ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0081.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: reference evapotranspiration; climatic change; drought/wet; Songnen Grassland
Online: 22 February 2017 (16:46:01 CET)
Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) plays an irreplaceable role in regional dry/wet conditions under the background of climate change. Based on the FAO Penman-Monteith method and daily climate variables, ET0 was calculated for 22 stations in and around Songnen Grassland, northeast China, during 1960-2014. The temporal and spatial variations of ET0 and precipitation (P) were comprehensively analyzed at different time scales by using the Mann-Kendall test, Sen’s slope estimator, and linear regression coupling with break trend analysis. Sensitivity analysis was used to detect the key climate parameter attributed to ET0 change. Then, the role of ET0 in regional dry/wet conditions was discussed by analyzing the relationship between ET0, P and aridity index (AI). Results shown a higher ET0 in the southwest and a lower in the northeast, but P was opposite to that of ET0. Evidently decreasing trend of ET0 at different time scales was detected in almost the entire region, and the significant trend mainly distributed in the eastern, northeastern and central. For the whole region, sensitivity analysis indicated decreasing trend of ET0 was primarily attributed to relative humidity and maximum air temperature. The positive contribution of increasing temperature rising to ET0 was offset by the effect of significantly decreasing relative humidity, wind speed and sunshine duration. In addition, the value of ET0 shown higher in drought years and lower in wet years.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0539.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: drought monitoring; drought predictions; drought indices; drought models
Online: 31 August 2022 (08:47:06 CEST)
Drought is considered one of the severest natural disasters and it is difficult to predict it. This review article aimed to display the state of the art of methods used to predict and monitor types of droughts. We examine more than 30 indices and models to identify the strengths and weaknesses of methods and identify gaps remaining in this field. Examples of examined indies are Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The research found improvement in drought modeling, however, more focus and improvement are required to monitor and predict drought types. It also found that some methods outperform others such as PDSI, SPI, SPEI, EVI, NDVI, NDWI, VCI and TCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0444.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Tonle Sap; meteorological drought; agricultural drought; drought index; drought duration
Online: 28 January 2022 (18:04:28 CET)
Rice production in the Tonle Sap basin is one of the main drivers for economic and social development in Cambodia. The Tonle Sap basin has experienced many different forms of disasters while more attention has been drawn to drought disaster. The objective of this study is to assess the impacts of drought on agriculture and food security through a case study of the Baribo basin, a sub-basin of Tonle Sap basin, Cambodia. Ground observations and satellite-based products were used for drought assessment from 1985 to 2008 which was the period with relatively good data quality. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standard Vegetation Index (SVI) were selected for meteorological and agricultural droughts assessment, correspondingly. Both SPI and SVI consistently suggested that drought is a major natural hazard causing food insecurity in the target basin. The highest drought intensity (DI) and severity (DS) occurred between 1993-1994 and the longest drought duration (DD) occurred between 2002 and 2006. The most severe damage to rice production was in 2004, affecting about 46% of the total cultivated area. The analysis showed that drought duration had a strong relationship with the affected area growing rice as well as food insecurity in the Tonle Sap basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0354.v1
Online: 24 October 2022 (07:14:38 CEST)
Spider silk has excellent strength and elasticity in natural, researchers have been working for decades try to achieve natural spider silk outstanding mechanical properties using recombinant spider silk protein (spidroin) through artificial spinning. In this work, we chose wet spinning method to explore the relationship between concentration of coagulation bath and fiber performance. It was found that the concentration of methanol has important effect on fiber continuity, diameter and mechanical properties. Lower concentration favors spinning continuous thinner, fibers with high strain. Secondary stretching benefits spinning silk fibers with stable mechanical properties, and thermal stability. Through applying different methanol concentration and additional stretching, we obtained silk fibers with Young’s modulus of 3.052± 2.626 GPa, stress of 25.3944 ± 17.48 MPa, and strain of 140 ± 95.4%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: meteorological drought; effective drought index; bangladesh; frequency of drought
Online: 24 September 2019 (12:17:36 CEST)
This study aims to assess the spatiotemporal characteristics of meteorological droughts in Bangladesh during 1981–2015 using the Effective Drought Index (EDI). Monthly precipitation data for 36 years (1980-2015) obtained from 27 metrological stations, were used in this study. The EDI performance was evaluated for four sub-regions over the country through comparisons with historical drought records identified at the regional scale. Analysis at a regional level showed that EDI could reasonably detect the drought years/events during the study period. The study also revealed that the overall drought severity had increased during the past 35 y; the most significant increasing trend was observed in the central region. The characteristics (severity and duration) of drought were also analysed in terms of spatiotemporal evolution of the frequency of drought events. It was found that the western and central regions of the country are comparatively more vulnerable to drought. Moreover, the southwestern region is more prone to extreme drought, whereas the central region is more prone to severe droughts. In addition, the central region was more prone to extra-long-term droughts, while the coastal areas in the southwestern as well as in the central and north-western region were more prone to long-term droughts. The frequency of droughts in all categories significantly increased during the last quinquennial period (2011 to 2015). The seasonal analysis showed that the north-western areas were prone to extreme droughts during the Kharif (wet) and Rabi (dry) seasons. The central and northern regions were affected by recurring severe droughts in all cropping seasons. Further, the most significant increasing trend of the drought-affected area was observed within the central region, especially during the pre-monsoon (March-May) season. The results of this study can aid policymakers in the development of drought mitigation strategies in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0009.v1
Online: 1 April 2019 (10:28:40 CEST)
Mapping drought from space using, e.g., surface soil moisture (SSM), has become viable in the last decade. However, state of the art SSM retrieval products suffer from very poor coverage over northern latitudes. In this study, we propose an innovative drought indicator with a wider spatial and temporal coverage than that obtained from satellite SSM retrievals. We evaluate passive microwave brightness temperature observations from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite as a surrogate drought metric, and introduce a Standardized Brightness Temperature Index (STBI). The STBI is validated against drought indices from a land surface data assimilation system (LDAS-Monde), two satellite dervied SSM indices and a standardized precipitation index. Finally, we evaluate the STBI against the before mentioned drought indices in a case study of the 2018 Nordic drought. The STBI is found to be superior to the drought index created from satellite derived SSM in both spatial and temporal coverage over the Nordic region. Our results indicate that when compared to drought indices from precipitation data and a land data assimilation system, the STBI is able to capture the 2018 drought onset, severity and extent. Thus, the STBI index could provide additional information for drought monitoring in regions where the SSM retrieval problem is difficult.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0420.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: wet agglomeration; flocculation; hydrodynamics; turbulence
Online: 29 May 2018 (09:00:36 CEST)
In this study, an experimentally validated computational model was developed to investigate the hydrodynamics in a rotor-stator vortex RVR agglomeration reactor having a rotating disc at the centre with two shrouded outer plates. A numerical simulation was performed using a simplified form of the reactor geometry to compute the 3D flow field in batch mode operations. Thereafter, the model was validated using data from a 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) flow analysis performed during the design of the reactor. Using different operating speeds—70, 90, 110 and 130 rpm, the flow fields were computed numerically followed by a comprehensive data analysis. The simulation results showed separated boundary layers on the rotating disc and the stator. The flow field within the reactor is characterized by a rotational plane circular forced vortex flow in which the streamlines are concentric circles with a rotational vortex. Overall, the results of the numerical simulation demonstrate a fairly good agreement between the CFD model and the experimental data as well as the available theoretical predictions. The swirl ratio β was found to be approximately 0.4044, 0.4038, 0.4044 and 0.4043 for operating speeds of N=70, 90, 110 and 130 rpm respectively. In terms of the spatial distribution, the turbulence intensity and kinetic energy are concentrated on the outer region of the reactor while the axial velocity showed a decreasing intensity towards the shroud. However, a comparison of the CFD and experimental predictions of the tangential velocity and the vorticity amplitude profiles shows that these parameters were under-predicted by the experimental analysis which could be attributed to some of the experimental limitations rather than the robustness of the CFD model or numerical code.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: drought; drought indices; South Asia; prediction; projection; teleconnection
Online: 1 March 2021 (17:52:21 CET)
South Asian countries experience frequent drought incidents recently, and due to this reason, many scientific studies were carried to explore the drought in South Asia. In this context, we review scientific studies related to drought in South Asia. The study initially identifies the importance of drought-related studies and discusses drought types for South Asian regions. The representative examples of drought events, severity, frequency, and duration in South Asian countries are identified. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was mostly adopted in South Asian countries to quantify and monitor droughts. Nevertheless, the absence of drought quantification studies in Bhutan and Maldives is of great concern. Future studies to generate a combined drought severity map for the South Asian region are required. Moreover, the drought prediction and projection in the regions is rarely studied. Further, the teleconnection between drought and large-scale atmospheric circulations in the South Asian area has not been discussed in detail in the most scientific literature. Therefore, as a take-home message, there is an urgent need for scientific studies related to drought quantification for some regions in South Asia, prediction and projection of drought for an individual country (or as a region), and drought teleconnection to atmospheric circulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0145.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: drought stress; drought models; drought tolerance; oxidative stress; phytohormones; polyethylene glycol (PEG); stress markers
Online: 12 December 2018 (12:19:35 CET)
Drought is one of the major stress factors affecting growth and development of plants. In this context, drought-related losses of crop plant productivity impede sustainable agriculture all over the world. In general, plants responses to water deficit by multiple physiological and metabolic adaptations at the molecular, cellular and organism levels. To understand the underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance, adequate stress models and arrays of reliable stress markers are required. Therefore, in this review we comprehensively address currently available models of drought stress, based on culturing plants in soil, hydroponic or agar culture. These experimental setups give access to different aspects of plant response to drought, like decrease of tissue water potential, reduction of stomata conductance and photosynthesis efficiency, accumulation of low-molecular weight solutes (metabolic adjustment) and drought protective proteins. Till now, this pattern of markers was successfully extended to the methods of enzyme chemistry, molecular biology and omics techniques. Thus, conventional tests can be efficiently complemented by determination of phytohormone and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as comprehensive profiling of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0450.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Wet spinning; Lanthanum oxide; Biochar; Chromate; Adsorption
Online: 22 February 2021 (08:51:53 CET)
Lanthanum chemical compound incorporates a sensible anionic complexing ability, however lacks stability at low pH scale. Biochar fibers will benefit of their massive space and plethoric useful teams on surface to support metal chemical compound. Herein, wet spinning technology was used to load La3+ onto sodium alginate fiber, and convert La3+ into La2O3 through carbonization. The La2O3 modified biochar (La-BC) fiber was characterized by SEM, XRD and XPS, etc. The adsorption experiment proved that La-BC showed excellent adsorption capacity for chromates, and its saturation adsorption capacity was about 104.93mg/g. The information suggested that the adsorption was in step with both Langmuir and Freundlich model, followed pseudo-second-order surface assimilation mechanics, which instructed that the Cr (VI) adsorption was characterized by single-phase and polyphase adsorption, mainly chemical adsorption. Thermodynamic parameter proved that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanistic investigation revealed that the mechanism of adsorption of Cr (VI) by La-BC may include electrostatic interaction, ligand exchange or complexation. Moreover, co-existing anions and regeneration experiments proved that La-BC was recyclable and had a good prospect in the field of chrome-containing wastewater removal.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0083.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: drought-tolerance characteristics; maize breeding; maize drought tolerance; molecular markers; phenotype; screening of drought-tolerant plants
Online: 7 April 2020 (10:28:30 CEST)
Drought is among the most important abiotic stressors influencing food-crop production worldwide. Currently, drought-tolerant maize materials are rarely used for actual breeding because corn production primarily focuses on heterosis to generate desired varieties. In this article, we reviewed current work on assessing maize drought tolerance. We suggested that the development of enhanced screening techniques must clearly consider the connection between theory and application. We strongly recommend that agricultural scientists focus on translating the results of laboratory experiments into practical methods for improving crop productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Effective Drought Index (EDI); meteorological drought; climate change; GCMs under RCP scenarios; future drought projections; Bangladesh
Online: 26 September 2019 (03:49:09 CEST)
The impacts of climate change on precipitation and drought characteristics over Bangladesh were examined by using the daily precipitation outputs from 29 bias-corrected general circulation models (GCMs) under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. A precipitation-based drought estimator, namely, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), was applied to quantify the characteristics of drought events in terms of the severity and duration. The changes in drought characteristics were assessed for the beginning (2010–2039), middle (2040–2069), and end of this century (2070–2099) relative to the 1976–2005 baseline. The GCMs were limited in regard to forecasting the occurrence of future extreme droughts. Overall, the findings showed that the annual precipitation will increase in the 21st century over Bangladesh; the increasing rate was comparatively higher under the RCP8.5 scenario. The highest increase of rainfall is expected to happen over the drought-prone northern region. The general trends of drought frequency, duration, and intensity are likely to decrease in the 21st century over Bangladesh under both RCP scenarios, except for the maximum drought intensity during the beginning of the century, which is projected to increase over the country. The extreme and medium-term drought events did not show any significant changes in the future under both scenarios except for the medium-term droughts, which decreased by 55% compared to the base period during the 2070s under RCP8.5. However, extreme drought days will likely increase in most of the cropping seasons for the different future periods under both scenarios. The spatial distribution of changes in drought characteristics indicates that the drought-vulnerable areas are expected to shift from the northwestern region to the central and the southern region in the future under both scenarios due to the effects of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0148.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: drought; wildfire; drought index; fuel moisture; California; Nevada; evaporative demand
Online: 1 March 2019 (09:40:59 CET)
Relationships between drought and fire danger indices are examined to 1) incorporate fire risk information into the National Integrated Drought Information System California-Nevada Drought Early Warning System and 2) provide a baseline analysis for application of drought indices into a fire risk management framework. We analyzed four drought indices that incorporate precipitation and evaporative demand (E0) and three fire indices that reflect fuel moisture and potential fire intensity. Seasonally averaged fire danger indices were most strongly correlated to multi-scalar drought indices that use E0 (the Evaporative Demand Drought Index [EDDI] and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index [SPEI]) at approximately annual time scales that reflect buildup of antecedent drought conditions. Results indicate that EDDI and SPEI can inform seasonal fire potential outlooks at the beginning of summer. An E0 decomposition case study of conditions prior to the Tubbs Fire in Northern California indicate high E0 (97th percentile) driven predominantly by low humidity signaled increased fire potential several days before the start of the fire. Initial use of EDDI by fire management groups during summer and fall 2018 highlights several value-added applications, including seasonal fire potential outlooks, funding fire severity level requests, and assessing set-up conditions prior to large, explosive fire cases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0466.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Drought stress; Osmotic regulation; LEA protein; ROS; Signaling; Drought-responsive gene
Online: 22 February 2021 (12:38:05 CET)
With the global climate anomalies and the destruction of ecological balance, water shortage has become a serious ecological problem facing all mankind, and drought has become a key factor restricting the development of agricultural production. Therefore, it is essential to study the drought tolerance of crops. On the basis of previous studies, we reviewed the effects of drought stress on plant morphology and physiology, including the changes of external morphology and internal structure of root, stem and leaf, the effects of drought stress on osmotic regulation sub-stances, drought-induced proteins and active oxygen metabolism of plants. In this paper, the main drought stress signals and signal transduction pathways in plants are described, and the functional genes and regulatory genes related to drought stress are listed respectively. We summarize the above aspects in order to provide valuable background knowledge and theoret-ical basis for future agriculture and forestry breeding and cultivation.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Window Performance; Cold Air Film; U-Value; Wet hey
Online: 25 May 2021 (11:51:48 CEST)
The concept of this prototype is to create a cold air film layer, in indoor side of the window. The function of this extra cold air layer is to increase the amount of window resistance and decrease its U-Value. It provide air film layer by using the same concept of desert cooler or wind catcher. They both bring the hot air from outside then let it go throw straw miost with cold water. After hot air move through straw, it would become cold, thus increase the window resistance and decrease the haet gian, therefore, decrease the cooling load. So, this window model works by heating the air in air room by sun radiation, then after a while, air pressure will rise and its volume will increase then it will impulse to wet hay, and become cold. Then there is fins to guide air flow to its correct direction, thus inner side of window will become cold, not like other type of window which when temperature rise, the inner side of window become hot. So, this window prevents heat transition and creare regenereted trubouland air flim in the inner side of the window. Using calculation to find air film characteristics and WINDOW7.7 software to calculate heat gain through window, shows that it is expected from this prototype to reduce heat gain by 6.85 % for double glazed clear window.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0333.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Wet chemical deposition; crystalline thin films; vanadium dioxide; thermochromism
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:38:44 CET)
In this paper, a novel synthesis for a chemical precursor for nanocrystalline VO2 coatings is elaborated. The compatibility of the precursor towards the substrate is optimized for spin coating. This is done by subjecting multiple solvents to contact angle measurements. A suitable thermal treatment is developed to densify the coating and to induce crystallization. Afterwards the microstructure of the coating is investigated using X-Ray diffraction, electron microscopy and ellipsometry techniques. To assess the thermochromic properties of the fabricated device, optical transmission experiments were conducted both at room temperature and at elevated temperature. A correlation between these thermochromic properties and coating thickness was investigated in order to obtain an optimized thermochromic device, where both high visual transparency and prominent thermochromic switching abilities are aimed for. In this work, an optimal coating thickness is proposed for a thermochromic coating with high switching ability and solar modulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0247.v1
Online: 26 January 2018 (04:52:27 CET)
Drought periods have an adverse impact on the condition of oak stands. Research on different types of ecosystems has confirmed a correlation between plant species diversity and the adverse effects of droughts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes which occurred in an oak stand (Krotoszyn Plateau, Poland) under the impact of the summer drought in 2015. We used a method based on remote sensing indices from satellite images in order to detect changes in the vegetation in 2014 and 2015. A positive difference was interpreted as an improvement, whereas a negative one was treated as a deterioration of the stand condition. The Shannon-Wiener species diversity was estimated using an iterative PCA algorithm based on aerial images. We observed a relationship between the species indices of the individual forest divisions and their response to drought. The highest correlation between the index differences and the Shannon-Wiener indices was found for the GNDVI index (+0.74). In addition, correlations were observed between the mean index difference and the percentage shares in the forest divisions of species such as Pinus sylvestris (+0.67 ± 0.08) and Quercus robur (-0.65 ± 0.10). Our results lead us to infer that forest management based on highly diverse habitats is more suitable to meet the challenges in the context of global climatic changes, characterized by increasingly frequent droughts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0241.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: North and West Africa; drought; DSI; TVDI; NVSWI; spatial correlation; change trend of drought
Online: 15 March 2020 (12:38:03 CET)
North and West Africa are the most vulnerable regions to drought, due to the high variation in monthly precipitation. An accurate and efficient monitoring of drought is essential. In this study, we use TRMM data with remote sensing tools for effective monitoring of drought. The Drought Severity Index (DSI), Temperature Vegetation Drought Index (TVDI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Vegetation Supply Water Index (NVSWI) are more useful for monitoring the drought over North and West Africa. To classify the areas affected by drought, we used the TRMM spatial maps to verify the TVDI, DSI and NVSWI indexes derived from MODIS. The DSI, TVDI, NVSWI and Monthly Precipitation Anomaly (NPA) indexes with the employ of MODIS-derived ET/PET and NDVI were chosen for monitoring the drought in the study area. The seasonal spatial correlation between the DSI, NPA, NVWSI, NDVI, TVDI and TCI indicates that NVSWI, NDVI and DSI present an excellent monitor of drought indexes. The change trend of drought from 2002 to 2018 was also characterized. The frequency of drought showed a decrease during this period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0075.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: wet-bulb depression; relative humidity; ANFIS; artificial neural network; LSSVM
Online: 2 November 2020 (09:44:25 CET)
The main parameters for calculation of relative humidity are the wet-bulb depression and dry bulb temperature. In this work, easy-to-used predictive tools based on statistical learning concepts, i.e., the Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are developed for calculating relative humidity in terms of wet bulb depression and dry bulb temperature. To evaluate the aforementioned models, some statistical analyses have been done between the actual and estimated data points. Results obtained from the present models showed their capabilities to calculate relative humidity for divers values of dry bulb temperatures and also wet-bulb depression. The obtained values of MSE and MRE were 0.132 and 0.931, 0.193 and 1.291 for the LSSVM and ANFIS approaches respectively. These developed tools are user-friend and can be of massive value for scientists especially, those dealing with air conditioning and wet cooling towers systems to have a noble check of the relative humidity in terms of wet bulb depression and dry bulb temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0383.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: bioretention; nitrogen removal; submerged zone; alternate wet and dry conditions
Online: 31 January 2020 (11:31:15 CET)
Adding a submerged zone (SZ) is deemed to promote denitrification during dry periods and thus improve NO3--N removal efficiency of a bioretention system. However, few studies had investigated the variation of nitrogen concentration in the SZ during dry periods and evaluated the effect of the variation on nitrogen removal of the bioretention system. Based on the experiment in a mesocosm bioretetion system with SZ, this study investigated the variation of nitrogen concentration of the system under 17 consecutive cycles of wet and dry alternation with varied rainfall amount, influent nitrogen concentration and antecedent dry periods (ADP). The results indicated that (1) during the dry periods, NH4+-N concentrations in SZ showed an exponential decline trend, decreasing by 50% in 12.9 ± 7.3 hours; while NO3--N concentrations showed an inverse S-shape decline trend, decreasing by 50% in 18.8 ± 6.4 hours; (2) during the wet periods, NO3--N concentration in the effluent showed an S-shape upward trend; and at the early stage of the wet periods, the concentration was relatively low and significantly correlated with ADP, while the corresponding volume of the effluent was significantly correlated with the SZ depth; (3) in the whole experiment, the contribution of nitrogen decrease in SZ during dry periods to NH4+-N and NO3--N removal accounted for 12% and 92%, respectively; and the decrease of NO3--N in SZ during the dry period was correlated with the influent concentration in the wet period and the length of the dry period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0128.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: ditches; grain yield; lodging resistance; root traits; wet-seeded rice
Online: 12 November 2019 (10:25:04 CET)
The mechanical hill wet-seeded rice machine is benefits to establish uniform seedling, and ditches were established by using this machine. However, little knowledge is known on the effect of the establishment of ditches on growth, lodging and yield, and their relationship with root traits. In this study, two field experiments were conducted during 2012 and 2013 with using two super rice varieties (i.e. hybrid rice ‘Peizataifeng’ and inbred rice ‘Yuxiangyouzhan’) grown under three ditches establishment treatments (i.e. T1: both water ditches and seed ditches were established by the machine, T2: seed ditches were established by the machine, T3: neither water nor seed ditches were established by the machine). The lodging index and lodging resistance traits, the grain yield and above-ground dry weight and the root traits were measured. The results showed that the lodging index was significantly affected by the treatments with ditches. The strongest lodging resistance was detected in mechanical hill wet-seeded rice with ditches treatment in both 2012 and 2013. The lodging resistance was strongly related to the breaking resistance, the root volume and root superficial area at the heading stage and maturity stage and the total root length at the heading stage. No significant difference was investigated in grain yield or dry weight of mechanical hill wet-seeded rice. Yuxiangyouzhan showed higher grain yield, dry weight and better lodging resistance but unfavorable root growth attributes than Peizataifeng. Therefore, the mechanical hill wet-seeded rice with ditches treatment increased rice lodging resistance is related to root traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0014.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: rainwater; weather; windbreaker; cup anemometer; dry and wet bulb thermometers
Online: 4 January 2017 (07:27:41 CET)
Agro-meteorology is the relationship between agriculture and weather. All farm activities are affected by weather. Therefore it is always necessary to monitor the weather as a forecast. The aim of the research was to monitor the weather and rainwater samples obtained at Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. For the eight months periods, results were obtained. The mean results for the physicochemical parameters were: TDS (12.25 mg/L), temp (28.13 oC), pH (6.63), EC (24.25µS/cm), Free CO2 (24.38mg/L), nitrate (0.16mg/L), phosphate (0.17mg/L), sulphate (0.18mg/L). The rainwater was colorless and had no odor. The mean meteorological data: The prevailing wind directions were from SE, mostly in May, June, July and November and NE. The dry and wet temperatures were 22-29 oC and 20-26 oC respectively. The maximum value was observed in the month of July. The correlation matrix showed that there were many strong correlations in the physicochemical properties. The months of May, June and July had the highest wind speed. In these months there would be a need to use a windbreaker around the crops planted to avoid soil erosion and damaging of plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0168.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: drought; institutions; smallholder farmers; water security
Online: 9 August 2022 (03:49:28 CEST)
Disasters such as the 2015-2018 drought in South Africa usually negatively impact agricultural water, especially in smallholder farming systems. This study assessed the availability of irrigation water, performance of irrigation infrastructure, and water governance systems in Genadendal, Western Cape, with a focus on smallholder farmers. Data for streamflow, dam levels, and rainfall were acquired from water institutions and analysed using Microsoft Excel. The performance of the infrastructure and water governance were assessed based on the perceptions of smallholder farmers and key informants. A questionnaire was administered to eight smallholder farmers, followed by a focus group discussion with 15 smallholder farmers. Interviews were conducted with eight key informants who worked in water-related institutions. Qualitative data from the interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. The study showed adequate agricultural water resources during the 2015-2018 drought period for the smallholder farmers who relied on water from dams. However, smallholder farmers who relied on the Riviersonderend River experienced severe water shortages during the same period. The findings also showed that there was poor performance of irrigation water infrastructure due to inadequate maintenance. Lack of coordination among institutions, insufficient funding, political interference, fragmentation of roles and responsibilities, lack of human resources, and farmers’ lack of participation and commitment in water resources management contributed to the dysfunctionality of irrigation water governance systems, leading to water insecurity. This study recommends adequate funding for the operation and maintenance of infrastructure. Furthermore, water institutions need to support smallholder farmers with training skills in agricultural water management and infrastructure maintenance. Further studies are recommended to quantify the water lost due to the poor performance of water infrastructure and to develop effective water governance in Genadendal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0113.v1
Online: 8 February 2022 (13:17:14 CET)
MicroRNAs act as the cardinal post-transcriptional monitors of gene regulatory networks sculpturing the developmental plasticity and stress responses in plants. Single miRNA target several genes and how the transcriptional regulation of miRNA impacts its pool of targets in different tissues and stress conditions is still elusive. The present study investigated the highly conserved and evolving MIR408 family comprehensively by redefining its evolutionary conservation and diversification in plants followed by detailed functional analysis in rice. MIR408 family comprises three dominant mature forms (21 nt) including a distinct monocot variant. Plant MIR408 family can be divided into six groups. miR408 majorly cleave genes belonging to blue copper protein in addition to several other species-specific targets in plants. Screening of 4726 rice accessions identified 22 sequence variants in 1 Kb upstream (15) and MIR408 region leading to the identification of 8 haplotypes (3: Japonica-specific and 5: Indica-specific). miR408-3p follows flag leaf preferential and drought upregulated expression profile in flag leaf and roots of N22 which seems to be regulated by differential fraction of mCs in the precursor region. The active pool of miR408 regulated targets under control and drought conditions is impacted by the tissue type. Comparative expression analysis of miR408/target module under different sets of conditions features 83 targets exhibiting antagonistic expression in rice. Twelve high confidence targets including 4 plantacyanins (OsUCL6, 7, 9 and 30), pirin, OsLPR1, OsCHUP1, OsDOF12, OsBGLU1, glycine rich cell wall, deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolaseand OsERF7 with antagonistic expression under most conditions. Further, over-expression of osa-MIR408 in drought sensitive rice cultivar leads to the massive enhancement of vegetative growth in rice with improved ETR and Y(II) and enhanced the dehydration stress tolerance at seedling stage.
Online: 26 September 2020 (14:20:53 CEST)
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oil crops in the world; however, drought significantly curtails its growth and productivity. Identifying drought-tolerant germplasm is an efficient and low-cost strategy for addressing water shortages. Using water loss ratio (WLR) as an index of drought tolerance, we screened a panel of 265 B. napus lines. We identified eight low-WLR and six high-WLR accessions, which were regarded as drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive, respectively. Further validated these selected accessions at the seedling stage under drought-stress conditions. The drought-tolerant accessions had significantly greater fresh and dry weights under drought stress than the drought sensitive accessions. Using RT-qPCR, we showed that a set of previously reported drought-adaptive marker genes were expressed at higher levels in the drought-tolerant lines than in the drought-sensitive lines. These results indicated that the drought-tolerant genotypes could be identified from natural populations using WLR. Then, we performed a genome-wide association study to identify loci harboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A total of 139 SNPs were significantly associated with the WLR, of which chromosome A10 harbored the largest number. Furthermore, four putative candidate genes were selected by combining the SNP–WLR association results and transcriptional expression data with the changes in drought tolerance. Thus, we have identified two drought-tolerant B. napus cultivars and uncovered genome-wide variation differentiating B. napus lines related to WLR, in addition to providing insights for further research into WLR-related drought mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0064.v1
Online: 3 May 2018 (09:38:17 CEST)
Under abiotic stress conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi help plants by improving nutrient and water uptake. Finger millet is an arid crop having soils with poor water holding capacity. Therefore, it is difficult for the plants to obtain water and mineral nutrients from the soil to sustain life. To understand the role of mycorrhizal symbiosis in water and mineral up-take from the soil, we studied the role of Rhizophagus intraradices colonization and its beneficial role for drought stress tolerance in finger millet seedling. Under severe drought stress condition, AM inoculation led to the significant increase in plant growth (7%), phosphorus, and chlorophyll content (29%). Also, the level of osmolytes including proline and soluble sugars were found in higher quantities in AM inoculated seedlings under drought stress. Under water stress, the lipid peroxidation in leaves of mycorrhized seedlings was reduced by 29%. The flavonoid content of roots in AM colonized seedlings was found 16% higher compared to the control, whereas the leaves were accumulated more phenol. Compared to the control, ascorbate level was found to be 25% higher in leaf tissue of AM inoculated seedlings. Moreover, glutathione (GSH) level was increased in mycorrhiza inoculated seedlings with a maximum increment of 182% under severe stress. The results demonstrated that AM provided drought tolerance to the finger millet seedlings through a stronger root system, greater photosynthetic efficiency, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: drought; copula; Bayesian network; inflow; reservoir
Online: 5 January 2018 (05:01:45 CET)
Especially for drought periods, the higher the accuracy of reservoir inflow forecasting, the more reliable the water supply from a dam. The article focuses on probabilistic forecasting of seasonal inflow to reservoirs and determines estimates from the probabilistic seasonal inflow according to drought forecast results. The probabilistic seasonal inflow was forecasted by a copula-based Bayesian network employing a Gaussian copula function. Drought forecasting was performed by calculation of the standardized streamflow index value. The calendar year is divided into four seasons; the total inflow volume of water to a reservoir for a season is referred to as the seasonal inflow. Seasonal inflow forecasting curves conforming to drought stages produce estimates of probabilistic seasonal inflow according to the drought forecast results. The forecasted estimates of seasonal inflow were calculated by using the inflow records of Soyanggang and Andong dams in the Republic of Korea. Under the threshold probability of drought occurrence ranging from 50 to 55 %, the forecasted seasonal inflows reasonably matched critical drought records. Combining the drought forecasting with the seasonal inflow forecasting may produce reasonable estimates of drought inflow from the probabilistic forecasting of seasonal inflow to a reservoir.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0075.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Algae; wet anaerobic storage; dry matter loss; organic acid; lactic acid bacteria
Online: 4 March 2022 (08:45:40 CET)
Wet anaerobic storage of algal biomass is a promising preservation approach which can ensure continuous supply of these feedstocks to biorefineries year-round. An effective solution to preservation must ensure minimal dry matter loss and change in biochemical composition during storage. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the preservation of Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass through wet anaerobic storage and its impact on biomass quality. Prior to storage, algae sample was inoculated with two different strains of lactic acid bacteria and thereafter stored for 30 and 180 days. Each inoculant limited dry matter loss to <10% (dry basis) after the storage durations. Final pH values (4.3 - 4.8) indicate that the biomass samples were properly ensiled, achieving the acidic conditions necessary for preservation. Compositional analysis of the biomass after storage showed a reduction in carbohydrate content, a relative increase in lipid content, and no significant change to the protein fraction. Glucose and galactose were the prevalent sugar monomers. The low dry matter loss and minimal compositional change indicates that wet anaerobic storage is an effective means of preserving algal biomass, ensuring a constant supply of algal biomass feedstock to a biorefinery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0134.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Methylcellulose; cellulose nanocrystal; hydrogel; birefringence; wet-spinning; optical fiber; thermoresponsive; LCST; nanocomposite
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:15:49 CEST)
Chemical modification of cellulose offers routes for structurally and functionally diverse biopolymer derivatives for numerous industrial applications. Among cellulose derivatives, cellulose ethers have found extensive use, such as emulsifiers, in food industries and biotechnology. Methylcellulose, one of the simplest cellulose derivatives, has been utilized for biomedical, construction materials and cell culture applications. Its improved water solubility, thermoresponsive gelation, and the ability to act as a matrix for various dopants also offer routes for cellulose-based functional materials. There has been a renewed interest in understanding the structural, mechanical, and optical properties of methylcellulose and its composites. This review focuses on the recent development in optically and mechanically tunable hydrogels derived from methylcellulose and methylcellulose-cellulose nanocrystal composites. We further discuss the application of the gels for preparing highly ductile and strong fibers. Finally, the emerging application of methylcellulose-based fibers as optical fibers and their application potentials are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0403.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Climate Projection; Downscaling; Drought; Runoff; Snow; Wildfire
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:42:21 CEST)
Snowpack loss in midlatitude mountains is ubiquitously projected by Earth system models, though the magnitudes, persistence and time horizons of decline vary. Using daily downscaled hydroclimate and snow projections we examine changes in snow seasonality across the U.S. Pacific Southwest region during a simulated severe 20-year dry spell in the 21st century (2051–2070) developed as part of the 4th California Climate Change Assessment to provide a "stress test" for water resources. Across California’s mountains, substantial declines (30–100% loss) in median peak annual snow water equivalent accompany changes in snow seasonality throughout the region compared to the historic period. We find 80% of historic seasonal snowpacks transition to ephemeral conditions. Subsetting empirical-statistical wildfire projections for California by snow seasonality transition regions indicates a two-to-four-fold increase in burned area, consistent with recent observations of high elevation wildfires following extended drought conditions. By analyzing six of the major California snow-fed river systems we demonstrate snowpack reductions and seasonality transitions result in concomitant declines in annual runoff (47-58% of historic values). The negative impacts to statewide water supply reliability by the projected dry spell will likely be magnified by changes in snowpack seasonality and increased wildfire activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0014.v1
Online: 1 February 2022 (12:53:40 CET)
Each year, the global population and agriculture suffer critical agricultural output losses as a result of severe drought devastation. Physiological drought occurs when plants are unable to extract water from the soil, even though it is available in the root zone. Apart from having a significant effect on plant physiology, drought stress has the effect of reducing crop yield. Drought stress influences plant metabolism both directly and indirectly. Drought stress alters the morpho-anatomical, physiological, and biochemical composition of plants, thereby decreasing transpiration water loss and increasing the efficiency with which plants use their water. Constant water loss through transpiration, combined with previously lost water, results in leaf water deficits. Nonetheless, drought stress has a wide variety of effects, ranging from lesions to confusion. Plant health is harmed when their ability to absorb water and nutrients, interact with their environment, and breathe is harmed. Apart from oxidative damage to plants, it may also result in cell death, which can occur under certain conditions when cells are exposed to their environment. Drought induces a plethora of physiological and molecular changes in plants, the majority of which assist them in adapting to the harsh environment. To mitigate drought's adverse effects, we must first gain a better understanding of how drought affects plant physiology. The purpose of this research is to better understand how drought affects plant development by examining the causes and effects of drought stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0337.v1
Online: 24 January 2022 (09:41:10 CET)
This pot-based study investigated the influence of co-composted wood-derived biochar on lettuce growth performance under salinity and drought stress conditions. Biochar of two particle sizes; > 2 mm and < 1 mm were co-composted with the mixture (1:1 ratio of dry weight) of cow and poultry manures. Co-composted biochars were applied at 5% and 7% rates in soil. Control treatments included the amendment of mixture of biochar with manure in soil. Pots were subjected to slight drought (48-55% water filled pore space (WFPS) of soil) and non-drought conditions (60% WFPS) and under 0 and 1.3 dS m-1 salinity. Results revealed that plants growth performance was significantly better under treatments of co-composted biochar and no salt stress conditions, than when mixture of biochar and manure was applied to soil as non-composted fertilizer. Under no stress condition, small particle-sized co-composted biochar increased root biomass by 786.2% than the large particle-sized co-composted biochar at same application rate. As compared to large-sized co-composted biochar, small sized co-composted biochar at high application rates increased root biomass by 167 – 245% but not leaf biomass under both stress conditions. Small particle-sized co-composted biochar amendment also increased the phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) of lettuce leaves than large particle-sized co-composted biochar under no stress condition. The amendment of small-sized co-composted biochar also increased significantly the concentration of Olsen phosphorus in soil than the amendment of large-particle-sized co-composted biochar. In conclusion, amendment of small particle-sized co-composted biochar has the potential of attenuating salinity and drought stress in lettuce and promoting P cycling in soil.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Drought; SPEI; Pluvial; Severity; Frequency; Duration; Kenya
Online: 4 February 2020 (15:56:58 CET)
This work examines drought and wet events based on Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) over Kenya from 1981 to 2016. Spatiotemporal analysis of dry and wet events is conducted for 3 and 12-month SPEI. The drought incidences were observed during the period 1984, 1987, 2000, 2006, 2009, 2015, and 2016 for SPEI-3 whilst the SPEI-12 demonstrated the manifestation of drought during the year 2000 and 2006. SPEI clearly shows that the wettest period, 1997 and 1998 that coincide with the El Nino event in both time steps. SPEI -3 shows a reduction in moderate drought events while severe and extreme cases were on increase towards the end of the twentieth century. Conversely, SPEI-12 depicts an overall increase in severe drought occurrence over the study location with observed intensity of -1.54 and cumulative frequency of 64 months during the study period. The trend of wet events is upwards in the western and central highlands while the rest of the regions show increase in dry events during the study period. Moreover, moderate dry/wet events predominate whilst extreme events occur least frequent across all grid cells. It is apparent that the study area experiences mild extreme dry events in both categories although moderately severe dry events dominate most parts of the study area. High intensity and frequency of drought is noted in SPEI-3 while least occurrences of extreme events are recorded in SPEI-12. Although drought event prevails across the study area, there is evidence of extreme flood conditions over the recent decades. These findings form a good basis for next step of research that will look at projection of droughts over the study area based on regional climate models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0085.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: alfalfa; drought; microRNA; small RNA; differential expression
Online: 23 February 2017 (09:50:07 CET)
Alfalfa, an important legume forage, is an ideal crop for sustainable agriculture and a potential bioenergy plant. Drought, one of the most common environmental stresses, substantially affects plants’ growth, development and productivity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are newly discovered gene expression regulators that have been linked to several plant stress responses. To elucidate the role of miRNAs in drought stress regulation of alfalfa, a high-throughput sequencing approach was used to analyze 12 small RNA libraries comprising of 4 samples, each with 3 biological replicates. We identified 348 known miRNAs, belonging to 80 miRNA families, from the 12 libraries and 281 novel miRNAs using Mireap software. 18 known miRNAs in roots and 12 known miRNAs in leaves were screened out as drought-responsive miRNAs. Except for miR319d and miR157a which were upregulated under drought stress, the expression pattern of drought-responsive miRNAs were different between roots and leaves in alfalfa. This is the first study discovering miR157a, miR1507, miR3512, miR3630, miR5213, miR5294, miR5368 and miR6173 are drought-responsive miRNAs. Target transcripts of drought-responsive miRNAs were computationally predicted. All 447 target genes for the known miRNAs were predicted using an online tool. This study provides a significant insight on understanding drought-responsive mechanisms of alfalfa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: drought; SPEI; evapotranspiration; Thornthwaite; FAO Penman-Monteith
Online: 6 October 2016 (13:04:49 CEST)
The aim of this study is to analyze the characteristics of drought such as intensity, cumulative curves and trends, based on SPEI (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index) at 8 stations in Korea from 1981 to 2010. The traditional SPEI is based on Thornthwaite equation for estimating evapotranspiration; SPEI_th. However, a standard of agricultural water management in Korea suggests FAO Penman-Monteith equation; SPEI_pm. In this study, we analyzed the intensity and trends of drought using SPEI_th and SPEI_pm, respectively, and analyzed the relationship between them. Both of central and southern region, the SPEIs were below -1.0 (moderated drought) for the periods May-August in the representative drought year such as 1988, 2001, and 2008-09. The frequency of drought was higher in southern region than central region. In addition, SPEI_pm showed slightly more intensive drought rather than SPEI_th except for Chuncheon and Gwangju. In 5 stations except for Cheoncheon, Gwangju and Jinju, the cumulative probability that SPEI_pm is below -1.5 was significantly increased from 1981-1995 to 1996-2010. As the results of drought trends, the increasing trend of SPEIs was shown on fall season, and the cumulative probability that SPEI_pm is below -1.5 was also significantly increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0476.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: remotely sensed drought indices (RSDIs); Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI); meteorological drought; Skill Score (SS); Yellow River basin (YRB)
Online: 19 November 2018 (17:26:37 CET)
Due to the advantages of wide coverage and continuity, remotely sensed data are widely used for large-scale drought monitoring to compensate the deficiency and discontinuity of meteorological data. However, few researches have focused on the capability of various remotely sensed drought indices (RSDIs) for representing the spatio-temporal variations of the meteorological droughts. In this study, five RSDIs, namely Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI), Modified Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (MTVDI) and Normalized Vegetation Supply Water Index (NVSWI) were calculated using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) monthly NDVI and LST. The monthly NDVI and LST data were filtered by Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filtering method. Meteorological station-based drought index represented by Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was compared with RSDIs. And the dimensionless Skill Score (SS) method was adopted to identify the spatiotemporally optimal RSDIs for presenting the meteorological droughts in the Yellow River basin (YRB) from 2000 to 2015. The results indicated that (1) RSDIs revealed a decreasing trend to the overall YRB consistent with SPEI except for in winter, and different variations of seasonal trends spatially; (2) the optimal RSDIs in spring, summer, autumn and winter were VHI, TCI, MTVDI and VCI, respectively, and the average correlation coefficient between the RSDIs and SPEI was 0.577 (=0.05); (3) different RSDIs have a 0–3 months’ time-lags compared with meteorological drought index.
Subject: Keywords: clay; mica; biotite; muscovite; origin of life; abiogenesis; mechanical energy; work; wet-dry
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:43:44 CET)
This paper presents a hypothesis about the origins of life in a clay mineral, starting with the earliest molecules, continuing through the increasing complexity of the development, in neighboring clay niches, of “Metabolism First,” “RNA World,” and other necessary components of life, to the encapsulation by membranes of the components in the niches, to the interaction and fusion of these membrane-bound protocells, resulting finally in a living cell, capable of reproduction and evolution. Biotite (black mica) in micaceous clay is the proposed site for this origin of life. Mechanical energy of moving biotite sheets provides one endless source of energy. Potassium ions between biotite sheets would be the source of the high intracellular potassium ion concentrations in all living cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0300.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: snow; synthetic aperture radar; Sentinel-1; spatial variability; spectral scaling; topography; wet snow
Online: 26 January 2020 (01:42:48 CET)
This study investigates the spatial signatures of seasonal snow in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations at different spatial scales and for different physiographic regions. Sentinel-1 C-band (SAR) backscattering coefficients (BSC) were analyzed in the Swiss Alps (SA), in high elevation forest and grasslands in Grand Mesa (GM), Colorado, and in North Dakota (ND) croplands. GM BSC exhibit 10dB sensitivity to wetness at small scales (~100 m) over homogeneous grassland. Sensitivity decreases to 5 dB in the presence of trees, and it is demonstrated that VH BSC sensitivity enables wet snow mapping below the tree-line. Area-variance scaling relationships show minima at ~100 m and 150-250 m respectively in barren and grasslands in SA and GM, increasing up to 1 km and longer in GM forests and ND agricultural fields. The spatial organization of BSC (as described by 1D-directional BSC wavelength spectra) exhibits multi-scaling behavior in the 100 -1,000 m range with a break at (180-360 m) that is also present in UAVSAR L-band measurements in GM. Spectral slopes in GM forested areas steepen during accumulation and flatten in the melting season with mirror behavior for grasslands reflecting changes in scattering mechanisms with snow depth and wetness, and vegetation mass and structure. Overall, this study reveals persistent patterns of SAR scattering variability spatially organized by land-cover, topography and regional winds with large inter-annual variability tied to precipitation. This dynamic scaling behavior emerges as an integral physical expression of snowpack variability that can be used to model sub-km scales and for downscaling applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0210.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Maize; drought; landrace; climate-change; crop genetic resources
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:07:51 CET)
To meet an ever global population's food demand, crop yields must be sustained and increased. Drought, which is getting harsher as a result of global warming, is largely impeding the agricultural productivity. Maize is widely used as food and animal feed in many regions of the world, but its yields are largely effected by drought and heat stress. Historical data on climate change predicts that drought and heat stress becoming major threat for maize cultivation in coming years, which will have huge impact on food security of the world especially in Africa and Asia. Thus there is an immense necessary to develop drought tolerant and climate resilient maize to feed the predicted population of the world. Availability and accessibility of crop genetic resources plays a huge role in development of drought-tolerant maize cultivars. A huge genetic resources of maize, including its landraces and crop wild relatives (CWR) have been reported naturally and many of them have stored in National and International gene banks globally. Conventional breeding methods have been tremendously increased maize yields, but these methods frequently fall short of achieving the demand for improved drought stress resistance. In this article, we have briefly discussed about impact of climate variability on crop production, maize yield losses due to drought, drought tolerance in maize landraces and CWR, and origin and evolution of Mexican landraces. This information may help in utilization of these potential resources in various pre-breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0257.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: remote sensing; vegetation coverage; drought; meteorological conditions; Afghanistan
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:04:50 CEST)
The vulnerability of vegetation in the Middle East to meteorological conditions and climate change, especially those leading to drought, is high. Despite the importance of the Amu Darya and Kabul River Basins (ADB and KRB) as a region in which more than 15 million people live, and its vulnerability to global warming, only several studies addressed the issue of the linkage of meteorological parameters on vegetation for the eastern basins of Afghanistan. In this study, data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM), and Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to examine the impact of meteorological parameters on vegetation for the eastern basins of Afghanistan for the period from 2000 to 2021. The study utilized several indices, such as Precipitation Condition Index (PCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Soil Moisture Condition Index (SMCI), and Microwave Integrated Drought Index (MIDI). The relationships between meteorological quantities, drought conditions, and vegetation variations were examined by analyzing the anomalies and using regression methods. The results showed that the years 2000, 2001, and 2008 had the lowest vegetation coverage (VC) (56, 56, and 55% of the study area, respectively). On the other hand, the years 2010, 2013, 2016, and 2020 had the highest VC (71, 71, 72, and 72% of the study area, respectively). The trend of the VC for the eastern basins of Afghanistan for the period from 2000 to 2021 was upward. High correlations between VC and soil moisture (R = 0.70, p = 0.0004), and precipitation (R = 0.5, p = 0.008) were found, whereas no significant correlation was found between VC and drought index MIDI. It was revealed that soil moisture, precipitation, land surface temperature, and area under meteorological drought conditions explained 45% of annual VC variability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0224.v1
Online: 14 September 2021 (08:19:04 CEST)
The major threats to the sustainable supply of forest tree products are adverse climate, pests and diseases. Climate change, exemplified by increased drought, poses a unique threat to global forest health. This is attributed to the unpredictable behavior of forest pathosystems, which can favor fungal pathogens over the host under persistent drought stress conditions in the future. Currently, the effects of drought on tree resistance against pathogens are hypothetical, thus research is needed to identify these correlations. Norway spruce (Picea abies) is one of the most economically important tree species in Europe, and is considered highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Dedicated experiments to investigate how disturbances will affect the Norway spruce - Heterobasidion sp. pathosystem are important, in order to develop different strategies to limit the spread of H. annosum s.l. under the predicted climate change. Here, we report a transcriptional study to compare Norway spruce gene expressions to evaluate the effects of water availability and the infection of Heterobasidion parviporum. We performed inoculation studies of three-year-old saplings in a greenhouse (purchased from a nursery). Norway spruce saplings were treated in either high (+) or low (-) water groups: high water group received double the water amount than the low water group. RNA was extracted and sequenced. Similarly, we quantified gene expression levels of candidate genes in biotic stress and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways using qRT-PCR, through which we discovered a unique preferential defense response of H. parviporum-infected Norway spruce under drought stress at the molecular level. Disturbances related to water availability, especially low water conditions can have negative effects on the tree host and benefit the infection ability of the pathogens in the host. From our RNA-seq analysis, 114 differentially expressed gene regions were identified between high (+) and low (-) water groups under pathogen attack. None of these gene pathways were identified to be differentially expressed from both non-treated and mock-control treatments between high (+) and low (-) water groups. Finally, only four genes were found to be associated with drought in all treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0096.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Central Asia; GRACE; drought; vegetation; water storage; groundwater
Online: 6 September 2021 (13:15:03 CEST)
With the influences of climate change and human activities, the resources and environment of “One Belt and One Road” are facing severe problems and challenges. This study aims to analyze the temporal and spatial dynamics of the drought environment and the response of vegetation cover to the drought by using drought indicators. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) drought severity index (GRACE-DSI) and GRACE water storage deficit index (GRACE-WSDI), were calculated to present hydrological drought. Moreover, based on GRACE, Water-Global Assessment and Prognosis (WaterGAP) model, and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data, the groundwater in Central Asia was retrieved to calculate the groundwater drought index called the GRACE Standardized Groundwater Level Index (GRACE-SGI). The results show that the annual precipitation in Central Asia increased slightly at a rate of 0.39 mm/year (p = 0.82) since 2000, while the temperature increased slightly at a rate of 0.05 ℃/year (p = 0.10). The water storage decreased significantly at -0.59 mm/year (p <0.01) and experienced a decrease-increase-decrease process. During the study period, the arid situation in Central Asia deteriorated, especially in the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea basin. From 2007 to 2015, the Central Asian environment was generally arid and suffered from different du-rations and degrees of hydrological and groundwater droughts. The drought indicators (i.e., GRACE-DSI, GRACE-WSDI) and the NDVI showed a significantly positive correlation during the growing season. However, the NDVI of cultivated land and grassland distribution areas in Central Asia showed a strong negative correlation with GRACE-SGI. It is concluded that the drought environment in Central Asia affected the growth of vegetation. The continued deterioration of the arid situation may further stress the ecological system in Central Asia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0483.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Spatio-temporal; Drought; Climate Change; SPI; RCP; Rakai
Online: 25 August 2021 (10:45:01 CEST)
Drought occurrences in Rakai district take a strange model and it has been rampantly increasing causing reduced income levels for farmers, reduced farm yields, increased food insecurity and migration, wetland degradation, illness and loss of livestock. The purpose of this study was to investigate past and future characteristics of drought due to climate change in Rakai district. Datasets used include dynamically downscaled daily precipitation and temperature data from Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) at 0.44°×0.44° resolution over the Africa domain. R software (Climpact2 package), was used to generate SPI values, Mann Kendall trend test and Inverse Distance Weighting methods were used to examine temporal and spatial drought characteristics respectively. Results depicted more extreme and severe drought conditions for SPI12 under historical compared to SPI3,Kakuto, Kibanda and Lwanda sub counties were the most drought hot spot areas, positive trends of drought patterns for both time scales were observed, though only significant under SPI12. Projected results revealed extreme and severe drought conditions will be observed under RCP8.5 SPI12, and the least will be under RCP8.5 SPI3 and SPI12. Results further reveal that Kakuto, Kibanda, Kiziba, Kacheera, Kyalulangira, Ddwaniro and Lwanda sub counties will be the most drought hot spot sub counties across all time scales. Generally projected results reveals that the district will experience more drought conditions under RCP8.5 compared to RCP4.5 for time scale SPI12 and therefore urgent actions are needed.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: untargeted approach; metabolites; drought stress; mulberry, LC-MS
Online: 6 July 2021 (17:23:32 CEST)
Mulberry is an economically significant crop for the sericulture industry worldwide. Stresses such as drought exposure have a significant influence on plant survival. Metabolome directly reflects plant physiological status; thus, a way to assess this impact is to perform a global metabolomic analysis. This study investigated the effect of drought stress on mulberry Yu-711 metabolic balance using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based on an untargeted metabolomic approach. For this objective, Yu-711 leaves were subjected to two weeks of drought stress treatment and control without drought stress. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses highlighted numerous differentially-accumulated metabolic elements as a function of time and treatment. Drought stress led to a more differentiated metabolites response than the control. We found that the levels of total lipids and galactolipids, and phospholipids (PC, PA, PE) were significantly altered, producing 48% of the total differentially expressed metabolites. Fatty acyls were the most abundant lipids expressed and decreased considerably by 73.6%. Prenol lipids class of lipids increased in drought leaves. Other classes of metabolites, including polyphenols( flavonoids and cinnamic acid), organic acid (amino acids), carbohydrates, benzenoids, and organoheterocyclic, all had a dynamic trend in response to the drought stress. However, their levels under drought stress generally decreased significantly compared to the control. These results provide an overview of the metabolic profile of the mulberry plant through differentially-accumulated compounds and provide a better understanding of global plant metabolic changes in defense mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0001.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Association mapping; chromosomes; drought tolerance; markers, structure; traits
Online: 1 October 2020 (08:40:47 CEST)
The objective of this study were to conduct association mapping for drought tolerance at the seedling stage and yield-related traits. 60 cowpea accessions were used in the study. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered through genotyping by sequencing (GBS) were used for genotyping. Association mapping was conducted using single-marker regression (SMR) in Q Gene, and general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) built in TASSEL. The population of the cowpea accessions were analysed using STRUCTURE 2.3.4 and the peak of delta K in the greenhouse showed seven population types, whereas the peak of delta K in the glasshouse indicated the presence of six population types. One SNP marker, 14083649|F|0-9 was associated with NP with a p value <0.001. Fifty SNP markers were associated with PWT at p <0.001. Four SNP markers, 14074781|F|0-16, 100047392|F|0-36, 14083801|F|0-28 and 100051488|F|0-49 were associated with AVSPD at p <0.001. SNP markers, 14074781|F|0-16, 14083801|F|0-28 and 100051488|F|0-49 were associated with PL at P <0.001. Five SNP markers, 100047392|F|0-36, 14083801|F|0-28, 100072738|F|0-34, 14076881|F|0-49 and 14076881|F|0-49 were associated with PWDTH at p <0.001. The 65 SNP markers identified can be used in cowpea molecular breeding to select for AVSPD, NP, PL, PWDTH, PWT, and RR through marker assisted selection (MAS).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0286.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: elevated CO2; drought; photosynthesis; transpiration rate; stomatal conductance; C4 enzymes; malate; water deficit stress; abscisic acid
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:21:01 CEST)
The changing dynamics in climate is the primary and important determinant of agriculture productivity. The effects of this changing climate on overall productivity in agriculture can be understood when we study the effects of individual components contributing to the changing climate on plants and crops. Elevated CO2 (eCO2) and drought due to high variability in rainfall is one of the important manifestations of the changing climate. There is a considerable amount of literature that addresses climate effects on plant systems from molecules to ecosystems. Of particular interest is the effect of increased CO2 on plants in relation to drought and water stress. As it is known that one of the consistent effects of increased CO2 in the atmosphere is increased photosynthesis, especially in C3 plants, it will be interesting to know the effect of drought in relation to elevated CO2. The potential of elevated CO2 ameliorating the effects of water deficit stress is evident from literature suggesting that these two are agents are brothers in arms protecting the plant from stress rather than partnering in crime, specifically water deficit when in isolation. The possible mechanisms by which this occurs will be discussed in this minireview. Interpreting the effects of short-term and long-term exposure of plants to elevated CO2 in the context of ameliorating the negative impacts of drought will show us the possible ways by which there can be effective adaption to crops in the changing climate scenario.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0364.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: 2019-nCoV; SARS-CoV; drought; bat; green light
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:31:47 CET)
The new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan has caused virus outbreaks in many provinces and cities in China, and several neighboring countries were also affected. In recent years, coronavirus several outbreaks around the world were reported, however researchers could not predict its onset. Coincidentally, the birthplace of another coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that causes serious public health problems is also in China. This review compares and analyzes the external environment, natural hosts, intermediate hosts, and susceptible populations when these two coronaviruses occurred. Based on the analysis results, we found that the 2019-nCov virus outbreak in Wuhan was not an accidental phenomenon, but a result of a combination of factors. At the same time, through the conclusions of these analyses, we will be able to get a glimpse of the trajectories of new coronaviruses and curb the virus outbreak in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0103.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: chalcone synthase; drought stress; flavonoids; transgenic tobacco; overexpression
Online: 12 June 2019 (05:39:29 CEST)
Flavonoids are major secondary metabolites in plants, which play important roles in maintaining the cellular redox balance in cells. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is the key enzyme in the flavonoids biosynthesis pathway, and has been proved to monitor the changes to drought stress tolerance. In this work, we overexpressed a CHS gene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The transgenic tobacco plants were more tolerant than the control plants to drought stress. The transcription levels of the key genes involved in the flavonoids pathway and the contents of seven flavonoids were also significantly raised in the transgenic tobacco plants. In addition, overexpression of the CHS gene lead to a lower concentration of the oxidative stress product malondialdehyde. Overall, the NtCHS gene studied in this work was considered as a candidate gene for genetic engineering to enhance drought tolerance of plants and improve response to oxidative stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0337.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: drought; coffee farmers; adaptation; coping strategies; central highlands
Online: 28 December 2018 (07:00:52 CET)
Vietnam is the second largest coffee producer in the world, mostly from the Central Highlands region where water has been becoming a scarce resource. Since 2014, drought has been strongly affecting Central Highlands’ agriculture, particularly coffee production. The drought leads to changes in flowering, ripening and thus harvesting times of coffee. Coffee productivity has reduced about 50 percent. Ultimately, coffee quantity and quality is jeopardized which endangers coffee farmers who occupy 90 per cent of population and their livelihoods mainly rely on coffee. Most of coffee farmers have had to develop alternative strategies to respond to the drought. Based on quantitative and qualitative data collected from 50 coffee households in a community in the Central Highlands, this research has indicated that farmers had to find the ways to adapt as well as to cope with drought. The ways of adaptation and coping were diverse, including short, medium and long-term plans. To strengthen the adaptation and coping strategies of farmers with drought in the short term, it is recommended that authorities provide more technical and financial support to farmers. Furthermore, longer term strategies need to focus on land use planning, investment in irrigation schemes, and consolidated afforestation schemes in appropriate areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0022.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: clay; mica; biotite; muscovite; origin of life; abiogenesis; mechanical energy; work; wet-dry cycles
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:36:31 CET)
Intracellular potassium concentrations, [K+], are high in all types of living cells, but the origins of this K+ are unknown. The simplest hypothesis is that life emerged in an environment that was high in K+. One such environment is the spaces between the sheets of the clay mineral, mica. The best mica for life’s origins is the black mica, biotite, because it has a high content of Mg++ and it has iron in various oxidation states. Life also has many of the characteristics of the environment between mica sheets, giving further support for the possibility that mica was the substrate on and within which life emerged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0585.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Triamcinolone acetonide; Liposomes; Neovascular age related macular degeneration; Wet macular degeneration; Adjuvant therapy; Ranibizumab
Online: 23 June 2021 (12:56:55 CEST)
Novel strategies have been developed to reduce or to avoid the intravitreal injections (IVTs) of the antiangiogenic (ranibizumab; RBZ) and the anti-inflammatory (triamcinolone acetonide; TA) agents used to treat vitreoretinal diseases. One of the strategies include liposomes. In this study, it was evaluated the safety and efficacy of topical triamcinolone-loaded liposomes formulation (TALF) as an adjuvant to intravitreal RBZ therapy in treatment-naive patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration (nAMD). Subjects were randomly assigned to the RBZ-TALF or the RBZ-pro re nata (RBZ-PRN) group. Patients from the RBZ-TALF group were instructed to apply TALF for a 12-month period after a single dose of RBZ. Patients from the RBZ-PRN group received three monthly RBZ-IVTs. Retreatment with RBZ was considered in case of nAMD reactivation. Related to safety, non-ocular abnormalities were observed during TALF therapy. Owing to the efficacy, non-significant differences are identified in visual acuity or central foveal thickness when the RBZ-PRN and RBZ-TALF groups are compared. Importantly the average number of RBZ injections was significantly lower in the RBZ-TALF group (2.5 ± 1.4 vs 6.1 ± 1.3 IVTs; p=0004). Therefore, TALF used as an adjuvant to RBZ reduce the number of RBZ-IVTs retreatment with optimal visual and anatomic results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0291.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: climate change; drought analysis; statistical corrections; ensemble of scenarios
Online: 22 March 2022 (02:53:39 CET)
Climate change is expected to increase the occurrence of droughts with the hydrology in alpine systems being largely determined by snow dynamics. In this paper we propose a methodology to assess the impact of climate change on both meteorological and hydrological droughts taking into account the dynamics of the snow cover area (SCA). We will also analyse the correlation between these types of droughts. We have generated ensembles of local climate scenarios based on regional climate models (RCMs) representative of potential future conditions. We have considered several sources of uncertainty: different historical climate databases, simulations obtained with several RCMs, and some statistical downscaling techniques. We then used a stochastic weather generator (SWG) to generate multiple climatic series preserving the characteristics of the ensemble scenario. These were simulated within a cellular automata (CA) model to generate multiple SCA future series. They were used to calculate multiple series of meteorological drought indices, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI)) and a novel hydrological drought index (Standardized Snow Cover Index (SSCI)). A linear correlation analysis was applied to both types of drought to analyse how they propagate and the time delay between them. We applied the proposed methodology to the Sierra Nevada (southern Spain) where we estimated a general increase in meteorological and hydrological drought magnitude and duration for the horizon 2071-2100 under the RCP 8.5 emission scenario. The SCA droughts also revealed a significant increase in drought intensity. The meteorological drought propagation to SCA droughts is reflected in an immediate or short time (1 month), obtaining significant correlations in lower accumulation periods of drought indices (3 and 6 months). This will allow us to obtain information about meteorological drought from SCA deficits and vice versa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0393.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Drought indices; SPI; RDI; Climate variables; DrinC; Potwar; Pakistan
Online: 26 October 2021 (15:39:16 CEST)
Drought is treated as a key natural disaster that affects numerous segments of the natural environment and economy throughout the world. Drought indices (DIs) were computed for Potwar region (PR) in Punjab-Pakistan, using DrinC software which are deciles, Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI). Drought situation of 12, 9, 6 and 3 months was estimated on temporal basis. DIs obtained by deciles technique showed that for the last 39 years, 8-years are with drought severity in a cycle and are occurring every 2 to 7-years just the once repetitively. The RDI and SPI index showed the analogous trends as of deciles. Though, for RDI and SPI, the extremely dry and severely dry class was merely two years and rest of the drought affected years with respect to deciles were normally and intermediately dry. SPI is better as compared to deciles as the severity is better understood in the context of SPI. Regression analysis revealed that the RDI and SPI indices are mutually interrelated and if first 3 month precipitation is obtainable one can forecast yearly RDI. This investigation is valuable to devise future development plans to contest vulnerable drought incidents, its mitigation and impacts on socio-economic sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0450.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Drought; NDVI; Soil moisture; moisture recycling; land-atmosphere interactions
Online: 20 July 2021 (12:12:28 CEST)
The 2018 summer drought in Europe was particularly extreme in terms of intensity and impact due to the combination of low rainfall and high temperatures. However, it remains unclear how this drought developed in time and space in such an extreme way. In this study we aimed to get a better understanding of the role of land-atmosphere interactions. More specifically, we investigated whether there was a change in water vapor originating from land, if that caused a reduction in rainfall, and by this mechanism possibly the propagation and intensification of the drought in Europe. Our first step was to use remote sensing products for soil moisture content (SMC) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to see where the 2018 drought started and how it developed in time and space. Our SMC and NDVI analysis showed that the 2018 drought started to impact the soil and vegetation state in June in Scandinavia and the British Isles. After that it moved towards the West of Europe where it intensified in July and August. In September, it started to decay. In October, drought was observed in southeast Europe as well. Based on the observed patterns we divided Europe into six regions of similar spatiotemporal characteristics of SMC and NDVI. Then, we used a global gridded dataset of the fate of land evaporation (i.e., where it ends up as precipitation) to investigate whether the drought intensification and propagation was impacted by the reduction in water vapor transported from the regions that first experienced the drought. This impact was investigated by identifying the anomalies in the water vapor originating from land recycling, imports and exports within Europe during the spring, summer, and autumn seasons. From these regions we identified four drought regions and investigated the changes in water vapor originating from source regions on the development of drought in those regions. It was found that during the onset phase of the 2018 drought in Europe that the water vapor originating from land played an important role in mitigating the precipitation anomalies as, for example, the share of land evaporation contributing to precipitation increased from 27% (normal years) to 38% (2018) during July in West of Europe. Land evaporation played a minor role in amplifying it during the intensification phase of the drought as the share of land evaporation contribution to precipitation decreased from 23% (normal years) to 21% (2018) during August in West of Europe. These findings are somewhat in contrast to similar studies in other continents that found the land surface to play a strong amplifying role for drought development. Subsequently, we found that the relative increase in the amount of land water vapor originating from eastern half of Europe played a role in delaying the onset and accelerating the decay of the 2018 drought in West of Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0612.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Migration; Northern Triangle of Central America; climate change; drought
Online: 25 June 2021 (09:23:22 CEST)
The worldwide number of migrants has had a rapid increase during the last fifteen years. Despite the extensive research studies that elucidate the increase in migrants' recipient countries, we know little about the relationship between the climate factors and human mobility in the countries of origin. Hence, this study focuses on the effects of weather and the propensity of individuals to leave a territory by measuring the importance of rain precipitation or the lack of it in one of the critical food corridors of Central America, formed by El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala. To study the mobility process, we develop a stochastic frontier model; the main result shows a greater propensity to migrate when there is a significant drought event in the place of origin. Some other factors that motivate people to leave their homeland are the effect of other climate events measured through the control system (ENSO), homicide levels, economic performance, and exchange rate. The findings allow differentiating between drought and excess precipitation on a population and mobility to other territories. In addition, these results permit us to derive observable implications of the different effects of flooding and drought and create public policies of prevention, mitigation, and resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0224.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: biomass allocation; drought; irrigation; leaf anatomy; mRNA level; proline
Online: 9 August 2020 (21:53:38 CEST)
Recent climatic changes have resulted in an increased frequency and prolonged periods of drought and strained water resources affecting plant production. We explored the possibility of reducing irrigation in a container nursery and studied the growth response of seedlings of economically important forest trees: broadleaf deciduous angiosperms Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and evergreen conifers Abies alba and Pinus sylvestris. We also studied markers of water stress including modifications of biomass allocation, leaf anatomy, proline accumulation and expression of selected genes. Growth of the broadleaved deciduous species was more sensitive to the reduced water supply than that of conifers. Remarkably, growth of the shade tolerant Abies was not affected. Adjustment of biomass allocations was strongest in P. sylvestris, with a remarkable increase in allocation to roots. In response to water deficit both deciduous species accumulated proline in leaves and produced leaves with shorter palisade cells, reduced vascular tissues and smaller conduit diameters, but not conifers. Relative transcript abundance of a gene encoding a Zn-finger protein in Q. petraea and a gene encoding a pore calcium channel protein 1 in A. alba increased as water deficit increased. These findings suggest that in container nursery, the genetic selection can be initiated by water deficit. Our study shows major differences between functional groups in response to irrigation, with seedlings of evergreen conifers having higher tolerance than the deciduous species. This suggests that major water savings could be achieved by adjusting irrigation regime to functional group or species requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0272.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Bread wheat; terminal drought; GWAS; grain yield; kernel abortion
Online: 19 February 2020 (10:48:02 CET)
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important cereal crops for food security. Of all the stresses that curtail wheat productivity, drought has the most detrimental effects. Especially terminal drought stress i.e. at the time of flowering imposes a big challenge to sustain grain production. In the current study, 339 pre-breeding lines derived from three-way crosses of exotics x elite lines were evaluated in the irrigated and drought stress environments at Obregon, Mexico for the year 2016 and 2018. Drought significantly reduced yield (Y), spike length (SL), number of grains per spikes (NGS) and thousand kernel weight (TKW) by 46.4, 19.2, 23.5 and 25.9%, respectively in comparison to irrigated conditions. Kernel abortion (KA), highly correlated with Y, increased significantly (11.6%) under drought stress environment. Population structure analysis in this panel revealed three sub-populations and a genome wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay was at 2.5 cM. Single marker and haplotypes-based genome wide association study (GWAS) revealed significant associations on three chromosomes; 4A (HB10.7), 2D (HB6.10) and 3B (HB8.12) with Y, SL and TKW, respectively. Likewise, associations on chromosomes 6B (HB17.1) and 3A (HB7.11) were identified for NGS and on 3A (HB7.12) for KA. Five traits i.e. normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), canopy temperature depression (CTD) days to heading (DTH), NGS, KA were associated at chromosome 3A both under irrigated and drought conditions however, different haplotypes were estimated. Twenty-six SNPs were part of 10 haplotype blocks associated with Y, SL, TKW, NGS and KA. In silico analysis of the associated SNPs/haplotypes showed hits with candidate genes known to confer abiotic stress resistance in model species and crops. Potential candidate genes include those coding for sulfite exporter TauE/SafE family in Arabidopsis thaliana, TBC domain containing protein in Oryza sativa subsp. Japonica and heat shock proteins in Aegilops tauschii subsp. tauschii were revealed. The SNPs linked to the promising genes identified in the study can be used for marker-assisted selection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0154.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Access, availability, climate change, deforestation, drought, food security, SSA
Online: 18 February 2019 (10:16:03 CET)
Like the rest of the globe, Forests in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to play a vital role when it comes to food security from the perspective of forest function of climate regulation, water provision, and soil protection. Nevertheless, most of the recent deforestation practices in various countries indicate that the region could face severe food insecurity in the near future since there are already signs of shortage in food production. This study, therefore, examines deforestation, climate change, and food security nexus in SSA while exploring a wide range of examples of food insecurity in the region. Content analysis and a synthetic literature study were conducted using data from scientific data banks. The study links deforestation, climate change to food security while citing examples from various SSA countries such as Cameroon, Nigeria, Kenya to mention but a few. More so, the study investigates how deforestation contributes to climate change, and how such change directly affects agricultural output and hence food security. Lastly, the study discusses the various implication of deforestation in relation to food security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0340.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: damaged area; direct economic loss; disaster; drought; extreme precipitation
Online: 15 November 2018 (04:26:41 CET)
Understanding the distribution in drought and floods plays an important role in disaster risk management. The present study aims to explore the trends in the standardized precipitation index and extreme precipitation days in China, as well as to estimate the economic losses they cause. We found that in the Northeast China, northern of North China and northeast of Northwest China were severely affected by drought disasters (average damaged areas were 6.44 million hectares) and the most severe drought trend was located in West China. However, in the north of East China and Central China, the northeastern of the Southwest China was severely affected by flood disasters (average damaged areas were 3.97 million hectares) and the extreme precipitation trend is increasing in the northeastern of the Southwest China. In the Yangtze River basin, there were increasing trends in terms of drought and extreme precipitation, especially in the northeastern of the Southwest China, where accompanied by severe disaster losses. By combining the trends in drought and extreme precipitation days with the distribution of damaged areas, we found that the increasing trend in droughts shifted gradually from north to south, especially in the Southwest China, and the increasing trend in extreme precipitation gradually shifted from south to north.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0074.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: AmRosea1 gene; transcriptome analysis; drought tolerance; salt tolerance; rice
Online: 14 December 2016 (09:16:50 CET)
Ectopic expression of the MYB transcription factor of AmROSEA1 from Antirrhinum majus has been reported to change anthocyanin and other metabolites in several species. In this study, we found that overexpression of AmRosea1 significantly improved the tolerance of transgenic rice to drought and salinity stress. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a considerable amount of stress-related genes were affected by exogenous AmRosea1 during both drought and salinity stress treatments. These affected genes are involved in stress signal transduction, the hormone signal pathway, ion homeostasis and the enzymes that remove peroxides. This work suggests that the AmRosea1 gene is a potential candidate for genetic engineering of crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0301.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Deficit volume; drought intensity; drought magnitude; extreme number theorem; Markov chain; moving average smoothing; standardized hydrological index; sequent peak algorithm; reservoir volume.
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:25:59 CEST)
The traditional sequent peak algorithm (SPA) was used to assess the reservoir volume (VR) for comparison with deficit volume, DT, (subscript T representing the return period) obtained from the drought magnitude (DM) based method with draft level set at the mean annual flow on 15 rivers across Canada. At an annual scale, the SPA based estimates were found to be larger with an average of nearly 70% compared to DM based estimates. To ramp up DM based estimates to be in parity with SPA based values, the analysis was carried out through the counting and the analytical procedures involving only the annual SHI (standardized hydrological index, i.e. standardized values of annual flows) sequences. It was found that MA2 or MA3 (moving average of 2 or 3 consecutive values) of SHI sequences were required to match the counted values of DT to VR. Further, the inclusion of mean, as well as the variance of the drought intensity in the analytical procedure, with aforesaid smoothing led DT comparable to VR. The distinctive point in the DM based method is that no assumption is necessary such as the reservoir being full at the beginning of the analysis - as is the case with SPA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0120.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: IMERG; Stage IV; Infrared; Passive microwave; Snow; Ice; Precipitation; GPM; Wet-bulb temperature; AMSR-2
Online: 3 June 2021 (14:59:21 CEST)
Various products of the Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) and passive mi-crowave (PMW) sensors are assessed with respect to near-surface wet-bulb temperature (Tw), precipitation intensity, and surface type (i.e., with and without snow and ice on the surface) over the CONUS and using Stage-IV product as reference precipitation. IMERG products include precipitation estimates from infrared (IR), combined PMW, and their combination. PMW products generally have higher skills than IR over snow- and ice-free surfaces. Over snow- and ice-covered surfaces (1) PMW products (except AMSR-2) show a higher correlation coefficient than IR, (2) IR and PMW precipitation products tend to overestimate precipitation, but at colder temperatures (e.g., Tw<-10oC) PMW products tend to underestimate and IR product continues to show large overestimations, and (3) PMW sensors show higher overall skill in detecting precipitation oc-currence, but not necessarily at very cold Tw. The results suggest that the current approach of IMERG (i.e., replacing PMW with IR precipitation estimates over snow- and ice-surfaces) may need to be revised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0154.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: arid and semi-arid; afforestation; desertification; drought effects; compost fertilizer
Online: 11 October 2021 (10:49:33 CEST)
Desertification is impeding the implementation of reforestation efforts in Mongolia. Many of these efforts have been unsuccessful due to lack of technical knowledge on water and nutrient management strategies, limited financial support, and short-lived rainfall events. We investigated the effects of irrigation and fertilization on the morpho-physiological traits of Populus sibirica Hort. Ex Tausch and Ulmus pumila L. and to suggest irrigation and fertilization strategies for reforestation. Different irrigation and fertilizer treatments were applied: no irrigation, 2 L h-1, 4 L h-1 and 8 L h-1 of water; no fertilizer, 2 L h-1 + NPK, 4 L h-1 + NPK, and 8 L h-1 + NPK; and no compost, 2 L h-1 + compost, 4 L h-1 + compost, and 8 L h-1 + compost. The leaf area (LA) and specific leaf area (SLA) of both species responded positively to 4 L h-1 and/or 8 L h-1. Results also showed that the addition of either NPK or compost to 4 L h-1 and/or 8 L h-1 irrigation resulted in a higher LA, SLA, and leaf biomass (LB). Total chlorophyll content decreased with irrigation in both species. The same pattern was detected when a higher amount of irrigation was combined with fertilizers. Lastly, we found that both diurnal and seasonal leaf water potential of plants grown in 4 L h-1 and/or 8 L h-1 were significantly higher than in control plots. Therefore, 4 L h-1 and/or 8 L h-1 with either NPK or compost has shown to be the optimal irrigation and fertilization strategy for the species in an arid and semi-arid region of Mongolia. Results should provide us with a better understanding of tree responses to varying amounts of irrigation with or without fertilizer in pursuit of sustainable forest management in arid and semi-arid ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0062.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Bioinformatics analysis; Drought stress; Gene expression; Physiological parameters; Tomato; Transcriptome.
Online: 4 October 2021 (15:01:07 CEST)
Identification of the differentially-expressed genes is important for clarification of the complex molecular mechanisms under drought conditions. In this experiment, transcriptome profiles of sensitive and tolerant tomato genotypes under drought stress were analyzed. Three up-regulated genes were selected, included CAB3 (Chlorophyll a-b binding protein3), SAMDC (S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme), and ACS9 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 9). After bioinformatics analysis, tomato genotypes were subjected to drought stress and gene expression was determined using Real-Time-PCR. Physiological parameters of genotypes were also measured by spectrophotometer-based methods. According to the results, these three genes play a key role in stress tolerance. Expression of the CAB3 gene in both sensitive and tolerant genotypes was not significantly different compared to the control, but the SAMDC gene decreased in both genotypes and the ACS9 gene decreased in sensitive genotype and increased in tolerant genotype. The physiological analysis also showed that under stress conditions, the photosynthetic system of the plant was disrupted and the chlorophyll content was reduced, but, proline content and antioxidant enzymes activity increased, in which their quantity in the tolerant genotype was significantly higher than sensitive. Under drought stress, due to damage to the lipid membrane, Malondialdehyde content also increased, in which the sensitive genotype was more affected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0102.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Al Zaytun, Climate change, Drought, Islamic perspective, Plant species, Reservoir
Online: 2 March 2021 (15:58:41 CET)
The drought is one of all phenomena at local to a global scale that caused climate change impacts, alongside it also the human activities related, which were deforested and land use changed that caused to ecological disturbance, which one is hydrological changes. Hence, it’s a lot of lost productivity, chiefly to farming land aspects and the other, so the land restoration by reforestation is needed in framework to water cycle (hydrology) process kindly. The aim of this research has identified and analyzed ecological restoration to ecosystem services, chiefly in wastewater management (treatment) to conservation, especially in Al Zaytun areas (Pesantren), so observing and in-depth individual interview (with some of personage and pesantren of boards) is one method that used to data collected, alongside land survey management to classified type development in Al Zaytun areas. The result of this research revealed that Al Zaytun successfully in water management to conservation by wastewater treated management by Eichhornia crassipes (Enceng gondok), afterward to the reservoir as water saved development. Those conservation types considered capability in reviving to ecological systems to ecosystem services increased kindly, alongside to land restoration by some of the plant species or trees to grow and developed in which Tectona grandis L. f is more dominantly and it's favorite because of investment economic that advantage based on ecological perspective. These were type management that did by Al Zaytun, alongside its able in coping to both drought and climate change impacts kindly and adaptively, and of course, it’s part of an obligation as the follower’s Islam religion in preserving and maintaining natural resources, chiefly to water resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0054.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Groundwater; Climate resilience; Deep wells, Deep aquifers, Drought, Somali, Ethiopia
Online: 7 June 2019 (12:03:05 CEST)
Groundwater is the most extracted raw material in the world with global annual withdrawal rates of 800–1500 km3/year. In East and Southern Africa, 70 % of the population are reliant on shallow groundwater as their primary drinking water source. With increased population growth, intensification of agriculture and industrialization, conflicting demands on groundwater present a challenge to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (6,3,11,12,15). Between 2015 and 2018, the Horn of Africa was affected by a series of climatic induced events, namely El Nino, La Nina and the Indian Ocean Diopole. These events modified the variability of rainfall patterns and resulted in long periods of low rainfall, low recharge and high evapotranspiration. As a result, shallow aquifers in alluvial deposits of Somali region have low yields and produce brackish and saline water. That situation prompted humanitarian water professionals to finance the transportation of water from selected locations with high groundwater potential through water trucks to areas facing groundwater depletion and drought. To address this challenge, UNICEF explored alternative, sustainable deeper groundwater sources that could be extracted using solar water pumping technology for multi water use. This paper describes a three-phase methodology of deep groundwater development of wells in the Ogaden Jesoma sandstone aquifers of the Somali region of the Horn of Africa to a depth of 600 meters below ground level. The results concluded that the deep sandstone aquifer of Jesoma can provide fresh water with yields of 15 l/s to the local population of Somali region. to the study provided insights into deep groundwater identification and development as well as adaptive deep boreholes drilling as a source for climate resilient water supplies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0276.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: dehydrins; 2D PAGE; drought; mitochondrial biogenesis; mitochondrial proteome; plant transcriptome
Online: 30 January 2018 (04:17:44 CET)
The early generative phase of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) curd ripening is sensitive to the water deficit. Mitochondrial responses under drought within Brassica genus are poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to investigate the mitochondrial biogenesis of three cauliflower cultivars varying with drought tolerance. Diverse quantitative changes (down-regulations mostly) in the mitochondrial proteome were assayed by 2D PAGE coupled with LC-MS/MS. Respiratory (e.g. CII, CIV and ATP synthase subunits), transporter (including diverse porin isoforms) and matrix multifunctional proteins (e.g. components of RNA editing machinery) appeared diversely affected in their abundance under two drought levels. Western immunoassays showed also cultivar-specific responses of selected mitochondrial proteins. Dehydrin-related tryptic peptides found in few 2D spots that appeared immunopositive with dehydrin-specific antisera highlighted the relevance of mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins for the drought response. The level of selected messengers participating in drought response was also determined. We conclude that the mitochondrial biogenesis was strongly, but diversely affected in various cauliflower cultivars and associated with drought tolerance on the proteomic and functional levels. However, transcriptomic and proteomic regulations were largely uncoordinated due to the suggested altered availability of messengers for translation, mRNA/ribosome interactions and/or miRNA impact on transcript abundance and translation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0297.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: hyperbranched polyester; functional polymer; chemical evolution; wet-dry cycle; gelation prevention; condensation polymer; origin of life
Online: 26 April 2019 (10:46:40 CEST)
In extant biology, biopolymers perform multiple crucial functions. The biopolymers are synthesized by enzyme-controlled biosystems that would not have been available at the earliest stages of chemical evolution and consist of correctly sequenced and/or linked monomers. Some of the abiotic “messy” polymers approximate some functions of biopolymers. Condensation polymers are an attractive search target for abiotic functional polymers since principal polymers of life are produced by condensation and since condensation allows for the accurate construction of high polymers. Herein the formation of hyperbranched polyesters that have been previously used in the construction of enzyme-like catalytic complexes is explored. The experimental setup compares between the branched polyesters prepared under mild continuous heating and the wet-dry cycle conditions. The results reveal that period wetting during which partial hydrolysis of the polyester occurs, helps control the chain growth and retards the gel transition. It is significant to the origin of life studies that environmental, prebiotically plausible conditions could achieve such control without enzymes or a skilled chemist. As expected in marginally controlled systems, the identification of each component of the heterogeneous system has proved challenging, but it is not crucial for drawing the conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0357.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: GRACE; GRACE-FO; TWS; hydroclimatic; drought; flooding; Nile River Basin; Africa
Online: 18 January 2021 (15:14:32 CET)
This research assesses the changes in the total water storage (TWS) during the twentieth century and their future projections in the Nile River Basin (NRB) via TWSA (TWS anomalies) records from GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), GRACE-FO (Follow-On), data-driven-reanalysis TWSA and land surface model (LSM), in association with precipitation, temperature records, and standard drought indicators. The analytical approach incorporates the development of 100+ yearlong TWSA records using a probabilistic conditional distribution fitting approach by the GAMLSS (Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale, and Shape) model. The drought and flooding severity, duration, magnitude, frequencies, and recurrence were assessed during the studied period. The results showed, 1- The NRB between 2002 to 2020 has transited to substantial wetter conditions. 2- The TWSA reanalysis records between 1901 to 2002 revealed that the NRB had experienced a positive increase in TWS during the wet and dry seasons. 3- The projected TWSA between 2021 to 2050 indicated slight positive changes in TWSA during the rainy seasons. The analysis of drought and flooding frequencies between 1901 to 2050 indicated the NRB has ~64 dry-years compared to ~86 wet-years. The 100+ yearlong TWSA records assured that the NRB transited to wetter conditions relative to few dry spells. These TWSA trajectories call for further water resources planning in the region especially during flood seasons. This research contributes to the ongoing efforts to improve the TWSA assessment and its associated dynamics for transboundary river basins. It also demonstrates how an extended TWSA record provides unique insights for water resources management in the NRB and similar regions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0213.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: crop diversification; C3 xerophtyes; food security; underutilized crops; drought adaptation strategies
Online: 12 January 2021 (10:19:08 CET)
Citron watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) is an underexploited and under-researched crop species with potential to contribute to crop diversification in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. The species is commonly cultivated in the drier parts of Southern Africa, mainly by smallholder farmers who maintain a wide range of landraces. Understanding the molecular and morpho-physiological basis for drought adaptation of Citron watermelon in these dry environments can aid in screening local germplasm, identification of suitable traits for crop improvement and improving food system resilience among smallholder farmers by adding to crop diversification. This paper reviews literature on drought adaptation of C. lanatus spp. (C3 xerophytes), using the systematic review approach. The review discusses; (i) the potential role of citron watermelon in adding to crop diversification, (ii) alternative food uses and potential by-products that can be processed from citron watermelon and (iii) the role of Sub-Saharan farmers as key actors in conserving citron watermelon germplasm and biodiversity. Finally, the review provides a summary of significant findings and identifies critical knowledge gaps for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0362.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: combined stresses; drought stress; heat stress; maize; root morphology; root types
Online: 15 December 2020 (09:39:56 CET)
Plants are continually exposed to multiple stresses, which co-occur in nature and the net effects are frequently more non-additive (i.e., synergistic or antagonistic) suggesting ‘unique’ responses respect to that of the individual stress. Further, plant stress responses are not uniforms showing a high spatial and temporal variability among and along the different organs. In this respect, the present work investigated the morphological responses of different root types (seminal, seminal lateral, primary, primary lateral) of maize plants exposed to single (drought and heat) and combined stress (drought + heat). Data were evaluated by a specific root image analysis system (WinRHIZO) and analyzed by uni- and multi-variate statistical analysis. The results indicated that primary root and their laterals were the types more sensitive to the single and combined stresses while the seminal laterals specifically responded to the combined only. Further, antagonistic and synergistic effects were observed for the specific traits in the primary and their laterals and in the seminal lateral roots in response to the combined stress. These results suggested that maize root system modified specific root types and traits to face with different stressful environmental conditions highlighting that the adaptation strategy to the combined stress may be different from that of the individual ones. The knowledge of “unique or shared” responses of plant to multiple stress can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0673.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: forest monitoring; drought; time series satellite data; Bowen ratio; carbon flux
Online: 27 September 2020 (10:25:33 CEST)
Monitoring drought impacts in forest ecosystems is a complex process, because forest ecosystems are composed of different species with heterogeneous structural compositions. Even though forest drought status is a key control on the carbon cycle, very few indices exist to monitor and predict forest drought stress. The Forest Drought Indicator (ForDRI) is a new monitoring tool developed by the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) to identify forest drought stress. ForDRI integrates 12 types of data, including satellite, climate, evaporative demand, ground water, and soil moisture, into a single hybrid index to estimate tree stress. The model uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine the contribution of each input variable based on its covariance in the historical records (2003–2017). A 15-year time series of 780 ForDRI maps at a weekly interval were produced. The ForDRI values at a 12.5km spatial resolution were compared with normalized weekly Bowen ratio data, a biophysically based indicator of stress, from nine AmeriFlux sites. There were strong and significant correlations between Bowen ratio data and ForDRI at sites that had experienced intense drought. In addition, tree ring annual increment data at eight sites in four eastern U.S. national parks were compared with ForDRI values at the corresponding sites. The correlation between ForDRI and tree ring increments at the selected eight sites during the summer season ranged between 0.46 and 0.75. Generally, the correlation between the ForDRI and normalized Bowen ratio or tree ring increment are reasonably good and indicate the usefulness of the ForDRI model for estimating drought stress and providing decision support on forest drought management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0359.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Abiotic stress; Melatonin; Water stress; Drought; Waterlogging; Antioxidants; Stress signalling, phytohormones
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:19:52 CEST)
Water stress (drought and waterlogging) is drastic abiotic stress to plant growth and development. Melatonin, bioactive plant hormone, has been widely tested in drought situations in diverse plant species, while a few studies on the role of melatonin in waterlogging stress conditions have been published. In the current review, we analyze the bio-stimulatory functions of melatonin on plants under both drought and waterlogging stress. Melatonin controls the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and positively changes the molecular defense to improve plant tolerance against drought and waterlogging stress. Moreover, the crosstalk of melatonin and other phytohormones is a key element on plant survival under drought stress, while this relationship needs further investigation under waterlogging stress. In this review, we draw the complete story of water stress on both sides: drought and waterlogging through discussing the previous critical studies under both conditions. Moreover, we suggest several research directions, especially for waterlogging, which remains a big vague piece of melatonin and water stress puzzle.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: drought stress; osmotic stress; rice; transcription factors; stress signaling; qtl; breeding
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:39:50 CET)
Many studies were done in the development of drought stress-tolerant transgenic plants, including crop plants. Rice is considered to be a vital crop target for improving drought stress tolerance. Much transgenic rice showed improved drought stress tolerance was reported to date. They are genetically engineered plants that are developed by using genes that encode proteins involved in drought stress regulatory networks. These proteins include protein kinases, transcription factors, enzymes related to osmoprotectant or plant hormone synthesis, receptor-like kinase. Of the drought stress-tolerant transgenic rice plants described in this review, most of them display retarded plant growth. In crop crops, plant health is a fundamental agronomic trait that can directly affect yield. By understanding the regulatory mechanisms of retarded plant growth under drought stress, conditions are necessary precursors to developing genetically modified plants that result in high yields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0083.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles; vegetation water status; drought; NDVI; NDRE; Baccharis pilularis
Online: 4 July 2019 (17:42:29 CEST)
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensors present an opportunity to monitor vegetation with on-demand high spatial and temporal resolution. In this study, we use multispectral imagery from quadcopter UAVs to monitor the progression of a water manipulation experiment on a common shrub, Baccharis pilularis (coyote brush), at the Blue Oak Ranch Reserve (BORR) near San Jose, California. We recorded multispectral data from the plants at several altitudes with nearly hourly intervals to explore the relationship between two common spectral indices, NDVI and NDRE, and plant water content and water potential, as physiological metrics of plant water status, across a gradient of water deficit. An examination of the spatial and temporal thresholds at which water limitations were most detectable revealed that the best separation between levels of water deficit were at higher resolution (lower flying height), and in the morning (NDVI) and early morning (NDRE). We found that both measures were able to identify moisture deficit in plants and distinguish them from control and watered plants; however, NDVI was better able to distinguish between treatments than NDRE and was more positively correlated with field measurements of plant water content than NDRE. Finally, we explored how relationships between spectral indices and water status changed when the imagery was scaled to courser resolutions provided by satellite-based imagery (PlanetScope) and found that PlanetScope data was able to capture the overall trend in treatments but was not able to capture subtle changes in water content. These kinds of experiments that evaluate the relationship between direct field measurements and UAV camera sensitivity are needed to enable translation of field-based physiology measurements to landscape or regional scales.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0057.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: porous fibers; activated carbon; ice-templating; ice segregation induced self-assembly; silk fibroin; wet spinning; solution blow spinning
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:38:29 CET)
Fabrics comprised of porous fibers could provide effective passive protection against chemical and biological (CB) threats whilst maintaining high air permeability (breathability). Here, we fabricate hierarchically porous fibers consisting of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) and activated-carbon (AC) prepared through two fiber spinning techniques in combination with ice-templating – namely cryogenic solution blow spinning (Cryo-SBS) and cryogenic wet-spinning (Cryo-WS). The Cryo-WS RSF fibers had exceptionally small macropores (as low as 0.1 µm) and high specific surface areas (SSAs) of up to 79 m2 g-1. The incorporation of AC could further increase the SSA to 210 m2 g-1 (25 wt. % loading) whilst also increasing adsorption capacity for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 29 April 2019 (07:51:38 CEST)
Forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various other forms of energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0164.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Arbutus unedo L. Artificial Pollination, Breeding, Drought stress, Microscopy, Pollen, Physiological performance
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:08:49 CET)
Arbutus unedo L. is a small Ericaceae tree with a circum-Mediterranean distribution. It has a huge ecological impact on southern Europe forests and a great economic importance, as a source of phytochemicals with bioactive properties and for fruit production. On the foreseen climate change context, breeding towards drought tolerance is necessary in order to ameliorate plant performance. The aim of this work was therefore to study the reproduction mechanisms of strawberry tree, obtain new genetic combinations by hybridization and select genotypes more tolerant to drought stress. A morphological analysis of flowers and pollen was carried out, and controlled pollinations performed both in vitro and ex vitro. The very first approach on strawberry tree breeding by means of hybridization is also presented. Several physiological parameters were evaluated on 26 genotypes submitted to a water deficit regime. Plant behavior under drought greatly varied among genotypes, which showed a high phenotype plasticity. Three genotypes that were able to cope with water restriction without compromising net CO2 assimilation were identified as highly tolerant to drought stress. The results obtained elucidate the reproduction mechanisms of strawberry tree and open the way for a long-term breeding program based on the selection of drought tolerant plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0550.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Basmati rice; QTL introgression; near isogenic lines; yield under drought; climate resilience
Online: 20 November 2020 (20:45:02 CET)
Drought stress at the reproductive stage in rice is one of the most important cause for yield reduction, affecting both productivity and quality. All Basmati rice varieties, including the popular cultivar ‘Pusa Basmati 1 (PB1)’ is highly sensitive to reproductive stage drought stress (RSDS). We report for the first time, improvement of a Basmati cultivar for RSDS tolerance, with the introgression of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL), ‘qDTY1.1’ into PB1. The QTL donor was sourced from an aus variety, Nagina 22 (N22). A QTL linked microsatellite (SSR) marker ‘RM 431’ was employed for foreground selection for qDTY1.1 in the marker assisted backcross breeding process. A set of 113 SSR markers polymorphic between N22 and PB1 were utilized for background selection to ensure higher genome recovery. After three backcrosses followed by five generations of selfing, eighteen near isogenic lines (NILs) were developed, through combinatory selection for agro-morphological, grain and cooking superiority traits. The NILs were evaluated for three consecutive Kharif seasons, 2017, 2018 and 2019 under well-watered and drought stress conditions. RSDS tolerance and yield stability indicated that NIL3, NIL5, NIL6, NIL7, NIL12, NIL15 and NIL17 were best in terms of overall agronomic and grain quality under RSDS. Additionally, NILs exhibited high yield potential under normal condition as well. The RSDS tolerant Basmati NILs with high resilience to water stress, is a valuable resource for sustaining Basmati rice production under water limiting production environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0684.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Chlorophyll Fluorescence; SIF; Drought; Spectral Vegetation Indices; GOME-2; Abiotic Stress; Caatinga
Online: 30 August 2020 (18:24:28 CEST)
Sun-Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) relates directly to photosynthesis yield and stress but there are still uncertainties in its interpretation. Most of these uncertainties concern the influences of the emitting vegetation’s structure (e.g., leaf angles, leaf clumping) and biochemistry (e.g., chlorophyll content, other pigments) on the radiative transfer of fluorescent photons. The Caatinga is a large region at northeast Brazil of semiarid climate and heterogeneous vegetation, where such biochemical and structural characteristics can vary greatly even within a single hectare. With this study we aimed to characterize eleven years of SIF seasonal variation from Caatinga vegetation (2007 to 2017) and to study its responses to a major drought in 2012. Orbital SIF data from the instrument GOME-2 was used along with MODIS MAIAC EVI and NDVI. Environmental data included precipitation rate (TRMM), surface temperature (MODIS) and soil moisture (ESA CCI). To support the interpretation of SIF responses we have used red and far-red SIF adjusted by the Sun’s zenith angle (SIF-SZA) and by daily Photosynthetically Active Radiation (dSIF). Furthermore, we have also adjusted SIF through two contrasting formulations using NDVI data as proxy for structure and biochemistry, based on previous leaf-level and landscape level studies: SIF-Yield and SIF-Prod. Data was tested with time-series decomposition, rank correlation, spatial correlation and Linear Mixed Models (LMM). Results show that GOME-2 SIF and adjusted SIF formulations responded consistently to the observed environmental variation and showed a marked decrease in SIF emissions in response to a 2012 drought, that was generally larger than the corresponding NDVI and EVI decreases. Drought sensitivity of SIF, as inferred from LMM slopes, was correlated to land cover at different regions of the Caatinga. This is the first study to show correlation between landscape-level SIF and an emergent property of ecosystems (i.e., resilience), showcasing the value of remotely sensed fluorescence for ecological studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0164.v2
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: drought; climate variability; resilience; resistance; estuary; fish; extreme events; Delta Smelt; Chinook Salmon; Largemouth Bass
Online: 23 July 2020 (10:30:03 CEST)
Many estuarine ecosystems and the fish communities that inhabit them have undergone substantial changes in the past several decades, largely due to multiple interacting stressors that are often of anthropogenic origin. Few are more impactful than droughts, which are predicted to increase in both frequency and severity with climate change. In this study, we examined over five decades of fish monitoring data from the San Francisco Estuary, California, U.S.A, to evaluate the resistance and resilience of fish communities to disturbance from prolonged drought events. High resistance was defined by the lack of decline in species occurrence from a wet to a subsequent drought period, while high resilience was defined by the increase in species occurrence from a drought to a subsequent wet period. We found some unifying themes connecting the multiple drought events over the fifty-year period. Pelagic fishes consistently declined during droughts (low resistance), but exhibit a considerable amount of resiliency and often rebound in the subsequent wet years. However, full recovery does not occur in all wet years following droughts, leading to permanently lower baseline numbers for some pelagic fishes over time. In contrast, littoral fishes seem to be more resistant to drought and may even increase in occurrence during dry years. Based on the consistent detrimental effects of drought on pelagic fishes within the San Francisco Estuary and the inability of these fish populations to recover in some years, we conclude that freshwater flow remains a crucial but not sufficient management tool for the conservation of estuarine biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0139.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: drought; water management; thermal remote sensing; habitats protection; land surface temperature; CWSI
Online: 12 December 2018 (05:27:14 CET)
The research carried out concerned the laboratory assessment of the applicability of the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) as a practical tool for assessing the risk of desiccation for selected wetland habitats: transition mires and quaking bogs as well as alkaline fens. The analysis was carried out on 3 soil samples with a vegetation cover (with the dimensions of 40×40×30 cm) collected during the full vegetation season for each mentioned habitat, with a characteristic species composition. Experimental research was carried out between 17th May 2018 and 19th June 2018. Thermal, RGB and multispectral images, chlorophyll content, volumetric soil moisture, air temperature and relative humidity measurements were taken for each sample every two days. The obtained results clearly indicate the dependence between CWSI and plant condition parameters in the first phase of desiccation. At the same time, as a result of the observations taken, thresholds have been set, indicating different desiccation phases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0282.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: adaptive forestry; dendroecology; diffuse–porous wood; drought years; vessel traits; wood anatomy
Online: 12 November 2018 (10:31:23 CET)
The distribution of Mexican Magnolia species´ occur under restricted climatic conditions. As many other tree species from the tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF), Magnolia species appear to be sensitive to drought. Through the use of dendrochronological techniques, this study aims to determine the climate influence on the vessel traits of M. vovidesii and M. schiedeana which are endangered tree species that are endemic to the Sierra Madre Oriental in eastern Mexico. Because most of the tree species in TMCFs are sensitive to climate fluctuations, it is necessary to investigate the differences in the climatic adaptability of the vessel architecture of these trees. This could allow us to further understand the potential peril of climate change on TMCFs. We compared vessel frequency, length and diameter in drought and non–drought years in two Mexican Magnolia species. We used tree–rings width and vessel traits to assess the drought effects on Magnolias’ diffuse–porous wood back to the year 1929. We obtained independent chronologies for M. vovidesii with a span of 75 years (1941–2016), while for M. schiedeana we obtained a span of 319 years (1697–2016). We found that temperature and precipitation are strongly associated with differences in tree–ring width (TRW) between drought and non–drought years. Our results showed anatomical differences in vessel trait response between these two Magnolia species to climatic variation. We suggest that our approach of combining dendroclimatic and anatomical techniques is a powerful tool to analyse anatomic wood plasticity to climatic variation in Magnolia species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0518.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Korean fir; hierarchical regression model; climate change; seedling survival; dwarf bamboo; drought
Online: 23 October 2018 (05:00:38 CEST)
Regional declines of the Korean fir (Abies koreana) have been observed since the 1980s on the subalpine region. To explain this decline, it is fundamental to investigate the degree to which environmental factors have contributed to plant distributions on diverse spatial scales. We applied a hierarchical regression model to determine quantitatively the relationship between the abundance of Korean fir (seedlings) and diverse environmental factors across two different ecological scales. We measured Korean fir density and the occurrence of its seedlings in 102 (84) plots nested at five sites and collected a range of environmental factors at the same plots. Our model included hierarchical explanatory variables at both site-level (weather conditions) and plot-level (micro-topographic factors, soil properties, and competing species). The occurrence of Korean fir seedlings was positively associated with moss cover and rock cover but negatively related to dwarf bamboo cover. On site-level, winter precipitation was significantly positively related to the occurrence of seedlings. A hierarchical Poisson regression model revealed that Korean fir density were negatively associated with slope aspect, topographic position index, Quercus mongolica cover, and mean summer temperature. Our results suggest that drought and competition with other species are factors which halt the survival of Korean fir. We can predict that the population of Korean fir will continue to decline on the Korean Peninsula due to rising temperatures and seasonal drought, and only a few Korean fir will survive on northern slopes or valleys where competition with dwarf bamboo and Q. mongolica can be avoided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0426.v1
Subject: Keywords: rice, abiotic stress, high temperature, drought, physiological responses, molecular mechanisms, systems biology
Online: 26 June 2018 (15:30:20 CEST)
Rice production, owing to its high-water requirement for cultivation, is very vulnerable to the threat of changing climate, particularly prolonged drought and high temperature. Such threats heighten the need for abiotic stress-resilient rice varieties with better yield potential. This review examines the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rice varieties to cope with stress conditions of drought (DS), high temperature (HTS) and their combination (DS-HTS). It appraises research studies in rice about its various phenotypic traits, genetic loci and response mechanisms to stress conditions to help craft new breeding strategies for rice varieties with improved resilience to abiotic stresses. This review consolidates available information on promising rice cultivars with desirable traits as well as advocates synergistic and complementary approaches in molecular and systems biology to develop new rice breeds that favorably respond to climate-induced abiotic stresses. The development of new breeding and cultivation strategies for climate-resilient rice varieties is a challenging task. It requires a comprehensive understanding of the various morphological, biochemical, physiological, and molecular components governing yield under drought and high temperature, but possible by implementing cohesive approaches involving molecular and systems biology approaches in genomics and molecular breeding, including genetic engineering.
ESSAY | doi:10.3390/sci2020019
Subject: Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; mechanochemistry; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 25 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
Mechanical forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because mechanical forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various forms of chemical energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0616.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: abiotic stress; crop improvement; drought; nitric oxide; S-nitrosylation; signaling molecule; water deficit
Online: 29 January 2021 (12:14:53 CET)
Water deficit caused by drought is a significant threat to crop growth and production. Nitric oxide (NO), a water- and lipid-soluble free radical, plays an important role in cytoprotection. Apart from a few studies supporting the role of NO in drought responses, little is known about this pivotal molecular amendment in the regulation of abiotic stress signaling. In this review, we highlight the knowledge gaps in NO roles under drought stress and the technical challenges underlying NO detection and measurements, and we provide recommendations regarding potential avenues for future investigation. The modulation of NO production to alleviate abiotic stress disturbances in higher plants highlights the potential of genetic manipulation to influence NO metabolism as a tool with which plant fitness can be improved under adverse growth conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0620.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Droughts; NDVI; CHIRPS; precipitation anomalies; potential evapotranspiration; self-calibrating palmer drought severity index
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:14:17 CET)
Drought severity still remains a serious concern across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) due to the destructive impact on multiple sectors of our society The interannual variability and trends in the changes of self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index based on Penman–Monteith (scPDSIPM) and Thornthwaite (scPDSITH) methods for potential evapotranspiration (PET), precipitation (P) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) anomalies, and sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly were investigated through statistical analysis of modelled and remote sensing data. It is shown that scPDSIPM and scPDSITH differed in the representation of drought characteristics over SSA. The scPDSI and remotely-sensed-based anomalies of P and NDVI showed wetting and drying trends over the period 1980-2012. The trend analysis showed increased drought events in the semi-arid and arid regions of SSA over the same period. A correlation analysis reveals a strong relationship between scPDSI variability and P, and NDVI anomalies for monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. The correlation analysis of scPDSI variability with SST anomalies indicates significant positive and negative relationships, respectively. This study has demonstrated the applicability of multiple data sources for drought assessment and provides useful information for regional drought predictability and mitigation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0016.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: olive tree, drought and re-watering, soil water balance, irrigation, root, neutron probe
Online: 3 November 2019 (15:28:25 CET)
This paper presents a study of a field trial experiment at olive orchard irrigated by runoff harvesting system under a dry climate which was carried out on 5-year-old olive trees (Olea europaea. L, cv. Barnea) in the middle of Negev desert, starting right after the floods, onwards during the summer growing season. The beginning of the experiment occurred after 2 years with little rain and no run-off events. The olive trees were under severe drought stress when we first initiated controlled flooding in 2017. In the second research year (2018), a massive natural flood had occurred at the end of April. Results show that the water distribution within the soil was highly inhomogeneous even under flood conditions. Soil water loss rate, due to transpiration was mainly correlated with the total amount of soil water and not atmospheric conditions. The relative root water uptake from shallow soil layers (0.3-1.5m) gradually reduced along the season, while the relative water uptake from the deeper layers (1.5-4m) became more pronounced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0522.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: drought; NDVI; ENSO; wavelet; time series analysis; Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park; Google Earth Engine
Online: 26 September 2018 (15:53:40 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: drought; multi-purpose dam; water supply; reservoir operation criteria; standard water volume lines
Online: 6 August 2018 (14:05:54 CEST)
Recently, torrential rain and drought have occurred in close temporal proximity and for similar durations due to changes in the spatiotemporal patterns of rainfall owing to climate change. In particular, when a drought occurs, it tends to be prolonged, making it necessary to improve the operation of multi-purpose dams that not only control flooding but also serve as water supplies. In this study, standard water volume lines and action plans by response stage were improved so that water could be stored in advance of a drought instead of reservoir operation criteria set based on data from the past. The minimum water demand by use (domestic water, industrial water, and agricultural water) was also calculated. The improved reservoir operation criteria were applied to multi-purpose dams in the Nakdong River Basin, and their effects were analyzed by calculating additionally secured water volumes. In the future, in case of lowered water volumes in multi-purpose dams owing to a drought, the application of these improved reservoir operation criteria is expected to contribute to water supply stability by delaying entry into the drought stage, and minimizing the damages caused by limited water supplies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0084.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: drought tolerance; roadside woody vegetation; Simpson diversity; site conditions; tree mortality; tree planting initiatives
Online: 4 March 2022 (17:04:27 CET)
Long-term, multi-decade research on planted tree survival in urban settings is sparse. One understudied urban environment is highway rights-of-way (ROW), lands adjacent to high-speed, unsignalized roadways. We conducted a re-inventory of tree planting cohort in northern Illinois, U.S. on a 48 km-long highway near Chicago which were 10-, 21-, and 30-years old to evaluate long-term patterns of survival and diversity. Using each randomly selected planting site along the highway as a unit of observation and analysis, we compared the number of trees documented in record drawing to the number of trees currently alive to determine percent survival. We evaluated 224 planting sites which originally contained 2,944 trees and collected data about the planting site location. For the oldest cohort, 26% of trees were still alive in 2018 (median survival by species = 16%, Q1 = 0%, Q3 = 48%), while 31% of the 21-year-old cohort (med. = 6%, Q1 = 0%, Q3 = 47%) and 86% of the 10-year-old cohort were still alive (med. = 85%, Q1 = 74%, Q3 = 96%). The survival of the 21- and 30-year-old cohort matches urban tree survival estimates by other researchers, while the 10-year-old survival is higher than expected. The only planting location characteristic that significantly affected survival was traffic islands (areas between the highway and entrance/exit ramps). Species with low drought tolerance were less likely to be alive for the 10-year-old cohort. Waterlogging tolerant species were more likely to be alive in the 10-year-old cohort. Since some species in the 21- and 30-year-old cohorts had very low survival, the tree species richness and diversity s in study areas declined between the initial record drawings and reinventory. This study demonstrates the challenges of maintaining long-term survival and diversity in the highway ROW and emphasizes the importance of species selection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0415.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Drought tolerance index; Stress tolerance index; MLP; SVM; MLP-GA; SVM-GA; Genetic Algorithm
Online: 27 January 2022 (11:21:14 CET)
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) is the staple food crop in the world. In this study, multi-layer perceptron (MLP), support vector machine (SVM), genetic algorithm-based multi-layer perceptron (MLP-GA), and genetic algorithm-based support vector machine (SVM-GA) hybrid artificial intelligence algorithms were used for the prediction of drought tolerance and stress tolerance indices in teosinte maize lines. Correspondingly, the gamma test technique was applied to determine efficient input and output vectors. The potential of developed models was evaluated based on statistical indices and graphical representation. Results of gamma test based on the least value of gamma and standard error indices show that day of anthesis (DOA), day of silking (DOS), yield index (YI), and gross yield per plant (GYP) information vector arrangements were determined as efficient information vector combination for drought-tolerant index (DTI) as well as the stress-tolerant index (STI). The results of MLP, SVM, MLP-GA, and SVM-GA algorithms were compared based on statistical indices and visual interpretation that have satisfactory for prediction of the drought-tolerant index and stress-tolerant index in maize crop. It has also seemed that genetic algorithm-based hybrid models (MLP-GA and SVM-GA) were found a better prediction of the drought-tolerant index and stress-tolerant index in maize crop. Similarly, the SVM-GA model has the highest potential to forecast the DTI and STI in maize crops as compared to MLP, SVM, MLP-GA models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0027.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Beaufort West; drought; Gamka Dam; boreholes; water load-shedding; reclamation plant; municipality; bottled water
Online: 1 July 2021 (13:17:32 CEST)
Increasing and prolonged droughts have become a feature of the South African environmental landscape. This article investigates the sustainability of water procurement to the rural town of Beaufort West and the reasons for the town’s water provision crises during the droughts of 2009-2011 and 2017-2019. Innovative solutions were reached to alleviate the serious water-shortages during these droughts. Data to illustrate population increases and precipitation decreases, which impacted on the town’s water resources, was collected from census records of Statistics South Africa and from the Department of Water and Sanitation, respectively. A number of risk factors contributed to the town’s water crises, e.g. unsustainable water extraction at times of serious droughts, poor water monitoring, metering and attention to leakages, an expansion of informal settlements within the municipal boundaries of Beaufort West, as well as annual rainfall patterns that became increasingly unpredictable. The article concludes that water resource development had not kept pace with demand, therefore water infrastructure should be built with enough capacity to cope with regular dry periods. Equilibrium should be reached between the water expectations of the community and water availability to avoid future social instability in water-stressed towns such as Beaufort West.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0194.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: fire weather; fire climate; large wildfires; downslope windstorm; wildland urban interface; drought; foehn winds
Online: 16 April 2018 (08:00:29 CEST)
Two extreme wind-driven wildfire events impacted northern and southern California in late 2017 leading to 46 fatalities and thousands of structures lost. This study describes the meteorological and climatological factors that drove and enabled these wildfire events and quantifies the rarity of such conditions over the observational record. Both extreme wildfire events featured fire-weather metrics that were unprecedented in the observational record in addition to a sequence of climatic conditions that preconditioned fuels. The North Bay fires that affected portions of northern California in early October occurred coincident with strong downslope winds. The vast majority of the fires’ devastating effects and acres burned occurred overnight and within the first twelve hours of ignition. By contrast, the southern California fires of December were characterized by the longest Santa Ana wind event on record and included the largest wildfire in California’s history. Both fire events occurred following an exceptionally wet winter that was preceded by the drought of record in California. Fuels were further preconditioned as the warmest summer and autumn on record occurred in northern and southern California, respectively. Accelerated curing of fuels coupled with the delayed onset of autumn precipitation allowed for critically low dead fuel moisture leading up to the foehn wind events. Fire weather conditions were well forecasted several days prior to the fire. However, the rarity of fire-weather conditions that occurred in the wildland urban interface, along with other societal factors were key contributors to wildfire impacts to communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0009.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: co-expression network, water deprivation, drought, systems biology, network centrality, computational simulation, Arabidopsis, transcriptional regulation
Online: 1 July 2022 (08:15:36 CEST)
Drought is one of the most serious abiotic stressors in the environment, restricting agricultural production by reducing plant growth, development, and productivity. To investigate such a complex and multifaceted stressor and its effects on the plants, a systems biology-based approach is necessitated, entailing the generation of co-expression networks, identification of highly-priority transcription factors (TFs) dynamic mathematical modeling, and computational simulations. Here, we studied a high-resolution drought transcriptome of Arabidopsis. We revealed distinct temporal transcriptional signatures and demonstrated the involvement of specific biological pathways. Generation of a large-scale co-expression network followed by network centrality analyses identified 117 TFs that possess critical properties of hubs, bottlenecks, and high clustering coefficients nodes. Dynamic transcriptional regulatory modeling on integrated TF-target and transcriptome datasets uncovered major transcriptional events during the course of drought stress. Mathematical transcriptional simulations allowed us to ascertain the activation status of major TFs as well as the transcriptional intensity and amplitude of their target genes. Finally, we validated our predictions by providing experimental evidence of gene expression under drought stress for a set of four TFs and their major target genes using qRT-PCR. Taken together, we provided a systems-level perspective on the dynamic transcriptional regulation during drought stress in Arabidopsis and uncovered numerous novel TFs that can potentially be used in future genetic crop engineering programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0329.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: metabolic resistance; drought tolerance; threshold FTSW; stomatal closure; EPSPS gene amplification; S-metolachlor resistance; glyphosate resistance
Online: 21 January 2022 (13:37:55 CET)
Drought events are predicted to become more prevalent in the future. Evaluating the performance of herbicide-resistant and susceptible weed ecotypes to progressive drought can provide insights into whether resistance trait(s) increased or reduced the fitness of a resistant population. Two experiments were conducted in the greenhouse between January and May 2021 to evaluate drought tolerance differences between Palmer amaranth accessions resistant to S-metolachlor or glyphosate and their susceptible counterparts. The accessions used were: S-metolachlor-resistant (17TUN-A), a susceptible standard (09CRW-A), and glyphosate-resistant (22 to 165 EPSPS copies) and glyphosate-susceptible (3 to 10 EPSPS copies) plants from accession 16CRW-D. Daily transpiration of each plant was measured. The daily transpiration rate was converted to normalized transpiration ratio (NTR) using a double-normalization procedure. The daily soil water content was expressed as a fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW). The threshold FTSW (FTSWcr), after which NTR decreases linearly, was estimated using a two-segment linear regression analysis. The data showed differences between S-metolachlor- resistant and -susceptible accessions (P ≤ 0.05). The FTSW remaining in the soil at the breakpoint for the S-metolachlor-susceptible accession (09CRW-A) was 0.17±0.007. The FTSW remaining in the soil at the breakpoint for the S-metolachlor-resistant accession (17TUN-A) was 0.23±0.004. Although the mechanism endowing resistance to S-metolachlor might have contributed to increased drought tolerance, follow-up experiments are needed to verify this finding. Increased EPSPS copy number did not improve drought tolerance of Palmer amaranth.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0337.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: charcoal; climate change; deforestation; drought; fire; human disturbance; last millennium; non-pollen palynomorphs; pollen analysis; Rapa Nui
Online: 28 May 2019 (11:58:04 CEST)
Easter Island (Rapa Nui) deforestation has traditionally been viewed as a single event, synchronous in time and space across the island and caused by Polynesian settlers. However, recent studies have challenged this idea introducing the concept of spatio-temporal heterogeneity and suggesting a role for climate change. This paper presents a continuous paleovegetation record of the last millennium (~960 to ~1710 CE), based on palynological analysis of a peat core from Lake Kao. During this time interval, deforestation was gradual, with three main pulses at ~1070 CE, ~1410 CE and ~1600 CE, likely driven by drought, anthropogenic practices (mostly fire) or the coupling of both. Some forest regeneration trends have been documented after the first and the second deforestation pulses. Forests were totally removed by 1600 CE, coinciding with the full permanent human settlement of the Kao area. Comparison with other continuous palynological records available for the last millennium (Aroi marsh and Lake Raraku), confirms that forest clearing was heterogeneous in time and space, rather than synchronous island-wide.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0051.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: melatonin; ROS; NO; posttranslational modifications (PMTs); abiotic stress; drought; salinity; high temperature; high light; waterlogging; abiotic stress combination
Online: 5 October 2020 (07:48:29 CEST)
Abiotic stress in plants is an increasingly common problem in agriculture, and thus, studies on plant treatments with specific certain compounds that may help to mitigate these effects have increased in recent years Melatonin (MET) application and its role in mitigating the negative effects of abiotic stress in plants have become important in the last few years. MET, a derivative of tryptophan, is an important plant-related response molecule involved in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants, and the induction of different stress factors. In addition, MET plays a protective role against different abiotic stresses such as salinity, high/low temperature, high light, waterlogging, nutrient deficiency and stress combination by regulating both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. Also, MET interacts with many signaling molecules, among these, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and participates in a wide variety of physiological reactions. It is well known that NO produces S-nitrosylation and NO2-Tyr of important antioxidant-related proteins, being this an important mechanism for maintaining the antioxidant capacity of the AsA/GSH cycle under nitro-oxidative conditions, being extensively reviewed here under different abiotic stress conditions. Lastly, in this review, we show the coordination between NO and MET as a long-range signaling molecule, regulating many responses in plants, including plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Despite all the knowledge acquired over the years, there is still more to know about how MET and NO act on tolerance to abiotic stresses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0119.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Quantile Mapping Bias Correction (QMBC); Regional Climate Models (RCMs); Rossby Centre Regional Climate Models (RCA4); Drought; Flood; Kenya
Online: 12 January 2020 (14:18:56 CET)
Accurate assessment and projections of extreme climate events requires the use of climate datasets with no or minimal error. This study uses quantile mapping bias correction (QMBC) method to correct the bias of five Regional Climate Models (RCMs) from the latest output of Rossby Climate Model Center (RCA4) over Kenya, East Africa. The outputs were validated using various scalar metrics such as Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and mean Bias. The study found that the QMBC algorithm demonstrate varying performance among the models in the study domain. The results show that most of the models exhibit significant improvement after corrections at seasonal and annual timescales. Specifically, the European community Earth-System (EC-EARTH) and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) models depict exemplary improvement as compared to other models. On the contrary, the Institute Pierre Simon Laplace Model CM5A-MR (IPSL-CM5A-MR) model show little improvement across various timescales (i.e. March-April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND)). The projections forced with bias corrected historical simulations tallied observed values demonstrate satisfactory simulations as compared to the uncorrected RCMs output models. This study has demonstrated that using QMBC on outputs from RCA4 is an important intermediate step to improve climate data prior to performing any regional impact analysis. The corrected models can be used for projections of drought and flood extreme events over the study area. This study analysis is crucial from the sustainable planning for adaptation and mitigation of climate change and disaster risk reduction perspective.