 CET)
Keeping in mind the increasing trend and need for serious games in science education, we have done a systematic literature review. These papers show the trends and patterns of research carried out in this field from the year 2011 to 2020. Specifically, we investigated country-wise concentration and the most common evaluation methods. Literature is reviewed from IEEEexplore, Springer, and Scopus. Moreover, we discussed the role of Augmented Reality(AR) games in teaching physics. Lastly, we have discussed the positive and negative aspects of serious games in science education in particular, and the trend of using serious games in the past decade in education in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainability; Green Engineering; curriculum development; chemical education; engineering education
Online: 17 February 2018 (13:23:39 CET)
The purpose of this study was to develop e-learning activities that integrated sustainability concepts and practices in process engineering education. Two blended courses were developed with two activities evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively to measure student engagement, quality of responses, and incorporation of sustainability in their arguments. Social network analysis and lexical analysis were used to assess students’ participation in discussions and peer reviews. In the online discussion, 97 comments were made averaging 120 words per comment. The participants averaged 3.88 comments, with the majority of comments exhibiting simple and complex argumentation, a deep reflection, and widespread use of terms associated with sustainability such as recycling, pollution, waste, and environment. Furthermore, evaluation of peer reviews revealed that the participants demonstrated they could identify errors and positives in an argument. Therefore, this study demonstrated that e-learning, particularly peer review and online discussion could help chemistry and engineering students understand sustainability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1205.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Sustainability; Education
Online: 29 April 2023 (04:22:29 CEST)
The importance of transforming to a sustainable economy to protect against global crises such as climate change is widely recognized. Sustainable entrepreneurs are seen as playing a key role in this transformation process by creating innovative market solutions with environmental, social, and economic value. To date, there is no consensus on the skills education should deliver to create sustainable entrepreneurs to solve sustainability challenges. The goal of this article is to identify sustainable entrepreneurship education factors that enable effective education of future sustainable entrepreneurs. An academic search engine and bibliographic database were searched for documents written in English and published between 2012 and April 2023 to identify existing educational models discussed in the current literature in sustainable entrepreneurship education (SEE). The review process resulted in a set of 59 empirical and non-empirical papers on SEE. The data analysis revealed different educational frameworks for sustainable entrepreneurship (SE), both developed for use in higher education institutions and secondary schools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0645.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: architecture; education; practice
Online: 23 April 2021 (17:49:48 CEST)
The balance between theory and practice in architectural education is a permanent element of the discussion on teaching architecture. The article discusses the method of implementation of practical knowledge of the architectural profession at Poland’s largest department of architecture – Cracow University of Technology. Showing the subsequent stages of the education process on the way to obtaining authorization to independent design in Poland. Against this background, the didactic methods used in the initially experimental subject and now regular one taught at the Faculty of Architecture of the Technical University of Cracow together with the Chamber of Architects of the Republic of Poland since 2018 are discussed. The results of this collaboration and the didactic effects are discussed. The experience of adapting methods for remote education in connection with the pandemic of Covid-19 is also presented. In conclusion, because of the obtained results in response to the legal changes introduced by the State, the proposed new model of professional practice is discussed which, in the coming years, will cover all architecture universities in Poland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0769.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Economics education; Sustainability
Online: 31 March 2021 (14:40:02 CEST)
The goals of the Agenda 2030 require a significant effort to educate and train new generations on sustainability issues. This article presents an initiative in favor of the evolution of the contents and the pedagogy of economics at the University level. We present the new “Ecological Money and Finance” textbook developed by SDSN France. We detail the assumptions, contents and learning objectives proposed in this new textbook. Then, we describe how it can be used in the framework of an experiential pedagogy of economics, taking as a case study the fundamental economics course of the Grande Ecole program at KEDGE BS.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: neurology; neurophobia; education
Online: 24 February 2021 (10:09:54 CET)
Background: Neurological disorders are the leading cause disability in Australia and the world. Combating the perceived difficulty of neurology or “neurophobia” and improving physician education is a key component in addressing this problem. We aim to conduct the first study to identify whether neurophobia exists in medical students and junior doctors in an Australian population and try to identify factors that may contribute to this in this population. Methods: A 24 question online validated survey was distributed via email broadcast to all medical students and junior doctors at a metropolitan tertiary care centre in Australia. Responses were collected over 6 weeks with weekly reminder emails for 4 weeks after the initial invitation email. Results: 114 medical students and junior doctors participated in the study. Participants perceived neurology as the most difficult medical speciality compared to 10 other medical specialties (p=0.001). The top three factors contributing to this perceived difficulty were: a lack of understanding of neuroanatomy, lack of diagnostic certainty and lack of clinical exposure. 65% of the participants stated that they had too little planned teaching in neurology with only 36% of the participants having performed a neurology rotation during medical school. Conclusion: The prevalence of neurophobia in this Australian cohort of medical students and junior doctors is consistent with previous findings from around the world. This concerning finding requires further examination into the contributing factors in order to created trials of targeted interventions in order to resolve this.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: interprofessional; education; pharmacist
Online: 27 September 2018 (03:46:07 CEST)
There are no widely established models for postgraduate interprofessional (IPE) events. Due to low number of healthcare professionals (HCPS) on the island of Guernsey, pharmacist continuing professional development (CPD) events incorporate an IPE element making it a unique CPD model. This study evaluates an event that took place in April 2015, to support identification of positive attributes of the event as an IPE case study. From 33 attendees 29 [88%] evaluation forms were returned covering an audience including pharmacists, doctors and nurses. Although the event increased knowledge and understanding of the topic, there was a statistical difference when comparing anticipated change in practice [p<.05], with over half [n=15, 51.7%] saying the learning would not change their practice. No significant differences in responses were seen between different professional groups. Attendees were positive about learning with other HCPs. The focus group comprising 6 professionals identified a key theme of ‘factors affecting attendance at an IPE event’ with four subthemes; IPE and networking, topic, convenience and CPD. All professions were open to and saw the benefit of IPE. Face-to-face events were preferred, facilitated by an expert speaker, with a topic that has relevance to multi-professions. Post qualification IPE events allow a synchronised view of a topic and should be encouraged in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Empathy; Emotional Education; Emotional Intelligence; Emotional competences; pre-primary Education
Online: 16 December 2022 (14:05:19 CET)
Today, concepts such as Emotional Education and Emotional Intelligence are recognized by many authors and researchers, emphasizing the importance of their development in all people, but especially in schools, specifically in teachers or educators and children. However, we still find many shortcomings within the schools that are needed to continue working. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of emotional intelligence and empathy in teachers, through a sample of 42 participants. The research was conducted based on two validated and highly reliable assessment tools, called TMMS-24 and TECA. The results of the TMMS-24 indicate that a large percentage of participants have an adequate score of emotional intelligence. The results of the TECA indicate that most of the participants are in the middle, high or extremely high scores in relation to the level of empathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Teacher training; moral education; values system; higher education; SARS-CoV2
Online: 1 April 2022 (11:29:54 CEST)
To determine the ethical-attitudinal profile of university students in the education career during the pandemic with a tendency towards a new normality. University students of the education career were surveyed online, in an ethical key (axiological attitude, moral attitude and attitude towards new normality). The research was descriptive of univariate hypothesis, with non-probabilistic snowball sampling, reaching a sample of 480 participants. The Ethical-Attitudinal Profile Scale (EPEA) was designed, whose reliability was 0.93 in Lawshe's formula and 0.89 in Cronbach's Alpha. In the axiological attitude, values were obtained more frequently: respect with 79%, sincerity with 73%, prudence with 72%. In the moral attitude, a polar result is contrasted between laxity (67%) and kindness (45%); while, in the attitude towards new normality, there was no spike in frequencies, being distributed more homogeneously between indicators, with a low resilience index. There is an adequate evaluative profile of the university students of the education career despite the context of the pandemic and the trend towards a new normality; having a moral attitude of laxity inferred by the circumstances of uncertainty that are experienced in adverse contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: University; emotional education; social ambit; cognitive domain; physical education degree
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:21:11 CET)
The objective of the present study was to apply an intervention program based on emotional ed-ucation and self-knowledge, in students of the degree in Education to verify changes in wisdom. For this, the 3S-WS questionnaire was administered before and after 8 weeks of intervention, an-alyzing aspects related to affective, cognitive and reflective wisdom. The sample consisted of 100 students (40 men and 60 women, aged between 20 and 29 years). After the intervention program, students improved reflective wisdom without difference between sexes. On the other hand, men had higher values in all variables than women. In conclusion, the program to improve personal development and self-awareness could be useful to improve wisdom (especially reflective wis-dom) in 3rd and 4th year students of the degree in Education, specializing in Physical Education. At the same time, it is intended that these students understand the foundations of the intervention so that in the future it can be replicated in their classrooms and contribute to the sustainable de-velopment of the 2030 Agenda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0091.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Teaching profile; Educational Innovation; Higher Education; Entrepreneurship; Ecuador; Education 4.0
Online: 2 March 2021 (12:46:27 CET)
Education 4.0 postulates the flexible combining of digital literacy, critical thinking, and problem-solving in training environments linked to real-world scenarios. Therefore, teachers are challenged to find or develop new methods and resources to integrate into their curricula to help students develop these desirable and necessary skills; hence, the question: What are the characteristics of a teacher to consider within the framework of Education 4.0? This article presents a study carried out in a higher education institution in Ecuador. The objective was to identify the teaching profile required in new careers within the framework of Education 4.0. The descriptive, exploratory methodology applied quantitative and qualitative instruments (surveys) to 337 undergraduate students in education careers and 313 graduates. It also included interviews with 20 experts in the educational field and five focus groups with 32 rectors, school principals, university professors and specialists in the educational area. The data was triangulated, and the results were categorized in (a) processes as facilitators (b), soft skills, (c) human sense and (d) use of technologies. This article may be of value to administrators, educational and social entrepreneurs, trainers, and decision-makers interested in implementing innovative training programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0243.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: distance education; open and distance education; student retention; survival analysis
Online: 12 October 2020 (13:22:55 CEST)
Student retention is one indicator of accountability in the implementation of educational programs. Achievement of student retention rates indicates the performance of the quality objectives of an institution or college. To get an accurate picture of the factors related to retention, we need to do modeling. The retention variable is the time response variable measured in semester units. One of the statistical analyzes that can be used to analyze response data in time is survival analysis. The selection of an accurate analytical method in modeling will produce valid conclusions and impact making policies that are right and on target. This paper presents alternative modeling of student retention in distance education using survival analysis. The method used is a literature review. This paper also briefly describes distance education, open and distance education, distance education students' characteristics, distance education student retention, and survival models for modeling student retention in distance education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0363.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: gamification; science education; flipped classroom; active learning methods; higher education
Online: 31 October 2019 (07:56:59 CET)
Innovative teaching strategies are designing a new and promising landscape in education. They fill up the lessons with creativity and imagination either for the students and teachers. This article addresses an attempt to make easier the approach to science in a non-scientific environment: primary education at university level. Gamification methodologies were combined with flipped classroom in order to free up in-class time and engage the students with the taught courses. A qualitative study was merged with quantitative measures of emotional and motivational parameters. These results were improved with four semi-structured interviews. The results clearly showed a raise in the students' motivational level, an acknowledgment of good teaching practice and an evident enhancement of felt positive emotions toward science teaching and scientific issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: university; sociology of education; economism; social institution; higher education; modernization
Online: 27 February 2019 (05:04:32 CET)
On the termination of nearly twenty years since the beginning of commercialization of the Ukrainian higher education the intensity of discussion of its purposes, results and possible amendments don't decrease neither among experts, nor among the interested public. Supporters and opponents of commercialization note that education is that social branch which participates in the formation of prerequisites of economic growth. The main point of the article is to disclose the essence of the phenomena of economism and commercialization. Economism is seen as part of globalization of education, a global corporatization of education provides training for the global labour market, using human capital economic theories. As noted by George Spring, the human capital, economists argue that investments in education lead to economic growth, reducing income inequality and increasing employment. The article confirms that the state educational policy as a component of social policy is one of instruments of influence of the state on formation of social structure and is directed to the solution of problems of societal level. It does relevant sociological examination of transformational processes in education and, in particular, results of commercialization. Thus, it is possible to claim that the educational system tests the uncommon influence of globalization, forming and building a peculiar system of the relations and interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0222.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: multimedia; geoscience videos; geoscience education; GEGVL; earth systems science education; educational technology; place-based education; active learning
Online: 17 May 2022 (04:37:00 CEST)
Place-based education (PBE) and active learning are effective strategies for geoscience education. However, traditional PBE via field trips requires significant resources, time, physical abilities, and expertise of teachers. We provide an alternative PBE experience by showing how different kinds of geoscience videos can be spatially organized into one digital interactive virtual environment. Here, we present the Google Earth Geoscience Video Library (GEGVL) which uses Google Earth and location specific videos about Earth events to create a virtual PBE experience. Using Google Earth, GEGVL organizes place-based videos by locations and links pertinent non-place-based videos and allows users to roam the globe in search of geoscientific videos that are pertinent to them or their students. Currently GEGVL contains 150 videos organized into ten different geoscience disciplines: Plate Tectonics, Minerals, Structural Geology, Metamorphism, Magmatism, Hydrology, Environmental Science, Sedimentology, Paleontology, and Paleomagnetism. Despite stability challenges with Google Earth integration, results of user surveys among lower division undergraduates show that the design logic of GEGVL is promising virtual PBE organizer for interesting students in and helping them learn about Earth sciences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0276.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: occupational health and safety education; quality of health and safety education; health and safety education best practices
Online: 24 November 2019 (13:14:27 CET)
Research into professionalization in health and safety has recently gained in interest. Graduate training is one of the factors that determines or conditions the role of the safety professional, thus intervene in the professionalization process. This article is the result of a workshop and the discussions of nine academic directors of safety education programs about quality evaluation. This article introduces the issue with a historic overview of safety education, presents a synthesis of nine selected education programs, discusses quality evaluation of health and safety education programs, propose a quality evaluation frame and finally, proposes a process for designing a quality safety education program with an associated model of the learning objectives. The outcomes are interesting for everyone who is interested in health and safety education and quality evaluation and will give insights into how safety professionals are educated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0614.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development; education for sustainable development; sociology of education; sustainability literacy; higher education; sustainable development goals
Online: 25 October 2018 (16:31:16 CEST)
Sustainability, sustainable development and education for sustainable development are increasingly central concepts, both in social practice and in the field of scientific knowledge. Sociology, and in particular Sociology of Education as a specialised Sociology, can provide relevant contributions in its promotion. This article aims to explore the importance of Sociology of Education in promoting sustainability literacy in higher education, using the Sustainable Development Goals and key competencies (United Nations and UNESCO) as the central reference in this field, and intends, thus, to become an added contribution for this discussion. The article seeks to demonstrate that the learning of sustainability literacy would benefit from the use of a sociological stance throughout this whole process that considers dimensions that are often not directly emphasised and articulated between each other, such as: interconnection of scale levels, sociological imagination, multi-paradigmatic nature, heuristic interdisciplinarity, reflexivity and use of Sociology for action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: regenerative higher education; podcasting as qualitative inquiry; ecological university; sustaina-bility transitions; regenerative education practices; regenerative education design
Online: 28 June 2022 (03:57:41 CEST)
Abstract Universities have the potential, and the responsibility, to take on more ecological and relational approaches to facilitating learning-based change in times of interconnected socio-ecological crises. Signs for a transition towards these more regenerative approaches of higher education (RHE) that include more place-based, ecological, and relational, ways of educating can already be found in niches across Europe (see for example the proliferation of education-based living labs, field labs, challenge labs). In this paper, the results of a podcast-based inquiry into the design practices and barriers of enacting such forms of RHE are shown. This study revealed seven educational practices that occurred across the innovation niches. It is important to note these practices are enacted in different ways, or are locally nested in unique expressions, For example, while the ‘practice’ of Cultivating Personal Transformations was represented across the included cases, the way these transformations were cultivated were unique expressions of each context. These RHE-design practices are derived from twenty-six narrative-based podcasts as interviews recorded in the April through June 2021 period. The resulting podcast (The Regenerative Education Podcast) was published on all major streaming platforms from October 2021 and included 21 participants active in Dutch Universities, 1 in Sweden, 1 in Germany, 1 in France, and 3 primarily online. Each episode engages with a leading practitioner, professor, teacher, and/or activist that is trying to connect their educational practice to making the world a more equitable, sustainable, and regenerative place. The episodes ranged from 30 to 70 minutes in total length and included both English (14) and Dutch (12) interviews. These episodes were analyzed through transition mapping a method based on story analysis and transition design. The results include seven design practices such as Cultivating Personal Transformations, Nurturing Ecosystems of Support, and Tackling Relevant and Urgent Transition Challenges, as well as a preliminary design tool that educational teams can use together with students and local agents in (re)designing their own RHE to connect their educational praxis with transition challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0285.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: basic life support education; student’s perceptions; education quality; skills to intervene.
Online: 15 March 2023 (12:52:23 CET)
An out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The survival rate can be influenced by the Chain of Survival. The school is the institution that has the opportunity to promote the education of citizens in Basic Life Support (BLS), increasing the number of trained bystanders. This study aimed to identify the theoretical and practical knowledge and self-reported skills in BLS, in order to characterise the motivation to intervene in an emergency situation. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional, and analytical study of the survey type was developed with a sample of 1215 students enrolled in 10th grade of secondary education in 2019-2020 in Portugal. The results point to a fragile appropriation of theoretical and practical knowledge in the field of BLS. Self-declared competences tend to rank below the theoretical knowledge manifested. Motivation to intervene is high: students are sensitive to the topic, willing to learn and highlight the importance and social relevance of the topic. We conclude that students do not feel nor are able to intervene in an OHCA episode. It seems necessary to develop didactic proposals that align the teaching of BLS with the Essential Learning at the end of compulsory education in Portugal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0181.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Scoring; Rubrics; Health; Personnel; Program Evaluation; Distance Education; Residency Education; Speciality
Online: 31 May 2022 (14:06:26 CEST)
Introduction: In the medical area, teaching is essential since it must offer the appropriate instruments to demonstrate that graduates have acquired the necessary skills. Objective: Evaluate the quality of research in residents of medical specialties after a standardized digital training program with rubrics. Methods: An observational, prospective research study in resident physicians of seven medical specialties first-year of an introductory program to methodology. It is integrated with the result variable through the quality of the final product and the quality variable will be measured with an ad hoc questionnaire validated by the Delphi method with a consistency level of 3-3. The data will be integrated into a base of the SPSS system and determined with the Chi-square test considering a minimum significance of 0.05. Results: 85 first-year medical residents (n=85) enrolled in the Research Seminar. The mean age was 31.34 years (± 3.96). About gender Male 38±31.13 Female 31.51±3.83. The global final grade was 80.61 (± 9.59) and the global sat-isfaction of the course was referred to as good by 62.2%. We observed a positive relationship between the scope of evaluation and the level of satisfaction. Conclusion: The research seminar implementation in a b-learning mode in response to the educational needs in medical residents for the field of health education showed a relationship between higher qualification, higher satisfaction, as well as determining that the comprehensive evaluation through the use of rubrics standardized allowed to delimit the deficiencies and strengths for timely feedback influencing the process of acquiring skills and the quality of the final product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0267.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: early childhood education (ECE); free early childhood education; policy cycle; sustainability
Online: 23 May 2022 (03:42:52 CEST)
Many countries have implemented free early childhood education to solve the affordability and accessibility problems without considering the sustainability of policy; thus, they have to discontinue the policy. The city of Nanjing, China, is no exception. This case study adopted a mixed-methods approach to understanding how and why the policy was formulated, implemented, and failed in the city, using the “policy cycle” framework. Altogether 232 kindergarten principals and teaching/research staff were randomly sampled and surveyed, and 5 kindergarten principals and 5 teaching/researcher staff were interviewed. The results indicated that there were many obstacles to the policy’s sustainability, including the conflict of interest, the inefficient policy implementation, the insufficient funding, and more social inequality issues. And the policymakers made mistakes in the five domains of the policy cycle: the context of influence, the context of policy text production, the context of practice, the context of outcomes, and the context of political strategy. Finally, the lessons for a more sustainable policy decision process are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0156.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: COVID-19; Art & Design; hybrid education; online education; technology-enhanced learning
Online: 8 November 2021 (15:12:22 CET)
Digital skills are essential in today’s digital age, which means that students must gain technology-enhanced skills from higher education for their future careers. Studies in Art & Design (A&D) programs in this university surveyed three faculties’ perspectives and nineteen students’ experiences. During the COVID-19 pandemic, this university changed its teaching and learning strategies by offering courses online during autumn 2020 and spring 2021 during mandatory quarantine. However, the A&D program was not entirely based online. As a result, it is important to take a closer look at the A&D programs offered in order to assess the faculties’ perspectives and students’ experiences during the two online semesters. The study included online surveys from instructors’ perspectives and with regard to students’ experiences about the quality of studio learning, traditional studio learning opportunities, and online studio learning opportunities via either live (on-campus) or online studios. Using relationship-based research design, posttest data surveys were collected to ascertain the differences in the mean scores, standard deviations, and percentages of some forms of agreement between the faculties’ perspectives and students’ experiences of the quality of studio learning, traditional studio learning opportunities, and online studio learning opportunities in these Art & Design (A&D) programs. This quantitative research aimed to develop formative assessments and suggestions while establishing whether it would be possible to hold all A&D courses online in a higher education setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0544.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital Teaching Competence (DTC); higher education; continuing teacher education; educational innovation
Online: 30 August 2021 (12:14:56 CEST)
This article analyzes the assessment of the four development levels of the Digital Teaching Competence (DTC) to recognize the needs and formulation of challenges in training and educational innovation required in the pedagogical practices of university professors under the current context of the Covid-19 pandemic. The study used an empirical-analytical methodology with a non-experimental, transactional, descriptive design. The sample design was probabilistic, estimated with 95% confidence and 5% error among 252 teachers from various faculties of the University of La Guajira. The selected instrument corresponded to the rubric's application to evaluate the university professor's digital teaching competence in Latin America. Among the study's significant results, we highlight that the rubric presented a high Cronbach's alpha reliability (α: 0.947). In the general assessment of DTC development, it was estimated that 78.2% of teachers are in the first two levels of DTC development assessment (Beginning and Middle). The evaluation rubric allows identifying challenges and opportunities that teacher training must address to advance the professional development of professors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0328.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: eye-tracking; virtual reality; education and VR; education and eye-tracking
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:11:43 CEST)
The concept of using eye-tracking in virtual reality for education has been researched in various fields over the past years. With this review, we aim to discuss the recent advancements and applications in this area, explain the technological aspects, highlight the advantages of this approach and inspire interest in the field. Eye-tracking has already been used in science for many decades and now has been substantially reinforced by the addition of virtual and augmented reality technologies. The first part of the review is a general overview of eye-tracking concepts and its applications. In the second part, the focus shifted towards application of eye-tracking in virtual reality. The third part is the description of the recently emerged concept of eye-tracking in virtual reality when applied to education and studying, which has not been thoroughly described before. We describe the main findings, technological aspects and advantages of this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0115.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: gifted and talented students; twice-exceptional students; gifted education; special education
Online: 9 December 2019 (03:59:20 CET)
Gifted students are usually known as students who have exceptional cognitive and learning abilities. This can be made clear through their learning performance or test scores. However, there are other students who have been identified as gifted and talented, yet have some learning and /or physical disabilities, and these are called twice-exceptional students. Identifying this population of gifted students is usually problematic because their disabilities and difficulties may mask their abilities and vice versa. It has been suggested that twice-exceptional students’ skills and abilities cannot be improved simply by working harder. Instead, these students need teachers to understand their strengths and weaknesses, use teaching strategies that fit their disabilities and serve their needs, and include their parents and educators in their learning process. Thus, this conceptual paper provides an extensive overview of the needs, challenges, and teaching strategies related to twice-exceptional students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education for sustainable leadership; gender equality; competencies; higher education; women managers
Online: 5 September 2019 (02:55:41 CEST)
Education is an imperative key to driving sustainability and gender equity. In addition to addressing well-known female deficiencies in leadership training, it is really important to develop initiatives in sustainable leadership education for women to acquire skills, competencies and tools on leadership and to increase their self-perceptions. The purpose of this study is to assess a Women’s Leadership Program for university students. The sample consisted of 50 students enrolled in the program. A mixed-method approach was applied. Quantitative methods with a survey were conducted to evaluate the training and the achievement of leadership skills. In the data analysis, a descriptive statistics variance analysis, using a Welch statistic and T2 Dunnett test, was applied. Qualitative research methods were conducted through three focus groups to evaluate personal changes in their own-perceptions and self-confidence. Results suggest that the female students in the program reached a level of leadership knowledge with practical tools for their future. The program inspired them and confirmed changes in their personal capacities or self-confidence, including reflection about facing challenges in the work environment. The findings support the effectiveness of the specific education in breaking two barriers shown by the literature for women to getting a managerial position: lack of training and female self-confidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; University of the District of Columbia; engineering education; summer program
Online: 13 June 2019 (07:28:00 CEST)
Preparing high school students for engineering disciplines is crucial for sustainable scientific and technological developments in the USA. This paper discusses a pre-college program, which not only exposes students to various engineering disciplines but also enables them to consider engineering as the profession. The four-week long “Engineering Innovation (EI)” course is offered every year to high school students by the center of outreach, Johns Hopkins University. EI program is designed to develop problem-solving skills through extensive hands-on engineering experiments. A team consisting of an instructor, generally a PhD in Engineering, and a teaching fellow, generally a high school science teacher, closely work with students to pedagogically inculcate basics of core engineering disciplines such as civil, mechanical, electrical, materials, and chemical engineering. EI values independent problem-solving skills and simultaneously promote the team spirit among students. A number of crucial engineering aspects such as professional ethics, communications, technical writing, and understanding of common engineering principles are inculcated among high school students via well-designed individual and group activities. This paper discusses the model of EI program and its impact on students learning and their preparation for the engineering career.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teaching and learning ıssues in mathematics; social ıssues in mathematics education; cultural ıssues in mathematics education; political ıssues in mathematics education; technological ıssues in mathematics education
Online: 5 June 2017 (06:13:28 CEST)
In this paper, we discuss major issues of mathematics teaching and learning in Nepal. The issues coming from theories such as social and radical constructivism suggest that teachers are not trained to use such approach in teaching mathematics, and there is a lack of teaching aids and materials and technological tools. The issues related to social aspects are gender issues, language issues, social justice issues, and issues related to the achievement gap. The cultural issues are related to the diversity of language and ethnicity. The issues related to political aspects are equity and access, economic status, pedagogical choice, and professional organizations and unions. The issues related to technology include the technological skills, use of technology, and affordance. Finally, we suggest that all the stakeholders should pay attention to resolving these issues by improving the curriculum, training teachers, resourcing the classroom with locally made and new technological tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0452.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Higher Education; teachers; motivations
Online: 17 June 2021 (09:16:56 CEST)
Background: The university must take on the challenges that arise at all levels. Within this mechanism, university professors play an important role as facilitators of knowledge. Aim: To analyse the motivations that influence the professional performance of Spanish university professors. Methods: 102 university professors from 9 Spanish public universities participated in the study. [Male: 54 (52.9%); Female: 48 (47.1%)]. A questionnaire of 22 closed-ended Likert-type questions was designed, scoring from 0-10 (do not agree at all, strongly agree). Results: The questionnaire, finally composed of 17 items, showed good internal consistency. (Cronbach's alpha=0.858). The validity analysis showed a value of 0.822 (>0.5) ) in the sample adequacy measure KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) and Bartlett's sphericity test (p<0.0001). The exploratory factor analysis showed a clustering in 4 factors (2 for internal goods and 2 for external goods), explaining 64.33% of the total variance. Comparisons between each factor scores by gender (male and female) showed differences statistically significant by gender for factor F1 (higher for females) and F2 (higher for males). Finally, Q1 and Q13 showed a statistically significant correlation (p≤0.05) with years of teaching experience. Conclusions: The motivations of Spanish university professors seem to be associated with the age and gender of the teacher.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0222.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: millennials; citizenship education; globalization
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:32:49 CEST)
Background: The rapid flow of globalization makes the world free from barriers so that the existence of globalization gives birth to a new concept of "World Without Borders". This situation puts the character of millennials on the brink of collapse and needs to be straightened out. Based on the problems above, the researcher determines the question: How is the role of civic education in shaping millennial character in the era of globalization? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the current globalization on society, as a form of knowledge of the importance of citizenship education as a shield in the era of globalization, knowing the role of civic education in shaping the character of the millennial generation. Method: The method used in this research is a literature review. The search for journals was carried out using the google scholar database with the keywords “citizenship educations”, “millennial generation”, and “globalization”. Feasibility studies are assessed based on title, abstract, and full text. Data analysis using qualitative analysis based on research findings. Results: The results of this study show the influence of globalization causes character problems in millennials increasing every year. The high nature of individualism, consumerism, and westernization shows the characteristics of Indonesia began to erode and eventually also impacted the moral damage. Therefore, prevention is necessary through citizenship education as the basis for character formation by the values of Pancasila.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0215.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: millennials; citizenship education; globalization
Online: 8 June 2021 (11:46:36 CEST)
Background: The rapid flow of globalization makes the world free from barriers so that the existence of globalization gives birth to a new concept of "World Without Borders". This situation puts the character of millennials on the brink of collapse and needs to be straightened out. Based on the problems above, the researcher determines the question: How is the role of civic education in shaping millennial character in the era of globalization? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the current globalization on society, as a form of knowledge of the importance of citizenship education as a shield in the era of globalization, knowing the role of civic education in shaping the character of the millennial generation. Method: The method used in this research is literature review. The search for journals was carried out using the google scholar database with the keywords “citizenship educations”, “millennial generation”, and “globalization”. Feasibility studies are assessed based on title, abstract, and full text. Data analysis using qualitative analysis based on research findings. Results: The results of this study show the influence of globalization causes character problems in millennials increasing every year. The high nature of individualism, consumerism, and westernization shows the characteristics of Indonesia began to erode and eventually also impacted the moral damage. Therefore, prevention is necessary through citizenship education as the basis for character formation by the values of Pancasila.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0791.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Health Education, Nurse, Hypertension
Online: 31 March 2021 (21:53:24 CEST)
Hypertension is a chronic non-communicable disease which is one of the main causes of serious cardiovascular disease death in the community. The level of treatment and health control for hypertensive patients is still not optimal due to lack of information. Aim was to identify various current methods of health education by nurses and their impact on hypertensive patients. Method Literature review research. The literature was obtained from the Scopus, Sage and PubMed databases with the keywords "Intervention" OR "Methods" AND "Nursing" AND "Hypertension". There are seven literatures that are determined to meet the requirements of the inclusion criteria. Results found three types of health education methods performed by nurses: 1) direct health education methods; nurses meet and meet face to face with patients in the form of individual teaching or training, 2) indirect health education methods; nurses are not face-to-face but use telephone or mobile communication aids to convey information and send SMS about health, and use internet-based websites to convey health information, 3) combined health education methods; nurses face to face with patients and follow-up care is carried out by indirect health education methods. The impact of health education methods carried out by nurses on hypertensive patients is that the level of patient adherence increases in treatment, increased knowledge levels, better blood pressure control, healthy lifestyle practices, adherence to diet, improved quality of life, and positive nurse-patient feedback occurs. in fulfilling mutually agreed upon treatment appointments. Conclusion health education methods carried out by nurses have a very positive impact on disease management and prevention of risk factors for complications in hypertensive patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0209.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: disability, inclusion, medical education
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:41:19 CEST)
ABSTRACT:This paper presents arguments for why it is important to include disability in the undergraduate medical curriculum. I, the first author am currently involved with my doctoral thesis proposal titled "Proposing clinician competency guidelines for the inclusion of disability in the undergraduate medical curriculum of South Africa. An exploratory study.” As part of my research, I conducted a literature search and developed arguments to strengthen the reasons why the research I propose in my thesis is necessary. It is important that I position myself in this research. I am a South African, Caucasian, female medical doctor, with an interest in physical rehabilitation medicine and I am a person with a physical disability. Although this research study will be conducted in South Africa, I am hopeful that the findings will be transferable to medical schools across the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0018.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: physical education; coeducation; equality
Online: 1 June 2018 (12:17:18 CEST)
Background: In PE, the methodology used to develop coeducation must consider the tastes and preferences of students. The purpose of this work was to analyze how teachers work with different aspects of PE classes and how their work is perceived by students. Methods: The sample was formed by 176 teachers and 1,136 secondary school students. The research design was descriptive. The Questionnaire of Coeducational Aspects in Physical Education for teachers and the Questionnaire of Perception of Equality and Discrimination in Physical Education for Students. Results: The different statistical analyses showed significant differences in how male and female teachers assigned responsibility to the students and their control of motor activity space. In regards to the students, significant differences were found between boys and girls in their opinions of how their teachers apply the same rules to all the students. Conclusions: No differences exist between male and female teachers in regards to their utilization neither of materials and sexist language or in their evaluation and feedback given to the students. In regards to the students, girls perceive to a greater extent than their male counterparts that the activities in PE classes promote equality in the improvement of their capacities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0045.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Reproductive Health; Sexual Health; Women’s Health; Nursing Curriculum; Nursing Education; Undergraduate Education
Online: 2 September 2021 (14:45:22 CEST)
Background: It is very important that nurses receive adequate training in Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH). In this study, the contents of the SRH subject in the undergraduate nursing curricula of 77 Spanish universities were examined in order to determine what SRH training nursing students are receiving. Methods: The contents of the SRH subject of all the curricula that were available online were reviewed. The distribution of the contents (topics) in the two areas (reproductive health and sexual health) was analyzed, and the prevalence of each topic was established. It was also determined whether there were differences in topics between public (n=52) and private universities (n=25). Results: The training of nursing students focuses mainly on the area of Reproductive Health (15 topics). Most of the topics of this area had a prevalence greater than 50%. Although the area of Sexual Health had 14 topics, most of these topics had a low prevalence (<20%), especially in private universities. Conclusions: It was found that there is considerable variation in the distribution and prevalence of SRH topics between universities. The contents of the area of Reproductive Health are usually prevalent in most of the curricula, however the contents of the area of Sexual Health are very limited in most of the universities. An organizational effort is required to determine and standardize the contents of SRH that nursing students should receive in Spain to avoid inequalities in their training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0208.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: cryptography; abstract algebra; RSA; computer science education; cryptography education; number theory; factorization
Online: 21 June 2019 (08:40:43 CEST)
We explore the class of positive integers n that admit idempotent factorizations n=pq such that lambda(n) divides (p-1)(q-1), where lambda(n) is the Carmichael lambda function. Idempotent factorizations with p and q prime have received the most attention due to their cryptographic advantages, but there are an infinite number of n with idempotent factorizations containing composite p and/or q. Idempotent factorizations are exactly those p and q that generate correctly functioning keys in the RSA 2-prime protocol with n as the modulus. While the resulting p and q have no cryptographic utility and therefore should never be employed in that capacity, idempotent factorizations warrant study in their own right as they live at the intersection of multiple hard problems in computer science and number theory. We present some analytical results here. We also demonstrate the existence of maximally idempotent integers, those n for which all bipartite factorizations are idempotent. We show how to construct them, and present preliminary results on their distribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1003.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: creativity; three-phase SRL model; think-aloud; arts education; education quality; work quality.
Online: 26 April 2023 (15:26:12 CEST)
Abstract: Self-regulated Learning has become one of educational psychology's most critical research areas. Contemporary research indicates that student creativity is crucial to the success of arts education. However, there is limited research on creativity in arts education in Self-regulated Learning. Therefore, this study aims to define the creativity characteristics that determine the quality of students’ work. This study implemented a creative competition in painting and composition for first-year undergraduates. It evaluated the characteristics of creativity during the three main phases of the task: planning, execution, and completion. We discovered through semi-open questionnaires (n=178)，and using the content analysis method. According to the competition results, the students with the highest scores in Flow, Inspiration, and Idea Generation in the Performance phase had the best quality work. In the Forethought phase, Analogical Thinking and Idea Generation worked best for most students, while in the Performance phase, Flow Sense, Idea Generation, and Idea Manipulation worked best.Data on creativity characteristics at different work phases and final quality might adequately guide and organize educational procedures. These findings can serve as a theoretical foundation for quantifying the creativity phase in Self-regulated Learning and offer arts educators a reference for creativity instruction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0513.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: ChatGPT; artificial intelligence; chatbot; education technology; machine learning; dental education; natural language processing
Online: 28 February 2023 (08:18:33 CET)
Background and Purpose: Open-source Artificial intelligence (AI) applications are fast transforming access to information and allow students to prepare assignments and offer quite accurate responses to a wide range of exam questions which are routinely used in assessments of students across the board including undergraduate dental students. This study aims to evaluate the performance ChatGPT, an AI-based application, on a wide range of dental assessments and discusses the implications for undergraduate dental education. Methods: This was an exploratory study investigating the accuracy of ChatGPT to attempt a range of recognized assessments in undergraduate dental curricula. ChatGPT was used to attempt ten items based on each of the five commonly used question formats including single-best answer (SBA) multiple-choice questions (MCQs); short answer questions (SAQs); short essay questions (SEQs); True/False questions and fill in the blanks items. In addition, ChatGPT was used to generate reflective reports based on multisource feedback (MSF); research methodology; critical appraisal of the literature. Results: ChatGPT application provided accurate responses to majority of knowledge-based assessments based on MCQs, SAQs, SEQs, Tue/False and fill in the blanks items. However, it was only able to answer text-based questions and did not allow processing of questions based on images. Responses generated to written assignments were also of good quality apart from those for critical appraisal of literature. Word count was the key limitation observed in outputs by ChatGPT as it was only able to produce reports limited to approximately 650 words. Conclusion: Notwithstanding their current limitations, AI-based applications have the potential to revolutionize virtual learning. Instead of treating it as a threat, dental educators need to adapt teaching and assessments in dental education to the benefits of the learners whilst mitigating against dishonest use of AI-based applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0266.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education 2030; gross enrollment ratio (GER); higher education expansion; SDG 4; student mobility
Online: 15 August 2022 (15:26:56 CEST)
Student mobility is one of the most important indicators to reflect institutional internationalization in a sustainable higher education system. While student mobility issues have been addressed persistently, the phenomenon is rarely discussed in association with higher education expansion. Since higher education sustainable development has received much scholarly attention, monitoring student mobility flows to adjust international strategies is necessary. This study explored practical approaches to detect student mobility flows in the process of higher education expansion. Targeting Taiwan’s higher education system as an example, we addressed the topic of system expansion and the core issues of student mobility. Target series data were collected from 1950 to 2021, including higher education enrollment, gross enrollment ratio (GER), and number of inbound and outbound students. The data were transformed with index formats, for example enrollment increasing ratio (IR) and net flow ratio. The cross-correlation function (CCF) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) were used to determine the correlations of the series data and their future trends. The findings suggested that the effect of system expansion, with GER and IR, might influence the mobility ratios significantly in the process of higher education expansion. This study confirmed that the time series approaches work well in detecting the phenomena of higher education expansion and their effects on student mobility flows in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0355.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Societal Challenges; mission-oriented; sustainability education; higher education institutions; partnership for the goals
Online: 29 January 2020 (12:10:02 CET)
Unlike other SDGs, the SDG4 about quality education is not a goal in itself, but rather a tool to achieve different goals. Universities in this respect play a crucial role in the short-term implementation of SDGs for education, including new approaches and contents. Current academic debates explore the best practices via deductive-theoretical or inductive-experiential methods, yet not always considering the geographical, and therefore cultural and infrastructural factors affecting the success and the failure of such practices. In this paper, we systematize the implementation of SDGs in Italian universities from 2016 to 2019. Eighteen experiences have been collected after a national call by the Italian Network of Sustainable Universities (RUS) aimed at mapping the current landscape of SDG related actions. Results have been analyzed according to two criteria: 1- the educational "container" where the SDGs implementation takes place (from random workshops to dedicated courses); 2- the different organizational scales (from the foundation of a new department to the campaigns by local green teams). With this paper, we do not propose a total refunding or "deus-ex-machina" solutions, disregarding the local factors and the local resources in Italian universities. On the contrary, we draw a map to propose the reuse of an existing structure with adjustments, retrofitting and renewal actions towards holistic and coordinated sustainability efforts. Results show that, within the Italian context, SDGs implementation is still primarily understood as a strategic element for branding and promoting the green image of the Athenaeum. Secondarily, it is seen whether as a separate discipline to be inserted into existing curricula and original teachings or as a conceptual tool for remedying specific societal challenges through random workshops or fieldworks. Conclusions highlight the value of this first Country-wide systematization of the Italian Higher Education Institutions toward SDGs implementation. This exercise avoids individual experiences remaining isolated and self-concluded, and, most importantly, provides comparability and transferability criteria to help similar cases. Further works envisage the recognition of same elements in the broader European traditions, as well as the enhancement of stimuli for a personal and societal transformation generated by the partnership of all those people and institutions engaged in the exciting yet urgent defy of today's societal challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0060.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Health; Education; Climate Change
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:04:49 CEST)
Introduction. Environmental Health in a Global World at New York University was re-designed as a class participatory effort, challenging undergraduate students to understand environmental hazards and the resultant adverse health outcomes by embracing the inherent complexity of environmental risks and proposing solutions. Methods. Following introductory lectures, students are placed into teams and assigned a specific perspective, or avatar, which includes learning to see the challenge from the perspective of a technical expert such as a biologist, an engineer, or an anthropologist. The teams then design specific systems maps to visualize the complex interactions that lead to adverse health outcomes after a given environmental exposure. The maps highlight potential leverage points, where relatively minor interventions can provide a disproportionate benefit in health outcomes. The teams then explore potential interventions and identify the potential unintended consequences of those actions, develop and advocate for innovative new strategies to mitigate risk and improve outcomes. Results and Discussion. Over the past 5 years we have taught this methodology to over 680 students with strong, student-oriented results. The teams created and presented more than 100 strategies, addressing a diverse set of environmental challenges that include water contamination, gun violence, air pollution, environmental justice, health security, and climate change. Developing the strategies helped the students understand environmental threats in a more holistic way, provided them with some agency in finding solutions, and offered an opportunity for them to improve their presentation skills. The responses in course evaluations have been enthusiastic, with many students reporting a deep impact on their college experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0991.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: methods; artistic education; MILMESA; curriculum
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:31:42 CEST)
The Interdisciplinary Method of Musical Literacy, Education and Artistic Awareness (MILMESA) is developed and applied essentially in higher education (artistic, cultural and teacher training courses), promoting effective endogenous (interarts) and exogenous interconnection (artistic and other non-artistic areas) of an inter and pluridisciplinary matrix, as well as assuming itself as a privileged vehicle of relationship and extension to the community in the frame of the making of artistic-cultural and pedagogical-didactic events in the European, Luso-Brazilian, Luso-African and Hispanic American territories. It was created, tested and evaluated in five consecutive quadrennia (2002–2023), being regularly adapted, adapted and added according to the observed realities, evolving into the deepening of new concepts and models of intervention in these domains (e.g., Expressive and Proximal Didactics). Using the Ethnographic Method and the Case Study, and having the source of data collection as Document Analysis of written and iconographic or visual sources (n = 1386) and Participant Observation, this study aimed to describe and analyse the application and evolution of MILMESA in terms of education and extension to the community. It was concluded that there was a need to promote, with greater regularity and scope, greater technological interaction via digital platforms and social networks, within the framework of the participation of external specialists (e-DEP) and the very experience of MILMESA’s experiences and initiatives, giving it a more meaningful and participatory range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0343.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: kinematics; direction cosine matrixes; education
Online: 18 November 2022 (02:16:41 CET)
Teaching kinematic rotations is a daunting task for even some of the most advanced mathematical minds. However, envisioning and explaining the three-dimensional rotations can be highly simplified by changing the paradigm. This paradigm change allows for a high school student with a understanding of geometry to be able to not only develop the matrix but also explain the rotations at a collegiate level. The proposed method includes the assumption of a point (P) within the initial three-dimensional frame with axes (x ̂_i, y ̂_i, z ̂_i). It then utilizes a two-dimensional rotation view (2DRV) to measure how the coordinates of point P translate after the initial axis is rotated instead of using the established Euler's formula. The equations are used in matrix notation to develop a direction cosine matrix (DCM) for future equations. This method provides a high school student with an elementary and repeatable process to compose and explain kinematic rotations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0259.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Microbiology; fashion; design; education; biotechnology
Online: 14 November 2022 (11:24:04 CET)
Fashion industry is the second most polluting industry in the world representing a 2 trillion dollars and growing valuation (Pal, 2017). This dual context makes its challenges hard to address. From one side, fashion design education and practice systems have been perpetuating an industrial-focused approach which relies mostly in the economic improvement through fast cycles of product development (Pal, 2017). On the other side, fashion industry has also been closed to either multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary initiatives outside the scope of the artistic disciplines. Therefore, innovative approaches are needed to solve fashion industrial challenges. One of the most promising fields to tackle fashion current environment and technological problems is microbiology (Mazzoto et al., 2021). During the past 50 years, microbiology has played a vital role in solving human grand challenges in health, agriculture, food, and waste management sectors, and it also represents an opportunity for fashion industry as well. Microbiology biotechnological potential for the fashion industry relies mostly on the improvement of toxic waste bioremediation and the development of novel biomaterials and biomolecules. Moreover, the emergent field of synthetic biology is expanding the tools and approaches available, and they can already be seen in the development of engineered living materials that have functional properties (Mazzoto et al., 2021). Despite the urgent need for change, there is still a long way until a more sustainable fashion industry is achieved. Therefore, microbiological research and innovation need maturation to be able to scale-up and reach a global impact for tackling fashion industrial problems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; online; chemical biology; interdisciplinary
Online: 13 January 2022 (18:27:07 CET)
The Covid‐19 pandemic, evolving needs of students & mentors, and the drive for global educational equality are collectively shifting how courses are packaged/distributed, ushering a more holistic approach and blending of fields. We recently created interdisciplinary courses in chemical biology aimed at massive open online and small private levels. These courses cover biology, chemistry, & physics, and concepts underlying modern chemical‐biology tools. We discuss what we learned while creating/overseeing these courses: content optimization and maintaining material freshness while fostering a stimulating learning environment. We outline mechanisms that help sustain student attention throughout rapidly‐moving courses, how to integrate adaptability to students’ needs in the short & long term, and speculate how we could have improved. We believe this will be an important guide for anyone wanting to develop online learning formats ideal for nurturing interdisciplinary scientists of tomorrow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0515.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Benefits; barriers; distance education; coronavirus
Online: 30 September 2021 (13:57:47 CEST)
This study aims to identify benefits and barriers to distance education, particularly from the perspective of teachers in Saudi Arabia. As the applied data collection tool, a questionnaire was distributed to the general education teachers in three districts. The sample size of the study was 1076 teachers. The results revealed that despite several benefits gained from distance learning, there are also some barriers. Teachers found that the most important advantage in distance learning is the acquisition of technical skills during the online teaching processes, they learn more and use digital education platforms, they have sufficient time to prepare the scientific content, they were able to provide adequate technical solutions for their courses, and they have the opportunity to use multiple media to deliver their courses. With the introduction of distance learning, teachers have explored new ways to deliver course contents to students. It has fostered better ways to provide more interactive real-time and on-demand teaching and learning using modern technology, thus, helping teachers become familiar with the use of electronic resources. It seems that teachers invest in technical methods to enhance students’ performance. Also, teachers reported some obstacles that they face during remote teaching. Most of these problems are connection problems applied with devices and the internet, lack of students’ motivation to learn in distance, problems associated with urban learners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Covid-19; Millennial; Education Progress
Online: 11 June 2021 (09:19:51 CEST)
Because of the covid-19 pandemic, world development has de-escalated, and some have come to a halt because there are many new problems that this era never faced before. Especially in Indonesia's education, every student in this millennial era who is already used to face-to-face lectures and teachers and professors are going through massive changes where every task will be done virtually. These actions are being done to prevent the spread of Covid-19. With online meetings, there will be many changes in the curriculum to find an effective way of studying, and the former curriculum will not fit because it was made for the offline lecture. Also adapting to it will take time. This article will bring up Indonesia’s education progress in this era while Covid-19 pandemic is happening and give an insight on how to anticipate this problem. Questions that arise from this topic are the effect of government effort on holding the pandemic, is it safe if school will be opened soon, and how education after this pandemic is. This research uses literature review methods where it’s done by search, gather, compile and interpret data that is being used. The data are from the latest research, namely from 2019 to 2021 published through Google Scholar, totaling 11 articles, and few online news to keep relevancy of the topic. The results of this study indicate that Covid-19 produces a change that is worse than the good. Even so, the government has allowed face-to-face and online learning according to the consent of students and parents. Thus, the community, especially students, teachers, and others, are expected to uphold education even though it is required to adapt according to existing protocols. From the research, literature review methods proved to be effective to study this topic while Covid-19 is happening to keep safety measures, but it does not give many details and specific information well. This method is recommended to researchers who don’t want to risk their life by being exposed to the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0611.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Statistical Modelling; Education; Public Sector
Online: 25 May 2021 (13:22:59 CEST)
Academic failure, low attendance, financial difficulties, and mental illness are some of the major reasons most students drop out of high schools. We investigated how high school dropout risk is affected by socioeconomic, demographic, and institutional characteristics. Therefore, research design is composed of a literature review, Questionnaire surveys by interviewing each student. Besides, the analysis and statistical modelling, the Logistic Regression method was used. The results show that academic performance, job, lack of interest and low learning ability were the significant individual characteristics that affect the high school dropout. Moreover, parental characteristics, including financial condition, lack of awareness, and education, are significant factors associated with high school dropout rates. Some other related factors, such as adaptability and influence of the peer groups, abandoning school by siblings, and extra responsibility at home and a joint family system, are also some notable factors that significantly affect the dropout rate in schools Malakand District of KP province. This research study delivered the results that contribute to the literature in education to identify different factors like student's own, parental, institutional, and household characteristics, which affect a student being a dropout from high school in Malakand district Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0102.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: bullying, character, education, teenager, family
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:39:46 CEST)
The research objective was to determine the problem of bullying in teenagers. The method used is a qualitative approach with literature study methods and a quantitative approach with the e-survey method. The results showed that bullying was rife in the school environment with teenagers aged 12-15. Verbal bullying occurs the most because it is the easiest to do. Bullying occurs with a group of people against one person because of peer influence. Family factors, school, the influence of friends, environmental conditions, and television shows influence bullying. Character Education can help overcome bullying in teenagers because it teaches the value of virtue in daily activities if given early and not during teenager. The conclusion found in this activity is that teenagers can become bullies because of family, school, peer influence, social conditions, and television broadcasts. Character Education is more effective if it is implemented since early childhood education and all relevant stakeholders must be actively involved in providing the Character Education.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: knowledge; attitude; education; gender; preparedness
Online: 16 April 2020 (05:48:53 CEST)
The aims of the study to analyze the influence of knowledge, attitude, education and gender of the head of the family for household preparedness against flood from Bengawan Solo River in Kedungdowo Village, Balen District of Bojonegoro Regency. The method used in this study is survey method. This study is explanatory observational research. Population studied is 85 head of families from Kedungdowo Village, Balen District, Bojonegoro Regency. The sampling method for collecting the data from the families is stratified random sampling. Data analysis methods used in this study are descriptive statistical analysis and logistic regression analysis with a 95% confidence level to identify the level of preparedness and the relationship between factors that affect preparedness. The findings shows that knowledge, attitude, education and gender significantly influence household preparedness against Bengawan Solo flood. Attitude is the most dominant variable that influenced household preparedness
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: science communication; scale; education; toolkit
Online: 30 October 2019 (09:31:14 CET)
A naked human eye can perceive objects down to a millimeter length. While lenses and microscopes have overcome this limit, the human mind still lacks perspective when navigating conventional scales (1), especially in the range that are less palpable to naked human eye (2,3). This problem is particularly acute in the context of science communication, where the conventional scale bar units facilitate little comprehension regarding the perception for factorial size differences (3). Here we aim to bridge the gap of scale factors and perspectives using a universal toolkit of objects, which can help comprehend the relative change in length dimensions up to 13 orders of magnitude difference. We further have demonstrated the use of such a universal object toolkit as a length perceptive scale by illustrating and narrating biological phenomena. The meter to picometer ‘length perceptive scale’ proposed here has the potential to cover majority of length scales present in the biological realm, and is analogous to the time compression methods widely used in explaining cosmos timeline (4). Our toolkit can also be calibrated according to the users need in their scientific communication and illustrations, which will aid the readers’ benefit in understanding the length scale perception of illustrated phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0176.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: bioethics; health promotion; higher education
Online: 15 May 2019 (15:33:00 CEST)
This research is part of the Doctoral thesis "Perceptions of university professors on Health Promotion and Sustainability: a research proposal based on Health Promoting Universities (HPU) / World Health Organization (WHO) ", University Fernando Pessoa (UFP) / Porto - Portugal, authored by Ivaní Nadir Carlotto: (1) Background: Universities are essential institutions for health promotion (HP). Bioethics, as a transversal discipline, seeks to analyse and systematise these values in an ethical way, strengthening the synergy between health and HP. Ecological models are a possibility to develop health actions in a holistic, sustainable and salutogenic way, stimulating positive aspects related to ethics, well-being and quality of life; (2) Methods: Exploratory-descriptive methodology and quantitative-qualitative approach. Sample: Teachers from 9 higher education institutions (HEI), random sample, probabilistic for convenience, CI = 95%, n = 1400 persons; (3) Results: Production of 6 main components through Factorial Analysis categorized and interpreted by Qualitative Content Analysis and MAXQDA® software; (4) Conclusions: Universities function as research and learning venues to strengthen HP's activities. Bioethics and HP aim to build qualified actions in health, to defend and promoting well-being, quality of life, equity, inclusion, sustainability and social justice, with the proper conceptual clarity that distinguishes it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: education; genomics; nanopore; oceanography; fieldwork
Online: 9 May 2019 (12:57:09 CEST)
Experiential learning in the field is an opportunity for students to enter the heart of a scientific discipline. Through such experience, they can extract conceptual clues and discover motivational stepping stones that will potentially influence the rest of their education and career choice. Unfortunately, in Biology, the inescapable topic of Next-Generation Sequencing represents a challenge when it comes to create an educational curriculum that aims to provide students with hands-on experience on sequencers. It is an even more difficult task to accomplish if one’s purpose was to set such curriculum in a field situation. However, in recent years, educators have seen possibility to bring Next-Generation Sequencing to the reach of students more easily, with the Oxford Nanopore MinION, a low-budget, user-friendly, hand-held sequencer. Academic researchers have illustrated the performances of this device in the field and are inspirational for curricula aiming to take the next generation of scientists in the outdoors. We designed a modular 5-day workshop, with nanopore sequencing to be performed in field conditions. Here we describe the material and methods that lead the students and instructors from sample collection, DNA extraction and preparation for nanopore sequencing with MinION to real-time analysis of the data collected. This curriculum was implemented for the first-time aboard Research Vessel Sikuliaq during a transit organized by the STEMSEAS program at Columbia University in collaboration with the University of Alaska BLaST program. The line of investigation formulated for the workshop was an open-ended question that led the students to establish a proof of concept in terms of technology deployment at sea: what will show metagenomic results from DNA obtained from sea water and sequenced with Oxford Nanopore MinION? The workshop took place in October 2018 while Research Vessel Sikuliaq sailed the Alaskans seas for 7 days. Students successfully used nanopore sequencing for multiple metagenomic seawater samples. Their introductory analysis was consistent with environmental conditions and they were able to present their results by the end of the workshop.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: breast cancer; multimedia; health education
Online: 6 May 2019 (11:09:04 CEST)
Breast cancer is an important disease that threatens the lives of women. The majority of breast screening health education is printed promotional material, which is ineffective in enhancing women’s knowledge on breast screening in Taiwan, and showed low breast cancer screening rate in women. This provided the impetus for us to carry out this study to understand the major barrier of women on breast cancer and screening procedures. This study used quasi-experimental design and purposive sampling. The study participants were 45–69 year-old women. Data collection was carried out before and after intervention. The health belief model was used as a research framework to examine changes in the study participants after multimedia health education intervention for detecting which factors most affect women's breast cancer screening behavior. Then we could make the policy for enhancing women's breast cancer screening in the future. Our study showed that after multimedia health education intervention, the scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy in the experimental group were all significantly higher than the control group. We believe that the effectiveness of multimedia health education is better than traditional health education methods, and can enhance women to receive breast cancer screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: carers; higher education; academics; policies
Online: 5 May 2019 (10:20:37 CEST)
In recent years, it has become common for individuals to juggle employment and unpaid care work. This is just as true for the England-based academic workforce, our focus in this article. We discuss how, in the context of English HE, support for carers is enacted and negotiated through policies and practices of care. Our focus on academics with a diverse range of caring responsibilities is unusual insofar as the literature on care in academia is overwhelmingly concerned with parents, usually mothers. The article is informed primarily by critical and post-structuralist feminist perspectives. We draw on a corpus of 47 interviews conducted with academics representing a broad range of caring responsibilities, subjects, and positions. A thematic analysis reveals how carers’ relationship with the provision and policies of care support at institutional level is characterised by ambiguity. On the one hand, participants approve of societal and institutional policy support for carers. On the other hand, they are often reluctant to position themselves as the beneficiary of such policies, expressing instead a general preference for support from outside the workplace or for workplace-based inter-individual and informal care arrangements. This resistance is particularly noticeable in the case of participants with caring responsibilities other than the parenting of healthy, able-bodied children and of those whose gender, class, racial, or sexual identity do not conform with the figure of the ‘ideal academic’, contributing to their othering in the academic realm. These findings have significant implications for policies supporting carers, pointing to the need for greater visibility and recognition of caring responsibilities in academia, especially in terms of their diverse identities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0033.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Tertiary Education, TETFUND, Management, University
Online: 6 October 2017 (09:05:56 CEST)
This study set out to determine the effect of Tertiary Education Tax Fund (TETFUND) on management in Nigerian tertiary education. Specifically, the study sought to determine whether ETF fund allocations to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions significantly affect the enrollment ratio to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria. The hypothesis was formulated in line with the objectives of the study. Survey and Time series research design were adopted. Data were obtained from National Bureau of Statistics by use of financial ratios and tested using regression analysis with aid of SPSS statistical package version 20.0. Based on the analysis, the study found that ETF fund allocations to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions have no correlation with the enrollment ratio of Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. Based on the findings, the study recommends that to the intervention agency to achieve meaningful on its constituents fund allocations should commensurate with enrolment ratio of tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: reflection; healthcare education; umbrella review
Online: 8 August 2016 (10:40:19 CEST)
Reflection in healthcare education is an emergent topic with many studies and reviews being published. The purpose of the present review is to map the literature in this field by performing a systematic review of reviews (umbrella review) and to explore which definitions and models are currently in use, how reflection impacts on design, evaluation and assessment and future challenges. Nineteen reviews were identified that satisfied inclusion criteria. Emerging themes were: reflection is currently portrayed as self-reflection and critical reflection with the epistemology-of-practice notion not being as much as expected in tandem with the evidence-based-medicine paradigm modern science advocates. Reflective techniques were recognised in multiple settings (e.g. summative, formative, group vs individual etc.) and have been associated with learning but assessment remains a research topic with issues of validity, reliability and replicability. Future challenges involve the epistemology of reflection in healthcare education and how to practice and assess reflection without losing its theoretical background.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Informal learning; Computers in education; Distance education and online learning; Learning communities; Mobile learning
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:31:13 CEST)
This article discusses the comparison between digital and traditional face-to-face coaching within the scope of shadow education institutions. While analyzing the differences and similarities between the two educational models, both their advantages and disadvantages are thoroughly discussed. In this context, interviews were conducted with students and teachers who receive education in both face-to-face and digital coaching, and the positive and negative aspects of both institutions, suitable and unsuitable courses, the future situation, and the effects on students' academic achievements were revealed. According to the results obtained from the research, it is noteworthy that students who do not receive education in digital coaching have prejudices against digitalization. Additionally, no significant difference was found between the academic achievements of students receiving education in digital coaching and those receiving education in face-to-face coaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0082.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Active learning; professional skills; civic education; higher education; e-learning; serious games; critical thinking; sustainability
Online: 9 January 2020 (11:39:36 CET)
This study assesses the development of professional skills in university students using serious games (SG), from a sustainability perspective. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were set by the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Universities are strategic agents in the transformation process towards sustainability. This way, they should be committed to promoting such sustainable values in the students through curricular sustainability, implementing active methodologies and SG for that purpose. Transversal skills are essential for the development of future graduates. The objective of this study was to assess which professional skills should be developed through the SG called The Island, to improve the degree of student satisfaction with the incorporation of a sustainable curriculum. The data were obtained using a questionnaire, and then analysed using linear regression models, with their inference estimated through the goodness of fit and ANOVA. The first results indicated that the implementation of the SG promoted a strengthening of the students' sustainable curriculum through the development of those skills. It was concluded that the key to success in education for sustainable development is improving the development of strategic thinking, collaborative thinking, and self-awareness, in addition to encouraging systemic, critical, and problem-solving thinking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0771.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: scientific competence; competence-based education; educational planning; Education for Sustainable Development; evaluation of digital resources
Online: 29 November 2019 (03:17:18 CET)
Educating for Sustainability involves promoting sustainable competences in students. Not in vain, wider societal changes that ensure a balance between economic growth, respect for the environment and social justice must start with individual actions, implying knowledge, capacity and willingness to act. However, and although there is wide consensus that education should promote the development of competences for life, putting this theoretical tenet into may entail more problems. Competence is most often expressed in general terms without a specific definition of the intervening elements (knowledge, skills, values, attitudes), which may collide with the necessity of teachers – as learning planners - concrete entities on which to base their process of design. So that, in this work we propose a series of indicators that serve to characterize the four dimensions of scientific competence – contents of science, contents about science, value of science and utility of science-. Although they are primarily intended to be used to filter multimedia resources in an educational platform, this proposal of indicators can be extrapolated to the management and selection of a variety of resources and activities, and for sharing the objectives and evidences for the acquisition of competencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Cognitive Test; Education; Cognitive Impairment; Dementia
Online: 25 October 2022 (09:37:41 CEST)
Introduction:Few robust studies have analyzed association between cognitive tests and the marital status of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) group with ADNI dataset. To test the hypothesis that Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test (RAVLT) cognition performance with marital status is associated with greater odds of MCI group than either RAVLT independently, we used TADPOLE data to evaluate cross-sectional associations between RAVLT performance in immediate response, learning, forgetting, and perception of forgetting with marital status and MCI. Methods: Subjects with MCI and Normal Cognition were included. Logistic regression models indicate associations between four RAVLT subgroups (low and high performance of immediate response, immediate response with learning, performance of immediate response with learning and forgetting, performance of immediate response with learning, forgetting and perception of forgetting) and MCI group. Models adjust for age, sex, race, marital status, ethnicity, education, APOE4 genotype, hippocampus, whole-brain, ventricles and ICV. Results: The sample (n=6560) had a mean age of 77 / 67 years, 44% were female, 58% in MCI group. Only all RAVLT subgroups test with age 61 to 70(OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.15-0.45), age 71 or older(OR 0.07, 95% CI,0.04-0.12), race:black/african american(OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.52)race:more than one(OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.24), marital status:never married(OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.12-0.34). Conclusion: Studies are needed to evaluate other cognitive test with missing data within TADPOLE dataset as modifiable risk factor for MCI.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: beginning teachers; teaching induction; teacher education
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:53:20 CEST)
The objective of this research-action, teaching and extension project was to support the beginning teacher, who graduated from the Pedagogy courses at UFF-INFES and UFRRJ/IE, raising the difficulties and solutions of this teacher's pedagogical practice, as well as implementing and analyzing strategies of professional induction of the newly graduated professor by the proposed pilot course with a focus on promoting dialogue between university and school. This project was aimed at graduates of Pedagogy courses who started as teachers in the early years of elementary school and early childhood education (with less than 5 years as a teacher). These teachers participated in two pilot courses (one in 2021 and the other in 2022) to help recent graduates in their professional induction through innovative actions that help them to take a leading role in their practices. For this, we seek to investigate: the impact of this program on their professional induction through narrative interviews, accompany them in this process and analyze the difficulties and solutions they found in their pedagogical practice as a result of the help that the project offered them; the role of mentors (teachers running the school) and the University at the beginning of their professional activities. Finally, we concluded that this course worked as a support for beginning teachers, allowing for greater reflection and better professional performance, as well as a way to reduce the shock of reality, demotivation and teacher abandonment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: System dynamics; Education; Teaching; Learning; Systemsthinking
Online: 19 October 2022 (02:13:49 CEST)
This article addresses a challenge modeling novices face in model conceptualization: the recognition of behavior modes. Despite behavior modes being at the heart of system dynamics modeling, there is no unifying taxonomy for them, making them harder to learn for beginners. The article proposes criteria a taxonomy should satisfy, critically reviews previous taxonomies in the literature, and then introduces a new consistent taxonomy based on slope and curvature with mode names that refer only to visual cues and free of references to prior mathematical or domain-specific knowledge. Evidence from an exploratory experiment suggests that novices actually have difficulties classifying curves when using previous taxonomies. Links from these elementary modes to analogous terms in other taxonomies in diverse disciplines allow this taxonomy to be related to other ones. The article concludes by mentioning relevant limitations and future steps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Undergraduate; Medical; Online; Distance Education; Perception
Online: 9 June 2022 (10:53:43 CEST)
In 2020, students of Pakistan had to adapt to the online environment for the very first time. This study aims to analyze the perceptions of medical, dental, and allied health students about online education in Pakistan. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was done to assess the level of acceptance of undergraduate students. A pre-validated questionnaire regarding demographics, past-experience of e-learning, advantages disadvantages of e-learning, and general perception of students towards e-learning was distributed. Descriptive statistics were computed for demographics, Mann-Witney-U test was used to compare the differences of perceptions between pre-clinical year and clinical years students. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare the results of three specialties of students. Chi-square was used to compare overall category-wise positive and negative responses of students. 1200 students participated in the study. The major advantage identified by all students was the ‘comfortable environment’ in which they studied online. The major disadvantage selected by preclinical year students was ‘anxiety due to social isolation’ and that chosen by clinical year students was ‘lack of patient interaction’. Overall, 72% of students had a negative perception of e-learning. Student-teacher training, student counselling sessions, and innovative techniques need to be introduced to enhance student engagement and reduce pandemic stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0093.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: higher education; sustainability; enrollment; graduation; unemployment
Online: 7 June 2022 (04:06:44 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in undergraduate enrollment, graduation, and employment in Ethiopia. It looked at data from the past 20 years of enrollment and graduation, as well as the 15 years of unemployment trends. For enrollment, we used the ARIMA(0,1,0) model, for graduation, the Holt-Winter model, and unemployment, the Simple model. Results showed that enrollment rates increased dramatically, but graduation rates remained constant. Besides, enrollment is expected to continue rising, while graduation rates are expected to fall. On the other hand, between 1999 and 2018, the overall unemployment trend declined. Yet, between 2009 and 2018 the unemployment trends stayed stable. According to the findings, for the next ten years, higher education enrollment and graduation will continue. Nevertheless, it is shown the diminishing demand for jobs in the labor market. As part of improving the existing realities of higher education, the study suggests reconsidering job-driven policy formulation, strengthening higher education-labor market alignment, controlling higher education expansion, and sustaining the development qualification systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Patient education; health literacy; scientometric analysis
Online: 9 March 2022 (10:06:12 CET)
Therapeutic patient education (TPE) aims to empower the patients and their caregivers to effectively care for and manage their conditions. Such educational programs have been shown to improve health behaviors, disease outcomes and quality of life among different patient populations. The field of TPE has evolved extensively over decades, owing to interdisciplinary research. No study so far has been done to map this field, to identify the stakeholders and gaps requiring future research. By leveraging the theory of co-citation, Citespace was used to visualize the bibliographic data pertaining to TPE research. A total of 54,533 articles published in English language were analyzed to identify influential funders, regions and institutes contributing to this field. Besides these, important theoretical and empirical work that has shaped this field has also been mapped. Our analysis revealed several important insights. Most of the important theories which helped shape TPE were inspired from the social sciences. Five important themes of research were identified including disorders, study designs utilized in TPE research, scope of the TPE literature, and outcomes, and populations. The research focused on improving perceptions, behaviors, and attitudes for health promotion, reducing stigma as well as self-management and medication adherence. Most of the research was developed in the context of high income countries. The future research should more involve patients and use digital technology. Meta-analytical studies need to be done to identify the specificities of TPE interventions across different disorders. More research should involve low and middle income countries (LMIC) to ensure knowledge and technology transfer.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0269.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: ICT in Education; ICT Infrastructure; Cost Implications
Online: 13 February 2023 (15:22:42 CET)
The domain of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) education has garnered significant consideration in recent times. However, several challenges are inherent to this area of study, including monetary expense, temporal factors, pedagogical environment, teacher training programs, incentive, syllabus design, and health-related concerns. This paper presents an analysis of the difficulties encountered in the realm of ICT education in Japan, taking into account ten different perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0075.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: COVID-19; Quality education; social work; students; implication level
Online: 15 February 2022 (20:45:19 CET)
Abstract The article discusses about the current situation of Novel Corona Virus also called as the COVID-19 that hinder for all human’s life including the education. Rapidly escalating COVID-19, has caused havoc in quality education and every educational institution are closed. As the UNESCO report it showed that 1.6 billion children being affected due to the close of institution across 191 countries. With the alternative method every education institution started blended learning virtual classes in order to continue learning environment in students. The articles investigate COVID-19 impact on student’s quality education in Nepal and social work implication. The findings of the study shows that the COVID-19 has seriously effects on the students learning environment. It showed the huge gap between getting the good education in Nepal. However, Nepal has also made some policies to provide equal quality education to all the children through the ICT and also encourage social work to actively participate on providing education to all the majority of group children in Nepal. Whereas social work applied the micro, messo, and macro level of implication in practice to provide the education for children in remote area of Nepal.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0511.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: review; misinformation; online education; research; discipline
Online: 30 August 2021 (10:26:50 CEST)
Misinformation research has grown to become a critical topic in all disciplines. Since the expanding of online media, misinformation has been spreading rapidly across the globe through social media and other information systems. Paralleling the rise of academic interest in misinformation, is the emergence of online education scholarship. Interest in the online educational implications of misinformation and its impact attracts an increase in scholarship on misinformation. This article presents the results of a review of 1172 publications with “Misinformation” across disciplines and a subset of 174 misinformation literature in online education that were published between 2009 and 2021. This review answers three questions: (1) What is the overall distribution of publication activity with "misinformation" publications? (2) What methodologies have scholars used to investigate misinformation involving online education? (3) What have scholars reported about the results of studies involving misinformation in online education? The review reveals that various methodologies were used in literature focusing on misinformation online education with leading numbers of content analysis and quantitative studies. This systematic review is particularly relevant to those online educators in various disciplines who are interested in learning what scholars from their own academic disciplines are writing about misinformation.