ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0920.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depressive symptoms; older adults; geriatric depression scale; depression screening
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:07:25 CEST)
Although the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a well-established instrument for the assessment of depressive symptoms in older adults, this has not been validated specifically for Portuguese cognitively impaired persons. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of two Portuguese versions of the GDS (GDS-27 and GDS-15) in a Portuguese mild-to-moderate cognitively impaired sample. Clinicians assessed for major depressive disorder and cognitive functioning in 117 participants with mild to moderate cognitive decline (76.9% female, Mage = 83.66 years). The internal consistency of GDS-27 and GDS-15 were 0.874 and 0.812, respectively. There was a significant correlation between GDS-27 and GDS-15 with Beck Depression Inventory-II GDS-27: rho = 0.738, p < 0.001; GDS-15: rho = 0.760, p < 0.001), suggesting good validity. A cutoff point of 15/16 in GDS-27 and 8/9 in GDS-15 resulted in identification of persons with depression (GDS-27: sensitivity 100%, specificity 63%; GDS-15: sensitivity 90%, specificity 62%). Overall, the GDS-27 and GDS-15 are reliable and valid instruments for the assessment of depression in Portuguese-speaking cognitively impaired persons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: cancer; anxiety; depression
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:05:29 CEST)
Introduction: Cancer is a group of diseases caused by uncontrolled and abnormal cell growth caused by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. Based on data from Dr Kariadi Hospital in 2021, lung cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer were 1,259 cases, this incident increased significantly from 2020. Based on the data obtained, the sequence of lung cancer cases was 241, breast cancer 623 , and cervical cancer 395. Both cancer and its treatment can weaken the patient's immune system, this is what makes cancer sufferers have a risk of anxiety and depression. Objective: To find out the description of anxiety and depression in cancer patients at RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang. Methods: The design of this study was descriptive quantitative, with a population of 56 patients and calculated using a stratified random sampling formula so that a sample of 49 respondents was obtained. The instrument or measuring instrument in this study used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Most cancer patients experienced mild anxiety and did not experience depression or at normal levels, from the number of respondents as many as 49 respondents, 27 respondents experienced mild anxiety (55.1%) and did not experience depression or at normal levels as many as 22 respondents (44, 9%). Suggestion: It is hoped that it can provide input for nurses to provide counseling to patients as an effort to reduce the anxiety and depression felt by patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0466.v1
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:34:46 CET)
Background: Pregnancy can be a period of increased psychological susceptibility for women living with HIV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with depression and psychological stress among women living with HIV during their perinatal period in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: This study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey conducted in three HIV treatment centers. The study population consisted of women living with HIV 18 years and above who were pregnant or had given birth within the last two years. Data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 25. Results: A total of 402 participants were eligible for this study. About 69.0% and 78.0% of the participants were depressed and had perceived stress respectively. Women who had positive partners (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.20-1.30) were found to be significantly associated with perceived depression. Women who reported having a gestational age between 29-40 weeks (OR=0.054 95% CI = 0.006, 0.500) were found to be significantly associated with perceived stress. Factors associated with the co-occurrence of symptoms of depression and perceived stress were partner status, income level, family support, gestational age, and years on ART. Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of major depression, perceived stress, and the co-occurrence of depression and perceived stress among women living with HIV, mental health care should be incorporated into the routine maternal healthcare for all women, especially those living with HIV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1652.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Postpartum depression; Screening; Pandemic; COVID-19; Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS)
Online: 25 September 2023 (10:04:31 CEST)
Background: The potential impact of the pandemic on mental health should not be overlooked, especially among vulnerable populations such as women who gave birth during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was to assess the mental health status of women who gave birth during a pandemic and to examine the possible links between the onset of depressive disorder symptoms in close proximity to the time of delivery and the socio-demographic conditions, health status and obstetric circumstances of the patients. Materials and Methods: The study is a cross-sectional survey conducted from 01.03.2020 to 01.03.2023, during the period of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, based on a retrospective evaluation of 860 postpartum women. The screening tool used to assess symptoms of postpartum depression was the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS) questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed both in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinical Sections I and II of the "Pius Brînzeu" County Emergency Hospital from Timisoara, Romania and online using Google Forms. Results: The highest severity of postpartum depression symptoms was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of the study conducted during the period of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (COVID-19) showed that the prevalence of major postpartum depressive disorder (EPDS ≥ 13) was 54.2% (466 patients), while 15.6% (134) had minor depressive disorder (10 < EPDS ≤ 12) in the first year after delivery. Comparing these results with those obtained in research conducted before the onset of the pandemic period shows an alarming increase in the prevalence of postpartum depression. Risk factors associated with postpartum depression included type of delivery, level of education, socio-economic conditions, health status, age, background, personal obstetric history (number of abortions on demand, parity). Conclusions: The effects of the pandemic on mental health are of particular concern for women in the first year after childbirth. Observing these challenges and developing effective measures to prepare our health system early can help and facilitate effective mental health screening for postpartum women, promoting maternal and child health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0318.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: antenatal depression; Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; COVID-19; women; mental health; pregnancy
Online: 19 December 2022 (03:56:31 CET)
Globally, the impact of COVID-19 on mental health has been significant. Pregnant women are known to be a vulnerable population in relation to mental health. In Australia, there was an unprecedented demand during the pandemic for mental health services, including services for pregnant women. Maternal mental health has unique and enduring features that can significantly shape a child’s overall development and poor maternal mental health can have considerable social and economic costs. This cross-sectional study evaluated antenatal depression and COVID-19 related distress in a sample of two hundred and sixty-nine pregnant women residing in Australia aged between 20 and 43 (M = 31.79, SD = 4.58), as part of a larger study. Social media advertising was used to recruit participants between September 2020 and November 2021. Prevalence rates for antenatal depression were found to be higher in this study (16.4%) compared with previous Australian prevalence rates (7%). COVID-19 distress in relation to having a baby during a COVID-19 outbreak significantly predicted antenatal depression, B = 1.46, p < .001. Results from this study suggest that mothers and families may have increased mental health vulnerabilities as a consequence of the pandemic for some time yet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0136.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acute toxicity; cardiovascular depression; intravenous lipid emulsion; propofol; rat model; respiratory depression
Online: 23 October 2018 (09:34:43 CEST)
Abstract: Background and objective: Propofol is an anesthetic agent that is frequently used in anesthesia induction, maintenance and sedation. Propofol has severe side effects such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression. Although propofol is commonly used, there is no known antidote for its toxic effects. An approach to prevent toxic effects of propofol would be beneficial. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy in the prevention of depressive effects of propofol on cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. The saline-administered group was determined as the Control group. The second group was administered propofol (PP group); the third group was administered ILE (ILE group), and the fourth was administered propofol with ILE therapy (ILE+PP group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), Respiratory rate (RR), Heart rate (HR) and mortality were recorded at 10 points during 60 minutes. A repeated measures linear mixed-effect model with unstructured covariance was used to compare the groups. Results: In the PP group, SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels were declining steadily; all rats in this group died after 60 minutes. In the ILE+PP group, after a while, the decreased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels increased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels of the Propofol group were found to be significantly lower than those of the other groups (p<0.01). The mortality rate was 100% (surviving period, 60 min) for the PP group, whereas 0% for the ILE, ILE+PP and Control groups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that undesirable side effects that can be seen after propofol application such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression might be prevented by using ILE therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Postpartum depression, Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, general help-seeking, mothers, military barracks
Online: 27 August 2018 (14:59:46 CEST)
Postpartum depression (PPD) has serious effects on maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of postpartum depression in mothers of under-twos in military barracks in Lagos. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a modified version of the General Help-Seeking questionnaire (GHSQ) were administered to 316 mothers of under-twos in 3 of 12 military barracks in Lagos, Nigeria to determine PPD and major depressive events (MDE). Risk of PPD was established at EPDS scores of >12. Good help-seeking practices were ascribed to scores of 20 or more on the GHSQ. Risk of PPD was found in 15.5% of respondents, and good help-seeking in 3.8% and 11.4% for personal/emotional and harming self/baby respectively. Bivariate analysis using Chi square showed statistically significant positive associations between lower scores for EPDS and higher educational levels of respondents, perception of partner support and being in lower wealth quintiles (p<0.05). Use of the EPDS was accepted among mothers of children aged under two years. Opportunities to educate pregnant women and new mothers about PPD using existing social networks, perinatal and infant screening programmes in the barracks can be leveraged upon to improve mental health delivery as part of maternity care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0734.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: exercise; endocannabinoids; kynurenines; obesity; depression
Online: 12 September 2023 (16:51:21 CEST)
The kynurenine pathway (KP) and the endocannabinoid system (ECS) are known to be deregulated in depression and obesity; however, it has been recognized that acute physical exercise has an important modulating role inducing changes in the mobilization of their respective metabolites -endocannabinoids (eCB) and kynurenines (KYN)- which overlap at some points, acting as im-portant antidepressant, anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant biomarkers. There-fore, the aim of this review is to analyze and discuss some studies performed recently to investigate the potential interactions between both systems, particularly, those related with exercise-derived endocannabinoidome and kynurenine mechanisms and to elucidate how, the prescription of physical exercise could represent a new approach for the clinical manage of these two conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: anorexia; aged; intensive care; depression
Online: 14 January 2022 (13:52:25 CET)
Abstract: Appetite loss is common in older patients and an independent risk factor for sarcopenia, which is associated with high mortality. However, few studies have explored the phenomenon of appetite loss after discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore, we aimed to describe the prevalence of appetite loss and the relationship between appetite loss and depression in patients living at home 12 months after intensive care. We conducted a post hoc analysis, which was a published ambidirectional study examining post-intensive care syndrome at 12 months after discharge. We included patients aged > 65 years. The Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ) and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) were used for the analysis. Descriptive statistics and a multilevel generalized linear model were used to clarify the relationship between appetite loss and depression. Data from 468 patients were analyzed. The defined appetite loss was 25.4% (95%CI, 21.5–29.4). High severity of depression was an independent factor for high probability of appetite loss (OR, 1.2; 95%CI, 1.14–1.28; p=0.00). Poor appetite is common 12 months after intensive care and is associated with the severity of depression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0507.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; BDNF
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:03:01 CET)
Various autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune hypothyroidism (AHT), are associated with a higher risk of developing mood disorders throughout life. Depression is accompanied by the changes in the levels of inflammatory and trophic factors, including interleukines (IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6), interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Similar disturbances in the cytokine profile are seen in AHT patients and their relatives. Disclosure of the relationship between the co-existence of depression and autoimmune subclinical thyroiditis indicates that the pathomecha-nism of depression may be related to the changes in the immune system, it is possible that both conditions may be caused by the same immune processes. The above hypothesis is indirectly sup-ported by the observations that the treatment with both antidepressants and levothyroxine leads to a decrease in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines with an increase in BDNF concentrations, simultaneously correlating with an improvement in the clinical parameters. However, so far there are no long-term studies determining the causal relationship between depression, thyroid auto-antibodies, and cytokine profile, which could bring us closer to understanding the interrelation-ships between them and facilitate the use of an adequate pharmacotherapy, not necessarily psy-chiatric. We consider the above issues insufficiently investigated but of great importance. This ar-ticle is an overview of the available literature as well as an introduction to our research project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: depression; serum levels; phthalates; bisphenols
Online: 16 November 2021 (09:53:20 CET)
Public concern has emerged about the effects of endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) on neuropsychiatric disorders. Preclinical evidence suggests that exposure to EDCs is associated with the development of the major depressive disorder (MDD) and could result in neural degeneration. The interaction of EDCs with hormonal receptors is the best-described mechanism of their biological activity. However, the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal adrenal axis has been reported and linked to neurological disorders. On the other hand, at a worldwide level and in Mexico, the incidence of MDD has recently been increasing. Of note, in Mexico, there are no clinical associations on blood levels of EDCs and the incidence of the MDD. Methodology: Thus, we quantified for the first time the serum levels of parent compounds of two bisphenols and four phthalates in patients with MDD. Results: The levels of di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate (DEHP), butyl-benzyl-phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and di-ethyl-phthalate (DEP), bisphenol A (BPA), and bisphenol S (BPS) were determined with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Results/ conclusion: We found significant differences between concentrations of BBP between controls and patients with MDD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: pediatric; depression; biomarker; BDNF; cytokines
Online: 5 July 2021 (14:48:24 CEST)
Depressive disorder in childhood and adolescence is a highly prevalent mood disorder that tends to recur throughout life. Untreated mood disorders can adversely impact a patient's quality of life and cause socioeconomic loss. Thus, an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment is crucial. However, until now, diagnoses and treatments are conducted according to clinical symptoms. Objective and biological validation are lacking. This may result in a poor outcome for patients with depressive disorder. Research has been conducted to identify the biomarkers that are related to depressive disorder. Cumulative evidence has revealed that certain immunologic biomarkers in-cluding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cytokines, gastrointestinal biomarkers, hormones, oxidative stress, and certain hypothalamus-pituitary axis biomarkers are associated with depressive disorder. This article reviews the biomarkers related to the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric depressive disorders. To date, clinical biomarker tests are not yet available for diagnosis or for the prediction of treatment prognosis. However, cytokines such as Interleukin-2, interfer-on-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and BDNF have shown significant results in previous studies of pediatric depressive disorder. These biomarkers have the potential to be used for diagnosis, prognostic assessment, and group screening for those at high risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0690.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: adolescents; depression; Laos; psychometric testing
Online: 29 July 2020 (10:37:26 CEST)
This study aimed to develop a Laotian adolescent version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), determine its reliability and validity, and examine its factorial properties. The study targeted at 7,554 students in lower secondary schools and teacher training colleges in Lao PDR. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 2012 to 2014. Exploratory factor analysis performed in three age groups using the weighted least square mean and variance adjusted estimation with robust maximum likelihood methods. The factor structure for each age group was the same; therefore, data from the full sample were analyzed further. The model was then tested by confirmatory factor analysis. A 2-factor model was determined as a common model among the age groups by using paralleled analysis. We determined a best-fitting structure comprising two factors: “Negative affect” and “Positive affect.” The Cronbach’s alpha was .81. “Effort” items loaded on the “Somatic and retarded activity” factor in the original model but loaded on the “Positive affect” factor in the adolescent model. “Depressed affect,” “Somatic and retarded activity,” and “Interpersonal” items were combined into the “Negative affect” factor in the adolescent model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1969.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: urban forest healing program; depression; anxiety
Online: 29 August 2023 (10:16:01 CEST)
Depression is considered a widespread mental health problem worldwide. Moreover, anxiety symptoms are very closely related to depression patients, and it is known that the coexistence rate of depression and anxiety diagnosed simultaneously is high. Treatment and preventive management of depression and anxiety are essential for public health. Forest healing is attracting attention as a form of low-cost preventive medicine that is safe and has no side effects. However, although the physiological and psychological effects have been scientifically proven, it is insufficient to reveal a direct relationship between forest healing and depression. This study investigated the benefits of an urban forest healing program on depression and anxiety symptoms of depressive disorders. We employed a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-seven depression patients were randomly divided into an urban forest healing program group and a control group. Measures included the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires. Our results revealed that the combination of general treatment and forest healing programs for patients with depression is more effective in improving depression and anxiety than routine treatment alone. We expect our work to serve as a starting point for more sophisticated research in discussing the availability of non-pharmacological treatments in forest healing.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1479.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Mental Health, ChatGPT, Anxiety, Depression, LLM
Online: 21 July 2023 (08:34:03 CEST)
The launch of Open AI's chatbot, ChatGPT, has generated a lot of attention and discussion among professionals in several fields. Many concerns and challenges have been brought up by researchers from various fields, particularly in relation to the harm that using these tools for medical diagnosis and treatment recommendations can cause. Additionally, it has been debated if ChatGPT is dependable, efficient, and helpful for clinicians and medical professionals. Therefore, in this study, we assess ChatGPT's effectiveness in providing mental health support, particularly for issues related to anxiety and depression, based on the chatbot's responses and cross-questioning. The findings indicate that there are significant inconsistencies and that ChatGPT's reliability is low in this specific domain. As a result, care must be used when using ChatGPT as a complementary mental health resource.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0829.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: depression; vitamins and supplements; adults; prevention
Online: 12 June 2023 (11:04:19 CEST)
Background: Studies addressing diet quality and mental health have shown a strong association. There is limited evidence of specific vitamins essential for treating depression. This study aims to understand the impact of diet quality through supplementation of vitamins D, B6, and magnesium on depressive symptoms. Methods: Multiple datasets from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017-March 2020 investigated the associations between vitamin D, B6, and magnesium on depression symptoms. A cross-sectional sample of adults over 20 was extracted (n=9,232). Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations. Results: Individuals with low doses of vitamin D were more likely to report symptoms of depression relative to those with low doses of vitamin B6 (χ²=3.9063, p=0.0481 vs. χ²=5.2071, p=0.0225). These results remained significant among those with high magnesium proportionate to high vitamin B6 (χ²=6.1272, p=0.0133 vs. χ²=5.2071, p=0.0225). Logistic regression results provided associations for all models except unadjusted vitamin D and adjusted vitamin D. Conclusions: Preventive measures could be addressed by identifying the risks of vitamin deficiencies. Further epidemiological research is needed for the individual effects of vitamin supplementation and depression symptoms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0821.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; distress; internet addiction; depression
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:18:41 CEST)
The new coronavirus SARS Cov2 disease from 2019. (COVID-19), started as a cluster of unexplained pneumonia cases in Wuhan in December 2019, has spread globally and caused a serious public health threat. People were scared due to the COVID-19 cases that were rapidly increasing all over the world and the quick changes in how people lived. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected various aspects of life, one of which is the increased use of the internet, especially social media platforms. Past research has clearly linked a pandemic with signs of stress, depression, anxiety, and suicide thoughts, as well as with excessive internet use. The findings of research conducted around the world indicate that the higher the level of stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in an individual, the greater the tendency to develop an addiction to the internet. The aim of this paper was to provide a brief overview of the available scientific findings on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and internet addiction. Methods: A sweep through available literature was performed using the database Medline via the PubMed interface for articles written in English, using keywords and MeSH terms "Internet addiction", "mental health" and "COVID-19". Results: With insight into the scientific literature on COVID-19, mental health, and internet addiction, we have concluded that during the COVID-19 pandemic, time spent on the internet increased. Conclusion: Additionally, due to reduced social activities, above mentioned consequently led to internet addiction and thus to psychological distress, increased loneliness and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2199.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: esketamine; arketamine; bioinformatical analysis; depression; suicide
Online: 31 May 2023 (08:24:53 CEST)
Ketamine, a racemic mixture of esketamine (S-ketamine) and arketamine (R-ketamine), has re-ceived particular attention for its rapid antidepressant and antisuicidal effects. NMDA receptor inhibition has been indicated as one of the main mechanisms of action of the racemic mixture, but other pharmacological targets have also been proposed. This study aimed at exploring the possible multiple targets of ketamine enantiomers related to their antidepressant and antisuicidal effects. To this end, targets were predicted in SwissTargetPrediction software for each ketamine enan-tiomer. The targets related to depression and suicide were collected by GeneCards database. The intersections of targets were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Network pharmacology analysis was performed in GeneMania and Cy-toscape softwares. Molecular docking was used to predict the main targets of the network. The results indicated that esketamine and arketamine share some biological targets, particularly NMDA receptor and phosphodiesterases 3A, 7A and 5A, but have specific molecular targets. While esketamine is predicted to interact with the GABAergic system, arketamine may interact with macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Both ketamine enantiomers activate neuroplas-ticity-related signaling pathways and show addiction potential. Our results identified novel poorly explored molecular targets that may be related to the beneficial effects of esketamine and arketamine against depression and suicide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0405.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Suicide; risk factor; polymorphism; CYP46A1; depression.
Online: 23 January 2023 (09:37:54 CET)
Background: Currently, completed suicide, suicide ideation, suicide behavior, and suicide attempts are major public health problems worldwide. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common mental disorders associated with an increased risk of suicide. Since the relationship between suicide and cholesterol levels is still controversial, in this study, we explore the association between SNPs rs754203 and rs4900442 of CYP46A1 with suicide risk in Mexican patients with major depressive disorder. Methods: We evaluated 188 unrelated suicide completers and compared them to 144 non-suicidal individuals (controls) and 126 MDD patients. Genotypes were analyzed using the Real Time-polymerase chain reaction method and two allele-specific probes to detect specific SNP targets. A chi-square test was used to identify a possible risk genotype or allele type for suicide. Results: Statistical analysis showed significant differences between completed suicide and controls in their allelic and genotypic frequencies in rs754203 SNP. The genotype G/G of CYP46A1 rs754203 was significantly associated with suicide. Also, the G allele was associated with an increased risk of suicide (OR= 1.370, 95% CI= 1.002-1.873). No differences in either genotype distribution or allele frequencies of CYP46A1 rs4900442 were observed. Conclusions: The results of the current study report the first association between G allele carriers (A/G + G/G) of rs754203 and increased risk for suicide, especially in males.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mass multivariate analysis; neuroimaging, depression, schizophrenia
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:07:48 CET)
We have used Mass Multivariate Method on structural, resting state and task related fMRI data from two groups of patients with schizophrenia and depression, respectively, in order to define several regions of significant relevance to the differential diagnosis between those conditions. The regions included the left Planum polare, Left opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus (OpIFG), Medial orbital gyrus (MOrG), Posterior Insula (PIns), and Parahippocampal gyrus (PHG). This study delivers evidence that multimodal neuroimaging approach can potentially enhance the validity of psychiatric diagnosis. Either structural, or resting state or task related functional MRI modality cannot provide independent biomarkers. Further studies need to consider and implement a model of incremental validity to combine clinical measures with different neuroimaging modalities to discriminate depressive disorders from schizophrenia. Biological signatures of disease on the level of neuroimaging are more likely to underpin broader nosological entities in psychiatry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: depression; metabolic syndrome; microbiota; probiotics; obesity
Online: 1 April 2021 (10:07:32 CEST)
Depression and metabolic diseases often coexist having several features in common, e.g., chronic low-grade inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis. Different microbiota interventions have been proposed to be used as a treatment for these disorders. In the paper we review the efficacy of probiotics in depressive disorders, obesity, metabolic syndrome and its liver equivalent based on the published experimental studies, clinical trials and meta-analyses. Probiotics seem to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms when administered in addition to antidepressants. Additionally, probiotics intake may ameliorate some of the clinical components of metabolic diseases. However, standardized methodology regarding probiotics clinical trials has not been established yet. In this narrative review we discuss current knowledge on the recently used methodology with its strengths and limitations and propose criteria that may be implemented to create a new study of the effectiveness of probiotics in depressive disorders comorbid with metabolic abnormalities. We put across our choice on type of study population, probiotics genus, strains, dosages and formulations, intervention period, as well as primary and secondary outcome measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0559.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Stress; Anxiety; Depression; HCPs; COVID-19
Online: 27 October 2020 (15:27:36 CET)
Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has affected HCPs in multiple way. It has caused psychological impact in form of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. In this study, we aim to study and compare the stress level, anxiety and depression among HCPs who are posted in special COVID-19 units with the HCPs who are not posted in COVID-19 units.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2020, at various hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. All health care professionals (HCPs) were invited to participate. A total of 301 HCPs completed this study, who were divided into two groups; those who are posted in COVID-19 ward (Group A) and those who are not (Group B). Psychological Impact was English version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - 21 (DASS-21).Results: In Group A, 70.5% had moderate, severe, or extremely severe depression compared to 49.2% in group B. In Group A, 75.4% had moderate, severe, or extremely severe anxiety compared to 44.7% in group B. In Group A, 80.3% had moderate, severe or extremely severe stress compared to 54.2% in group B. Anxiety, depression and stress were significantly higher in HCPs who were posted in COVID-19 ward compared to those who were not posted in COVID-19 wardConclusion: There was significantly higher anxiety, stress and depression in health care professionals posted in COVID-19 ward. Both the government and health care agencies should take responsibility for protecting the psychological well-being of health care communities all over the world and ensuring a healthy work environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0236.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: greenness; brownness; depression; structural equation models
Online: 12 October 2020 (12:19:23 CEST)
Background: While greenness has been associated with lower depression, the generalizability of this association in arid landscapes remains undetermined. We assessed the association between depression and greenness among nursing students living in El Paso, Texas (the Chihuahuan desert). Methods: Depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale, and greenness with the normalized difference vegetation index (at buffer sizes =250m, 500m, 1000m). Using data from the National Land Cover Database two additional measures of land patterns were analyzed: grayness and brownness. Structural equation models were used to assess the relationships of these land patterns to depression and quantify the indirect effects of peer alienation. Results: After adjusting for individual characteristics, at buffers 250 m greenness was associated with a decrease in the Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) of depression by 49% (IRR, 0.51; 95%CI, 0.12-2.10), greyness with increases by 64% (IRR, 1.64; 95%CI, 1.07-2.52) and brownness with decreases by 35% (IRR, 0.65; 95%CI, 0.42-0.99). At buffer 250 m peer alienation explained 17.43% (95% CI, -1.79-36.66) of the association between depression and brownness, suggesting a pathway to depression. Conclusions: We did not observe an association between depression and residential greenness in El Paso, Texas. However, we did observe a protective association between brownness and depression as well as an adverse association with grayness. These results have theoretical implications as based on commonly used frameworks in this literature and adverse association of brownness (and the lack of greenness) and depression was expected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: anxiety; depression; stress; coronavirus; Dilla; Ethiopia
Online: 30 June 2020 (08:00:58 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is the global public health emergency concern and had an impact on the day to day life of individuals. Its effect on an individual’s mental health is significant to the extent of suicide. Objective: This study aimed to assess the magnitude of psychological problems and their associated factor among communities living in Dilla town in response to the pandemic. Methods: From Apr 1- Apr 15, 2020, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage sampling techniques. Self-administered the questioner, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and logistic regression analysis (95% CI, p-value <0.05) was used. Results: This study included 445 respondents with a 94% non- response rate who was living in Dilla town. In total, 34.4% of respondents had a psychological problem (11.4 % mild and 23% moderate level of the psychological problem). Female, Greater secondary level of education, monthly income below 500 ETB, more than three family size, and wearing face mask were variables associated with the outcome variable (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Nearly one-third of the respondents had mild to moderate psychological among communities living in Dilla town. There is a need for mental health support on those identified groups of peoples to enhance their resilience in response to the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: adolescents; depression; insomnia; mobile phone; Japanese
Online: 7 April 2017 (04:33:14 CEST)
Adolescents spend an increasing amount of time on mobile phones. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between duration of mobile phone use and insomnia and depression in senior high school students. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 295 senior high school students in Japan. Mobile phones were owned by 98.6% of students; 58.6% of students used mobile phones for more than 2 h daily and 10.5% used them for 5 h daily. The risk of insomnia was significantly high in students who used mobile phones for 5 h or more (OR: 3.89 [95% CI: 1.21-12.49]). There was no significant association between depression and duration of mobile phone use. However, individuals who spent 120 min or more using mobile phones for social network services (OR: 3.63 [1.20-10.98]) and online chats (OR: 3.14 [1.42-6.95]) were at risk for depression. Excessive mobile phone use is associated with unhealthy sleep habits and insomnia. Moreover, the excessive use of the social network services and online chats are related to depression rather than duration of mobile phone use. Adolescents should use mobile phones appropriately to avoid sleep disturbances and the impairment of mental health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: systematic review; forest therapy; depression; adults
Online: 14 March 2017 (08:45:56 CET)
The purpose of this study was to systematically review forest therapy programs designed to decrease the level of depression among adults and subsequently identify the gaps in the literature. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The authors independently screened full-text articles from various databases using the following criteria: 1) intervention studies assessing the effects of forest therapy on depression in adults aged 18 years and over; 2) studies including at least one control group or condition; 3) been peer-reviewed; and 4) been published either in English or Korean before July 2016. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) measurement tool was used to assess the risk of bias in each trial. In the final sample, a total of 28 articles (English: 13, Korean: 15) were included in the present systematic review. This review concluded that forest therapy is one of the emerging and effective interventions for decreasing the level of depression in adults. However, the studies included in this review lacked methodological rigor. Future studies assessing the long-term effect of forest therapy on depression using rigorous study designs are needed.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: depression; measurement scale; ratings; literature review
Online: 16 December 2016 (07:57:02 CET)
The range of rating instruments in depression measurement and the depth of their analytical relevance constitutes a major development in this psychiatric and psychotherapeutic field of mental health. Though the competition is acute amongst these various instruments, the results for the public have been outstandingly positive. A depression rating scale is essentially a psychiatric measuring instrument utilized in the identification and ranking of depression severity within the patient. The scale provides the practitioner, psychiatrist or psychotherapist, with sufficient information to assess the severity of the depression plotted on the scale. Not used as a “diagnostic tool” itself, nevertheless, the depression rating scale does function as an effective device for designating and assigning a behavioral score which may, then, be used in establishing the severity of depression of value in the designation of a diagnosis and treatment formula. In this paper, we will take a close look at the leading depression rating scales and briefly summarize their scope of assessment value in rating depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1427.v1
Online: 21 September 2023 (03:54:17 CEST)
The association between depressive symptomatology and cognitive decline has been examined using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), however, concerns have been raised about this self-report measure. Here, we examined how the CES-D total score from the 14- and 10-item versions compared to the 20-item version in predicting progression to cognitive decline from a cognitively unimpaired baseline. Data from 1,054 participants were analysed using ordinal logistic regression, alongside moderator and receiver-operating characteristics curve analyses. All baseline total scores significantly predicted progression to cognitive decline. The 14-item version was better than the 20-item version in predicting consensus diagnosis, as shown by their AICs, while also showing the highest accuracy when discriminating between participants by diagnosis at last visit. We did not find sex to moderate the relationship between CES-D score and cognitive decline. Current findings suggest the 10- and 14-item versions of the CES-D are comparable to the 20-item version, and that the 14-item version may be better at predicting longitudinal consensus diagnosis compared to the 20-item version.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: lizard dung; substance abuse; toxicity; CNS; depression
Online: 15 September 2023 (03:46:14 CEST)
Though studies have characterized lizard dung as an unconventional psychoactive substance of abuse, this has not been demonstrated in experimental settings. We evaluated the toxicity and CNS activity of lizard dung in Wistar rats. The acute and subacute toxicity studies were conducted via oral and inhalational routes. Classical models of tail suspension, forced swim, elevated plus maze, hole board, and sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time tests were adopted and the lizard dung were administered via both routes. No mortality was observed for all doses of the test substance administered via both routes during the toxicity studies. Significant changes in serum urea, creatinine, bilirubin, ALP, ALT and AST were recorded. Mixed inflammatory infiltrates and oedema were observed in the lungs from the group that inhaled 1.0g darkish part of lizard dung. Lizard dung produced marked reduction in the exploratory behaviour. Our findings indicate depression of the CNS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0987.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: toxicity; glue; central nervous system; behaviour; depression
Online: 15 September 2023 (03:42:25 CEST)
Purpose: Glue inhalation is a common unconventional substance of abuse and it contains neurotoxic and volatile solvents. We examined the toxicity profile and CNS activities of glue inhalation in Wistar rats.Methods: Acute toxicity was investigated using graded concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mL of glue inhalation (n=3/group) for 4 hours in phase one followed by concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 mL of glue (n=1/group) for 4 hours in phase two. These animals were then observed for signs of toxicity and/or mortality for 24hours. The sub-acute toxicity was studied using 24 male Wistar rats at graded concentrations of Air, 2, 4 and 8mL glue (n=6/group) for 28 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical and haematological evaluations, and vital organs (lung, liver, kidney, heart, brain, and eye) were used for histological analysis. Behavioural studies were carried out using Elevated Plus Maze, Hole Board Test, Open Field Test, Tail Suspension Test and Forced Swim Test. Dependence and abstinence effect were also evaluated. Results: The Lethal Dose (LD50) of the inhalational glue was 14.14 ml. Glue significantly increased liver function parameters like TB, DB, ALP, ALT, TP, electrolyte levels (K+ and HCO3) but reduced cholesterol level in exposed rats. Glue inhalation had significant anxiolytic and depressant effects on the rats at concentrations of 4mL and 8mL. Histological analysis revealed liver and lung tissue abnormalities and subconjunctival inflammation in eye tissue at 8mL. Conclusion: The study therefore suggests that glue inhalation has anxiolytic and depressant effects in Wistar rats.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0536.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: PET; MRI; SPECT; CT; Depression; Epilepsy; Atrophy
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:26:01 CEST)
Imaging-based biomarkers have developed as an effective tool in neurology, providing vital understandings of the structural, functional, and molecular changes associated with neurological disorders. Imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and computed tomography (CT) have been widely employed to record disease-related alterations in the brain. These techniques provide a wide range of biomarkers, such as functional connectivity patterns, volumetric measurements, molecular imaging agents, and perfusion parameters, enabling the correct identification of neurological disorders. These biomarkers have proven useful in early diagnosis, disease progression tracking, therapy response prediction, and surgical planning. This review emphasizes the various obstacles and limitations that are associated with imaging-based biomarkers. Technical constraints, standardization obstacles, ethical concerns, regulatory challenges, and cost-effectiveness concerns all offer substantial barriers to wider use. It is vital to overcome these challenges if imaging biomarkers are to be successfully integrated into routine clinical practice. Imaging technology advancements like high-resolution imaging, multimodal imaging, and artificial intelligence-based analysis hold immense promise for imaging-based biomarkers in the future. While more study and standardization are needed, their ongoing development and integration into clinical practice have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis, treatment, and management of neurological disorders, resulting in better patient care and outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0663.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: depression detection; fusion; feature extraction; deep learning
Online: 9 May 2023 (13:20:58 CEST)
This study compares the performance of existing studies on multimodal emotion recognition, and proposes a model that fuses two modalities with the speaker's text and voice signals as input values and detects depression. Based on the DAIC-WOZ dataset, voice features were extracted using CNN, text features were extracted using Transformers, and two modalities were fused through a tensor fusion network. We also build a model to detect whether the speaker is depressed or not using LSTM in the final layer. This study suggests the possibility of increasing access to mental illness diagnosis by enabling patients to detect depression on their own in daily conversations. If the model proposed in this study is developed and the voice conversation system is connected, it will be easier for patients who cannot visit the hospital periodically or who are reluctant to visit the hospital to check their condition and seek recovery. Furthermore, it can be expanded to multi-label classification for various mental diseases and used as a simple self-mental disease diagnosis tool.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1093.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: chronic stress; depression; microglia; neuroinflammation; proinflammatory cytokines
Online: 28 April 2023 (03:28:05 CEST)
Chronic stress is a major risk factor for various psychiatric diseases, including depression; it induces a range of cellular and structural adaptations, culminating in altered neurocircuitry and subsequent depression. Accumulating evidence suggests that microglial cells orchestrate stress-induced depression. Preclinical studies of stress-induced depression revealed microglial inflammatory activation in regions of the brain that regulate mood. Although studies have identified several molecules that trigger inflammatory responses in microglia, the pathways that regulate stress-induced microglial activation remain unclear. Understanding the exact triggers that induce microglial inflammatory activation can help find therapeutic targets to treat depression. In the current review, we summarize the recent literature on possible sources of microglial inflammatory activation in animal models of chronic stress-induced depression. In addition, we describe how microglial inflammatory signaling affects neuronal health and causes depressive behavior. Finally, we propose ways to target the microglial inflammatory cascade to treat depressive disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: violence; depression; pregnancy; primary prevention; mental health
Online: 6 March 2023 (06:48:40 CET)
Violence can promote various mental complications such as depression, however, the type of violence that promotes it has not been estimated in detail. The purpose of this study was to assess whether depression is associated with domestic violence in pregnant women treated at a Peruvian health center, 2022. A quantitative, observational, cross-sectional analytical study. A total of 180 pregnant adults who attend the health facility in person were selected. Intrafamily violence was assessed using a questionnaire from the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations of Peru and depression using the Beck Depression Inventory. The study has the approval of the ethics committee of the university and the permission of the head of the health establishment. 36.11% [95%CI: 29.39-43.43] of the pregnant women presented depression and 1.11% severe de-pression; likewise, 41.67% [95%CI: 36.64-49.05] reported having experienced domestic violence. It was identified that presenting domestic violence increases the probability of presenting depression during pregnancy (aPR: 9.89; p<0.001). The associated types of violence were psychological (aPR: 10.44; p<0.001) and physical (aPR: 1.78; p=0.007). There is an association between domestic violence and depression during pregnancy, the types of violence associated being psychological and physical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: functional MRI; group independent component analysis; depression
Online: 7 February 2023 (04:22:30 CET)
The aim of the presents study is to further expand the model of translational cross-validation by investigating the brain circuits or networks which underpin the same tasks by means of group independent component analysis for FMRI toolbox (GIFT). We hypothesized that there will be neural network patterns of activation and deactivation, which correspond to real time performance on clinical self-evaluation scales. We recruited 42 subjects: 20 healthy controls and 22 patients with major depressive episode. All subjects underwent functional MRI scanning using paradigm comprised of diagnostic clinical self-assessment depression scale contrasted to neutral scale. The data were processed with group independent component analysis for functional MRI toolbox and statistical parametric mapping. The results have demonstrated that there exist positively or negatively modulated brain networks during processing of diagnostic specific task questions for major depressive disorder. There have also been confirmed differences in the networks processing diagnostic versus off blocks between patients and controls in anterior cingulate cortex and middle frontal gyrus. Diagnostic conditions (depression scale) when contrasted to neutral conditions demonstrate differential activity of right superior frontal gyrus and right middle cingulate cortex in the comparison of patients with healthy controls. It is for the first time when potential neuroimaging state dependent biomarker has been directly linked with clinical assessment self-evaluation scale, administered as stimuli simultaneously with the fMRI acquisition. It may be regarded as further evidence in support of the ability of both methods to concordantly distinguish groups by means of incremental translational cross-validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: international students, social support, depression, vital exhaustion
Online: 8 December 2022 (08:51:35 CET)
Background: Our study aimed to assess the differences between domestic and international students in terms of social support, vital exhaustion, and depression during the time of COVID-19. Methods: The online cross-sectional survey was conducted via Google Forms® at three time intervals during the pandemic. Results: Respectively 1320, 246, and 139 students completed our questionnaires in the different time intervals. International students reported significantly lower values of perceived social support. Women reached higher scores regarding vital exhaustion in both samples. Concerning depression, international female students had higher values than their male counterparts but the difference diminished with time. No differences could be found in the comparison of depression between domestic female and male students. Significant correlations were found between depression, perceived social support, and vital exhaustion. Discussion: International students perceive diminished social support just when they need more. Decreased levels of perceived social support may contribute to the development of their psychological problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Perinatal depression; prognosis; prognostic modeling; nomogram; Pakistan
Online: 10 May 2022 (15:40:48 CEST)
Task sharing approaches are challenged by the barriers fundamental to the use of non-specialists who lack specialist mental health training required to triage the candidates who could benefit from task-shared treatments. However, these challenges could be offset by using standardized and easy-to-implement algorithmic devices (e.g., nomograms) to help with the targeted dissemination of interventions. Therefore, the present investigation posits a prognostic model and a nomogram to predict the prognosis of perinatal depression among women in rural Pakistan. This secondary analysis utilizes data based on 903 pregnant women with depression who participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of the Thinking Healthy Program in rural Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The participants were recruited from 40 union councils in two sub-districts of Rawalpindi and randomly assigned to intervention and enhanced usual care. Sixteen sessions of the THP intervention were delivered by trained community health workers to women with depression over pregnancy and the postnatal period. A trained assessment team used the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-4 current major depressive episode module to diagnose depression at the baseline and post-intervention. The intervention received by the participants emerged as the most significant predictor in the model. Among clinical factors, baseline severity of core-emotional symptoms emerged as an essential predictor, followed by atypical symptoms and insomnia. Higher severity of these symptoms was associated with a poorer prognosis. Other important predictors of a favorable prognosis included living with paternal and maternal grandmothers, financial empowerment, higher socioeconomic class, and living in a joint family system. This prognostic model yielded acceptable discrimination (c-statistic =0.75) and calibration to aid in personalized delivery of psychological treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19; psychological distress; anxiety; depression; PTSD
Online: 7 December 2020 (10:32:10 CET)
Background. The novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) and related syndrome (COVID-19) has required a worldwide measure of quarantine with severe consequences for millions of people. Methods. Since psychopathological consequences related to social restrictions have been reported, a systematic review according to Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and the PRISMA Statement was performed to quantify the effects of quarantine on mental health of adults. Major databases - Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, PsycInfo, and Web of Science- were researched for observational studies with data on mental health indexes related to quarantine or isolation for epidemic infections. Results. Twenty-one independent studies were included for 82,312 subjects. Conclusions. The results showed that at least 20% of people exposed to these conditions reported a psychological distress, with a prevalence of PTSD, depression and, less often, generalized anxiety. Important methodological bias weakens the conclusion of most studies, opening to the need of further research on mental health after quarantine and related risk/buffering factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mental health; working population; labour; migration; depression
Online: 3 November 2020 (13:52:38 CET)
Background: Mental health is a growing concern worldwide. It is not well understood whether Nepali workers, including international labour migrants from Nepal, are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. The purpose of our study is to determine the prevalence of and examine the risks factors for depression among returnee migrants and non-migrant working male adults in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a probability-based sample of 725 participants was conducted in February 2020. The sample was comprised of two groups based on migration status: returning migrants and non-migrants. Logistic regression was applied to investigate factors associated with symptoms depression.Results: The overall prevalence of depression was 10.1%. However, the prevalence of depression was lower (7%) among returnee migrants compared to non-migrants (13.7%). Participants in the lower income group were more at risk of depression (OR=5.38, 95% CI: 1.96-14.78) than those in the higher income group. Similarly, Buddhists and Christians were more likely to be depressed (OR=2.17, 95% CI: 1.02-4.64) than Hindus. Interestingly, participants having more than two children had a higher prevalence of depression (OR=5.14, 95% CI: 1.22-21.63) compared with those having no children. Unmarried participants were more likely to be depressed (OR=4.05, 95%, CI:1.10-14.93) than those who were married. Conclusion: The working Nepali adult male population in Nepal, including returning migrants, is at risk of depression, but this risk is lower in those in the higher income group, returnee migrants, married, Hindus and those with no children. This study highlights the need to monitor and develop national policies to ensure the mental health of Nepali male adult population, including returnee migrants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: bipolar depression; inflammation; neuroimmunomodulation; cytokines; psychoneuroimmunology; staging
Online: 11 March 2020 (10:45:16 CET)
There is now evidence that, based on cytokine profiles, bipolar disorder (BD) is accompanied by simultaneous activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS), and that both components may be associated with the staging of illness. Nevertheless, no BD studies have evaluated the IRS/CIRS ratio using CD (cluster of differentiation) molecules expressed by peripheral blood activated T effector (Teff) and T regulatory (Treg) subpopulations. This study examined T cell subsets both before and after ex vivo anti CD3/CD28 stimulation using flow cytometric immunophenotyping in 25 euthymic BD patients and 21 healthy controls as well as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific IgG antibodies. BD is associated with a significantly lowered frequency of baseline (unstimulated) CD3+CD8+CD71+ and CD4+CD25+FOXP3 and increased CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD152+ frequencies and with lowered stimulated frequencies of CD3+CD8+CD71+, CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD152+ and CD4+CD25+FOXP3+GARP cells and, consequently, by an increased stimulated Teff/Treg ratio. Moreover, the number of manic, but not hypomanic or depressive episodes, is significantly and negatively associated with the stimulated proportions of CD3+CD4+CD154+, and CD69+ and CD71+ expression on CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while duration of illness (≥ 10 years) is accompanied by a depleted frequency of stimulated CD152+ Treg, and CD154+ and CD71+ CD4+ T cells. BD and anti-human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IgG levels significantly interact to decrease the expression of CD4+CD25+FOXP+GARP T phenotypes. In conclusion, BD is characterized by deficits in immune-regulatory functions while the staging of illness is characterized by additional impairments is Teff and Treg activation. HCMV seropositivity may contribute to an immune-risk phenotype associated with BD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0413.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: infant cry; post-partum depression; acoustic analysis
Online: 31 December 2019 (15:55:20 CET)
Postpartum depression (PPD), a condition that affects up to the 15% of mothers in high-income countries, reduces attention toward the needs of the child and it is among the first causes of infanticide. PPD is usually identified using self-report measures and therefore the diagnosis may not always be valid. Previous studies highlighted the presence of significant differences in the acoustical properties of the vocalizations of children of depressed and healthy mothers. In this study, cry episodes of infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers are analyzed to investigate the possibility that a machine learning model can identify PPD in mothers from the acoustical properties of infants' vocalizations. Acoustic features (F0, F1-4, Intensity) are first extracted from recordings of crying infants, then novel cloud-based artificial intelligence models are employed to identify maternal depression versus non depression from estimated features. Trained model shows that commonly adopted acoustical features can be successfully used to individuate Post-Partum Depressed mothers with very high accuracy (89.5%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0329.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: premenstrual syndrome; chemokines; inflammation; neuro-immune; depression
Online: 29 September 2019 (06:29:54 CEST)
Objective: To examine associations between chemokines and menstrual cycle associated symptoms (MCAS). Methods: Forty-one women completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) rating scale during 28 consecutive days of the menstrual cycle. MCAS is diagnosed when the total daily DRSP score during the menstrual cycle is > 0.666 percentile. We assayed plasma CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL8, CXCL10, EGF, IGF-1, and PAI-1 at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the menstrual cycle. Results: CCL2, CCL5, CCL11 and EGF are significantly higher in women with MCAS than in those without. Increased CCL2, CXCL10, CXCL8, CCL11 and CCL5 levels are significantly associated with DRSP scores while CCL2 is the most significant predictor explaining 39.6% of the variance. The sum of the neurotoxic chemokines CCL2, CCL11 and CCL5 is significantly associated with the DRSP score and depression, physiosomatic, breast-craving and anxiety symptoms. The impact of chemokines on MCAS symptoms may differ between consecutive weeks of the menstrual cycle with CCL2 being the most important predictor of increased DRSP levels during the first two weeks, and CXCL10 or a combination of CCL2, CCL11 and CCL5 being the best predictors during week 3 and 4, respectively. Discussion: The novel case definition “MCAS” is externally validated by increased levels of uterus-associated chemokines and EGF. Those chemokines are involved in MCAS and are regulated by sex hormones and modulate endometrium functions and brain neuro-immune responses, which may underpin MCAS symptoms. As such, uterine-related chemokines may link the uterus with brain functions via a putative uterine-chemokine-brain axis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; cytokines; inflammation; endogenous opioid; opioid receptor
Online: 16 April 2019 (09:49:14 CEST)
Background: There is now evidence that immune and opioid systems show functional reciprocal relationships and that both systems may participate in the pathophysiology of major depression (MDD). Objective: The present study was carried out to delineate differences between MDD patients and healthy controls in dynorphin and kappa opioid receptor (KORs) in association with levels of β-endorphins and mu opioid receptors (MORs), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. Method: The present study recruited 60 drug-free male participants with MDD aged 24-70 year and 30 age-matched healthy males as control group and measured serum levels of dynorphin, KOR, β-endorphin, MOR, IL-6 and IL-10. Results: Serum dynorphin, KOR, β-endorphin and MOR are significantly increased in MDD as compared with controls. The increases in the dynorphin/KOR system and β-endorhin/MOR system are significantly intercorrelated and are both strongly associated with increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Dynorphin, β-endorphin, KOR and both cytokines showed a good diagnostic performance for MDD versus controls, whereby both opioid peptides and cytokines show a bootstrapped (n=2000) area under the receiver operating curve of 0.972. KOR and the dynorphin/KOR system are both significantly decreased in depressed subjects with comorbid nicotine dependence. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in MDD, immune activation is associated with a simultaneous activation of dynorphin/KOR and β-endorhin/MOR signaling and that these opioid systems may participate in the pathophysiology of depression by a) exerting immune regulatory activities attenuating the primary immune response; and b) modulating reward responses and mood as well as emotional and behavioral responses to stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Depression, inflammation, neuro-immune, interleukins, ketoprofen, zinc
Online: 14 January 2019 (11:47:42 CET)
There is now evidence that major depression is accompanied by lowered serum zinc, an immune-inflammatory biomarker. However, the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs as adjuvant to antidepressants on serum zinc and copper in relation to pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are not studied. The aim of the present work is to examine the effects of treatment with sertraline with and without ketoprofen on serum levels of zinc and copper in association with immune-inflammatory biomarkers in drug-naïve major depressed patients. We measured serum zinc and copper, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, interferon (IFN)-γ, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in 40 controls and 133 depressed patients. The clinical efficacy of the treatment was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at baseline and 8 weeks later. In drug-naïve major depressed patients we found significantly reduced baseline levels of serum zinc and copper in association with upregulation of all cytokines, indicating activation of the immune-inflammatory responses system (IRS) as well as the compensatory immune regulatory system (CIRS). Treatment with sertraline significantly increased zinc and decreased copper levels, while ketoprofen did not have a significant add-on effect on zinc but attenuated the suppressant effects of sertraline on copper levels. During treatment, there was a significant inverse association between serum zinc and activation of the IRS/CIRS. The improvement in the BDI-II during treatment was significantly associated with increments in serum zinc coupled with attenuation of the IRS/CIRS. In conclusion, lower serum zinc is a hallmark of depression, while increments in serum zinc and attenuation of the immune-inflammatory response during treatment appear to play a role in the clinical efficacy of sertraline. Intertwined changes in zinc levels and the immune response play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression and participate in the mechanisms underpinning the clinical efficacy of antidepressants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Suicidal Ideation, major depression in adults, natural language written texts, Romanian depression support forum, machine learning text mining,
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:44:06 CEST)
Detecting suicidal ideation in adults with major depression is crucial for timely intervention and prevention of self-harm. As suicide is influenced by various biological, socio-cultural and psychological factors, traditional screening methods have accuracy and efficiency limitations. In certain cultures, societal stigma and marginalization can compel individuals with depression to conceal their suffering. Such individuals often turn to online social media platforms and share their experiences with peers under the protection of anonymity. Our research explored the potential of machine learning detection of suicidal ideation among Romanian adults with major depression that contributed to a web-based depression support forum. A trained algorithm (C4.5 decision tree) analyzed 125 posts fed to on a free access online support forum over 5 years (2014 – 2018) and classified them based on suicidal ideation content. 32 texts (25%) were identified as having a high probability of suicidal ideation content. 65% of the authors were male, with a mean age of 36.7±10.3 years and an average duration of illness of 3.4±1.4 years. Texts indicating positive suicidal ideation were generally shorter and elicited more general responses but fewer professional responses compared to those without suicidal ideation content. The study's main limitations include the relatively small number of classified texts, the absence of prospective information and the lack of qualitative evaluation of the excerpts' content. As socio-demographic and linguistic actuarial results were comparable to data reported by real life studies, we may consider basic text mining techniques as a screening tool that is able to detect suicidal ideation in texts written in unstructured Romanian language.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0221.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: arousal level; emotion; major depression severity; voice index; Hurst exponent; zero-crossing rate; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression
Online: 9 August 2020 (21:15:01 CEST)
Recently, the relationship between emotional arousal and depression has been studied. Focusing on this relationship, we first developed an arousal level voice index (ALVI) to measure arousal levels using the Interactive Emotional Dyadic Motion Capture database. Then, we calculated ALVI from the voices of depressed patients from two hospitals (Ginza Taimei Clinic [GTC] and National Defense Medical College hospital [NDMC]) and compared them with the severity of depression as measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Depending on the HAM-D score, the datasets were classified into a no depression (HAM-D<8) and a depression group (HAM-D≥8) for each hospital. A comparison of the mean ALVI between the groups was performed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and a significant difference at the level of 10% (p = 0.094) at GTC and 1% (p = 0.0038) at NDMC was determined. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic was 0.66 when categorizing between the two groups for GTC, and the AUC for NDMC was 0.70. The relationship between arousal level and depression severity was indirectly suggested via ALVI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1029.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Workplace mental health; Workplace bullying; Depression; Gender difference
Online: 15 September 2023 (08:28:38 CEST)
Workplace bullying is a prevalent issue with a significant impact on employees’ mental health. This study aimed to explore the relationship between workplace bullying and the prevalence of depression with a particular focus on the role of gender. A total of 12,344 Korean employees aged 19–65 years were included in the study. They completed questionnaires including the Korean version of the Occupational Stress Scale, the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A score of 16 or higher in CES-D indicated depression. The association between workplace bullying and depression was analyzed using logistic regression analyses. The average CES-D scores were higher for both male and female employees who experienced bullying than for those who did not (p < 0.001). The association between the experience of workplace bullying and the prevalence of depression was statistically significant for both genders, with a stronger correlation observed among male employees (p for interaction <0.001). Organizations are urged to address workplace bullying, particularly for male employees, through the implementation of anti-bullying strategies and policies, as well as the provision of mental health resources and support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0253.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: stess; chronic fatigue syndrome; depression; dysbiosis; serotonin/cortisol
Online: 5 September 2023 (07:52:50 CEST)
Intestinal microbiota attracts daily attention of a growing number of study which have attempted to link gut dysbiosIs with a variety of disease states: irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflamed bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD), leaky gut syndrome (LGS), food intolerance, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cancer, etc.. In our study we analyzed how intestinal dysbiosis may be related to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and depression through the exchange of information through the gut-brain axis (GBA). We studied 33 subjects, 13 males and 20 females, who reported CFS or/and depression: we investigated their salivary cortisol levels, blood serotonin, omega 3/6 ratio, intestinal dysbiosis (calculated on the urinary levels of indoxyl sulfate and skatole), and we looked for the presence of Candida a. or mycetes in the stool; the data accumulated with this research show a correlation between the presence of Candida a./miceti, indoxyl sulfate urine values beyond the physiological and low serotonin levels. In addition, data analysis showed that the EPA/DHA values also show pro-inflammatory levels in case of dysbiosis and low serotonina levels. The relationship, however, with cortisol levels requires further research although this study showed a statistically significant positive correlation between these values, measured at specific times, and serotonin levels. Aims its connections with We investigated the relationship between stress (evaluated through the measurement of salivary cortisol levels) and gastrointestinal efficiency measured as a function of intestinal fermentative and putrefactive dysbiosis, evaluating the levels of urinary indoxyl sulfate in the first case (a possible correlation with the presence of Candida spp or Mycetes in the subjects feces was investigated), urinary skatole levels in the second one, in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (SFC) and depression. In these patients we also have studied omega 3/6 ratio, and finally we have analized the impact that the alteration of these parameters can have on the serotonin levels. This research attemps to highlight the contact points, in some cases not so obvious, among these topics, contact points that, although they give us interesting indications, show the need to be further deepened by analyzing a larger amount of data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1559.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: anxiety; cardiac rehabilitation; depression; medical education; primary care
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:16:09 CEST)
Depression and anxiety in cardiovascular disease worsen the prognosis of patients. Treatments for these disorders often provide limited improvement. The present study aimed to test, for the first time, the impact of educational technology on anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program. A 12-month randomized controlled trial was conducted, in which 207 patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental (n=76) or control (n=69) groups. The intervention involved a structured patient education program provided by medical students who had undergone specially designed training in cardiac rehabilitation. The primary outcomes were death, hospitalization, heart failure, and recurrent myocardial infarction. The study also assessed anxiety and depression. A year later, the experimental group showed a statistically significant decrease in anxiety and depression on the HADS scale, with reductions of 2.0 and 1.9 points respectively (p<0.05). The control group showed reductions of 1.5 and 1.2 points (p<0.05). The difference in depression (HRDS) between the groups at 12 months was -1.29 in favor of the main group (95% CI, -0.7 to -1.88), and the standardized effect size (SMD) was 0.36 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.69). No treatment-related adverse events were observed. The results suggest that educational interventions can have a positive impact on mental health. The study's strengths include a structured intervention, randomization, and long-term follow-up. Limitations include the lack of blinding of study participants and a relatively small sample size.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0155.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Sleep; Substance Use; Insomnia; Anxiety; Depression; Students; Stress
Online: 9 February 2023 (06:03:39 CET)
This study examined the prevalence of illegal drug use in UK students and motivators behind such behaviour. Additionally, we explored possible relationships between substance use, psychosocial motivators, and psychiatric distress. N=543 students completed online measures of substance use, anxiety, depression, perceived stress, insomnia. A series of reasons behind their use were ranked based on importance. Reported cannabis, cocaine, nitrous oxide, ketamine and MDMA use were most prevalent based on lifetime, past year, and month assessments. The experience of anxiety, depression, perceived stress, and insomnia were related to increased reports of substance use. Poor self-confidence and self-medication were key motivators of illicit drug use in those presenting greater psychiatric distress. These outcomes add to the sparse body of literature concerning illicit substance use in relation to psychiatric distress amongst UK students. Furthermore, we provided novel insight into the psychosocial motivators of such use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0059.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Burnout; Doodling; Team Mindfulness; Anxiety; Depression
Online: 3 November 2021 (08:03:22 CET)
Pre-COVID-19, doodling was identified as a measure of burnout in researchers attending a weekly, in-person health narratives research group manifesting team mindfulness. Under the group’s supportive conditions, variations in doodling served to measure change in participants’ reported depression and anxiety—internal states directly associated with burnout, adversely affecting healthcare researchers, their employment, and their research. COVID-19 demanded social distancing during the group’s 2020/21 academic meetings. Conducted online, the group’s participants who chose to doodle did so alone during the pandemic. Whether the sequestering of group participants during COVID-19 altered the ability of doodling to act as a measure of depression and anxiety was investigated. Participants considered doodling during the group’s online meetings increased their enjoyment and attention level—some expressed it helped them to relax. However, unlike face-to-face meetings during previous non-COVID-19 years, solitary doodling during online meetings was unable to reflect researchers’ depression or anxiety. COVID-19 limitations necessitating doodling alone maintained the benefits group members saw in doodling but hampered the ability of doodling to act as a measure of burnout in contrast to previous in-person doodling. This result is seen to correspond to one aspect of the group’s change in team mindfulness resulting from COVID-19 constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: depression, anxiety, stress, ischemic stroke, psychiatry, mental disorders
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:49:20 CEST)
Objectives To delineate the features of ischemic stroke patients and their caregivers that may predict distress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in the caregivers. Methods The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS), Zarit Burden Interview (22 item-ZBI), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) were used to assess caregivers' burden, stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. We performed partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in order to delineate a multi-step mediation model.Results In this study, 97 stroke patients and their caregivers were included. Multiple regression analysis revealed that ZBI-personal strain and stroke of other determined etiology explained 15.0 percent of the variance in the HADS depression score (p=0.001). We discovered that the caregiver's underlying disease and the National Institute Stroke Score (NIHSS) of the patients explained 13.6 percent of the variance in the total ZBI score of the caregivers (p=0.001). The total ZBI score, the presence of lacunar circulation infarction in the patients, and the caregiver's underlying disease explained 40.9 percent of the variance in the total PSS score of the caregivers (p <0.001). Moreover, PLS analysis showed that the NIHSS and the caregiver's underlying disease had significant indirect effects on the HADS score which were mediated by the ZBI score. Conclusions A large part of the variance in stress and depressive scores in caregivers of ischemic stroke patients is determined by the patient's disability, dependency, cognition, and stroke phenotypes, as well as the caregiver's health status and burden. Screening for the aforementioned factors in ischemic stroke caregivers is critical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0423.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: art therapy; brain injuries; caregivers; depression; self-efficacy
Online: 15 April 2021 (15:16:51 CEST)
This study examined the effects of group art therapy on depression, burden, and self-efficacy in primary family caregivers of patients with brain injuries. This was a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group and a pre- and post-test design. This study was carried out in one national rehabilitation hospital targeting 41 primary family caregivers of patients with brain injuries. Group art therapy intervention was carried out three days per week for 12 times over four consecutive weeks. The experimental group (n = 20) received group art therapy, whereas the control group (n = 21) did not. We used a time difference method to minimize the risk of contaminating the control group by sampling sequentially. The experimental group showed a significantly greater decrease in burden (t = 2.462, p = 0.020) and significantly greater improvement in self-efficacy (t = −6.270, p < 0.001) than the control group. Group art therapy may be an effective nursing intervention for primary family caregivers of patients with brain injuries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: International student; Depression; Bangladesh; Dental; CES-D; Undergraduate
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:34:16 CEST)
Background Bangladesh has been attracting international students on various subjects in recent times. Every year students from different parts of the world come to study undergraduate and postgraduate courses, mostly at private universities in Bangladesh. This study evaluates the depression status among international students who are studying dentistry in Bangladesh. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted among International undergraduate dental students who enrolled in the Bachelor of Dental Surgery program in nine public and private dental colleges in Bangladesh. A total of 206 students completed the survey, and CES-D 10 items Likert scale questionnaire was used for data collection. The Cronbach alpha for CES-D 10 scale items for this population is 0.812. Results The majority of the students (79.5%) are below 24 years of age, and students who cannot communicate well in Bengali (Bangla), about 60% of them have experienced depression. About 77.3% (p< 0.00) of the international students having financial difficulties exhibited depression. The international students who went through financial problems were two times more likely to suffer from depression (OR=2.38; p-value <0.01). Conclusion This study tried to highlight the struggles faced by international students in Bangladesh studying dentistry. It is evident from the findings that several factors influence students' mental well-being during demanding dental education years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: depression; metabolic syndrome; probiotics; microbiota; inflammation; oxidative stress
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:20:26 CET)
There is a huge need to search for new treatment options and potential biomarkers of therapeutic response to antidepressant treatment. Depression and metabolic syndrome often coexist while pathophysiological overlap, including microbiota changes, may play a role. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of probiotic supplementation on symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, metabolic parameters, inflammation and oxidative stress markers, and faecal microbiota in adult patients with depressive disorders depending on the co-occurance of MetS. The trial will be a four-arm, parallel group, prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled design that will include 200 participants and will last 20 weeks. The probiotic preparation will contain Lactobacillus helveticus Rosell®-52, Bifidobacterium longum Rosell®-175. We will assess the level of depression, anxiety and stress, quality of life, blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference, white blood cells count, serum levels of C-reactive protein, HDL cholesterol, triglicerides, fasting glucose, faecal microbiota composition and the level of some faecal microbiota metabolites, as well as inflammation markers and oxidative stress parameters in serum. The trial may establish a safe and easy-to-use treatment option as an adjunct in a subpopulation of depressive patients only partially responsive to pharmacologic treatment. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: ).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0289.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cytokine, Depression, Ischemia, Stroke, Apoptosis, Excitotoxicity, Onecosis, Inflammation,
Online: 11 February 2021 (16:46:06 CET)
Ischemic Stroke precedes depression . Post Stroke Depression (PSD) is a major driver for poor recovery, negative quality of life, poor rehabilitation outcomes and poor functional ability. This systematic reviews confirmed the post stroke depression as the norm as complex ischemic cascade involve the bioenergetic failure, deranged iron homeostasis ( calcium influx, Na influx, potassium efflux etc) excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity,disruption of the blood brain barrier, cytokine mediated cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen mediated toxicity , activation of cyclooxygenase pathway and generation of toxic products, infiltration of immune mediated cells resulting the cell death and deranged neuronal networks in mood related brain regions. This review focus on the pathobiology of stroke in the context and make the argument that PSD is the norm after a stroke rather than the exception.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0239.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Sava Depression; bootstrap; geostatistics; disposal formation water; porosity
Online: 6 November 2020 (10:33:27 CET)
In deep geological analysis of data, these are input data that are few and include a small set of data. In a small set of case data, it is necessary to obtain reliable data of individual geological variables from this type of data. The paper analyzes the possibility of applying the bootstrap method on variables that are important in the exploration and production of hydrocarbons. The variables analyzed were the following: porosity and total costs of disposal formation water. The case study was made on the data of reservoir "K", field "B" located in the western part of the Sava Depression. The analysis of the results showed the possibility of applying the bootstrap method in the analysis of deep geological data with the application of three different sizes of resampling dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0080.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: depression; anxiety; social solidarity; corona virus; mental health
Online: 4 August 2020 (08:14:35 CEST)
Introduction: Corona epidemic and quarantine enforcement, various effects on the psychological and social aspects of the population has left. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between depression, anxiety and relationship with medical staff and mental health is caused by corona. Methods: For this purpose, samples of 650 health personnel of private hospitals were selected. Inventory DASS, HADS, and selected social cohesion (Keyes) and the Internet and through social media networks were evaluated. To analyze the data, Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used. Results: The results showed that straw anxiety corona) to negative (and social cohesion caused by corona) to positive (mental health correlates. It was also found that anxiety and social cohesion caused by corona, respectively 47 and 26 percent predict changes in mental health. Conclusion: These results show the positive and negative effects of psychosocial interventions in quarantine and it have practical implications in the development of the epidemic crisis is Corona.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3; depression, anxiety; perceived stress; hostility
Online: 3 June 2020 (04:55:29 CEST)
We aimed to test the hypothesis that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] concentration is associated with mental health and life stress measures in young adults, and investigate sex and racial disparities in these associations. This study comprised 327 black and white participants. Depression, trait anxiety, perceived stress, and hostility were measured by validated instruments: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). Linear regression was used to estimate correlations between serum 25(OH)D concentration and mental health measurements in total population and in subgroups stratified by sex and race. In this sample (28.2 ± 3.1 years, 48% male, 53% black), serum 25(OH)D concentration was negatively related to BDI, STAI, PSS, total CMHS score and the majority of CMHS subscale scores (p-values < 0.05). Stratified by sex, most of these associations remained significant only in women (p-values < 0.05). Stratified by race, higher 25(OH)D concentrations in the whites were significantly related to lower BDI, STAI, PSS, and CMHS-cynicism subscale (p-values < 0.05); 25(OH)D concentrations in the blacks were only inversely associated with CMHS and most CMHS subscales (p-values < 0.05), but not with BDI, STAI and PSS. We present novel findings of consistent inverse relationships between serum 25(OH)D concentration and various measures of mental health and life stress. Long-term interventional studies are warranted to investigate the roles of vitamin D supplementation in prevention and mitigation of depression, anxiety and psychological stress in young adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0231.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia; neuroimmunomodulation; inflammation; biomarkers; major depression; treatment resistance
Online: 15 April 2020 (08:19:08 CEST)
Objective: About a third of schizophrenia patients are treatment-resistant to antipsychotic therapy. No studies established the fingerprints or pathway-phenotypes of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The present study aimed to delineate the pathway-phenotypes of non-responders (NRTT) and partial responders (PRTT) to treatment using machine learning. Methods: We recruited 115 schizophrenia patients and 43 healthy controls and measured schizophrenia symptom dimensions, neurocognitive tests, plasma CCL11, interleukin-(IL)-6, IL-10, Dickkopf protein 1 (DKK1), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), κ- and µ-opioid receptors (KOR and MOR, respectively), endomorphin-2 (EM-2), and β-endorphin. Results: Machine learning showed that the NRTT group is a qualitatively distinct class and is significantly discriminated from PRTT with an accuracy of 100% using a neuro-immune-opioid-cognitive (NIOC) pathway-phenotype with as main determinants list learning, controlled word association, and Tower of London test scores, CCL11, IL-6, and EM2. The top-5 symptom domains separating NRTT from PRTT were in descending order: psychomotor retardation, negative symptoms, psychosis, depression, and mannerism. Moreover, a NIOC pathway also discriminated PRTT from healthy controls with an accuracy of 100% while all PRTT and controls were authenticated as belonging to their respective classes. Conclusion: A non-response to treatment with antipsychotics is determined by increased severity of specific symptom profiles coupled with deficits in executive functions, and episodic and semantic memory, and aberrations in neuro-immune and opioid pathways. No patients showed complete remission after treatment indicating that non-remitting in PRTT is attributable to increased HMGB1 and residual deficits in attention, executive functions, and semantic memory.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; leaky gut; microbiota; cytokines; neuroimmunomodulation; oxidative stress
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:30:36 CET)
There is robust evidence that major depression (MDD) is accompanied by a low-grade activation of the immune-inflammatory response system, which is involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. It is also becoming apparent that glia cells are in reciprocal communication with neurons and orchestrate various neuromodulatory, homeostatic, metabolic, and immune mechanisms and have a crucial role in neuroinflammatory mechanisms in MDD. Those cells mediate the central nervous system (CNS) response to systemic inflammation and psychological stress, but at the same time, they may be an origin of the inflammatory response in the CNS. The sources of activation of the inflammatory response in MDD are immense, however, in recent years, it is becoming increasingly evident that the gastrointestinal tract with gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and increased intestinal permeability to bacterial LPS and food-derived antigens contribute to activation of low-grade inflammatory response with subsequent psychiatric manifestations. Furthermore, an excessive permeability to gut-derived antigenic material may lead to subsequent autoimmunities which are also known to be comorbid with MDD. In this chapter, we discuss fascinating interactions between the gastrointestinal tract, increased intestinal permeability, intestinal microbiota, and glia-neuron crosstalk, and their roles in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory hypothesis of MDD. To emphasize those crucial intercommunications for the brain functions, we propose the term of microbiota-gut-immune-glia (MGIG) axis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: oxidative stress; neuroimmunomodulation; major depression; inflammation; neurotoxicity; schizophrenia
Online: 24 January 2020 (14:46:17 CET)
Oxidative stress toxicity (OSTOX), as well as lowered antioxidant defenses (ANTIOX), play a role in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Nevertheless, the associations between OSTOX/ANTIOX and psychiatric comorbidities in TLE are largely unknown.Thus, this study examines plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and sulfhydryl (-SH) groups in Depression due to TLE (n=25); Anxiety Disorders due to TLE (n=27); Psychotic Disorder due to TLE (n=25); “pure TLE” (n=27); and healthy controls (n=40).TLE and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) were characterized by significant increases in OSTOX (MDA, AOPP, LOOH) and lowered ANTIOX (-SH groups, TRAP). The discrimination of pure TLE from controls yielded a significant area under the ROC curve for MDA (0.999), AOPP (0.851), -SH groups (0.899) and the OSTOX/ANTIOX ratio (0.996). Seizure frequency is significantly associated with increased MDA and lowered LOOH and NOx levels. Increased MDA was associated with the severity of depressive and physiosomatic symptoms, whilst increased AOPP levels predicted suicidal ideation. Depression and anxiety disorders co-occurring with TLE showed significantly lower MDA levels than TLE without any comorbidities. The psychotic and negative symptoms of TLE are associated with increased MDA levels and excitation with increased LOOH and lowered TRAP levels.These results indicate that oxidative stress toxicity especially protein oxidation and aldehyde formation coupled with lowered -SH groups play a key role in the pathophysiology of TLE/MTS. Increased aldehyde formation also impacts psychopathology, psychosis, as well as negative and depressive symptoms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0012.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: premenstrual; depression; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative stress; antioxidants
Online: 2 December 2019 (14:12:33 CET)
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) frequently occurs in women of childbearing age. There are different case definitions of PMS, one proposed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and another based on the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) scores. Here we review our recent papers indicating that the discovery of biomarkers of menstrual cycle-related symptoms is strongly dependent on the case definitions used and that the gold standard methods used to asses PMS, including the ACOG case definition, induce a high degree of false-negative findings. We propose a new case definition of the menstrual cycle-associated syndrome (MCAS), which is characterized by increased DRSP scores during the menstrual cycle and additionally by an exaggerated increase in symptoms the week prior to the menses. This case definition performed well and was externally validated by diverse biomarkers including plasma levels of progesterone and estradiol, chemokines (e.g. CCL2, CCL5 and CCL11), epidermal growth factor, hydroperoxides, paraoxonase 1 activity and complement C4. In conclusion, when evaluating menstrual cycle-related symptoms and their associations with biomarkers, we propose to assess daily measurements of the DRSP and based on those scores to a) use the diagnosis of MCAS as an indicant of menstrual cycle-related symptoms; and b) examine the associations of the time series in the DRSP and its subdomains (e.g. depression, physio-somatic, anxiety) and those in biomarkers including distributed lag models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; cytokines; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative stress; antioxidants
Online: 3 September 2019 (16:20:18 CEST)
Beta-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients are treated with repeated blood transfusions, which may cause iron overload (IO), which in turn may induce immune aberrations. Patients with β-TM have an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aims of the present study are to examine whether repeated blood transfusions, IO and immune-inflammatory responses are associated with MDD in children (6-12 years) with β-TM. The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), iron status (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, TS%) and serum levels of CCL11, IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α were measured in β-TM with (n=54) and without (n=57) MDD and in healthy children (n=55). The results show that MDD in β-TM is associated with a greater number of blood transfusions, increased IO and IL-1β levels. Partial Least Squares path analysis shows that 68.8% of the variance in the CDI score is explained by the number of blood transfusions, IO, and increased levels of IL-1β and TNF-α. The latter two cytokines partly mediate the effects of IO on the CDI score, while the effects of blood transfusions on the CDI score are partly mediated by IO and the path from IO to immune activation. IO is also associated with increased IL-10 and lower CCL11 levels but these alterations are not significantly associated with MDD. In conclusion, blood transfusions may be causally related to MDD in β-TM children and their effects are in part mediated by increased IO and the consequent immune-inflammatory response. The results suggest that not only IO and its consequences including inflammation and ferroptosis, but also other factors related to the number of transfusions may cause MDD including psychosocial stressors. Current treatment modalities with folic acid and vitamin C are insufficient to attenuate IO and immune-inflammatory responses and to prevent MDD is children with β-TM undergoing blood transfusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0184.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: depression; nurturing; honest signaling; reproductive suppression; anthocyanins; hormesis
Online: 15 July 2019 (13:31:03 CEST)
Background: Solon (2019) introduced genetic bandwagoning in a very general sense: A variant sequentially 1) evaluates its holder’s quality and 2) induces its holder to relinquish resources if the holder’s quality is low. Here, I introduce a more complex form of bandwagoning in order to account for a series of phenomena considered “paradoxical” by scientists specializing in their literatures: a) depression, b) differential nurturing, c) honest signaling of quality, d) reproductive suppression, e) stress-induced anthocyanins, and f) hormesis. These literatures are characterized by the following findings: 1) Low-quality individuals incur a cost against reproductive success compared to higher-quality individuals. 2) Individuals not (yet) identified as low-quality incur a cost against their ability to survive predators and/or parasites compared to individuals that have already been identified as low-quality. 3) Females incur a cost against reproductive success compared to males. 4) Males incur a cost against their ability to survive predators and/or parasites compared to females. 5) If conditions are challenging, individuals gain in both reproductive success and their ability to survive predators and/or parasites compared to less challenging conditions; however, too-challenging conditions detract from both. For each literature, at least one of these findings is unaccommodated by existing theory when considered in the context of that literature. Despite existing theory, these patterns are remarkably persistent. Question: Can paradoxes fitting these patterns be explained by genetic bandwagoning theory? Conclusion: Here, reservation is introduced as a form of bandwagoning in which a bandwagoning variant induces its holder to reserve from (i.e., withhold) some of its ability to survive parasites or predators. Reservation would occur for the purpose of assessing a holder’s quality when conditions are sufficiently unchallenging that few individuals are chronically stressed, so it is otherwise difficult to evaluate a holder’s quality. If the holder is subsequently killed, wounded, or infected, then it is identified as lacking the quality that would allow its descendants to survive more challenging conditions. The holder loses some or all of its resources as a direct consequence of the very death, wounding, or infection that identified its low quality. That is, in reservation, the two steps of bandwagoning are accomplished simultaneously. (This way of bandwagoning is distinguished from when the two steps are accomplished sequentially, which is termed resonation.) Reservation shares numerous premises with Zahavi’s handicap principle. If conditions are challenging, individuals would downregulate reservation and also be less likely to forego resources through resonation (which accounts for (5)). Additionally, a bandwagoning variant would likely evolve to vary the reservation it induces from holder to holder as a hedge against the possibility that conditions suddenly turn severe before it can adjust the reservation. Individuals already identified as low-quality would downregulate reservation (which accounts for (2) above) and would instead forego resources through resonation (which accounts for (1)). Additionally, females would downregulate reservation (which accounts for (4)) and, as a consequence, surviving females are more likely than surviving males to forego resources through resonation (which accounts for (3)).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: anxiety; COPD; coping strategies; corticosteroid; depression; rehabilomics; rs471396
Online: 8 July 2019 (03:36:21 CEST)
Background: COPD is characterized by dyspnea, chronic cough, sputum production and extra pulmonary multimorbidity including depression, anxiety and cognitive problems. Methods: Cognitive and psychological clinical alterations/disorders; QoL/Health-related QoL; and Coping strategies were evaluated in 71 COPD patients characterized for FKBP5 gene (rs4713916). Instruments: MMSE, MoCA, ROCF, BDI-II, CES-D, SAS, SF-36, ADL, IADL, SGRQ, MRF 26, CIRS, Brief COPE. Results: Carriers of the rs4713916 polymorphisms (G:A) show better cognitive performances, higher degree of independence in the ADL and IADL, better QoL before and after rehabilitation, no presence of depressive mood and anxiety symptoms, no family history of psychiatric disorder, more ability to cope with stressors by avoiding emotions but demanding emotional support, and lesser use of anti-anxiety, anti-depressant anti-psychotic, hypnotic-sedative drugs. On the other hand, no difference was found as regards the number of comorbidities. Conclusions: Our study shows that rs4713916 is positively associated with better outcome for COPD. These results offer valuable insights into the role of FKBP5 in the complex network of mechanisms associated to clinical and behavioral features of COPD patients.. Our data may be used as initial benchmark for future clinical studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: major depression; chronic fatigue; fibromyalgia; neuro-immune; inflammation
Online: 24 June 2019 (10:19:29 CEST)
Chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia symptoms frequently occur in major depressive disorder (MDD). The pathophysiology of these symptoms may in part, be ascribed to activated immune pathways, although it is unclear whether muscular factors play a role in their onset. The aim of the present study is to examine the role of muscle proteins in major depression in association with symptoms of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia. We measured serum levels of agrin, talin-2, titin, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) as well as the FibroFatigue (FF), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in 60 MDD patients and 30 healthy controls. The results show a significant increase in agrin and talin-2 in MDD patients as compared with controls. There were highly significant correlations between agrin and HAM-D, BDI-II and FF scores. Agrin, but not talin or titin, was significantly and positively associated with all 12 items of the FF scale. We found that a large part of the variance in HAM-D (47.4%), BDI-II (43.4%) and FF (43.5%) scores was explained by the regression on agrin, smoking, female sex (positively associated) and education (inversely associated). CPK was significantly and inversely associated with the total FF score and with muscle and gastro-intestinal symptoms, fatigue, a flu-like malaise, headache and memory, autonomic and sleep disturbances. These results suggest that aberrations in neuromuscular (NMJs) and myotendinous junctions may play a role in MDD and that the aberrations in NMJs coupled with lowered CPK may play a role in symptoms of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia in MDD. Moreover, the increase of agrin in MDD probably functions as part of the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS).
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: premenstrual syndrome; depression; anxiety; fatigue; neuro-immune; progesterone
Online: 21 March 2019 (04:13:21 CET)
Objective: To examine associations between IgA responses to Gram-negative gut-commensal bacteria and peri-menstrual symptoms and sex hormone levels during the menstrual cycle in women with and without premenstrual symptoms. Methods: Forty women aged 18-45 years completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) during all 28 consecutive days of the menstrual cycle. We assayed, in plasma,, IgA responses to 6 Gram-negative bacteria, i.e. Hafnei alvei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas putida and Citrobacter pylori, progesterone and oestradiol at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the menstrual cycle. Results: Significant changes in Δ (actual minus one week earlier) IgA to LPS of the 6 Gram-negative bacteria during the menstrual cycle were observed with peak IgA levels at T4 (day 28) and lows at T1 or T2 (day 7 or 14). The Δ IgA changes in H. alvei, M. Morganii, P. putida during the menstrual cycle were significantly and positively associated with changes in the total DRSP score, and severity of physio-somatic, anxiety and breast-craving, but not depressive, symptoms. The changes in IgA responses to LPS were largely predicted by changes in progesterone and steady-state levels of progesterone averaged over the luteal phase. Discussion: Menstrual cycle-associated changes in IgA directed against LPS and by inference bacterial translocation may be driven by effects of progesterone on transcellular, paracellular and vascular pathways thereby contributing to the severity of physio-somatic and anxiety symptoms as well as fatigue, breast swelling and food cravings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; neuro-immune; cytokines; inflammation; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
Online: 26 February 2019 (11:05:49 CET)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with changes in the levels of the cations calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) as well as circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The immune-inflammatory nature of MDD has encouraged researchers to use anti-inflammatory drugs as an adjuvant treatment for MDD. However, the effect of this treatment on cation levels has not been studied. The present study examined a) differences in both cations between drug-naïve MDD patients and controls, and b) the effects of a combination of sertraline and ketoprofen, an anti-inflammatory drug, on Ca and Mg (both total and ionized). In the same patients we also examined the associations between both cations and IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, zinc and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Clinical improvement was estimated using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at baseline and after follow up for two months. Serum Ca and Mg (total and ionized) were significantly lower in MDD patients as compared with controls, while treatment significantly increased calcium but decreased magnesium levels. There were significant and inverse correlations between the BDI-II scores from baseline to endpoint and Ca (both total and ionized), but not Mg, levels. The effects of calcium on the BDI-II score remained significant after considering the effects of zinc, IDO and an immune activation z unit weighted composite score based on the sum of all cytokines. There was a significant and inverse association between this immune activation index and calcium levels from baseline to endpoint. In conclusion, reduced levels of both cations play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression. Increased calcium levels are coupled to the clinical efficacy of antidepressants and attenuation of immune activation. The suppressant effect of antidepressants on Mg levels may be a side effect of those drugs. New antidepressant treatments should be developed that increase the levels both Ca and Mg.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0085.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: premenstrual syndrome, depression, anxiety, physio-somatic, fatigue, progesterone
Online: 9 January 2019 (12:53:16 CET)
Background: It is unknown whether lowered steady state levels of sex hormones coupled with changes in those hormones during the menstrual cycle could be associated with the presence and severity of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).Objective: To examine associations between levels of progesterone and oestradiol during the menstrual cycle and PMS severity considering different diagnostic criteria for PMS.Methods: Forty women aged 18-45 years with a regular menstrual cycle completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) for all 28 consecutive days of the menstrual cycle. Blood was sampled at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 to assay oestradiol and progesterone. Results: We developed a new diagnosis of peri-menstrual syndrome, which is characterized by increased DRSP severity in pre and post-menstrual periods and increased scores on the major DRSP dimensions, i.e. depression, physio-somatic symptoms, breast tenderness and appetite, and anxiety. This new diagnosis performed better than classical diagnoses of PMS, including the one presented by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Lowered steady state levels of progesterone, when averaged over the menstrual cycle, together with declining progesterone levels during the luteal phase predict severity of peri-menstrual symptoms. Steady state levels of oestradiol and declining oestradiol levels during the cycle are also related to DRSP severity although most of these effects appeared to be mediated by progesterone. Conclusion: A significant increase in menstrual-cycle related symptoms can best be conceptualized as “peri-menstrual syndrome” and may result from “corpus luteum insufficiency”, which may result from suboptimal pre-ovulatory follicular development. Future research should trial Clomiphene citrate (given the first 5 days of the cycle) and a mid-cycle injection of human Chorionic Gonadotrophin in subjects with peri-menstrual syndrome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: hippocampus volume; mood Disorders; MRI; depression; subiculum; CA1
Online: 11 May 2018 (06:32:32 CEST)
Background and objectives: due to the neurotoxic effect caused by high levels of cortisol, studies suggest that stress and certain psychiatric disorders, such as mood disorders, have influences under the hippocampus, causing a decrease in volume and consequent memory changes. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between hippocampal volume in patients with mood disorders under therapy. Materials and Methods: the PRISMA protocol for systematic reviews was followed. Pubmed, Cochraine and Scielo databases were searched by terms “Hippocampus”, “Mood Disorders” and “MRI”, and variants in other languages, in human, from January 2011 to September 2016. The individual quality of the articles was analyzed using the Cochraine modified scale for clinical trials and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality scale for observational studies. Results: all studies showed reduction of hippocampal volume in depressive patients. Change in hippocampal volume is not related to the use of antidepressant. Particularly the sub-region of the subculum is more reduced, without lateralizations. Significant relationship between stress and right hippocampal reduction. The findings seem to point out: a common pathway of hippocampus reduction, mediated by stress, explaining memory deficits due to depression, where the cortisol pathway seems to act; alteration in the prefrontal cortex; reduction in the subiculum related to inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, corroborating the hypothesis of cortisol. Conclusions: the papers suggest: association between global hippocampal atrophy with mood disorders; reduction of hippocampal subiculum; refractoriness to clinical treatment among patients with lower hippocampal volume.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0093.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; anxiety; emotional distress; HADS; GDS; Health Centre
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:05:44 CEST)
Objective: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the mental health of Cypriot citizens, living in the current difficult period of economic recession. Specific objective was to investigate the different factors (gender, age, socio-economic factors, etc.) that may affect the levels of emotional distress, anxiety and depression in visitors of the Rural Health Centre of Kofinou. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of total 300 Cypriots who visited Kofinou Health Centre in the period between August and September 2015. For the middle-aged citizens the Greek version of the HADS scale (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale) was administered to 150 persons (Michopoulos I., 2007), while for the visiting senior citizens (aged over 65 years) the Greek version of the GDS scale (Geriatric Depression Scale) was used (Fountoulakis K., et al., 1999). All analyses were performed with the social science analysis package SPSS (version 21). Results: HADS: A total of 150 people of average age 47±11,5 years (23-64), were 56% women, while the 77.3% stated they had drastic reduction of income as well as 46.7% suffered from chronic disease. The 36.6% and 28.7% of the visitors showed moderate and severe forms of anxiety and depression, accordingly. Higher emotional distress is associated with lower educational level (p<0,001). Moreover, patients with low income have higher levels of anxiety (p=0,003), depression (p=0,036) and total emotional distress (p=0,007), while those with chronic disease have a higher stress (p<0,001), depression (p<0,001) and total emotional distress symptoms (p<0,001) compared to non - patients. GDS: 150 patients out of which 77 were women (51.3%). The average age of participants was 72±5,5 years. 93(62%) participants declared a drastic reduction of income due to the financial crisis while 139 (92.7%) stated they had chronic disease. 53 participants (35.3%) think they have symptoms of depression after the economic crisis. The women showed higher level of geriatric depression symptoms than men (p<0.001). Higher levels of depression is associated with lower income (p=0.001). Conclusions: The study shows that stress levels, depression and emotional distress are increased in specific population groups. The main factors affecting the mental health of the participants are the presence of chronic disease, income and level of education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0853.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: burnout; anxiety; depression; health professionals; medical staff; nursing staff
Online: 24 April 2023 (10:52:35 CEST)
The presence of burnout, anxiety and depression among health professionals is a crucial issue that must be carefully addressed. The aim of the present study is to investigate levels of burnout, anxiety and depression among health professionals (medical and nursing staff) during the pandemic crisis, the association of burnout with anxiety and depression as well as the impact of occupational and demographic factors. One hundred twenty-five health professionals (medical and nursing staff) participated who were working in a public hospital in the broader area of Athens (sample of convenience). Specifically, 41 males and 84 females with the majority of them being in the category of 36-45 years of age. For the data collection, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the HADS questionnaire were used. The results showed that there was a statistically significant and negative correlation of emotional exhaustion to HADS total (r= -0,377, p=0,000) as well as HADS anxiety (r= -0,417, p=0,000). Also, there was a statistically significant and negative correlation of depersonalization to HADS total (r= -0,370, p=0,000) as well as HADS anxiety (r= -0,431, p=0,000). Moreover, there was a statistically significant effect (p<0,05) of occupational and demographic characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Ankaful Prison Complex; depression; inmates; management strategies; stress levels
Online: 20 January 2023 (04:21:00 CET)
Background: Stress among prison inmates is a neglected psychological health issues, but this phenomenon seems worse in Ghana’s prisons. This study examined the stress levels, predictors and management strategies utilized among inmates at Ankaful Prison Complex. Method: This survey sampled 1,160 inmates using the census approach at the Ankaful Prison Complex with a self-developed questionnaire for the data collection. Frequency counts, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were applied to the data. Results: The findings indicate that more than half of the inmates were moderately or highly stressed. Specifically, inmates at the Maximum-Security Prison were the most stressed, followed by Annex Prison, Communicable Disease Prison, and the least, Main Camp Prison inmates. Inmate engagement in exercises, sporting activities, visit and chat with colleagues, and family connectedness outside the prison were stress management strategies. Inmates’ self-reported stress levels were influenced by the prison of custody and state of depression. Conclusion: The moderate to high stress levels identified among inmates of Ankaful Prison Complex are influenced by person-environment factors. Management of Ankaful Prisons Complex is encouraged to initiate health screening services for inmates on common mental health challenges like stress and promote functional stress reduction interventions to improve prisoners’ mental health and overall wellbeing
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: virtual reality; exercise; overweight; body mass index; depression; immersion
Online: 29 December 2022 (03:52:25 CET)
Background: This study explored the effects of a virtual reality exercise program on overweight middle-aged women. Methods: This randomized controlled trial included women 4065 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) of 23 kg/m2 or more living in D city. The virtual reality environment was set up by attaching an IoT sensor to an indoor bicycle and linking it with a smartphone, enabling exercise in an immersive virtual reality through a head-mounted display. Results: In the virtual reality exercise group, the BMI was significantly decreased after the 8-week intervention compared with the baseline value (F=100.806, p<.001). The depression scores were significantly different among the three groups, with the intervention effect being more significant in the virtual reality exercise group than in the indoor bicycle exercise and con-trol groups (F=3.462, p<.001). Furthermore, the levels of exercise fun (F=12.373, p<.001) and exer-cise immersion (F=14.629, p<.001) were significantly higher in the virtual reality exercise group than in the indoor bicycle exercise and control groups. Conclusions: The virtual reality exercise program positively affected the BMI and the levels of depression, exercise fun, and exercise im-mersion in overweight middle-aged women. It is an effective home exercise program for obesity management in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: air pollution; PM2.5; depression; inflammation; ecological analysis; climate; gender
Online: 29 November 2022 (10:12:54 CET)
Several studies have identified a relationship between air pollution and depression, particularly in relation to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure. However, the strength of this association appears to be moderated by variables such as age, gender, genetic vulnerability, physical activity and climatic conditions, and has not been assessed at a cross-national level to date. The current study examines the association between the prevalence of depression in each country, based on the most recent Global Burden of Disease Study data, and the average national level of PM2.5 based on the World Health Organization’s database. The observed associations were adjusted for age, gender, level of physical activity, income, education, population density, climate, and type of depression. It was observed that there was a modest but significant positive correlation between PM2.5 level and the prevalence of depression even after adjusting for the above confounders. This association was more marked above a certain threshold and applied chiefly to major depressive episodes. These findings are of significant public health importance in terms of preventive strategies aimed at reducing the population-level burden of depression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: youth; adiposity; psychopathology; anxiety; depression; physical activity; exercise; MRI
Online: 7 November 2022 (14:34:46 CET)
Obesity during childhood has been associated with many important physiological and neurological health considerations. Specifically concerning are the associations between youth obesity and declines in mental health, as shown with increasing rates of adolescent depression and anxiety worldwide. The emergence of mental health disorders commonly arises during adolescent development, and approximately half the global population satisfy the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, suggesting a need for early intervention. Adolescence is critical time whereby brain structure and functions are not only negatively associated with obesity and declines in mental health, while also coinciding with significant declines in rates of physical activity among individuals in this age group. Physical activity is thus a prime candidate to address the intersection of obesity and mental health crises occurring globally. This review addresses the important considerations between physiological health (obesity, aerobic fitness, physical activity), brain health (structure and function), and mental wellbeing symptomology. Lastly, we pose a theoretical framework which asks important questions regarding the influence of physiological health on the association between brain health and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Primary Sjögren's Syndrome; dryness; fatigue; depression; anxiety; clinical trials
Online: 19 October 2022 (14:26:01 CEST)
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease defined as exocrine gland hypofunction resulting in dry eyes and dry mouth. Recent interest in biological therapies for pSS has been garnered, however achieving FDA-approval has been challenging due to the numerous complications in the trials. Current literature lacks insight and a molecular target-based approach to the development of biological therapies. This review focuses on novel research in newly defined drug targets and latest clinical trials for pSS treatment. A literature search was conducted on ClinicalTrials.gov using the search term “Primary Sjögren's syndrome”. Articles published between 2000 and 2021 in English language were included. Our findings revealed the potential targets for pSS treatment in clinical trials and the most recent advances in understand-ing of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of pSS. A prominent gap in current trials is overlooking the treatment of extraglandular symptoms such as fatigue, depression and anxiety which pervade most patients with pSS. Based on dryness and these symptom-directed therapies, emerging biological agents targeting inflammatory cytokines, signal pathways and immune reaction have been studied and proved the efficacy and safety. Novel therapies may complement existing non-pharmacological methods of alleviating symptoms of pSS. Better grad-ing systems adding extraglandular symptoms to gauge disease activity and severity should be created. The future of pSS therapies may lie in gene therapy, stem cell and tissue engineering ther-apy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0276.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; anxiety; depression; family income; physical activity
Online: 16 August 2022 (03:59:08 CEST)
Background: Young adults, particularly university students might be at greater risk of developing psychological distress, and exhibiting symptoms of anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to explore and compare the determinants and predictors of mental health (anxiety and depression) during and after COVID-19 lockdown among university students. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a sample size of 417 students. An online survey utilizing International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form (IPAQ-SF), General Anxiety Disorder–7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was distributed to Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman students via Google forms. Results: During lockdown, family income [χ2 (1, n=124) = 5.155, p=0.023], and physical activity [χ2 (1, n=134) = 6.366, p=0.012] were associated with anxiety, while depression was associated with gender [χ2 (1, n=75) = 4.655, p=0.031]. After lockdown, family income was found to be associated with both anxiety [χ2 (1, n=111) = 8.089, p=0.004], and depression [χ2 (1, n=115) =9.305, p=0.002]. During lockdown, family income (OR=1.60, p=0.018), and physical activity (OR=0.59, p=0.011) were predictors for anxiety, and gender (OR=0.65, p=0.046) being the only predictor for depression. After lockdown, family income was a predictor for both anxiety (OR=1.67, p=0.011), and depression (OR=1.70, p=0.009). Conclusion: Significant negative effects attributed to the COVID-19 lockdown, and certain factors predisposed to the worsening of mental health status in university students. Family income, physical activity level, and gender were some of the major determinants that influenced the anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0456.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: psychiatry; effective connectivity; depression; salience network; schizophrenia; mood disorders
Online: 23 August 2021 (14:57:10 CEST)
This study was conducted to examine whether there are quantitative or qualitative differences in the connectome between psychiatric patients and healthy controls and to delineate the connectome features of major depressive disorder (MDD), schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and the severity of these disorders. Toward this end, we have performed effective connectivity analysis of resting state functional MRI data in these three patient groups and healthy controls. We have used spectral Dynamic Causal Modeling (spDCM), and the derived connectome features were further subjected to machine learning. The results outlined a model of 5 connections, which discriminate patients from controls, comprising major nodes of the limbic system (amygdala (AMY), hippocampus (HPC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)), the salience network (anterior insula (AI), fronto-parietal and dorsal attention network (middle frontal gyrus (MFG) corresponding to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal eye field (FEF)). Notably, the alterations in the self-inhibitory connection of the anterior insula emerged as a feature of both mood disorders and SCZ. Moreover, 4 out of the 5 connectome features that discriminate mental illness from controls are features of mood disorders (both MDD and BD), namely the MFG→FEF, HPC→FEF, AI→AMY, and MFG→AMY connections, whereas one connection is a feature of SCZ, namely the AMY→SPL connectivity. A large part of the variance in the severity of depression (31.6%) and SCZ (40.6%) was explained by connectivity features. In conclusion, dysfunctions in the self-regulation of the salience network may underpin major mental disorders, while other key connectome features shape differences between mood disorders and SCZ, and can be used as potential imaging biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0654.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Depression; Big data; Social media.
Online: 28 June 2021 (13:50:49 CEST)
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is provoking a prevalent consequence on mental health because of less interaction among people, economic collapse, negativity, fear of losing jobs, and death of the near and dear ones. To express their mental state, people often are using social media as one of the preferred means. Due to reduced outdoor activities, people are spending more time on social media than usual and expressing their emotion of anxiety, fear, and depression. On a daily basis, about 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are generated on social media, analyzing this big data can become an excellent means to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on mental health. In this work, we have analyzed data from Twitter microblog (tweets) to find out the effect of COVID-19 on peoples mental health with a special focus on depression. We propose a novel pipeline, based on recurrent neural network (in the form of long-short term memory or LSTM) and convolutional neural network, capable of identifying depressive tweets with an accuracy of 99.42%. Preprocessed using various natural language processing techniques, the aim was to find out depressive emotion from these tweets. Analyzing over 571 thousand tweets posted between October 2019 and May 2020 by 482 users, a significant rise in depressing tweets was observed between February and May of 2020, which indicates as an impact of the long ongoing COVID-19 pandemic situation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: social support; anxiety; depression; quality of life; breast cancer
Online: 6 April 2021 (11:31:59 CEST)
Background: Breast cancer is the second type of cancer diagnosed in women and is the first cancer in women worldwide. Breast cancer also causes high morbidity and mortality in women and becomes a heavy burden due to the incidence of disability due to the disease. Purpose: This literature review aims to examine how social support affects anxiety, depression and quality of life in breast cancer sufferers. Method: The data were obtained by searching for reputable and trustworthy journals. have high quality criteria, namely Scopus, Proquest, Science Direct, Elsevier, Pubmed. Journals or articles used in this review literature are searched using keywords and Boolean operators (AND, OR NOT, or AND NOT). Keywords in this review literature are as follows: social support OR family support, quality of life OR Quality, anxiety OR depression, AND Cancer OR cancer treatment OR Chronic disease. Results: The results of this literature review show that there is a significant influence between the social support received by breast cancer patients on the improvement of their quality of life. The social support provided is also able to reduce anxiety and depression in breast cancer sufferersConclusion: Social support given to breast cancer patients is proven to have an effect on improving the quality of life, reducing anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0783.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: depression; anxiety; melancholia; inflammation; neuro-immune; physiosomatic; biomarkers; schizophrenia
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:42:35 CET)
Background. The aim of this study is to examine whether biomarkers of the immune-inflammatory response (IRS) and endogenous opioid (EOS) systems are associated with affective symptoms in schizophrenia. Methods. We recruited 115 schizophrenia patients and 43 healthy controls and assessed the Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAM-A) rating Scale scores as well as serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, eotaxin (CCL11), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and mu (MOR) and kappa (KOR) opioid receptors.Results. The HDRS and HAM-A scores are significantly and positively correlated with a) psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism, negative symptoms, psychomotor retardation, and formal thought disorders; and b) lowered scores on semantic and episodic memory, executive functions, and attention tests as measured with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Psychiatry. Both HDRS and HAM-A are significantly increased in non-responders to treatment as compared with partial responders. Both affective scores are strongly associated with latent vectors extracted from all symptoms, reflecting overall severity of psychosis (OSOS), and neurocognitive test scores, reflecting a generalized cognitive decline (G-CoDe). The HDRS score was strongly and positively associated with IL-6, HMGB1, KOR, and MOR levels, and the HAM-A score with IL-6, IL-10, CCL11, HMGB1, KOR, and MOR levels. A single latent trait may be extracted from OSOS, G-CoDe, and the HDRS and HAMA scores, and this latent vector score is strongly predicted by HMGB1, MOR, and DKK1.Conclusion. Immune-inflammatory and EOS pathways contribute to the phenome of schizophrenia, which comprises OSOS, affective, and physiosomatic symptoms, and G-CoDe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: psychiatry; major depression; mood disorders; schizophrenia; antioxidants; oxidative stress
Online: 13 October 2020 (14:07:26 CEST)
Psychiatry remains in a permanent state of crisis, which fragmented psychiatry from the field of medicine. The crisis in psychiatry is evidenced by the many different competing approaches to psychiatric illness including psychodynamic, biological, molecular, pan-omics, precision, cognitive and phenomenological psychiatry, folk psychology, mind-brain dualism, descriptive psychopathology, and postpsychiatry. The current “gold standard” DSM/ICD taxonomies of mood disorders and schizophrenia are unreliable and preclude to employ a deductive reasoning approach. Therefore, it is not surprising that mood disorders and schizophrenia research was unable to revise the conventional classifications and did not provide more adequate therapeutic approaches. The aim of this paper is to explain the new nomothetic network psychiatry (NNP) approach, which uses machine learning methods to build data-driven causal models of mental illness by ensembling risk-resilience, adverse outcome pathways (AOP), cognitome, brainome, symptomatome, and phenomenome latent scores in a causal model. The latter may be trained, tested and validated with Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis. This approach not only allows to compute pathway-phenotypes or biosignatures, but also to construct reliable and replicable nomothetic networks, which are, therefore, generalizable as disease models. After integrating the validated feature vectors into a well-fitting nomothetic network, clustering analysis may be applied on the latent variable scores of the R/R, AOP, cognitome, brainome, and phenome latent vectors. This pattern recognition method may expose new (transdiagnostic) classes of patients which if cross-validated in independent samples may constitute new (transdiagnostic) nosological categories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0636.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; stress; mental anxiety; depression; children and attributes
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:27:39 CEST)
Coronavirus is believed to have originated from a wet market in Wuhan, China, and has spread all over the world, resulting in a large number of hospitalizations and deaths. Social scientists are just beginning to understand its consequences on human behavior. One policy that public health officials put in place to help stop the spread of the virus were stay-at-home/shelter-in-place lockdown-style orders. Schools, Colleges and Universities across the country have now been shut down till now due to Covid-19. Some Governments in India impose lockdown to reduce the crises created by this unknown virus. It is now difficult to make final assessments by school, school leaving examinations and entrance tests for undergraduate and post-graduate courses. This disruption implies for students across the socio-economic spectrum, both in terms of learning outcomes , food and economic security. Here the aim is to discuss the implications of lockdown-induced in schools in both urban and rural areas in India.The whole world implemented a nationwide lockdown to curb the transmission of the virus. A survey was over Five hundred families to complete a questionnaire with questions around symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and family affluence. The humans who do not have enough supplies to sustain the lockdown were most affected Families with affluence were found to be negatively correlated with stress, anxiety, and depression. Stress, anxiety, and depression more than others are seen in students and healthcare professionals. The main aim of the paper is to find out how symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress on parents due to COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: cognition; depression; agigng; elderly; nonpharmacological therapy; community day-care
Online: 5 May 2020 (10:32:05 CEST)
Nonpharmacological therapeutic interventions in elderly may lead to the reduction of cognitive and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in cognitive functions and mood er or not. in older adults participating in therapy, conducted in the community day-care center (CD-CC). 46 elderly adults (21 M, 25 W) (SG) were examined. The control group (CG) included 45 adults (12 M, 33 W), who participated in the activities of the University of the Third Age (U3A). The following measuring tools were used: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clock-Drawing Test (CDT), Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Digit Span Test (DST), Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT), Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The intervention consisted of CD-CC 6-month complex therapy. In the SG, compared to the CG, the scores on the: MMSE, CDT, VFT, DST, and SCWT were significantly lower (p<0,05), and BDI was significantly higher (p<0,05). After intervention, the SG and the CG, did not show substantial differences in their scores on the: MMSE, CDT, and BDI. In the SG, a significant improvement (p<0,05) was reported on the: VFT, BDI, and HADS scores. The CD-CC complex therapy can be helpful for the cognitive and emotional elderly functioning.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: supervised learning, major depression, cytokines, inflammation, neuro-immune, opioids
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:14:02 CET)
Rationale: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by signaling aberrations in interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, beta-endorphins as well as mu (MOR) and kappa (KOR) opioid receptors. Here we examined whether these biomarkers may aid in the classification of unknown subjects into the target class MDD.Methods: The aforementioned biomarkers were assayed in 60 first-episode, drug-naïve depressed patients and 30 controls. We analyzed the data using joint principal component analysis (PCA) performed on all subjects to check whether subjects cluster by classes; support vector machine (SVM) with 10-fold validation; and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and SIMCA performed on calibration and validation sets and we computed the figures of merit and learnt from the data. Results: PCA shows that both groups were well separated using the first three PCs, while correlation loadings show that all 5 biomarkers have discriminatory value. SVM and LDA yielded an accuracy of 100% in validation samples. Using SIMCA there was a highly significant discrimination of both groups (model-to-model distance=87.5); all biomarkers showed a significant discrimination and modeling power, while 10% of the patients were identified as outsiders and no aliens could be identified.Discussion: We have delineated that MDD is a distinct class with respect to neuro-immune and opioid biomarkers and that future unknown subjects can be authenticated as having MDD using this SIMCA fingerprint. Precision psychiatry should employ SIMCA a) to authenticate patients as belonging to the claimed target class and identify other subjects as outsiders, members of another class or aliens; and b) to acquire knowledge through learning from the data by constructing a biomarker fingerprint of the target class.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sex differences; suicide attempt; late life; depression; physical disability
Online: 11 December 2017 (13:04:01 CET)
Relatively little research attention has been paid to sex issues in late life suicidal behaviour. The aim was to compare clinical characteristics of women and men aged 70+ who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We hypothesized higher depression and anxiety scores in women, and we expected to find that men would more often attribute the attempt to health problems and compromised autonomy. Participants (56 women and 47 men, mean age 80) were interviewed by a psychologist. In addition to psychiatric and somatic health assessments, participants responded to an open-ended question concerning attributions of the attempt. There were no sex differences in depression and anxiety, but women were more likely to report that they found their situation hopeless (67.9% vs. 43.8%, p = 0.02). At least one serious physical disability was noted in 60.7% of the women and 53.2% of the men (p = 0.55). Proportions attributing their attempt to somatic illness did not differ (women, 14.5% vs. men 17.4%, p = 0.79), and similar proportions attributed the attempt to reduced autonomy (women, 21.8% vs. men, 26.1 %, p = 0.64). The unexpected lack of sex differences might be influenced by cultural context in which sex norms play a part.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0169.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Schizophrenia; bipolar; psychosis; depression; polygenic risk score; diagnosis; RDoC
Online: 27 October 2017 (11:58:11 CEST)
In current diagnostic systems, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are still conceptualized as distinct categorical entities. Recently, both clinical and genetic evidence have challenged this Kraepelinian dichotomy. There are only few longitudinal studies addressing the potential overlaps between these conditions. Here, we present design and first results of the PsyCourse study, an ongoing transdiagnostic study of the affective-to-psychotic continuum that combines longitudinal deep phenotyping and dimensional assessment of psychopathology with an extensive collection of biomaterial. Within the DSM-IV framework, we compare two broad diagnostic groups: one consisting of predominantly affective and one of predominantly psychotic disorders. Depressive, manic, and psychotic symptoms as well as global functioning over time were analyzed. Furthermore, we explore the effects of polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia on diagnostic group membership and address their effects on non-participation in follow-up visits. While phenotypic results show differences in both current psychotic and manic symptoms, depressive symptoms did not vary between both groups. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia significantly explained part of the variability of the diagnostic group. Furthermore, there was a trend that a higher polygenic loading for schizophrenia was associated with attrition. Because of its unique properties, the PsyCourse study presents a prime resource for the interrogation of complex genotype-phenotype relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: spinal cord injury; robotic rehabilitation; coordinative rehabilitation; depression; mood; anxiety
Online: 5 September 2023 (04:18:22 CEST)
Background: Mood disorders, especially depression, and emotional difficulties such as anxiety are very common problems among patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The loss of physical training may deteriorate their mental state, which in turn has a significant impact on the improvement of functioning. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of innovative rehabilitation approaches involving robotic assisted gait therapy (RAGT) on mood and anxiety symptoms in pa-tients with SCI. Methods: To this single-centre, single-blinded, single-arm, prospective study, 110 participants with subacute SCI were enrolled; patients were divided into experimental (robotic assisted gait therapy -RAGT) and control (conventional gait therapy with dynamic parapodium - DPT) groups. They received five training sessions per week over 7- weeks. The severity of de-pression was assessed by Depression Assessment Questionnaire (KPD) and anxiety symptoms by State - Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI X-1) on the beginning and end of therapy. Results: SCI patients experienced significantly lower levels of anxiety and depression-related symptoms after completing the seven-week rehabilitation program (KPD: Z=6.35; p<0.001; r=0.43; STAI X-1: Z=-6.20; p<0.001; r=0.42) in both group of patients. In the RAGT group, post-rehabilitation measurements also indicated an improvement in psychological functioning, i.e., a decrease in depression and anxiety, and an increase in self-regulation. Significant results were noted for each variable (STAI X-1: Z = -4.93; KPD: Z = -5.26; SR: Z = -3.21). In the control group, there was also a decrease in the effect on the depression, anxiety-state and an increase in self-regulation ability (STAI X-1: Z=-4.01; KPD: Z=-3.65; SR: Z=-2.83). Rehabilitation modality did not appear to have a statistically significant relationship with the magnitude of improvement in KPD (including SR) and STAI scores. However, there were some significant differences when comparing the groups by extent and depth of injury and type of paralysis. The study also did not find a significant rela-tionship between improvements in physical aspects and changes in psychological factors. Conclusion: Subjects in RAGD and DPT groups experienced a decrease in anxiety and depres-sion after a 7-week rehabilitation program. However, the rehabilitation modality (DPT vs. RAGT) did not differentiate patients with SCI in terms of the magnitude of this change. Our results may suggest that individuals with severe neurological condition and complete spinal cord injury (AIS A) may experience more benefit in terms of change in psychological parameters after rehabilitation with RAGT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1808.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Oroxylum indicum, baicalein, unpredictable chronic mild stress, HPA-axis, depression
Online: 28 August 2023 (03:35:17 CEST)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of life-threatening disorders that is prevalent worldwide. The evident etiology of this disease is still poorly understood. Therefore, a possible mechanism is used to evaluate the antidepressant effect. Nowadays, herbal medicine is gaining more interest as an alternative antidepressant. Oroxylum indicum, which is used in traditional medicine and contains a potential antidepressive compound, baicalein, has an antidepressive property. In vitro inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) enzyme was used to preliminarily screen the antidepressant effect of the O. indicum seed (OIS) extract. Mice were subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) for 6 weeks and daily administration of the OIS extract started from week 4. The mechanisms involved in antidepressive activity were investigated. The OIS extract significantly alleviated anhedonia and despair behaviors in UCMS-induced mouse model via two possible pathways: (i) normalize the HPA-axis function by restoration of negative feedback (decreased FKBP5 and increased GR expressions) and reduction of glucocorticoid-related negative gene (SGK-1), (ii) improve neurogenesis by escalation of BDNF and CREB expression in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex. HPLC analysis of the extract showed the presence of All the results obtained from this study emphasize its potential as an effective and novel alternative treatment for MDD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health problems; DASS-21 scale; Depression; Anxiety
Online: 6 June 2023 (09:59:06 CEST)
Background: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection is primarily transmitted through respiratory droplets from an infected person and contact with tainted surfaces or items. Social distancing became the primary measure of preventing the spread of COVID-19, with the principal aim being to reduce the probability of contact with an already infected person. Social distancing can be distressing, as it is against the community's way of life. Saudi Arabia imposed a curfew and suspended all religious, entertainment, sporting, and mass congregations. The daily updates on COVID-19 infection and mortality are upsetting and further, aggravate depression and anxiety. With this background, this study was planned with the following objectives. To determine the sociodemographic profile of the study participants, to find the prevalence of psychological morbidity, and to measure the association between the sociodemographic details, COVID-19 associated factors, and psychological effects among Abha citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in the Abha city population from August 2021 to July 22. This study followed snowball sampling, the data was collected using an online Google form the link was shared in WhatsApp groups and through emails to contacts, asking friends to share it with their friends, until reaching the adequate sample size the responses were accepted. Results: A total of 530 participated, and their age ranged from 19 -70 years. Many of the participants (34.5%, n=183) belonged to 36-45 years old. Most of the responders were 69.8% married and Females (69.2%, n=367). Half of the participants had been quarantined (49.6%), and 51.5% were scared from fear of COVID-19. 64.8% of the participants had depression; 14.2%, 20.8%, 13.6%, and 16.2% had mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe depression, respectively. Around 58.2% of participants suffered from anxiety; 5.8% experienced mild anxiety, 21.7% moderate anxiety, and 30.7% severe anxiety. The proportion of stress among the participants was 45.0%; 10.8% had mild stress, 9.4% had moderate stress, and 24.5% had severe to extremely severe stress. Conclusions: COVID-19 poses mental health problems among individuals and communities. There is a need to find the more susceptible individuals for mental health issues or other psychological disorders. Mental health and psychological problems can be resolved with health education, counseling, and appropriate interventions to curb the negative health impacts of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1941.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Perinatal Depression; Attachment Style; Coping Strategies; Gender Medicine; Women Health
Online: 26 May 2023 (14:42:26 CEST)
Abstract Peripartum depression (PPD) is a major complication of pregnancy and many risk factors have been associated with its development, including dysfunctional coping strategies and insecure attachment styles, both during pregnancy and postpartum. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of coping strategies in mediating the relationship between women’s attachment style and PPD in pregnancy, and one week after childbirth, in a large cohort of women. We hypothesized that the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and PPD would be mediated by use of maladaptive coping strategies. The assessment instruments were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (COPE), Experiences in Close Relationship Scale (ECR). The results indicated that the effect of insecure attachment styles (anxious and avoidant attachment) on antepartum depressive symptomatology was partially mediated by dysfunctional coping styles. Anxious attachment has also an indirect significant effect on postpartum depression through emotional coping; however, avoidant attachment does not seem to be significantly related to postpartum depression. Our findings revealed that not only it is important to consider attachment in understanding PPD but also that coping plays an important role in these relationships. These findings would help a preventive coping-based intervention strategy to enhance the capacity of women with insecure attachment styles to use more adaptive coping during and after pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Insomnia; Mental health; Physical health; perceived social support; Postpartum Depression
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:30:00 CET)
Postpartum depression (PPD) can predispose to physical and mental health problems in women. However, PPD is associated with health and perceived social support but their causal relationship is unclear. Therefore, this study intended to evaluate the association of PPD with insomnia, mental health, and physical health. Convenience sampling technique was used to collect data from 320 (52.8 %) young and middle aged postpartum women, in the outpatient departments of obstetrics and gynecology in Government Maula Bakhsh Hospital, District Head Quarter in Sargodha, Pakistan. The Edinburgh Postnatal depression scale, Pittsburg sleep quality index, Warwick-Edinburgh mental wellbeing scale, Patient health questionnaire, and Multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to measure study variables. Results revealed a significant positive relationship of PPD with physical health (r= .45, p=.001), while a negative relationship with insomnia (r= -.24, p<.001), and perceived social support (r= -.38, p=.001). Results further confirmed that perceived social support played a moderating role (β = .97, p=.01) in the relationship between PPD and mental health among females. This study concluded that perceived social support has an important role in PPD and women’s health. The study also concluded that poor health is a risk indicator for identifying aid in the early stages of postpartum among women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Mental Health; Depression; Physical Activity; Population Health; Adult; Middle Aged
Online: 1 September 2022 (16:13:25 CEST)
Worldwide, depressive disorder is one of the leading determinants of disability-adjusted life years. Although the benefits associated with physical activity (PA), there is a lack of information related to depression, especially in countries like Czechia, where modern approaches to mental health care only recently emerged. The PA levels were associated with aspects of depression such as clinician-diagnosed history; different severities; continuous depression scores; and specific symptoms that characterize the depression. The multivariable-adjusted Poisson regression models were carried out on 2123 participants (45.3% men, median 48 years). Compared to subjects with insufficient PA, the moderate and high PA levels were inversely associated with clinician-diagnosed depression history (respectively, prevalence rate [PR]= 0.84; 95% CI 0.66-0.82 and PR=0.50; 95% CI 0.36-0.67); and with continuous depression scores (PR=0.85; 95% CI 0.75-0.97; and PR=0.79; 95%CI 0.70-0.90).; but only high PA showed association with depression categories (PR=0.75; 95%CI 0.60-0.95). Depressed mood and worthlessness were the symptoms associated with moderate and high PA. Tiredness, change in appetite, and problems with concentration only with high PA. Although only high PA was sufficient for people intending changes among depression categories, the moderate PA may be enough for slight changes in depressive symptoms, and a good strategy when starting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0141.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: externalizing problems; internalizing problems; parental depression; prosocial behavior; self-compassion
Online: 15 April 2022 (09:11:15 CEST)
Building on a framework of risk transmission to children of depressed parents, the present study investigated the associations between parents’ self-compassion, parent’s depressive symptoms, and child adjustment. A total 189 Chinese parents (101 mothers) whose children were 2-8 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire, including measures of self-compassion, depressive symptoms and children’s prosocial behavior, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. Findings indicated mediation effects, in that parents’ depressive symptoms mediated the associ-ation between their self-compassion and child adjustment outcomes, namely children’s internal-izing and externalizing problems, after controlling the effects of monthly family income, child gender, and parent gender. Competing hypothesis suggested that parents’ self-compassion did not moderate between parents’ depressive symptoms and child adjustment outcomes. Hence, the association between parental depressive symptoms and child adjustment was not dependent on the level of parents’ self-compassion. As an implication, researchers and practitioners should be made aware of the protective role of parents’ self-compassion in the family context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0267.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Gestalt therapy; dementia; depression; single-case experimental design; psychosocial interventions
Online: 19 January 2022 (09:32:12 CET)
Psychotherapy is one of the evidence-based clinical interventions for the treatment of depression in older adults with dementia. Randomized Controlled Trials are often the first methodological choice to gain evidence, yet they are not applicable to a wide range of humanistic psychotherapies. Amongst all, the efficacy of the Gestalt therapy (GT) is under-investigated. The purpose of this paper is to present a research protocol aiming to assess the effects of a GT-based intervention on people with dementia (PWD) and the indirect influence on their family carers. The study implements the Single-Case Experimental Design with Time-Series Analysis that will be carried out in Italy and Mexico. Ten people in each country, who received a diagnosis of dementia and present depressive symptoms, will be recruited. Eight or more GT sessions will be provided whose fidelity will be assessed by the GT Fidelity Scale. Quantitative outcome measures are foreseen for monitoring participants’ depression, anxiety, quality of life, carers’ burden, and the caregiving dyad mutuality, at baseline and follow-up. The advantages and limitations of the research design are considered. If GT will result effective in the treatment of depression in PWD, it could enrich the range of evidence-based interventions provided by healthcare services.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0028.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Deep Learning; Depression; Electroencephalogram; EEG; Depressive Disorders; Systematic Literature Review
Online: 10 November 2021 (15:29:25 CET)
Depression is considered by WHO as the main contributor to global disability and it poses dangerous threats to approximately all aspects of human life, in particular public and private health. This mental disorder is usually characterized by considerable changes in feelings, routines, or thoughts. With respect to the fact that early diagnosis of this illness would be of critical importance ineffective treatment, some development has occurred in the purpose of depression detection. EEG signals reflect the working status of the human brain by which are considered the most proper tools for a depression diagnosis. Deep learning algorithms have the capacity of pattern discovery and extracting features from the raw data which is fed into them. Owing to this significant characteristic of deep learning, recently, these methods have intensely utilized in the diverse field of researches, specifically medicine and healthcare. Thereby, in this article, we aimed to review all papers concentrated on using deep learning to detect or predict depressive subjects with the help of EEG signals as input data. Regarding the adopted search method, we finally evaluated 22 articles between 2016 and 2021. This article which is organized according to the systematic literature review (SLR) method, provides complete summaries of all exploited studies and compares the noticeable aspects of them. Moreover, some statistical analysis performs to gain a depth perception of the general ideas of the latest researches in this area. A pattern of a five-step procedure was also established by which almost all reviewed articles fulfilled the goal of depression detection. Finally, open issues and challenges in this way of depression diagnosis or prediction and suggested works as the future directions discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; depression; chronic fatigue syndrome; inflammation; neuro-immune; psychiatry
Online: 14 June 2021 (13:01:31 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 is associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms including increased depressive, anxiety and chronic fatigue-syndrome (CFS)-like physiosomatic (previously known as psychosomatic) symptoms.Aims: To delineate the associations between affective and CFS-like symptoms in COVID-19 and chest CT-scan anomalies (CCTAs), oxygen saturation (SpO2), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), albumin, calcium, magnesium, soluble angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2) and soluble advanced glycation products (sRAGEs).Method: The above biomarkers were assessed in 60 COVID-19 patients and 30 heathy controls who had measurements of the Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAM-A) and the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue (FF) Rating Scales. Results: Partial Least Squares-SEM analysis showed that reliable latent vectors could be extracted from a) key depressive and anxiety and physiosomatic symptoms (the physio-affective or PA-core), b) IL-6, IL-10, CRP, albumin, calcium, and sRAGEs (the immune response core); and c) different CCTAs (including ground glass opacities, consolidation, and crazy paving) and lowered SpO2% (lung lesions). PLS showed that 70.0% of the variance in the PA-core was explained by the regression on the immune response and lung lesions latent vectors. Moreover, one common “infection-immune-inflammatory (III) core” underpins pneumonia-associated CCTAs, lowered SpO2 and immune activation, and this III core explains 70% of the variance in the PA core, and a relevant part of the variance in melancholia, insomnia, and neurocognitive symptoms.Discussion: Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection is accompanied by lung lesions and lowered SpO2 which both may cause activated immune-inflammatory pathways, which mediate the effects of the former on the PA-core and other neuropsychiatric symptoms due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0758.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: abused women; neuropsychological sequelae; attention; memory; depression; Luria DNA battery
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:47:08 CEST)
Abstract Women victims of abuse can suffer neuropsychological sequelae that affect memory and attention, as well psychopathological disorders such as depression. These consequences affect their daily life and physical and psychological health. Objective: To analyze sequelae that affect attention and memory, as well a possible association of these sequelae to depression. Method: A total of 68 women victims of gender-based violence participated in the study. The participants were between 15 and 62 years of age and resided in Spain at the time of data collection. The Luria DNA Battery (Neuropsychological Diagnosis of Adults) by Manga and Ramos (2000); and the Beck Depression Inventory were applied. Results: Women victims of gender-based violence suffer neuropsychological sequelae, presenting low short-term memory and attentional control; and score low on the Luria-DNA battery. Of these women, 60% suffer from some relevant type of depression, and there are significant differences according to their degree of memory. Through the HJ-Biplot, a direct relationship was found between memory and attentional control with the total score of the Luria battery. On the other hand, an inverse relationship was found between short-term memory and depression. Lastly, three well-differentiated gender clusters of women victims of gender-based violence were identified. Conclusions: A lower rate of depression is observed in women victims of abuse when they have a more intact short-term memory.