Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Determinism; Uncertainty principle; Quantum mechanics; Chance
Online: 23 December 2019 (12:14:01 CET)
We define life as the amplification of quantum uncertainty up to macroscopic scales. A living being is any amplifier that achieves this goal. We argue that everything we know about life can be explained from this idea. We study a ladder mechanism to estimate the probability that the amplification occurs spontaneously in nature. The amplification mechanism is so sensitive to small variations of its own parameters that it acts as a bifurcation itself, i.e. it implies that the universe is either everywhere dead or alive wherever possible. Since the first option is excluded by the existence of life on earth, we infer that the universe hosts a huge number of inhabited planets (possibly one per star on average). We also investigate models of conscious and unconscious learning processes, as well as the structure of the brain and evolution. Finally, we address the problem of creating artificial life.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0014.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: life rules; vital determinism; evolution; cooperativity; central dogma
Online: 3 July 2020 (05:46:25 CEST)
We know that living matter must behave in accordance with the universal laws of physics and chemistry. However, these laws are insufficient to explain the specific characteristics of the vital phenomenon and, therefore, we need new principles, intrinsic to biology, which are the basis for developing a theoretical framework for understanding life. Here I propose what I call the seven commandments of life (the Vital Order, the Principle of Inexorability, the Central Dogma, the Tyranny of Time, the Evolutionary Imperative, the Conservative Rule, the Cooperating Thrust) as a set of principles that help us explain the vital phenomenon from an evolutionary perspective. In a metaphorical way, we can consider life like an endless race in which living beings are the runners, who are changing as the race goes on (the evolutionary process), and the commandments the rules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0052.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: many-worlds interpretation; interpretations of quantum mechanics; determinism; action at a distance
Online: 2 August 2022 (08:49:48 CEST)
A brief (subjective) description of the state of the art of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics (MWI) is presented. It is argued that the MWI is the only interpretation which removes action at a distance and randomness from quantum theory. Limitations of the MWI regarding questions of probability which can be legitimately asked are specified. The ontological picture of the MWI as a theory of the universal wave function decomposed in a superposition of world wave functions, the important part of which are defined in three-dimensional space, is viewed from the point of view of our particular branch. Some speculations about misconceptions which apparently prevent the MWI to be in the consensus are mentioned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0400.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: standard interpretation; Bohmian mechanics; quantum uncertainty; determinism; subject-object relations; systems theory
Online: 20 September 2018 (05:40:07 CEST)
For more than eighty years the standard interpretation (SI) has dominated quantum physics. Perspectives that have tried to challenge this domination have been remarkably unsuccessful. As a result, quantum theory (QT) has remained remarkably stagnant. The article offers a critical examination of SI and provides an explanation for its continued domination. It also uses Bohmian mechanics—a theoretical perspective advanced by American physicist David Bohm—as a case study for why alternative interpretations have failed to displace SI. The article sees the main reason for the failure to achieve much progress beyond SI in the unresolved philosophical problem of subject-object relation that continues to plague our study of physics. The article sketches a path to a possible solution and outlines a new science practice that this solution will require.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0092.v4
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Cognitive psychology; determinism; materialism; new physics; theoretical hypothesis; thought ex-periment; ultraquantum particles
Online: 16 August 2022 (03:40:03 CEST)
To date, no scientific study has found evidence of an afterlife, and the mechanism of consciousness is two of the most challenging questions. Here, I show a hypothesis for consciousness and the probability of an afterlife through three simple thought experiments and theoretical evidence. More studies are needed to understand the mechanism precisely. I found that consciousness can be discussed based on a new theory. Here, I hypothesize that when a person or animal dies, the selection of a new nervous system's characteristic of a new life might depend on the characteristics of the final evolved yet unknown particle. Here, I suggest that the positive or adverse evolution of the said particle depends on the natural evolution of the materialistic brain's cognition, including intelligence. The fittest intellectuals, those who have a higher potential scan mind virus, may survive happier and help more for others to improve psychological well-being. Here, I suggest that when a brain dies, the two microparticles might emit at infinite speed from the dead brain and simultaneously bond with a naturally select suitable zygote or early nervous system somewhere in the universe/s, forming a new life with the impact of new nurture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0435.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: genomic DNAs; stochastics; tensor-unitary transformation; quantum informatics; fractal; projection operators; gestalt phenomena; stochastic determinism
Online: 25 August 2022 (11:52:12 CEST)
The article is devoted to algebraic modeling of universal rules of stochastic organization of genomic DNA of higher and lower organisms, previously published by the author. The proposed algebraic apparatus, which uses formalisms of quantum mechanics and quantum informatics and which is based on the so-called tensor-unitary transformations of vectors that generate families of interrelated stochastic-deterministic vectors of increased dimensions. The features of the vectors' interconnections in these families model the stochastic-deterministic properties of the named phenomenological rules. There are new approaches to modeling of developing multi-parameter biosystems, whose number of parameters increases in the course of step-by-step development. In the light of the presented materials, the issues of fractal-like organization in genetically inherited biosystems are considered. The development of the theory of stochastic determinism as an antipode of deterministic chaos is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0530.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Informatics; Social Informatics; Information Systems; Information System Design; Disruptive Innovation; Technological Determinism; Software Life Cycle
Online: 22 July 2020 (14:07:18 CEST)
Motivation: there is a paradox at the heart of informatics where practical implementation generally fails to understand the socio-technical impact of novel technologies and disruptive innovation when adopted in `real-world’ systems. This phenomenon, termed technological determinism, is manifested in a time-lag between the adoption of novel technologies and an understanding of the underlying theory which develops following research into their adoption. Methods: we consider informatics theory as it relates to: social informatics and how humans’ function in society, the relationship between society and technology, information systems, information systems design, and human-computer interactions. The challenges posed by novel technologies and disruptive innovation are considered as they relate to information systems and information systems design. Open research questions with directions for future research are discussed with an introduction to and our proposed approach to socio-technical information system design. Significance: we conclude that the adoption of disruptive innovation presents both opportunities and threats for all stakeholders in computerised systems. However, determinism is a topic requiring research to generate a suitable level of understanding and technological determinism remains a significant challenge.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Repeatable Determinism; Weight Initialization; Convolutional Layers; Adversarial Perturbation Attack; FSGM, Transferred Learning, Machine Learning, Smart Sensors.
Online: 14 June 2021 (12:14:09 CEST)
This paper presents a non-random weight initialization method in convolutional layers of neural networks examined with the Fast Gradient Sign Method (FSGM) attack. This paper's focus is convolutional layers, and are the layers that have been responsible for better than human performance in image categorization. The proposed method induces earlier learning through the use of striped forms, and as such has less unlearning of the existing random number speckled methods, consistent with the intuitions of Hubel and Wiesel. The proposed method provides a higher performing accuracy in a single epoch, with improvements of between 3-5% in a well known benchmark model, of which the first epoch is the most relevant as it is the epoch after initialization. The proposed method is also repeatable and deterministic, as a desirable quality for safety critical applications in image classification within sensors. That method is robust to Glorot/Xavier and He initialization limits as well. The proposed non-random initialization was examined under adversarial perturbation attack through the FGSM approach with transferred learning, as a technique to measure the affect in transferred learning with controlled distortions, and finds that the proposed method is less compromised to the original validation dataset, with higher distorted datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0566.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Montiaceae; life history; climate niche; polyploidy; phylogenetic comparative analysis (PhCA); natural selection (NS); natural drift (ND); chaos; stochasticity; determinism; principle of evolutionary idiosyncraticity (PEI)
Online: 2 October 2018 (12:06:57 CEST)
The present paper reviews evidence for ecological evolution of Montiaceae. Montiaceae (Portulacineae) comprise a family of ca. 275 species and ca. 25 subspecific taxa of flowering plants distributed mainly in extreme western America, with additional endemism elsewhere, including other continents and islands. They have diversified repeatedly across steep ecological gradients. Based on narrative analysis, I argue that phylogenetic transitions from annual to perennial life history have been more frequent than suggested by computational phylogenetic reconstructions. I suggest that a reported phylogenetic correlation between the evolution of life history and temperature niche is coincidental and not causal. I demonstrate how statistical phylogenetic comparative analysis (PhCA) missed evidence for marked moisture niche diversification among Montiaceae. I discount PhCA evidence for the relation between Montiaceae genome duplication and ecological diversification. Based on the present analysis of Montiaceae evolution, I criticize the premise of the prevalent statistical approach to PhCA, which tests Darwinian deterministic hypotheses against stochastic evolutionary null models. I discuss theoretical/empirical evidence that evolution is neither stochastic, nor Darwinistically-determined, but idiosyncratic. Idiosyncraticity describes the outcome of a stochastically perturbed nonlinear chaos-like process. The Principle of Evolutionary Idiosyncraticity (PEI) is based on the evolutionary theory of Natural Drift, which maintains that determinism in evolution is a property of the organism and not, as maintained by the theory of Natural Selection, its traits or its milieu. This determinism is characteristic of chaotic functions, which are absolutely determinate, generate self-similarity, but remain absolutely unpredictable. PEI explains precisely observations that evolution proceeds not linearly, but chaotically, producing both quasi-linear fractal-like patterns and non-linear jumps. PEI has ramifications for all areas of macroevolutionary research. In particular, it demonstrates both the fallacy and futility of the statistical PhCA approach that interprets evolutionary causes in terms of evolutionary correlations. However, statistical methods of PhCA can be applied heuristically and fruitfully to reveal idiosyncraticity and discover evolutionary novelty. This, in turn, is demonstrated by the emergence of statistical anomalies in evolutionary analyses of Montiaceae.