HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0270.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: T helper differentiation; T helper polarization; Cross-reactivity; Regulatory T cells; Microbiota; Original Antigenic Sin
Online: 12 August 2021 (08:46:55 CEST)
Naive CD4+ T cells engage cognate peptide MHC-II complexes (pMHC-IIs) to differentiate and acquire one of several T helper (Th) fates whose specific trajectories are guided by a dynamic cytokine milieu that develops in response to antigenic entity. This physiological process is often erroneously conflated with a pathological one termed Th polarization. Using the SPIRAL model, we argue here that unlike Th fate choice, innate signaling alone is insufficient to initiate Th polarization in naive CD4+ T cells, that it instead develops from pre-existing memory CD4+ T cells that express cross-reactive TCRs, and that it inevitably leads to immunopathology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0091.v1
Online: 8 July 2019 (08:16:23 CEST)
Texture has long been considered an important attribute for food acceptance. However, which specific textural characteristics contribute to overall acceptance of a food is not well understood. It has been suggested that texture contrasts and combinations are a universal feature in giving foods a desirable texture, yet this notion is largely based upon anecdotal data. This study uses multiple survey research methods to assess the importance of texture contrast and combinations across cultures (Poland, U.S.A., and Singapore). Participants (n = 288) completed a survey that included overt measures of food texture contrast importance as well as free response questions regarding texture. The overall importance of texture for food liking was not different across the populations. However, the participants from Singapore and Poland gave more importance to a desirable food having multiple textures than the U.S.A. cohort. When looking at free responses, participants were twice as likely to mention combinations (multiple textures) with a texture contrast when describing foods they liked, in comparison to foods they disliked. This was observed across all 3 cultures. However, the type and quantity of texture terms used within combinations were different among cultures. For instance, Asians enjoyed more texturally diverse food combinations than the other two cultures. These findings highlight the importance of texture contrasts and combinations in three distinct cultures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0061.v1
Online: 13 March 2017 (08:31:22 CET)
This paper presents a novel CNN-based architecture, referred to as Q-Net, to learn local feature descriptors that are useful for matching image patches from two different spectral bands. Given correctly matched and non-matching cross-spectral image pairs, a quadruplet network is trained to map input image patches to a common Euclidean space, regardless of the input spectral band. Our approach is inspired by the recent success of triplet networks in the visible spectrum, but adapted for cross-spectral scenarios, where for each matching pair there are always two possible non-matching patches; one for each spectrum. Experimental evaluations on a public cross-spectral VIS-NIR dataset shows that the proposed approach improves the state-of-the-art. Moreover, the proposed technique can also be used in mono-spectral settings, obtaining a similar performance to triplet network descriptors, but requiring less training data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0512.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Contact Mechanics; Cross-Country Skiing; Cross-Country Ski; Load Conditions; Ski-Camber Profile; Sports Equipment
Online: 31 August 2022 (02:26:22 CEST)
In cross-country skiing the time difference between a race winner and the person coming second is typically very small. Since much of the energy is spent on overcoming resistive forces, a relatively small reduction of these can have a significant impact on the results. The resistive forces come partly from the friction in the tribological interface, between the ski and the snow, and as with many tribological applications the characterisation of its origin, plays an important role in determining the frictional properties. Also in cross-country ski friction, there are several scales impacting the frictional performance, with the major contributors being the ski-camber profile and ski-base structure. Macro-scale measurements of the ski's camber profile under load, are often used to determine how adequate the ski is for a specific condition. The characteristic properties usually obtained are, the force required to collapse the ski to a certain camber height, the topography of the kick-wax zone, and by simple means a determined lengths of the frictional interface, i.e., the apparent contact length. To this date, there are some mathematical models, but there is no robust way of determining the macro-scale contact properties between a cross-country ski and a counter surface using simulations. In the present paper an Artificial neural networks (ANN) is trained to predict the ski-camber profile for various loads placed at different positions, and a well established deterministic approach is used to simulate the contact between the ANN-predicted ski-camber profile and a linearly elastic body with a flat surface, representing the snow. The results suggest that this method is feasible for the determination of the apparent contact characteristics of different skis. Moreover, we show that the apparent contact area does not linearly depend on the load, and that the elastic properties of the counter surface also has a large impact on the apparent contact area and the average apparent contact pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0027.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: cross-disciplinary; AI; blockchain; investment; protection
Online: 5 October 2022 (04:04:40 CEST)
This article presents the results of a cross-disciplinary applied study exploring investors’ protections in the context of distributed ledger technology (DLT) smart contracts. Fusing legal, business, and technical perspectives, we developed a framework for protection from non-commercial risks for stablecoins, taking advantage of DLT and AI. A key concept we propose is the monitoring of disinformation and fake news to prevent malicious parties from abusing our solution. Based on the similarities between central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) and stablecoins, we propose scaling up our results to all future internet investments performed without face-to-face contact between the investor and the company.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0063.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: XSS; Cross site scripting; Sql injection
Online: 2 December 2020 (13:04:51 CET)
The danger is still very large from cross site scripting attacks. When designing web applications We must follow as much as we can prevention rules and don’t leave any loophole to our programs. Experience is a great factor for programmers to know these attacks and for a trainee programmer is a difficult task to spot all the weak points. In this article we present a tutorial on launching an XSS attack and also we propose simple solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0092.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: synthetic aperture radar; cross-polarization; denoise
Online: 7 June 2020 (14:58:06 CEST)
Sentinel-1 (S1) extra-wide (EW) swath data in cross-polarization (horizontal-vertical, HV or vertical-horizontal, VH) are strongly affected by the scalloping effect and thermal noise, particularly over areas with weak backscattered signals, such as sea surfaces. Although noise vectors in both the azimuth and range directions are provided in the standard S1 EW data for subtraction, the residual thermal noise still significantly affects sea ice detection by the EW data. In this paper, we improve the denoising method developed in previous studies to remove the additive noise for the S1 EW data in cross-polarization. Furthermore, we propose a new method for eliminating the residual noise (i.e. multiplicative noise) at the sub-swath boundaries of the EW data, which cannot be well processed by simply subtracting the reconstructed 2-D noise field. The proposed method of removing both the additive and multiplicative noise was applied to EW HV-polarized images processed using different Instrument Processing Facility (IPF) versions. The results suggest that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the quality of EW HV-polarized images under various sea ice conditions and sea states in marginal ice zone (MIZ) of the Arctic. This is of great support for the utilization of cross-polarization SAR images in wide swaths for intensive sea ice monitoring in polar regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0270.v1
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:31:14 CET)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus that causes febrile illness punctuated by severe polyarthralgia. After the emergence of CHIKV in the Western Hemisphere, multiple reports of congenital infections were published that documented neurological complications, cardiac defects, respiratory distress, and miscarriage. The Western Hemisphere is endemic to several alphaviruses and whether antigenic cross-reactivity can impact the course of infection has not been explored. Recent advances in biomedical engineering have produced cell co-culture models that replicate the cellular interface at the maternal fetal axis. We employed a trans-well assay to determine if cross-reactive antibodies affected the movement and replication of CHIKV across placental cells and into an embryoid body. The data show that antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) significantly reduced CHIKV viral load in embryoid bodies. The data highlight that viral pathogenesis can be cell-specific and that exploiting antigenic cross-reactivity could be an avenue for reducing the impact of congenital CHIKV infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0671.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Cross-Boundary Spatial Planning Systems and Practices
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:51:05 CEST)
This research has critically argued that a vigilant combination of flexibility and certainty in spatial planning can bring about the most optimum planning outcomes. Therefore, to reproachfully evaluate the core argument, this research has tried to empirically respond to the research question of which balance of government intervention and market freedom produces the optimal economic, social and spatial outcomes. This research question has been further translated into an associated central hypothesis i.e., a hybrid planning system with an optimal balance between discretionary and regulatory planning approach can bring about the desired economic, social, and spatial outcomes.
Online: 3 May 2020 (08:24:36 CEST)
Registry and survey data gave an opportunity to compare possible roles of social attitudes and social values in control and limit the COVID-19 pandemic. We analysed social values and time series of daily R0 (reproduction rate) estimates for 27 European countries. Embedded and affective autonomy are significantly negatively associated (p-Value<0.05) with controlled R0. It could mean that well interconnected societies with high attention to maximize utilities are more likely to couple with COVID-19. Hierarchy is significantly positively associated (p-Value<0.05) with controlled R0. Thus, hierarchical structures could inhibits control of COVID-19. The results emphasize the need to pay more attention to social values context in evaluating the effectiveness of mitigation strategies internationally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0466.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: capital structure; leverage; SMEs; cross-regional variation
Online: 22 October 2018 (05:11:16 CEST)
There is tremendous interest, in the economic literature, for the determinants of firms’ capital structure decisions. A rich body of empirical works now exists that purports to identify firm- and country-level factors affecting firms’ financing patterns. In addition, more recently, a new stream of studies has emerged that investigates cross-regional variation in small firms’ capital structure. While small firms’ leverage does seem to vary across regions, at least in countries where significant regional differences in economic and financial development and in the quality of institutions exist, not much yet is known about variation in debt maturity, in debt in relation to equity, and between different types of small firms. The present paper aims to fill this gap through an empirical analysis of cross-regional variation in the capital structure of a sample of about 30,000 Italian small firms over a 13-year period, including the aftermath of the credit crunch that followed the 2007-8 global financial crisis. The findings confirm the view that small firms in underdeveloped regions are more financially constrained, but also amend some of the results shown in the literature, in particular by showing how small firms in Italy’s Southern regions have higher levels of equity and fixed assets than small firms in other regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Bayesian; cardiovascular disease; CVD; cross-sectional; logistic regression
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:55:06 CET)
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been one of the leading causes of death and disability-adjusted life years lost worldwide. Blood pressure, lipid, and cholesterol are good predictors of CVD risk and correspond upon age and physical fitness. However, few studies have explored the variation trend of CVD risk factors across different populations upon age and their muscle strength. Objective: to analysis the variation tendency of CVD risk factors in blood according to age and relative grip strength among different populations. Method: 25363 participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study and 24709 were included in the analysis. A logistic regression and a Bayesian probabilistic analysis based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Modeling is conducted to build probability prediction models of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hypercholesterolemia according to age, relative grip strength, body weight conditions, and physical activity levels. Results: 1) age might be the main influence factor of hypertension, which is regarded as one of the primary CVD risk factors. However, although keeping a high level of physical activity might have positive effect on preventing hypertension because that individuals with normal body weight and higher physical activity shows a lower probability of being diagnosed with hypertension, it might could not prevent individuals from getting hypertension with age. 2) After 60, individuals of normal body weight seem more likely to have hyperlipidemia than those are overweight or obese. 3) Larger relative grip strength might not be able to offset the negative effects of obesity, overweight and physical inactivity on hyperlipidemia. 4) The probability of getting hypercholesterolemia varies less with age and relative grip strength. Conclusion: Body weight management and keeping high levels of physical activity are recommended at any age. It might benefit to increase some bodyweight after 60 years old.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0023.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Malaria; Anopheles gambiae; vector control; neonicotinoids; cross-resistance
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:40:51 CET)
Background: New insecticides with novel modes of action such as neonicotinoids have recently been recommended for public health use by WHO. Resistance monitoring of such novel insecticides requires a robust protocol to monitor the development of resistance in natural populations. In this study, we comparatively used three different solvents to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to neonicotinoids across Africa.Methods: Mosquitoes were collected from May to July 2021 from three agricultural settings in Cameroon (Njombe-Penja, Nkolondom, and Mangoum), the Democratic Republic of Congo (Ndjili-Brasserie), Ghana (Atatam), and Uganda (Mayuge). Using the CDC bottle test, we compared the effect of three different solvents (ethanol, acetone, acetone+MERO) on the efficacy of neonicotinoids against Anopheles gambiae s.l. In addition, TaqMan assays were used to genotype key pyrethroid-resistant markers in An. gambiae and to evaluate potential cross-resistance between pyrethroids and clothianidin.Results: Lower mortalities were observed for all populations when using absolute ethanol or acetone alone as solvent (11.4- 51.9% mortality for Nkolondom, 31.7- 48.2% for Mangoum, 34.6- 56.1% for Mayuge, 39.4- 45.6% for Atatam, 83.7- 89.3% for Congo and 71.05- 95.9% for Njombe pendja) compared to acetone + MERO for which 100% mortality was observed for all the populations. Synergist assays (PBO, DEM and DEF) revealed a significant increase of mortality suggesting that metabolic resistance mechanisms are contributing to the reduced susceptibility. A negative association was observed between the L1014F-kdr mutation and clothianidin resistance with a greater frequency of homozygote resistant mosquitoes among the dead than among survivors (OR=0.5; P=0.02). However, the I114T-GSTe2 was in contrast significantly associated with a greater ability to survive clothianidin with a higher frequency of homozygote resistant among survivors than other genotypes (OR=2.10; P=0.013). Conclusions: This study revealed a contrasted susceptibility pattern depending on the solvents with ethanol/acetone resulting in lower mortality, thus possibly overestimating resistance, whereas the addition of MERO consistently increased the efficacy of neonicotinoids in terms of percentage mortalities and time to final mortality. The addition of MERO could however prevent the early detection of resistance development. We therefore recommend monitoring susceptibility using both acetone alone and acetone+MERO (8-10µg/ml for clothianidin) to capture the accurate resistance profile of the mosquito populations.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: positron; model potential; wavepacket propagation; vibrational cross section
Online: 7 September 2021 (12:00:07 CEST)
The vibrational excitation cross section of a diatomic molecule by positron impact is obtained using wavepacket propagation techniques. The dynamics was carried on a two-dimensional potential energy surface which couples a hydrogen-like harmonic oscillator to a positron via a spherically symmetric correlation polarization potential. The cross section for the excitation of the first vibrational mode is in good agreement with previous reports. Our model suggests that a positron couples to the target vibration by responding instantly to an interaction potential which depends on the target vibrational coordinate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0057.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: cross-curricular learning outcome; ethical responsibility; environmental responsibility
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:13:00 CEST)
This paper presents a study on the development of the cross-curricular learning outcome (CCLO) "Ethical, environmental and professional responsibility" by the students of different Bache-lor’sDegrees taught at Universitat Politècnica de València. The work and development of this learning outcome entails great complexity, given the double dimension of responsibility that it involves. At the end of their training at the university, students are expected to show ethical, en-vironmental, and professional responsibility towards themselves and others. Interviews have been conducted with lecturers who work and assess this outcome in their subjects, most/all of them related to science and engineering. The objective was to identify the learning approach used at the different subjects to guarantee the acquisition of this CCLO by the students. A focus group has also been carried out with students to determine the importance they give to this learning outcome, and to know their degree of satisfaction with the training received. The methodology used to obtain the data from lecturers and students and to process the information to get a precise diagnosis is fully described in the paper. Results are satisfactory to some extent: most of the lecturers carry out appropriate activities and most of students achieve the expected proficiency level. Finally, recommendations are given to improve the development of this cross-curricular learning outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0704.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: single nanowires; Symmetry breaking; rectangular cross-section; absorption
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:38:12 CET)
Light absorption in single nanowires (NWs) is one of the most crucial factors for photovoltaic applications. In this paper, we carried out a detailed investigation of light absorption in single rectangular NWs (RNWs). We show that the RNWs exhibit improved light absorption compared with the square NWs (SNWs), which can be attributed to the symmetry-breaking structure that can increase the light path length by increasing the vertical side and the enhanced leaky mode resonances (LMRs) by decreasing the horizontal side. We found that the light absorption in silicon RNWs can be enhanced by engineering the horizontal and vertical sides, the photocurrent is significantly increased by 276.5% or 82.9% compared with that of the SNWs with the same side length as the horizontal side of 100 nm or the vertical side of 1000 nm, respectively. This work provides an effective way for designing high-efficiency single NW photovoltaic devices based on the symmetry breaking from the SNWs to RNWs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0662.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Exercise; Health; Obesity; Northern Latitudes; Cross-country skiing
Online: 25 December 2020 (13:15:58 CET)
Background: Physical activity is recommended to mitigate the incidence of obesity, but delivery of community wide initiatives is cumbersome. The challenges met by such programs are magnified when implementation transpires in the remote villages of Alaska. To overcome the difficulty of this challenge in the Arctic, the Skiku/AK Nordic cross-country skiing program was developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to Skiku/AK Nordic program would promote physical activity levels that met the daily recommendations for physical activity in Alaska Native children. Methods: Eight children (4 females and 4 males; 10±2 years/age) were recruited from Kaktovik, Alaska for participation in this study. Expert coaches and staff provided one week of cross-country ski instruction and access to ski equipment. Physical activity was monitored using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Data collected from the devices was then downloaded and analyzed using ActiLife software. Results: The participants expended ~586 calories/day devoted to physical activity. Light and moderate physical activity was 68±38 minutes/day and 447±248 minutes/day, respectively. Conclusions: Delivery of the Skiku/AK Nordic program promoted favorable levels of physical activity in Alaska Native children. Further research is needed to assess the longitudinal and seasonal effectiveness of the Skiku/AK Nordic program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0712.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: silicon; single nanowires; elliptical cross-section; absorption; photocurrent
Online: 19 October 2020 (15:58:52 CEST)
Light trapping in single nanowires (NWs) are of vital importance for photovoltaic applications. However, circular NWs (CNWs) can limit its light-trapping ability due to high geometrical symmetry. In this work, we present a detailed study of light trapping in single NWs with an elliptical cross-section (ENWs). We demonstrate that the ENWs exhibit significantly enhanced light trapping compared with the CNWs, which can be ascribed to the symmetry-broken structure that can orthogonalize the direction of light illumination and the leaky mode resonances (LMRs). That is, the elliptical cross-section can simultaneously increase the light path length by increasing the vertical axis and reshape the LMR modes by decreasing the horizontal axis. We found that the light absorption can be engineered via tuning the horizontal and vertical axes, the photocurrent is significantly enhanced by 374.0% (150.3%, 74.1%) or 146.1% (61.0%, 35.3%) in comparison with that of the CNWs with the same diameter as the horizontal axis of 100 (200, 400) nm or the vertical axis of 1000 nm, respectively. This work advances our understanding of how to improve light trapping based on the symmetry breaking from the CNWs to ENWs and provides a rational way for designing high-efficiency single or self-assembled NW photovoltaic devices.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: NMDA receptors; P2X2 receptors; P2X4 receptors; cross-talk
Online: 4 August 2020 (07:32:07 CEST)
Purinergic receptors (P2X) are ATP-gated ion channels with an elusive role in the CNS. While the P2X2 and P2X4 subtypes are widely expressed in most neurons (i.e. at the edge of the postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses), the direct contribution of P2X to synaptic transmission is uncertain. Several P2X have been shown to participate in receptor cross-talk: an interaction where one receptor (e.g. P2X2) influences the activity of another (e.g. GABA or AMPA receptors.) In this study, we tested for interactions between P2X2 or P2X4 and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology experiments in X. laevis oocytes, we demonstrate that both P2X2 and P2X4 interact with NMDARs in an inhibitory manner. When investigating the molecular domains responsible for this phenomenon, we found that the P2X2 c-terminus (CT) could interfere with P2X2 and P2X4 interactions with NMDARs. We also report that 11 distal CT residues on the P2X4 facilitate the P2X4-NMDAR interaction, and that a peptide consisting of these P2X4 CT residues (11C) can disrupt the interaction between NMDARs and P2X2 or P2X4. Collectively, these results provide new evidence for the modulatory nature of P2X2 and P2X4, suggesting they might play a more nuanced role in the CNS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: motion parameters estimation, wideband LFM radar, cross-correlation.
Online: 17 April 2017 (05:00:46 CEST)
In wideband radar systems, the performance of motion parameters estimation can significantly affect the performance of object detection and the quality of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. Although the traditional motion parameters estimation methods can reduce the range migration (RM) and Doppler frequency migration (DFM) effects in ISAR imaging, the computational complexity is high. In this paper, we propose a new fast non-searching motion parameters estimation method based on cross-correlation of adjacent echoes (CCAE) for wideband LFM signals. A cross-correlation operation is carried out for two adjacent echo signals, then the motion parameters can be calculated by estimating the frequency of the correlation result. The proposed CCAE method can be applied directly to the stretching system, which is commonly adopted in wideband radar systems. Simulational results demonstrate that the new method can achieve better estimation performances, with much lower computational cost, compared with existing methods. The experimental results on real radar data sets are also evaluated to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method compared to the state-of-the-art existing methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: financial ratios; cross section; oil and gas trading industry
Online: 2 December 2022 (01:51:17 CET)
This research was conducted with the aim of knowing how to compare the financial performance of the oil and gas trading industry with cross-sectional analysis techniques. The type of research conducted in this research is qualitative research with research objects at several companies, namely PT Radiant Utama Interinsco Tbk, PT Elnusa Tbk, PT AKR Corporindo Tbk, and PT Aneka Gas Industri Tbk. The data used in this study comes from secondary data, namely the internet in the form of company financial reports for the 2019-2021 period obtained from the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results of this study indicate that PT Radiant Utama Interinsco Tbk has the best financial performance on inventory turnover ratio and average age, PT Elnusa Tbk has good inventory performance on current ratio, quick ratio, DAR, and DER., PT AKR. Corporindo Tbk has performed well on the ratios of TIE, FCC, Dividend Payout, Dividend Yield, and PER. PT Aneka Gas Industri Tbk has performed well on the ratio of Receivables Turnover Ratio and Average Age of Receivables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; government; cross-sectional survey; perceived risk
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:21:45 CEST)
Introduction: This study explores exposure to misinformation, COVID-19 risk perception, and confidence towards the government as predictors to negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from 30 June to 30 August 2021 involving 775 respondents. The survey instrument for the questionnaire is an adaptation from various different studies consisting of five main variables: 1) misinformation about vaccination; 2) risk perception toward COVID-19; 3) attitudes toward the vaccination programme; 4) intention to get vaccinated; and 5) public confidence in the government in executing the vaccination programme. Results: The results of this study indicate that higher exposure to misinformation led to higher levels of negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. When the perceived risk of COVID-19 infection was high, mistrust of vaccine benefits was low but there were also higher worries about the future effects of the vaccine. Confidence in government was associated with lower negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: The results of this study may help develop an understanding of negative attitudes toward vaccinations in Malaysia and its contributing factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0132.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: cross country skiing; IMU; wearable sensors; LSTM; neural network
Online: 11 October 2022 (03:04:09 CEST)
Objective: The aim of this study was to provide a new machine learning method to determine temporal events and inner-cycle parameters (e.g., cycle, poles and skis contact and swing time) in cross-country roller ski skating on the field, using a single deported inertial measurement unit (IMU). Methods: The developed method is based on long short-term memory neural networks to detect poles and skis initial and final contact with the ground during the cyclic movements. Eleven athletes skied four laps of 2.5 km at low and high intensity using skis with two different rolling coefficients. They were equipped with IMUs attached to the upper back, lower back and to the sternum. Data from force insoles and force poles were used as reference system. Results: The IMU placed on the upper back provided the best results, as the LSTM network was able to determine the temporal events with an accuracy ranging from 49 to 55 ms and the corresponding inner-cycles parameters were calculated with a precision of 63 to 68 ms. The method detected 95% of the events for the poles and 87% of the events for the skis. Conclusion: The proposed LSTM method provides a promising tool for assessing temporal events and inner-cycle phases in roller ski skating showing the potential of using a deported IMU to estimate different spatio-temporal parameters of human locomotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0524.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Vietnam; China; Vietnam - China border; tourism; cross-border tourism
Online: 30 August 2022 (11:32:48 CEST)
This article aims to identify the current development of cross-border tourism between Vietnam and China. The paper analyzes the perception and strategy of cross-border tourism development in the two countries, especially in the context of China’s implementation of the “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI). The article emphasizes that Vietnam and China have recently made efforts to promote cross-border tourism development. At the same time, Vietnam and China see cross-border tourism development as a significant part of comprehensive border cooperation between the two countries. However, the development plans for cross-border tourism between the two countries are still mainly on the desk, not yet implemented effectively. Thus, its achievements are relatively modest. Besides, the article emphasizes that the interests of the people living in the border area, especially the Vietnam side, are almost “forgotten” in the development of cross-border travel between the two countries. Besides, the article also analyzes the challenges that the two sides are facing, especially the Vietnam side, in promoting the development of cross-border tourism between the two countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: anti DENV IgM; IgG; Antibody-dependent enhancement; Cross-immunity
Online: 14 July 2022 (11:41:25 CEST)
Background: Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne sickness worldwide, impacting at least 50 million people each year. The dengue virus has four primary serotypes. Infection with one serotype confers homotypic immunity but not heterologous immunity, and secondary infections may be more severe. Although blood transfusions and organ donations have also been observed, the Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector for the transmission of dengue. Infection causes a continuum of clinical illness, from asymptomatic infection to dengue fever, DHF, and dengue shock syndrome (DSS).Aim: To assess the presence of anti DENV IgG and anti DENV IgM antibodies specific to the four dengue serotypes in blood donor service donors and the importance of pre-donation screening in routine blood collection procedures.Method: 3 mL of peripheral venous blood from 507 blood donors was collected in tubes with BD vacutainer gel tube for serum separation after epidemiological records were reviewed. After that, serum was separated and tests were performed by SD Bioline Dengue Duo. Participants in the study completed a social and epidemiological questionnaire that contained information such as age, gender, and dengue diagnosis.Result: Out of the 507 blood samples that were taken, 473 (93.3%) came from male blood donors, while the remaining 34 (6.7%) belonged to female blood donors. The ratio of males to females is 13.91 to 1. The age range is 18–60 years, and the mean and standard deviation are both 27.7 and 6.5. 183 of the 507 samples produced anti DENV IgG positivity, while 324 did not. The ratio of positive to negative was 1.25:2.Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, quantitative methods for determining the presence of anti-dengue antibodies or detecting the dengue virus in blood donors in endemic areas should be devised in order to ensure the quality of blood transfusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: medical fear; children; psychometric properties; cross-cultural adaptation; Spanish
Online: 8 November 2021 (14:33:48 CET)
Having valid and reliable tools that help health professionals to assess fear in children undergoing medical procedures is essential to offer humanized and quality of care in the paediatric population. The aim of this study was to develop the cross-cultural adaptation and the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the “Child Medical Fear Scale” in its shortened version (CMFS-R). The design consisted of two phases, first of cross-cultural adaptation and second of the psychometric validation of the CMFS-R with a sample of 262 children from Spain. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess construct validity and the Cronbach alpha and the adjusted item-total score correlation coefficients were performed to study reliability. The results confirmed internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the CMFS-R, indicating that the scale has an acceptable level of validity and reliability. Therefore, this study brings a new version of the scale to assess fear related to medical procedures for use in the Spanish paediatric population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: cross-laminated timber; hygrothermal; energy; moisture; durability; tropical; passivhaus
Online: 10 September 2021 (11:21:01 CEST)
The uptake of buildings employing cross-laminated timber (CLT) assemblies and designed to Passivhaus standard has accelerated internationally over the past two decades due to several factors including design responses to the climate crisis by decarbonising the building stock. Structural CLT technology and the voluntary Passivhaus certification both show measurable benefits in reducing energy consumption, while contributing to durability and indoor comfort. However, there is a general lack of evidence to support a fast uptake of these technologies in Australia. This paper responds to the compelling need of providing quantitative data and adoption strategies, it explores their combined application as a potential pathway for climate-appropriate design of energy-efficient and durable mass timber envelope solutions for subtropical and tropical Australian climates. Hygrothermal risk assessments of interstitial condensation and mould growth of CLT wall assemblies inform best-practice design of mass timber buildings in hot and humid climates. This research found that the durability of mass timber buildings located in hot and humid climates may benefit from implementing the Passivhaus standard to manage interior conditions. The findings also suggested that climate-specific design of the wall assembly is critical for mass timber buildings, in conjunction with excellent stormwater management practices during construction and corrosion protection for metallic fasteners.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Azolium MOFs; Dye adsorption; Post modification; Cross-coupling reactions
Online: 30 November 2020 (14:14:52 CET)
Two ligands, 1, 3-bis(4-carboxyphenyl)imidazolium chloride and 4, 4՛-bipyridine, were employed to prepare nickel and zinc azolium based MOFs, 1 and 2 by the mixed ligand solvothermal approach. The positively charged azolium moieties in the imidazolium linker resulted in a charged environment in the as-synthesized frameworks. As a result, 1 and 2 demonstrated preferential adsorption of CO2 over methane molecules in the gas phase adsorption due to the higher quadruple moment of CO2, which interacts more with the positively charged frameworks. Besides, in aqueous media, 1 and 2 exhibited incredible adsorption efficiency for anionic dyes. In the following, MOF 1 was metallated at the carbene site of the azolium linker to generate the novel heterogeneous catalyst 1-Pd, which was successfully applied for Sonogashira and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions without losing its activity after three cycles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0194.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: hydrogel; e-beam cross-linking; swelling; ibuprofen; network parameters
Online: 4 November 2020 (12:41:17 CET)
We report on the successful preparation of wet dressings hydrogels based on Chitosan-Poly(N-Vinyl-Pyrrolidone)-Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(acrylic acid) and Poly(ethylene oxide) by e-beam cross-linking in weakly acidic media, to be used for rapid healing and pain release of infected skin wounds. The structure and compositions of hydrogels investigated according to sol-gel and swelling studies, network parameters, as well as FTIR and XPS analyses showed the efficient interaction of the hydrogel components upon irradiation, maintaining the bonding environment while the cross-linking degree increasing with the irradiation dose and the formation of a structure with the mesh size in the range 11-67 nm. Hydrogels with gel fraction above 85% and the best-swelling properties in different pH solutions were obtained for hydrogels produced with 15 kGy. The hydrogels are stable in the simulated physiological condition of an infected wound and show appropriate moisture retention capability and the water vapor transmission rate up to 272.67 g m-2 day-1, to ensure fast healing. The hydrogels proved to have a significant loading capacity of ibuprofen (IBU), being able to incorporate a therapeutic dose for the treatment of severe pains. Simultaneously, IBU was released up to 25% in the first 2h, having a release maximum after 8h.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0178.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; pandemics; quarantine; psychological distress; cross-sectional studies
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:14:13 CEST)
Mass crises are disruptive to people's mental health. The study aimed to explore mental distress during COVID-19 quarantine in a sample of university workers in Brazil. The survey included sets of questions about demographics, health, and support, an open question about major concerns, and the Clinical Outcome Routine Evaluation (CORE-OM), a measure of mental distress. 407 professionals participated in the study: mean age of 40 years (SD = 11.2), mostly female (67.8%), married (64.8%) and fulfilling social distancing to avoid COVID-19 infection (99%). Using the Consensual Qualitative Research for simple qualitative data (CQR-M) the main areas of concern were grouped into six domains, as follows: Work, Health, Isolation, Personal life and routine, Social environment, and Future. Many responses were multiple. They form categories indicating specific concerns within these domains. Quantitative data were analyzed by identifying the simple effects of potential predictors of mental distress. The results indicated medium effects of help with household chores, psychiatric treatment, age and physical exercise. Having someone available to listen was the only variable with a large effect in reducing mental suffering. The hybrid approach showed that the psychological experience during the pandemic is quite multifaceted and complex pointing new clues for public mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0123.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Reference evapotranspiration; agro-meteorological; multifractal; scaling; cross-correlations; persistence
Online: 6 October 2020 (11:17:39 CEST)
This paper examined the multifractal properties of six acknowledged agro-meteorological parameters, such as reference evapotranspiration (ET0), wind speed (U), incoming solar radiation (SR), air temperature (T), air pressure (P), and relative air humidity (RH) of five stations in California, USA. The investigation of multifractality of datasets from stations with differing terrain conditions: Dagget, Bakersfield, Santa Maria, Los Angeles and San Diego using the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis showed the existence of a long term persistence and multifractality irrespective of the location. The scaling exponents of SR and ET0 time series are found to be higher for stations with higher altitudes. Subsequently, this study proposed using the novel multifractal cross correlation (MFCCA) method to examine the multiscale-multifractal correlations properties between ET0 and other investigated variables. MFCCA could successfully capture the scale dependent association of different variables and the dynamics in the nature of their associations from seasonal to multi-annual time scale. The multifractal exponents of pressure and relative air humidity are consistently lower than the exponents of ET0, irrespective of station location. This study found that joint scaling exponent was nearly the average of scaling exponents of individual series in different pairs of variables. Additionally, the α-values of joint multifractal spectrum were lower than the α values of both of the individual spectra, validating two universal properties in the mutifractal cross correlation studies for agro-meteorological time series. The temporal evolution of cross-correlation showed similar pattern for all pair-wise associations involving ET0, except for the RH-ET0 link.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0082.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: exploratory analysis; model selection; MLR; K fold cross validation
Online: 5 October 2020 (12:16:38 CEST)
In this project, we use a statistical multiple regression to study the impact of eight various predictors (relative compactness, surface area, wall area, roof area, overall height, orientation, glazing area, glazing area distribution) to estimate the cooling load energy efficiency of residential buildings. We try to analyze and visualize the effect of each predictor with each of the response variable using different classical statistical analysis tools used in describing linear models, in such a way so that we can find out the most strongly related predictor variables. Before starting all of this, we use the idea of model selection by stepwise regression technique and compare the AIC of these models and identified a better model between all of them. Then, we compare a classical linear regression approach by simulations on 768 diverse residential buildings show that we can predict CL with low mean absolute error. By using ANOVA we determine variation in the different residuals. Also, we use non constant variance test to verify it. Furthermore, we check leverage and influence points as well as outliers as well as determined cook distance for influential points. By taking box cox transformation and weights, we also introduce WLS technique to fit the model for better results and did all type of important analysis to understand the energy efficiency. Finally, we show 5-fold cross validation to verify our model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0416.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: adversarial learning; deep cross-modal hashing; self-attention mechanism
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:16:58 CEST)
Recently deep cross-modal hashing networks have received increasing interests due to its superior query efficiency and low storage cost. However, most of existing methods concentrate less on hash representations learning part, which means the semantic information of data cannot be fully used. Furthermore, they may neglect the high-ranking relevance and consistency of hash codes. To solve these problems, we propose a Self-Attention and Adversary Guided Hashing Network (SAAGHN). Specifically, it employs self-attention mechanism in hash representations learning part to extract rich semantic relevance information. Meanwhile, in order to keep invariability of hash codes, adversarial learning is adopted in the hash codes learning part. In addition, to generate higher-ranking hash codes and avoid local minima early, a new batch semi-hard cosine triplet loss and a cosine quantization loss are proposed. Extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets have shown that SAAGHN outperforms other baselines and achieves the state-of-the-art performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0390.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika; Yellow fever; cross reactive; flavivirus; congenital infection; enhancement
Online: 24 May 2020 (17:12:58 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that originated in Africa but emerged in Latin America in 2015. In this region, other flaviviruses such as Dengue (DENV), West Nile, and Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) also circulate, allowing for possible antigenic cross-reactivity to impact viral infections and immune responses. Studies have found antibody mediated enhancement between DENV and ZIKV, but the impact of YFV antibodies on ZIKV infection has not been fully explored. ZIKV infections cause congenital syndromes, such as microcephaly, necessitating further research into ZIKV vertical transmission through the placental barrier. Recent advancements in biomedical engineering have generated co-culture methods that allow for in vitro recapitulation of the maternal: fetal interface. This study utilized a transwell assay, which is a co-culture model utilizing human placental syncytiotrophoblasts, fetal umbilical cells, and a differentiating embryoid body to replicate the maternal: fetal axis. To determine if cross reactive YFV vaccine antibodies impact the pathogenesis of ZIKV across the maternal fetal axis, maternal syncytiotrophoblasts were inoculated with ZIKV or ZIKV incubated with YFV vaccine anti-sera, and viral load was measured 72 hours post inoculation. The data show that the impact of YFV on ZIKV replication is cell line dependent. In differentiating embryoids, the presence of YFV antibodies enhanced ZIKV infection. Since viral pathogenesis, and the impact of antigenic cross-reactive antibodies, is cell line specific at the maternal-fetal axis, this suggests there may be discreet mechanisms that impact congenital ZIKV infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: cross-sectional survey; antibiotic use; antimicrobial resistance; knowledge; brunei
Online: 23 May 2020 (05:54:43 CEST)
Background: Public misconception and demand for the indication of antibiotics could lead to inappropriate prescribing and consumption. Successful treatment can only be achieved when the public and industrial users have knowledge on antibiotic use and resistance. This survey is aimed to assess antibiotic usage and knowledge regarding antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among undergraduate students of Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), public university located in Brunei Darussalam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was adapted from the World Health Organization (WHO) Antibiotic Resistance, Multi-country public awareness survey distributed online. Students at UBD were invited to participate in the online survey through internal email. The questionnaire consisted of 5 sections: demographic information, antibiotic usage, knowledge on antibiotics, antibiotic resistance (AMR) and use of antibiotics in agriculture. Data were analyzed descriptively and appropriate inferential statistics was used accordingly. Cronbach’s alpha was also done to determine the internal consistency. The section on antibiotic use and knowledge showed good internal consistency of Cronbach’s alpha 0.66 and 0.86 respectively. Research ethics approval was obtained from the PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD). Results: A total of 145 students returned the complete questionnaire. The result of the study found that 50% of the students had good level of knowledge of antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance with a mean total knowledge score of 11.4 out of 14. Respondents reported the use of antibiotic in the past (69%). Many of the students could identify the use of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infection. However, there were also students who incorrectly thought that antibiotics can be used for cold and flu (43%) and fever (41%). Moreover, 76% of the respondents mistakenly believed that antibiotic resistance is the result of the body becoming resistant to antibiotics. Only 12% of the respondents were found to have poor knowledge in the study. Conclusions: Misconceptions in regards to the use of antibiotics for conditions related to viral illnesses was noticed among the respondents in our study. Thus, improving knowledge on antibiotics is crucial to address those beliefs.
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; companion animals; cross-infection
Online: 17 May 2020 (15:27:24 CEST)
Since the COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 break out in Wuhan China from Dec. 2019, it has spread to hundreds of countries up to now. Scientists from all over the world have paid tremendous efforts to research and try to control the disease. Previous studies suggested that some of the wild animals could be intermediate hosts between humans and origination of SARS-CoV-2, and some companion animals of humans can be infected by SARS-CoV-2, which raised our curiosity about cross-infection of SARS-CoV-2 between animals and humans. Thus, we select some kinds of animals that might have contact with humans to estimate the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in different animals by evolutionary analysis of their receptors for SARS-CoV-2. The results show that some companion animals of the Felidae family like the cat has a higher infection possibility while the species of the Rodent family like the rat and mouse having close contact with humans show an opposite result, which consist with recent animal experiments and researches. These should raise concerns about cross-infection between human and companion animals or animals having close contact with humans which might turn animals into depositaries of the coronavirus even after control of SARS-CoV-2 spreading and cause second or more waves of infections after social reopening. Another side of our results stands by the opinion that bioinformatic analysis can be consistent with experiments in some respects so that we can prevent unnecessary sacrifice of laboratory animals in future experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0288.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Cross-modal retrieval; Adversarial learning; Semantic correlation; Deep learning
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:03:34 CET)
With the rapid development of Internet and the widely usage of smart devices, massive multimedia data are generated, collected, stored and shared on the Internet. This trend makes cross-modal retrieval problem become a hot issue in this years. Many existing works pay attentions on correlation learning to generate a common subspace for cross-modal correlation measurement, and others uses adversarial learning technique to abate the heterogeneity of multi-modal data. However, very few works combine correlation learning and adversarial learning to bridge the inter-modal semantic gap and diminish cross-modal heterogeneity. This paper propose a novel cross-modal retrieval method, named ALSCOR, which is an end-to-end framework to integrate cross-modal representation learning, correlation learning and adversarial. CCA model, accompanied by two representation model, VisNet and TxtNet is proposed to capture non-linear correlation. Beside, intra-modal classifier and modality classifier are used to learn intra-modal discrimination and minimize the inter-modal heterogeneity. Comprehensive experiments are conducted on three benchmark datasets. The results demonstrate that the proposed ALSCOR has better performance than the state-of-the-arts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0160.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Siamese neural network, appearance model, contrastive loss, cross entropy.
Online: 13 May 2019 (13:32:25 CEST)
An appearance model plays a crucial rule in multi-target tracking. In traditional approaches, the two steps of appearance modeling i.e visual representation and statistically similarity measure are modeled separately. Visual representation is achieved either through hand-crafted features or deep features and statically similarity is measure through a cross entropy loss function. A loss function based on cross-entropy (KL-divergence, mutual information) find closely related probability distribution for the targets. However, if the targets have similar visual representation, it ends up mixing the targets. To tackle this problem, we come up with a synergetic appearance model named Single Shot Appearance Model based on Siamese neural network. The network is trained with a contrastive loss function for finding the similarity between different targets in a single shot. The input to the network is two target patches and based on their similarity, a contrastive score is output by the network. The proposed model is evaluated on accumulative dissimilarity metric on three datasets. Quantitatively, promising results are achieved against three baseline methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0118.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Receptor-specific antibodies; targeting; nanoparticles; dendritic cells; cross-presentation
Online: 10 April 2019 (07:46:18 CEST)
Abstract Optimal targeting of nanoparticles (NP) to dendritic cells (DCs) receptors to deliver cancer-specific antigens is key to an efficient induction of anti-tumor immune responses. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing tètanus toxoid and gp100 melanoma-associated antigen, toll-like receptor adjuvants were targeted to the DC-SIGN receptor in DCs by specific humanized antibodies or by ICAM3-Fc fusion proteins mimicking natural ligand. Despite higher binding and uptake efficacy of anti-DC-SIGN antibody-targeted NP vaccines than ICAM3-Fc ligand, no difference were observed in DC activation markers CD80, CD83, CD86 and CCR7 induced. DCs loaded with NP coated with ICAM3-Fc appeared more potent in activating T cells via cross-presentation than antibody-coated NP vaccines. This fact could be very crucial in the design of new cancer vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0461.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: multi-task; Gaussian processes; cross convolution; spectral mixture; dependency
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:19:00 CEST)
Multi-task Gaussian processes (MTGPs) are a powerful approach for modeling structured dependencies among multiple tasks. Researchers on MTGPs have contributed to enhance this approach in various ways. Current MTGP methods, however, cannot model nonlinear task correlations in a general way. In this paper we address this problem. We focus on spectral mixture (SM) based kernels and propose an enhancement of this type of kernels, called multi-task generalized convolution spectral mixture (MT-GCSM) kernel. The MT-GCSM kernel can model nonlinear task correlations and mixtures dependency, including time and phase delay, not only between different tasks but also within a task at the spectral mixture level. Each task in MT-GCSM has its own generalized convolution spectral mixture kernel (GCSM) with a different number of convolution structures and all spectral mixtures from different tasks are dependent. Furthermore, the proposed kernel uses inner and outer full cross convolution between base spectral mixtures, so that the base spectral mixtures in the tasks are not necessarily aligned. Extensive experiments on synthetic and real-life datasets illustrate the difference between MT-GCSM and other kernels as well as the practical effectiveness of MT-GCSM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0012.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; citrulline-peptides; autoantibody; affinity; cross-reaction; targeting
Online: 2 January 2018 (11:50:04 CET)
Background: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPAs) are responsible for disease onset and progression, however, our knowledge is limited on ligand binding affinities of autoantibodies with different citrulline-peptide specificity. Methods: Citrulline-peptide specific ACPA IgGs were affinity purified and tested by ELISA. Binding affinities of ACPA IgGs and serum antibodies were compared by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. Bifunctional nanoparticles harboring a multi-epitope citrulline-peptide and a complement activating peptide were used to induce selective depletion of ACPA producing B cells. Results: KD values of affinity purified ACPA IgGs varies between 10-6-10-8 M and inversely correlate with disease activity. Based on their cross-reaction with citrulline-peptides we designed a novel multi-epitope peptide, containing Cit-Gly and Ala-Cit motifs in two-two copies, separated with a short, neutral spacer. This peptide detects antibodies in RA sera with 66 % sensitivity and 98 % specificity in ELISA and is recognized by 90% of RA sera, while none of the healthy samples in SPR. When coupled to nanoparticles, the multi-epitope peptide specifically targets and depletes ACPA producing B cells ex vivo. Conclusions: The unique multi-epitope peptide designed on the basis of ACPA cross-reactivity might be suitable to develop better diagnostics and novel therapies for RA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0115.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Palladium; Suzuki cross coupling; natural product; non-natural product
Online: 15 May 2017 (18:30:52 CEST)
New class of biologically active and non-active compounds can be synthesized via transition metal mediated Suzuki cross coupling reaction that has a great impact on the advancement of organic chemistry. These resulted products can lend a helping hand in pharmaceutical and polymer chemistry for the betterment of mankind. Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reaction is one of the best tools through which many natural and non-natural compounds can be synthesized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0147.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: myosin filament stiffness; actin filament stiffness; myosin cross-bridge stiffness; muscle transients; weak binding heads; contractile mechanism; cross-bridge cycle; rigor muscle
Online: 14 March 2019 (07:01:45 CET)
The stiffness of the myosin cross-bridges is a key factor in analysing possible scenarios to explain myosin head changes during force generation in active muscles. The seminal study of Huxley and Simmons (1971: Nature 233: 533) suggested that most of the observed half-sarcomere instantaneous compliance (=1/stiffness) resides in the myosin heads. They showed with a so-called T1 plot that, after a very fast release, the half-sarcomere tension reduced to zero after a step size of about 60Å (later with improved experiments reduced to 40Å). However, later X-ray diffraction studies showed that myosin and actin filaments themselves stretch slightly under tension, which means that most (at least two-thirds) of the half sarcomere compliance comes from the filaments and not from cross-bridges. Here we have used a different approach, namely to model the compliances in a virtual half sarcomere structure in silico. We confirm that the T1 curve comes almost entirely from length changes in the myosin and actin filaments, because the calculated cross-bridge stiffness (probably greater than 0.4 pN/Å) is higher than previous studies have suggested. In the light of this, we present a plausible modified scenario to describe aspects of the myosin cross-bridge cycle in active muscle. In particular, we suggest that, apart from the filament compliances, most of the cross-bridge contribution to the instantaneous T1 response comes from weakly-bound myosin heads, not myosin heads in strongly attached states. The strongly attached heads would still contribute to the T1 curve, but only in a very minor way, with a stiffness that we postulate could be around 0.1 pN/Å, a value which would generate a working stroke close to 100 Å from the hydrolysis of one ATP molecule. The new program can serve as a tool to calculate sarcomere elastic properties for any vertebrate striated muscle once various parameters have been determined (e.g. tension, T1 intercept, temperature, X-ray diffraction spacing results).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0508.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: cholesterol; cross-sectional study; dyslipidemia; lipids; Mali; type 2 diabetes
Online: 28 January 2023 (01:29:07 CET)
Dyslipidemia is a disorder where abnormally lipid concentrations circulate in the bloodstream. The disorder is common in type 2 diabetics (T2D) and is linked with T2D comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia in T2D is typically characterized by elevated plasma triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. There is a significant gap in the literature regarding dyslipidemia in rural parts of Africa, where lipid profiles may not be routinely captured through standard surveillance activities. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and demographic profile of dyslipidemia in T2D patients in the rural community of Ganadougou, Mali. We performed a cross-sectional study of 104 subjects with T2D in Ganadougou between November 2021 and March 2022. Demographic and lipid profiles were collected through cross-sectional surveys and blood tests. The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia in T2D patients was 87.5% (91/104), which did not differ by sex (p = .368). High low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was the most common lipid abnormality (78.9%, [82/104]). Dyslipidemia was associated with age and hypertension status (p = .013 and p = .036, respectively). High total and high LDL-C parameters were significantly associated with hypertension (p = .029 and p = .006, respectively). In low-resource settings such as rural Mali, there is a critical need to improve infrastructure for routine dyslipidemia screening to guide its prevention and intervention approaches. The high rates of dyslipidemia observed in Gandadougou, consistent with concomitant increases in cardiovascular diseases in Africa suggest that lipid profile assessments should be incorporated into routine medical care for T2D patients in African rural settings.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0477.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cross-country skiing; temporal event detection; wearable sensors; field analysis
Online: 25 November 2022 (10:09:08 CET)
The aim of this study was to adapt a treadmill-developed method for determination of inner-cycle parameters in cross-country roller ski skating for a field application. The method is based on detecting initial and final ground-contact of poles and skis during cyclic movements. Eleven athletes skied four laps of 2.5 km at low and high endurance-intensity, using two types of skis with different rolling coefficients. Participants were equipped with inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to their wrists and skis, while insoles with pressure sensors and poles with force measurements were used as reference systems. The method based on IMUs was able to detect more than 97% of the temporal events compared to the reference system. The inner-cycle temporal parameters had a precision ranging from 49 to 59 ms, corresponding to 3.9% to 13.7% of the corresponding inner-cycle duration. Overall, this study showed good reliability of using IMUs on athlete’s wrists and skis to determine temporal events, inner-cycle parameters and the performed sub-techniques in cross-country roller ski skating in field-conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Impact; board of directors; endogeneity; cross-sectional dependence; firm performance
Online: 6 October 2022 (09:22:17 CEST)
The objectives of the research are to investigate the characteristics of the board of directors on the financial performance of the enterprise. Using a sample data from 52 construction and real estate enterprises listed on Vietnam stock exchange in the period 2006-2020. Using typical regression methods such as pooled OLS, FEM, REM and assessing the defects of the research model, the FGLS method is selected. At the same time, due to the existence of endogenous phenomena and the nature of interdependence among enterprises in Vietnam, research using the instrumental variables two-step generalized method of moments (IV-GMM) in order to correct for cross-sectional dependence, autocorrelation, endogeneity, and heteroskedasticity in the analysis. Research results suggest that board size, female board members, meeting frequency, and board members' education have a positive influence on financial performance. Moreover, the independence of the Board of Directors increases, the business efficiency decreases. The research also found a positive relationship of tangible fixed assets, and a negative relationship between capital structure choice, firm size and corporate financial performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0233.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Supernova; Plasma; Gravitational Lens; Einstein Cross; Hubble Constant; Hubble Tension
Online: 24 May 2022 (13:24:51 CEST)
Simulations based on Supernova (SN) observations predict several galactic SN explosions (SNe) occur every century. Unlike SNes within the Interstellar Medium (ISM) where ambient gas generally absorbs blast waves within a million years, SNes occurring in a rarified environment outside of the (ISM) generate blast waves which remain in a high velocity free expansion phase for more extended periods. The SN blast wave forms an expanding spherical shell and when multiple blast waves intersect, the overlapping region naturally takes the form of a ring, an arc, or an Einstein Cross structure. The analysis shows the high velocity plasma establishes a medium with permeability which drives the index of refraction greater than 1. As a result, when a shock discontinuity forms in the overlapping region, light is reflected from the host galaxy which exposes the intersecting blast wave regions. The expanding shells are shown to induce an achromatic redshift to the reflected light consistent with those measured for gravitational lenses. Further, it is shown that a Hubble equation for a blast wave around the Milky Way Galaxy can be parameterized to align with measured redshifts of extragalactic light fields over a wide range of distances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0357.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: predictive modeling; biomarker; cerebrospinal fluid; cross-sectional study; neurodegenerative disease
Online: 24 January 2022 (12:59:55 CET)
In recent years, metabolomics has been used as a powerful tool to better understand the physiology of neurodegenerative diseases and identify potential biomarkers for progression. We used targeted and untargeted aqueous, and lipidomic profiles of the metabolome from human cerebrospinal fluid to build multivariate predictive models distinguishing patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and healthy age-matched controls. We emphasize several statistical challenges associated with metabolomic studies where the number of measured metabolites far exceeds sample size. We found strong separation in the metabolome between PD and controls, as well as between PD and AD, with weaker separation between AD and controls. Consistent with existing literature, we found alanine, kynurenine, tryptophan, and serine to be associated with PD classification against controls, while alanine, creatine, and long chain ceramides were associated with AD classification against controls. We conducted a univariate pathway analysis of untargeted and targeted metabolite profiles and find that vitamin E and urea cycle metabolism pathways are associated with PD, while the aspartate/asparagine and c21-steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways are associated with AD. We also found that the amount of metabolite missingness varied by phenotype, highlighting the importance of examining missing data in future metabolomic studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Gravitational vortex; Free-flow vortex; Cross flow turbine; Propeller turbine.
Online: 14 October 2021 (13:00:14 CEST)
This study aimed to enhance a micro hydroelectric generator system driven by free-flow vortex and to compare efficiency of Propeller and Crossflow turbines. Series of turbines in each type were designed and tested at water-flowrate of 0.02 m3/s. The turbine housing has 1 meter in diameter and 0.5-meter height with 2 meters outlet drain at the bottom. The best efficiency extracted from Crossflow turbines with the same height (0.3 meter) but different in diameter (0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 meter) and numbers of blade (12, 18, 24, 30, and 23) was from an 18 blades turbine at 23.01% of efficiency. The best efficiency extracted from Propeller turbines with 5 blades was from a 0.4-meter-high turbine with a diameter of 0.7 meter at 13.92% of efficiency. There were 12 Propeller turbines designed in this study. They were different in height (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 meter) and, in each height, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 of diameter was applied. The result revealed that Cross Flow turbine had more efficiency to the system than Propeller turbine (9.09%) at the water-flowrate of 0.02 m3/s
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: coronavirus; cross-national study; pandemic; public authorities; social media; trust
Online: 11 October 2021 (11:04:14 CEST)
This study aimed to examine trust in information provided by public authorities and financial measures put in place to address the impact of COVID-19. Using a cross-national approach among four Western countries; the United States of America, Norway, Australia, and the United Kingdom provides an analysis of responses related to trust and how they were associated with age group, gender, education level, employment status, size of place of residence, infection sta-tus, and social media use. When controlling for all included variables in logistic regression analyses, the likelihood of having trust in the public authorities’ information was higher for women, those with higher levels of education, and those living in urban areas. Being infected with the coronavirus, and spending more time daily on social media was associated with lower likelihood reporting trust in information. Although policies implemented to respond to eco-nomic concerns varied cross-nationally, higher age, identifying as female, being employed, liv-ing in a city, and lower levels of social media usage were associated with higher likelihood of trusting in the financial measures put in place to counteract the economic effects of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0331.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Microglia; M1/M2 polarization; astrocyte; microglia and astrocyte cross-talk
Online: 14 July 2021 (12:42:17 CEST)
Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system such as brain-specific macrophages and also known to regulate the innate immune functions of astrocytes through secretory molecules. This conversation plays an important role in brain functions and homeostasis as well as in neuropathologic disease. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether astrocytes and microglia can cross-talk to induce microglial polarization and proliferation, which can be further regulated under the brain stroke-mimic microenvironment. Microglia in mixed glial culture increased their survival and proliferation and altered to the M2 microglia, whose role was provided by CD11b-GFAP+ astrocytes by showing approximately tenfold increase in microglia cell proliferation after the astrocyte reconstitution. Furthermore, GM-CSF stimulated microglial proliferation approximately tenfold and induced to CCR7+ M1 microglia, whose phenotype could be suppressed by anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and Substance-P. Also, astrocyte in the microglia co-culture revealed A2 phenotype, which could be activated to A1 astrocyte by TNFα and IFNγ under the stroke-mimic condition. Altogether, astrocyte in the mixed glial culture stimulated the microglia proliferation and M2 polarization possibly through its acquisition of A2 phenotype, both of which could be converted to M1 microglia and A1 astrocytes under the inflammatory stroke-mimic environment. This study demonstrated that microglia and astrocyte can be polarized to M2 microglia and A2 astrocytes respectively through the cross-talk in vitro and provided a system to explore how microglia and astrocyte may behave in the inflammatory disease milieu after in vivo transplantation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0361.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: adaptive streaming; HTTP/3; QUIC; cross-protocol; unfairness; congestion control
Online: 14 June 2021 (12:53:47 CEST)
With the introduction of HTTP/3, whose transport is no longer the traditional TCP protocol but the novel QUIC protocol, research for solutions to the unfairness of Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (HAS) has become more challenging. That is, because of different transport layers, the HTTP/3 may not be available for some networks and the clients have to use HTTP/2 for their HAS applications instead. Therefore, the scenario that HAS over HTTP/3 (HAS/3) compete against HTTP/2 (HAS/2) must be considered seriously. However, there have been a shortage of investigations on the performance and the origin of the unfairness in such a cross-protocol scenario in order to produce proper solutions. Therefore, this paper provides a performance evaluation and root-cause analysis of the cross-protocol unfairness between HAS/3 and HAS/2. It is concluded that, due to differences in the congestion control mechanisms of QUIC and TCP, HAS/3 clients obtain larger congestion windows, thus requesting higher video bitrates than HAS/2. As the problem lies in the transport layer, existing client-side ABR-based solutions for the unfairness from the application layer may perform suboptimally for the cross-protocol case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: concerns; coronavirus; cross-national study; pandemic; social distancing; social media
Online: 18 February 2021 (11:02:48 CET)
COVID-19 has been a global healthcare concern impacting multiple aspects of individual and community wellness. As one moves forward with different methods to reduce the infection and mortality rates, it is critical to continue to study the impact that national and local ‘social distancing’ policies have on the daily lives of individuals. The aim of this study was to examine loneliness in relation to risk assessment, measures taken against risks, concerns, and social media use, while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. The cross-sectional study collected data from 3469 individuals from USA, UK, Norway, and Australia. Loneliness was measured with the de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Multiple linear regression was used in the analysis of associations between variables. The results showed that concerns about finances were more strongly associated with social loneliness, while concerns about the future was more strongly associated with emotional loneliness. Longer daily time spent on social media was associated with higher emotional loneliness. In conclusion, pandemic-related concerns seem to affect their perceptions of loneliness. While social media can be used productively to maintain relationships, and thereby prevent loneliness, excessive use may be counterproductive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0092.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; health practices; stress; self-care; cross-cultural study
Online: 2 February 2021 (15:09:40 CET)
The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to analyze the differential impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown (3rd April 2020) on stress, health practices, and self-care activities across different Hispanic countries, age range and gender groups. 1082 participants from Spain, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador took part in this study. Irrespective of the country, and controlling for income level, young people, especially females, suffered a greater level of stress, perceived the situation as more severe, showed less adherence to health guidelines and reported lower levels of health consciousness, in comparison to their male peers and older groups. However, in the case of self-care, it seems that older and female groups are generally more involved in self-care activities and adopt more healthy daily routines. These results are mostly similar between Colombia, Ecuador, and Spain. However, Chile showed some different tendencies, as males reported higher levels of healthy daily routines and better adherence to health guidelines compared to females and people over the age of 60. Differences between countries, genders and age ranges should be considered in order to improve health recommendations and adherence to guidelines. It would also be crucial to identify vulnerable groups to promote the adoption of health behaviors that may help in the development of effective public health strategies. Future studies should be addressed to explore the possible causations of such differences in more cultural-distant samples and at later stages of the current outbreak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0219.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Questionnaire; back health; assessment; cross-cultural adaptation; adolescents; secondary school
Online: 22 December 2020 (16:03:09 CET)
The prevalence of back pain (BP) among children and adolescents has increased over recent years. Some authors advocate promoting back-health education in the school setting. It is therefore important to adopt a uniform suite of assessment instruments to measure the various constructs. The present study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of a validated measurement instrument (BackPEI), beginning with a translation and cultural adaptation phase, followed by a second phase to test reliability using a test-retest design. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed based on the guidelines. Reliability was tested by applying the questionnaire to 224 secondary school students, at two different times with a 7-day interval between the tests. In general, the Spanish version presented adequate agreement for questions 1–20, with only question 9 achieving a low Kappa range of .312 [-.152- .189]. The question about pain intensity did not show differences between the averages for the test (4.72 ± 2.33) and re-test (4.58 ± 2.37) (p = .333), and the responses for these two tests were highly correlated (ICC= .951 [.928- .966]; p= .0001). Psychometric testing indicated that the Spanish version of the BackPEI is well-adapted and reliable, based on the test-retest design, providing similar results to the original Brazilian version.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: muscle transients; myosin cross-bridge cycle; isotonic shortening; length steps
Online: 9 November 2020 (08:42:58 CET)
An informative probe of myosin crossbridge behaviour in active muscle is a mechanical transient experiment where, for example, a fully active muscle initially held at constant length is suddenly shortened to a new fixed length giving a force transient, or has its load suddenly reduced giving a length transient. We describe the simplest crossbridge mechanical cycle we could find to model these transients. We show using the statistical mechanics of 50,000 crossbridges that a simple cycle with two actin-attached cross-bridge states, one producing no force and the other producing force, will explain much of what has been observed experimentally and we discuss the implications of this modelling for our understanding of how muscle works. We show that this same simple model will explain reasonably well the isotonic mechanical and X-ray transients under different loads observed by Reconditi et al (2004, Nature 428, 578) and that there is no need to invoke different crossbridge step sizes under these different conditions; a step size of 100 Å works well for all loads. We do not claim that this model provides a total mechanical explanation of how muscle works. But we do suggest that only if there are other observations that cannot be explained by this simple model should something more complicated be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0006.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Phase amplitude coupling; cross frequency coupling; information theory; transfer entropy
Online: 1 October 2020 (08:59:48 CEST)
Modulation of the amplitude of high-frequency cortical field activity locked to changes in phase of a slower brain rhythm is known as phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). The study of this phenomenon has been gaining traction in neuroscience because of several reports on its appearance in normal and pathological brain processes in humans as well as across different mammalian species. This has led to the suggestion that PAC may be an intrinsic brain process that facilitates brain inter-area communication across different spatiotemporal scales. Several methods have been proposed to measure the PAC process, but few of these enable detailed study of its time course. It appears that no studies have reported details of PAC dynamics including its possible directional delay characteristics. Here, we study and characterize the use of a novel information theoretic measure that may address this limitation: local transfer entropy. We use both simulated and actual intracranial electroencephalographic data, and in both cases we observe initial indications that local transfer entropy can be used to detect the onset and offset of modulation process periods revealed by mutual information phase-amplitude coupling (MIPAC). We review our results in the context of current theories about PAC in brain electrical activity, and discuss technical issues that must be addressed to see local transfer entropy more widely applied to PAC analysis.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0141.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; pneumococcal vaccine; vaccination; cross-reactivity; protection; molecular mimicry; CRM197; rubella vaccine
Online: 4 September 2020 (10:45:26 CEST)
Various studies indicate that vaccination, especially with pneumococcal vaccines, protects against symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and death. This paper explores the possibility that pneumococcal vaccines in particular, but perhaps other vaccines as well, contain antigens that might be cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Comparison of the glycosylation structures of SARS-CoV-2 with the polysaccharide structures of pneumococcal vaccines yielded no obvious similarities. However, while pneumococcal vaccines are primarily composed of capsular polysaccharides, some are conjugated to CRM197, a modified diphtheria toxin, and all contain about three percent protein contaminants, including the pneumococcal surface proteins PsaA, PspA and probably PspC. All of these proteins have very high degrees of similarity, using very stringent criteria, with several SARS-CoV-2 proteins including the spike protein, membrane protein and replicase 1a. CRM197 is also present in Hib and meningitis vaccines. Equivalent similarities were found at lower rates, or were completely absent, among the proteins in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, and poliovirus vaccines. Notably, PspA and PspC are highly antigenic and new pneumococcal vaccines based on them are currently in human clinical trials so that their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 disease is easily testable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0363.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: health literacy; dementia; cross-sectional study; community; Alzheimer's Disease; knowledge
Online: 27 December 2019 (10:34:31 CET)
Background: This study aimed to assess the dementia literacy (DL) level of community-dwelling adults in the four cities (Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Macau and Zhuhai) of the Greater Bay Area of China and to determine the preferred mass media for receiving dementia information. Methods: A multi-city cross-sectional study with 788 community-dwelling adults completed the survey. Dementia literacy was indirectly measured by two validated scales, 30-item Alzhiemer’s Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) and 20-item Dementia Attitudes Scale (DAS). When the ADKS total score was <15 and DAS total score was <70, it was considered as ‘inadequate dementia literacy’. Participants were also asked to indicate whether they would like to receive dementia information via digital media or traditional media. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were undertaken. Results: About one-third of the participants had inadequate dementia literacy. Those with young age or secondary education preferred to get dementia information from social media. But people living in public housing would like to get information from government or hospital websites. Middle-aged participants inclined to learn dementia from television or radio. Conclusion: It is worthy to conduct territory-wide public education in dementia and develop strategies according to their preferences in the types of mass media.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0294.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: time series; Colorado River; water supply; cross-validation; decadal prediction
Online: 28 August 2019 (11:32:10 CEST)
The future of the Colorado River water supply (WS) affects millions of people and the U.S. economy. A recent study suggested a cross-basin correlation between the Colorado River and its neighboring Great Salt Lake (GSL). Following that study, the feasibility of using the previously developed multi-year prediction of the GSL water level to forecast the Colorado River WS was tested. Time-series models were developed to predict the changes in WS out to 10 years. Regressive methods and the GSL water level data were used for the depiction of decadal variability of the Colorado River WS. Various time-series models suggest a decline in the 10-year-averaged WS since 2013 before starting to increase around 2020. Comparison between this WS prediction and the WS projection published in a 2012 government report (derived from climate models) reveals a widened imbalance between supply and demand by 2020. Further research to update similar multi-year prediction of the Colorado River WS is needed. Such information could aid in management decision making in the face of future water shortages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0272.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: microbial interactions; cross-feeding; synthetic communities; volatolomic; biofilm; alcoholic fermentation
Online: 26 June 2019 (15:51:06 CEST)
used traditional microbial starters revealed that effective fermentation requires three microbial strains with complementary metabolic activities: filamentous fungi (Rhizopus oryzae), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum). Relative to natural communities, modulation of the ratio of these three microorganisms led to significant differences not only in terms of ethanol and organic acid production, but also with the profile of volatile compounds. However, inoculation of an equal ratio of spores/cells of the three aforementioned microbial strains led to a flavor profile and ethanol yield similar to that obtained with natural communities. Compartmentalization of metabolic tasks through the use of a biofilm cultivation device allowed further improvement of the entire fermentation process, notably by increasing the amount of key components of the aroma profile of the fermented beverage (i.e., mainly phenylethyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, and 2-methyl-butanol) and reducing the amount of off-flavor compound. This study represents an initial step toward understanding interkingdom microbial interactions with a strong potential for application in the food biotechnology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0364.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Bio-sensing, Extinction cross-section, Nano-particles, Plasmons, Raman scattering.
Online: 15 November 2018 (14:54:58 CET)
In this paper, the far field and near field optical responses of a gold nanoparticle are studied and simulated numerically. The electromagnetic field was excited by an electric dipole located near one end of the nanorod, which is used to model the emission of a quantum dot. Another excitation method was also simulated in which an incident plane wave is used. The excitation of dark plasmon modes of the gold nanorod is presented. The Poynting equation was solved numerically to study the influence of the gold nanorod on the dipole radiative power. In addition, the extinction cross section of the gold nanoparticle illuminated by the incident plane wave was calculated to estimate the amount of the scattered and absorbed light.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: ecosystem services; agricultural systems; mapping; values; cross-scale; participatory; local
Online: 3 July 2018 (08:16:24 CEST)
Given the cross-scale interactions of agricultural ecosystems, it is important to collect ecosystem service data at the multiple spatial scales they operate at. Mapping of ecosystem services helps to assess their spatial and temporal distribution and is a popular communication tool of their availability and value. For example, maps can be used to quantify distance between areas of available ecosystem services and their beneficiaries and how services fluctuate with changes in land use patterns over time, allowing identification of synergies and trade-offs. However, a lack of local context and too large a resolution can reduce the utility of these maps, whilst masking heterogeneities in access due to equity dynamics. This review identifies and summarizes eight main methods of ESS mapping found in the literature—remote sensing, biophysical modelling, agent based modelling, economic valuation, expert opinion, user preference, participatory mapping, and photo-elicitation. We consider what spatial scales these methods are utilized at and the transferability of data created by each method. The analysis concludes with a methodological framework for mapping ecosystem services, intended to help researchers identify appropriate methods for a multi-scale research design. The framework is exemplified with an overview of a research project in Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0313.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: visual question answering; cross-modal multistep fusion network; attention mechanism
Online: 24 April 2018 (09:09:45 CEST)
Visual question answering (VQA) is receiving increasing attention from researchers in both the computer vision and natural language processing fields. There are two key components in the VQA task: feature extraction and multi-modal fusion. For feature extraction, we introduce a novel co-attention scheme by combining Sentence-guide Word Attention (SWA) and Question-guide Image Attention (QIA) in a unified framework. To be specific, the textual attention SWA relies on the semantics of the whole question sentence to calculate contributions of different question words for text representation. For the multi-modal fusion, we propose a “Cross-modal Multistep Fusion (CMF)” network to generate multistep features and achieve multiple interactions for two modalities, rather than focusing on modeling complex interactions between two modals like most current feature fusion methods. To avoid the linear increase of the computational cost, we share the parameters for each step in the CMF. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive or better performance than the state-of-the-art.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0210.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: causality-in-variance; cross-correlation function; housing and stock markets
Online: 26 March 2018 (08:48:02 CEST)
This paper employs the two-step procedure developed by Cheung and Ng (1996) to analyze the causality-in-mean and causality-in-variance between the housing and stock markets of the UK. The empirical findings make two key contributions. First, although previous studies have indicated a one-way causal relation from the housing market to the stock market in the UK, this paper discovered a two-way causal relation between them. Second, a causality-in-variance as well as a causality-in-mean was detected from the housing market to the stock market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0107.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: electron scattering; cross sections; Rosetta mission; atomic and molecular databases
Online: 21 October 2017 (15:30:59 CEST)
The emission of [O I] lines in the coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the Rosetta mission have been explained by electron impact dissociation of water rather than the process of photodissociation. This is the direct evidence for the role of electron induced processing has been seen on such a body. Analysis of other emission features is handicapped by a lack of detailed knowledge of electron impact cross sections which highlights the need for a broad range of electron scattering data from the molecular systems detected on the comet. In this paper we present an overview of the needs for electron scattering data relevant for the understanding of observations in coma, the tenuous atmosphere and on the surface of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the Rosetta mission. The relevant observations for elucidating the role of electrons come from optical spectra, particle analysis using the ion and electron sensors and mass spectrometry measurements. To model these processes electron impact data should be collated and reviewed in an electron scattering database and an example is given in the BEAMD, which is a part of a larger consortium of Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre – VAMDC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Breast milk; Carotenoids; Tocopherols; Colostrum; Lactation stage; Cross-sectional study
Online: 6 October 2017 (08:39:21 CEST)
This study aims to quantify carotenoids and tocopherols in human milk from healthy Chinese women, and to explore their associations with region, lactation stage, and maternal socio-economic and obstetric factors. Human milk was obtained from 509 healthy mothers and the compounds of carotenoids and tocopherols were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography after mild saponification and solvent extraction. Socio-economic and obstetric characteristics of the mothers and their dietary intakes through a single 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. The median content of each component [μg/100mL, median (interquartile range)] in colostrum and mature milk was, respectively, β-carotene 8.0 (4.7-15.2) and 1.8 (1.4-2.7), β-cryptoxanthin 6.2 (2.4-12.9) and 1.8 (1.1-3.4), lutein 5.7 (2.9-10.2) and 3.4 (1.5-6.0), lycopene 6.3 (4.0-9.9) and 1.4 (1.1-2.0), zeaxanthin 1.0 (0.6-1.5) and 1.0 (0.6-1.4), α-tocopherol 645 (388-1176) and 211 (131-321), γ-tocopherol 68 (48-121) and 77 (45-120). The levels of all those vitamins presented regional differences, and decreased as lactation stage increased except for zeaxanthin and γ-tocopherol. Associations of carotenoid contents with maternal education, delivery mode, and present body mass index were found in multivariate analyses. These results suggest that some region, lactation stage, obstetric and socio-economic factors are associated with human milk concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in healthy Chinese mothers.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Planar metamaterial absorber; terahertz; six-band; cave-cross patch resonator
Online: 6 March 2017 (17:29:53 CET)
A simple design of an ultrathin six-band polarization-insensitive terahertz perfect metamaterial absorber (PMMA) composed of a metal cross-cave-patch resonator (CCPR) placed over a ground plane was proposed and investigated numerically. The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the average absorption peaks are up to 95% at six resonance frequencies with high quality-factors (>65). In addition, the absorption properties can be kept stability for both normal incident transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) waves. The physical mechanism behind the observed high level absorption is illustrated by the electric and power loss density distributions. The different absorption mainly originates from the higher order multipolar and multipolar plasmon resonance of the structure, which are sharp different to the most previous studies of the PMMAs. Furthermore, the resonance absorption of the PMMA can be tunable by varying the geometric parameters of the unit cell.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0022.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: perfect metamaterial absorber; terahertz; six-band; cave-cross patch resonator
Online: 3 March 2017 (08:48:31 CET)
A simple design of an ultrathin six-band polarization-insensitive terahertz perfect metamaterial absorber (PMMA) composed of a metal cross-cave-patch resonator (CCPR) placed over a ground plane was proposed and investigated numerically. The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the average absorption peaks are up to 95% at six resonance frequencies with high quality-factors (>65). In addition, the absorption properties can be kept stability for both normal incident transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) waves. The physical mechanism behind the observed high level absorption is illustrated by the electric and power loss density distributions. The different absorption mainly originates from the higher order multipolar and multipolar plasmon resonance of the structure, which are sharp different to the most previous studies of the PMMAs. Furthermore, the resonance absorption of the PMMA can be tunable by varying the geometric parameters of the unit cell.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0233.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: transcription factor; protein; DNA; protein-nucleic acid cross-linking; quantitative cross-linking; transplatin; trans-dichlorodiamineplatinum(II); hydrogen-deuterium exchange; FOXO4; molecular modeling; molecular docking
Online: 22 July 2019 (08:03:27 CEST)
The limited information available on the structure of complexes involving transcription factors and cognate DNA response elements represents a major obstacle in the quest to understand their mechanism of action at the molecular level. We implemented a concerted structural proteomics approach, which combined hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX), quantitative protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid cross-linking (XL), and homology analysis, to model the structure of the complex between the full-length DNA binding domain (DBD) of FOXO4 and its DNA binding element (DBE). The results confirmed that FOXO4-DBD assumes the characteristic forkhead topology shared by these types of transcription factors, but its binding mode differs significantly from those of other members of the family. The results showed that the binding interaction stabilized regions that were rather flexible and disordered in the unbound form. Surprisingly, the conformational effects were not limited only to the interface between bound components but extended also to distal regions that may be essential to recruiting additional factors to the transcription machinery. In addition to providing valuable new insights into the binding mechanism, this project provided an excellent evaluation of the merits of structural proteomics approaches in the investigation of systems that arematerial not directly amenable to traditional high-resolution techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0210.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: cerebral palsy; ultrasound; piecewise model; muscle volume; cross-sectional area; GMFCS
Online: 12 January 2023 (04:51:23 CET)
Only cross-sectional studies have demonstrated muscle deficits in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP). The impact of functional impairments on altered muscle growth remains unclear. This prospective longitudinal study modelled the morphological muscle growth in 87 children with SCP (age range 6 months to 11 years, Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] level I/II/III=47/22/18). Repeated ultrasound assessments were performed during 2-year (y) follow-up with an interval of minimal 6 months. Three-dimensional freehand ultrasound was applied to assess medial gastrocnemius muscle volume (MV), mid-belly cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle belly length (ML). Non-linear mixed models compared trajectories of (normalized) muscle growth between GMFCS-I versus GMFCS-II&III. MV and CSA growth trajectories showed piecewise model with 2 breakpoints, with the highest growth before 2y and negative growth rates after 6-9y. Before 2y, children with GMFCS-II&III already showed lower growth rates compared to GMFCS-I. From 2-9y, the growth rates did not differ between GMFCS-levels. After 9y, a more pronounced reduction in normalized CSA was observed in GMFCS-II&III. Different trajectories in ML growth were shown between the GMFCS-level subgroups. These longitudinal trajectories could be used to monitor the SCP muscle pathology during childhood and to optimize treatment planning and goals aiming to stimulate muscle growth
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0350.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: PolyTetraFluoroEthylene; Ionizing radiation; , High temperatures; Modification; Crystallization; Cross-linking; Pore; Structure
Online: 20 September 2021 (16:58:23 CEST)
By means of X-ray computed microtomography (XCMT) the existence of a developed microporous structure having an average pore diameter of ~3.5 μm and pore content of ~1.1 vol.% has been revealed in unirradiated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). It has been found that the combined action of gamma radiation (absorbed dose per PTFE of ~170 kGy) and high temperatures (327-350 °C) leads to the disappearance of the microporous structure and the formation of several large pores with sizes from 30 to 50 μm in the bulk of thermal-radiation modified PTFE (TRM-PTFE). It has been established by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that the thermal-radiation modification of PTFE leads to an increase in the interplanar spacings, the degree of crystallinity and volume of the unit cell, as well as to a decrease in the size of crystals and the X-ray density of the crystalline phase in comparison with the initial polymer. It is assumed that the previously established effect of improving the deformation-strength and tribological properties of the TRM-PTFE can be due not only to the radiation cross-linking of polymer chains but also to the disappearance of the micropore system and to the ordering of the crystalline phase of PTFE.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: XTerra; trail running; W’; MTB; off-road cycling economy; cross triathlon
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:36:37 CEST)
(1) Background: This report examines the unique demands of off-road triathlon (XT) by presenting physiological, field, and race data from a national champion off-road triathlete using several years of laboratory and field data to detail training and race intensity. (2) Methods: Laboratory and field data were collected when the athlete was at near peak fitness and included oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), power output (W), and blood lactate (BLC) during cycling and running, while HR, cycling W, and running metrics were obtained from training and race data files over a period of seven years. Intensity was described using % HR max zones (Z) 1 < 75%, 2 = 75 - 87%, and Zone 3 > 87%, and W. An ordinary least squares analysis was used to model differences between event types. (3) Results: Weather conditions were not different across events. XT events had twice the elevation change (p<0.01) and two-three times greater W’ (p< 0.001) than road triathlon (ROAD), but similar HR intensity profiles (max, avg, and zones); both events are predominately performed at > Z2 or higher intensity. Championship XT events were longer (p<0.01) , with higher kJ expenditure (p<0.001). OLS modelling suggested three variables were strongly related (R2 = 0.84; p < 0.0001) to cycling performance: event type (XT vs ROAD), total meters climbed, and total bike duration. Championship XT runs were slower than either regional (p<0.05) or ROAD (p<0.01) runs, but HR intensity profiles similar. OLS modelling indicates that slower running is linked to either greater total bike kJ expenditure (R2 = 0.57; p<0.001), or total meters gained (R2 = 0.52; p<0.001). Race simulation data support these findings but failed to produce meaningful differences in running. Conclusions: XT race demands are unique and mirror MTB and trail running demands. XT athletes must be mindful of developing anaerobic fitness, technical ability, and aerobic fitness, all of which contribute to off-road cycling economy. It is unclear whether XT cycling affects subsequent running performance different from ROAD cycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0390.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Gravitation; Black hole; Shadow; High-energy physics; Cross-section; Null geodesics
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:31:11 CEST)
This letter aims to show the connection between the sinc approximation for high-energy absorption cross section and the shadow radius of the spherically symmetric black hole. This connection can give a physical interpretation of the absorption cross section in the eikonal limit parameters. Moreover, the use of this alternative way, one can extract its shadow radius from the absorption cross section in high energy limits to gain more information about the black hole spacetime. Our results indicate that the increasing the value of the shadow radius of the black hole, exponentially increase the the absorption cross section of the black hole in high-energy limits which can be captured by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration.
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Physical cross-linking; lower critical solution temperature; cononsolvency phenomenon; hydrogen bonds.
Online: 11 August 2021 (10:46:47 CEST)
Recently, it was reported that the physical cross-linking exhibited by some biopolymers could provide multiple benefits to biomedical applications. In particular, grafting thermoresponsive polymers onto biopolymers may enhance the degradability or offer other features, as ther-mothickening behavior. Thus, different interactions will affect the different hydrogen bonds and interactions from the physical cross-linking of CMC, the lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs), and the presence of the ions. This work focuses on the study of blends composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), poly(N-ethylacrylamide), and carboxymethyl cellulose in water and water/methanol. The molecular features, the thermoresponsive behavior, and gelation phenomena are deeply studied. The ratio defined by both homopolymers will alter the final properties and the gelation of the final structures, showing that the presence of the hydrophilic groups modifies the number and contributions of the diverse hydrogen bonds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0693.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Intercultural competence; Cross-cultural experiences; Emotional intelligence; Global citizenship; Immersive pedagogy
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:40:01 CEST)
Over recent years globalisation has occasioned a dramatic rise in cross-cultural interactions – until this was disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic (OECD 2018, Nelson & Luetz 2021). The ability to competently engage in a multicultural world is often considered the “literacy of the future” (UNESCO 2013, OECD 2018). Global interconnectedness has brought studies into intercultural competence to centre stage (UNDP 2004, Bissessar 2018, Nelson et al. 2019). This has increased the demand for cross-cultural education experiences that facilitate such learning. However, there is a dearth of empirical research into the issues and effects surrounding short-term cross-cultural educational experiences for adolescents. This mixed methods study extends previous research by looking specifically into what impact short-term cross-cultural experiences may have on the formation of intercultural competence and emotional intelligence of Australian high school students. This study used two instruments for measuring intercultural competence and emotional intelligence in a pre- and posttest quasi-experimental design (n=14), the GENE Scale and TEQ. Moreover, it conducted in-depth post experience qualitative interviews (n=7) that broadly followed a phenomenological paradigm of inquiry. The findings suggest that fully embodied cross-cultural immersive experiences offer benefits in areas of intercultural competence and emotional intelligence and can offer meaningful application in areas of current affairs. A greater understanding of the linkages between immersive cross-cultural experiences and intercultural competence offers prospects for policy makers, educators, pastoral carers, and other relevant stakeholders who might employ such experiential learning to foster more interculturally and interracially harmonious human relations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0356.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: VIIRS; DMSP; GDP; nighttime lights; cross-sectional; time-series; economic statistics
Online: 14 May 2021 (17:10:27 CEST)
Nighttime lights (NTL) are a popular type of data for evaluating economic performance of regions and economic impacts of various shocks and interventions. Several validation studies use traditional statistics on economic activity like national or regional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a benchmark to evaluate the usefulness of NTL data. Many of these studies rely on dated and imprecise Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) data and use aggregated units such as nation-states or the first sub-national level. Yet applied researchers who draw support from validation studies to justify their use of NTL data as a proxy for economic activity increasingly focus on smaller and lower level spatial units. This study uses a 2001-19 time-series of GDP for over 3100 US counties as a benchmark to examine the usefulness of the recently released version 2 VIIRS nighttime lights (V.2 VNL) products as proxies for local economic activity. Contrasts are made between cross-sectional predictions for GDP differences between areas and time-series predictions of GDP changes within areas. Disaggregated GDP data for various industries are used to examine what types of economic activity are best proxied by NTL data and comparisons are also made with the predictive performance of earlier NTL data products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0520.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: coronavirus; cross-national study; pandemic; physical distancing; psychological outcomes; social distancing
Online: 19 April 2021 (22:23:02 CEST)
The aim of the study was to examine the use of video-based communication and its association with loneliness, mental health and quality of life in older adults (60-69 years versus 70+ years) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Norway, UK, USA and Australia during April/May 2020, and 836 participants in the relevant age groups were included in the analysis. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between use of video-based communication tools and loneliness, mental health and quality of life within age groups, while adjusting by sociodemographic variables. Video-based communication tools were found to be more often used among participants aged 60-69 years (60.1%), compared to participants aged 70 or above (51.8%, p < 0.05). Adjusting for all variables, use of video-based communication was associated with less loneliness (β = -0.12, p < 0.01) and higher quality of life (β = 0.14, p < 0.01) among participants aged 60-69 years, while no associations occurred for participants in the oldest age group. The use of video-based communication tools was therefore associated with favorable psychological outcomes among participants in their sixties, but not among participants in the oldest age group. The study results support the notion that age may influence the association between use of video-based communication tools and psychological outcomes amongst older people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0537.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: BIM model; point cloud; tunnel engineering; data fusion; cross-section analysis
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:09:19 CET)
This paper introduces a method for tunnel point cloud and BIM model integration and cross-section monitoring, providing information to analyse tunnel cross-sections and surrounding rock deformation, and support for tunnel maintenance and reconstruction. Three types of data are processed for the integration: laser scanning point cloud, BIM tunnel model and terrain model from oblique photogrammetry. An adaptive BIM modelling scheme is proposed for tunnels with alien structures. Precise spatial registration of the data sets is conducted by applying singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm to calculate transformation parameters from the point cloud model to the BIM model. Since the tunnel central line has high-order derivability, a cross-section calculation method based on tangent vector is proposed to obtain the cross-sectional profile of tunnels at any mileage. The proposed method has been verified by applying it to a tunnel reconstruction project. The experiment results show that the tunnel point cloud and the BIM model were highly coincident after the integration. The developed program can effectively get the cross-section of the tunnel at any mileage, and correctly express the spatial relationship between the BIM tunnel, the point cloud of tunnel and the external mountainous terrain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0579.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Tolerance; Persistence; Cross-resistance; Toxin-antitoxin system; PemK/PemI; Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Online: 24 July 2020 (11:46:37 CEST)
Although the failure of antibiotic treatment is normally attributed to resistance, tolerance and persistence display a significant role in the lack of response to antibiotics. Due to the fact that several nosocomial pathogens show a high level of tolerance and/or resistance to chlorhexidine, in this study we analyzed the molecular mechanisms associated with chlorhexidine adaptation in two clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae by phenotypic and transcriptomic studies. These two strains belong to ST258-KPC3 (high-risk clone carrying β-lactamase KPC3) and ST846-OXA48 (low-risk clone carrying β-lactamase OXA48). Our results showed that K. pneumoniae ST258-KPC3CA and ST846-OXA48CA strains exhibited a different behavior under CHLX pressure, adapting to this biocide through resistance and tolerance mechanisms, respectively. Furthermore, the appearance of cross-resistance to colistin was observed in the ST846-OXA48CA strain (tolerant to CHLX), using the broth microdilution method. Interestingly, this ST846-OXA48CA isolate contained a plasmid that encodes a novel type II toxin/antitoxin (TA) system, PemK/PemI. We characterized this PemK/PemI TA system by cloning both genes into the IPTG-inducible pCA24N plasmid, and found their role in persistence and biofilm formation. Accordingly, the ST846-OXA48CA strain showed a persistence biphasic curve in the presence of a chlorhexidine-imipenem combination, and these results were confirmed by the enzymatic assay (WST-1).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0351.v1
Subject: Keywords: Brain Tumor; Machine Learning; Ensemble techniques; AdaBoost; Cross-Validation; Stratified technique
Online: 29 June 2020 (07:27:38 CEST)
Brain Tumor is one of the severe diseases and occurrence of this disease threats human life. Detection of brain tumor in advance can secure patient’s life from unwanted loss. Well-timed and swift disease detection and treatment strategy can lead to improved quality of life in these patients. This paper attempts to use Machine Learning based ensemble approaches for recognising patients with brain tumor. Ensemble technique based AdaBoost classifier and 10-fold stratified cross-validation method are assembled in single platform is proposed in this paper for prediction of brain tumor. This prediction is compared against three baseline classifiers such as Gradient Boost, Random Forest and Extra Trees classifier. Experimental result implies the superiority of this model with an accuracy of 98.97%, f1-score of 0.99, kappa statistics score of 0.95 and MSE of 0.0103.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0420.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: Fullerene anions; electron cross sections; polarization interaction; water oxidation; anionic catalysis
Online: 28 February 2020 (11:46:47 CET)
We first explore negative-ion formation in fullerenes C44, C60, C70, C98, C112, C120, C132 and C136 through low-energy electron elastic scattering total cross sections calculations using our Regge-pole methodology. Water oxidation to peroxide and water synthesis from H2 and O2 are then investigated using the anionic catalysts C44ˉ to C136ˉ. The fundamental mechanism underlying negative-ion catalysis involves hydrogen bond strength-weakening in the transition state. DFT transition state calculations found C60ˉ numerically stable for both water and peroxide synthesis, C100ˉ increases the energy barrier the most and C136ˉ the most effective catalyst in both water synthesis and oxidation to H2O2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0307.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: antioxidant activity; cross-tolerance; glycine max; heat stress; proteomics; water stress
Online: 31 October 2019 (05:23:35 CET)
Water stress (WS) and heat stress (HS) have a negative effect on soybean plant growth and crop productivity. During WS, soybean plants opt for survival through ion homeostasis and the conformations of proteins are disconcerted as plant cells lose water while HS leads to difficulties in flowering and fruiting. Some of these changes include oxidative stress leading to the destruction of photosynthetic apparatus, macromolecules within cells and the onset of complex signaling cascades. Changes in the physiological characteristics, proteome, and certain metabolites investigated on molecular and cellular functions were studied in two soybean cultivars exposed to different heat and water stress conditions independently and in combination. Leaf protein composition was studied using 2-DE and complemented with MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. While two cultivars displayed genetic variation in response to water and heat stress, thirty-nine proteins were significantly altered in their relative abundance in response to WS, HS and combined WS+HS in both cultivars; a majority of them involved in metabolism, response to heat and photosynthesis showing significant cross-tolerance mechanisms. Functional analysis revealing a majority of heat responsive-proteins were more abundant during HS and combined stress (WS+HS) whereas these proteins were low to WS in cultivar PI 471938 and heat shock proteins were in low abundance to water, heat and combined stresses in cultivar R95-1705. Most protein abundances were not correlated with their expression at mRNA levels in PI cultivar, however, in cultivar R 95, the expression levels of transcript follow their relative abundance in proteins. Our systems bioinformatics analyses revealed that MED37C, a probable mediator of RNA polymerase transcription II protein showed potential interacting partners in Arabidopsis and our studies signifies the marked impact of this protein in PI cultivar. Elevated activities in antioxidant enzymes indicate that the PI-371938 cultivar has the ability to restore the oxidation levels and sustain the plant during the stress. Our study hypothesizes the plant’s development of cross-stress tolerance which will help foster the ongoing ventures in genetic modifications in stress tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0039.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: tree species; forest; biodiversity; time series; spatial autocorrelation; cross-validation; accuracy
Online: 3 October 2019 (13:56:18 CEST)
Mapping forest composition using multiseasonal optical time series is still challenging. Highly contrasted results are reported from one study to another suggesting that drivers of classification errors are still under-explored. We evaluated the performances of single-year Formosat-2 time series to discriminate tree species in temperate forests in France and investigated how predictions vary statistically and spatially across multiple years. Our objective was to better estimate the impact of spatial autocorrelation in the validation data on measurement accuracy and to understand which drivers in the time series are responsible for classification errors. The experiments were based on ten Formosat-2 image time series irregularly acquired during the seasonal vegetation cycle from 2006 to 2014. Due to lot of clouds in the year 2006, an alternative 2006 time series using only cloud-free images has been added. Thirteen tree species were classified in each single-year dataset based on the SVM algorithm. The performances were assessed using a spatial leave-one-out cross validation (SLOO-CV) strategy, thereby guaranteeing full independence of the validation samples, and compared with standard non-spatial leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV). The results show relatively close statistical performances from one year to the next despite the differences between the annual time series. Good agreements between years were observed in monospecific tree plantations of broadleaf species versus high disparity in other forests composed of different species. A strong positive bias in the accuracy assessment (up to 0.4 of Overall Accuracy) was also found when spatial dependence in the validation data was not removed. Using the SLOO-CV approach, the average OA values per year ranged from 0.48 for 2006 to 0.60 for 2013, which satisfactorily represents the spatial instability of species prediction between years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0249.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: vehicle; shell thickness, coating; focused ion beam; containing cross-linking agents
Online: 23 July 2019 (07:36:14 CEST)
This research was conducted to manufacture thermally expandable microspheres (TEMs) for vehicles’ underbody coating and to apply them on an industrial scale. TEMs heat resistance was studied depending on the ratios of a cross-linking agent and an initiator. This research focused on the content of a cross-linking agent and how it affected the results. The TEMs’ outer shell was thickened to solve the problem of the foam expansion ratio’s reduction that occurred due to the shrinkage after the maximum expansion (Tmax) was reached. After foaming, the cross-sectional thickness and surface of the sample with thickened outer shell were observed. The TEMs with the thickened shell showed the least shrinkage, which indicated excellent shrinkage stability, even after prolonged exposure to heat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0300.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Hardy cross method; pipe networks; piping systems; hydraulic networks; gas distribution
Online: 28 January 2019 (11:05:06 CET)
Hardy Cross originally proposed a method for analysis of flow in networks of conduits or conductors in 1936. His method was the first really useful engineering method in the field of pipe network calculation. Only electrical analogs of hydraulic networks were used before the Hardy Cross method. A problem with the flow resistance versus the electrical resistance makes these electrical analog methods obsolete. The method by Hardy Cross is taught extensively at faculties and it still remains an important tool for analysis of looped pipe systems. Engineers today mostly use a modified Hardy Cross method which threats the whole looped network of pipes simultaneously (use of these methods without computers is practically impossible). A method from the Russian practice published during 1930s, which is similar to the Hardy Cross method, is described, too. Some notes from the life of Hardy Cross are also shown. Finally, an improved version of the Hardy Cross method, which significantly reduces number of iterations, is presented and discussed. Also we tested multi-point iterative methods which can be used as substitution for the Newton-Raphson approach used by Hardy Cross, but this approach didn’t reduce number of required iterations to reach the final balanced solution. Although, many new models have been developed since the time of Hardy Cross, main purpose of this paper is to illustrate the very beginning of modeling of gas and water pipe networks or ventilation systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0218.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: cross-linguistic influence (CLI); L3 Spanish; borrowing; functional transfer; language distance
Online: 22 January 2019 (11:41:10 CET)
Studies in the area of cross-linguistic influence (CLI) have attracted the focus of multi-linguistic learners. However, little research on CLI deals with Asian learners, particularly Chinese-speaker with knowledge of two or more foreign languages. The present study explores CLI in L1 Chinese learners with both English (L2) and Spanish (L3) as foreign languages who are studying in Madrid, a Spanish-speaking community; their studies coincided with data collection. English learners were instructed to speak for analysis purposes, with the following aims: (i) to observe the most frequent category (functional transfer, code-switching, borrowing and coinage) in the CLI instances; (ii) to determine the source language of CLI; (iii) to investigate whether CLI factors, including language distance, L2 status, proficiency and recency of use, intervene in the appearance of CLI instances in the participants. Data was gathered from 16 female Chinese students at Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). These were master students aged 22 to 26, who visited Spain for more than 5 months when they participated in the present study. The instrument used was an English semi-structured interview. Results primarily reveal that (a) borrowing is the most prevalent category, accounting for 70% of the CLI instances; (b) Spanish is the main source language of CLI while Chinese plays a functional role in the transfer process; (c) language distance proves to be the strongest predictor of CLI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0124.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Lignin, nanoparticle, protein, nanocellulose, fibril, enzyme, heat, self-assembly, cross-link
Online: 5 November 2018 (15:18:23 CET)
Lignin has interesting functionalities to be exploited in adhesives for medicine, foods and textiles. Nanoparticles (NPs) <100 nm coated with poly(L-lysine), PL and poly(L-glutamic acid) PGA were prepared from the laccase treated lignin to coat nanocellulose fibrils (CNF) with heat. NPs ca. 300 nm were prepared, β-casein coated and cross-linked with transglutaminase (Tgase) to agglutinate chamois specimens. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize polymerized lignin, zetapotential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to ensure coating of colloidal lignin particles (CLPs). Protein adsorption on lignin was studied by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was exploited to examine interactions between different polymers and to image NPs with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tensile testing showed, when using CLPs for the adhesion, the stress improved ca. 10 and strain ca. 6 times compared to polymeric lignin. For the β-casein NPs the values were 20 and 8, respectively, and for the β-casein coated CLPs between these two cases. When NPs were dispersed in adhesive formulation, the Young's moduli confirmed significant improvement in the elasticity of the joints over the adhesive alone. Exploitation lignin in nanoparticulate morphology is a potential method to prepare bionanomaterials for advanced applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Cross-laminated timber floors; End supports; End fixity factor; Vibration serviceability
Online: 4 October 2018 (13:21:12 CEST)
As an emerging building solution, cross-laminated timber (CLT) floors have been increasingly used in mass timber construction. The current vibration design of CLT floors is conservative due to the assumption of simple support conditions in the floor-to-wall connections. It is noted that end fixity occurs as a result of clamping action at the ends, arising from the gravity load applied by the structure above the floor and by the mechanical fasteners. In this paper, the semi-rigid floor-to-wall connections are treated as elastically restrained edges against rotations to account for the effect of partial constraint. A rotational end-fixity factor was first defined to reflect the relative bending stiffness between CLT floors and elastic restraints at the edges. Then, for the design of vibration serviceability of CLT floors as per the Canadian Standard for Engineering Design in Wood (CSA O86), restraint coefficients were defined and their analytical expressions were derived for natural frequencies and the mid-span deflection under a concentrated load, respectively. In particular, a simplified formula of the restraint coefficient for the fundamental frequency was developed to assist engineers in practical design. At last, by comparing with reported experimental data, the proposed design formula showed excellent agreement with test results. In the end, the proposed end fixity factor with their corresponding restraint coefficients is recommended as an effective mechanics-based approach to account for the effect of end support conditions of CLT floors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: cross-laminated timber; structural composite lumber; hybrid; bending properties; shear properties
Online: 5 September 2018 (06:33:41 CEST)
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) possesses both good shape stability and the possible two-way force transfer ability due to its crosswise lamination. However, the transverse layers in CLT are prone to rolling shear failure under an out-of-plane load. An innovative multi-layer composite laminated panel (CLP) was developed by combining structural composite lumber (SCL) and dimension lumber to overcome the rolling shear failure while maintaining high mechanical performance and aesthetic appearance of natural wood. The mechanical properties of 5-layer CLP consisted of laminated strand lumber (LSL) and dimension lumber with different layups were evaluated by both static and modal tests. The results showed that the shear resistance, bending stiffness and moment resistance of CLP were up to 143%, 43% and 87% higher than their counterparts of regular CLT, respectively. The failure modes observed in both shear and bending tests indicated that the use of LSL in transverse layers could eliminate the potential rolling shear failure in CLT. With the lamination properties from components tests as inputs, the validity of shear analogy method was assessed by test results. The mechanical properties can be well predicted by shear analogy method except for the bending moment resistance of CLP and CLT with either rolling failure in the cross layer or tension failure in the bottom layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0079.v1
Subject: Keywords: adult mortality; disparity; political instability; universal health coverage; cross-country study
Online: 8 August 2016 (12:01:28 CEST)
Background: Disparity in adult mortality (AM) with reference to social dynamics and health care has not been sufficiently examined. This study aimed to identify the gap in the understanding of AM in relation to religion, political stability, economic level, and universal health coverage (UHC). Methods: A cross-national study was performed with different sources of data, using the administrative record linkage theory. We created a new data set using data from the 2013 World Bank data catalogue by region, The Economist (Political instability index 2013), Stuckler David et al. (Universal health coverage, 2010), and religious categories of all UN country members. Descriptive statistics, a t-test, an ANOVA followed by a post hoc test, and a linear regression were used where applicable. Result: The average AM rate for males and females was 0.20 ± 0.10 and 0.14 ± 0.10, respectively. AM was significantly higher in economically weak countries, countries with political instability, countries with traditional religion, without achievement of UHC, and Sub-Saharan Africa (p<0.01). There was high disparity of AM between countries with and without UHC (F = male: 61.89, female: 51.85, p<0.001) and between groups with low and high income (F = male: 36.33, female: 42.39, p<0.001). UHC and political stability would significantly reduce AMR by > 0.41 in both sexes and high economic status would reduce male AMR by 0.44, and female AMR by 0.70, in relation to countries without UHC, with political instability, and low economic status. Conclusions: Disparities in AM can be reduced after the achievement of UHC and economically productive activities for those adults affected by conflict and political unrest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: B-spline; cross-section; beam; moments of area; parametric; symbolic; moments; area
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:23:35 CET)
The calculation of moments of area is one of the most fundamental aspects of engineering mechanics for calculating the properties of beams or for the determination of invariants in different kind of geometries. While a variety of shapes such as circles, rectangles, ellipses or their combinations can be described symbolically, such symbolic expressions are missing for freeform cross-sections. In particular, periodic B-spline cross-sections are suitable for an alternative beam cross-section, e.g. for the representation of topology optimization results. In this work, therefore, a symbolic description of the moments of area of various parametric representations of such B-splines is computed. The expressions found are then compared with alternative computational methods and checked for validity. The resulting equations show a simple way for fast conceptual computation of such moments of area of periodic B-splines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Bitcoin; economic policy uncertainty; spillover; wavelet coherence analysis; quantile cross-spectral dependence
Online: 18 May 2022 (03:15:25 CEST)
In this study, the dependence between Bitcoin (BTC) and economic policy uncertainty (EPU) of USA and China is estimated by applying latest methodology of quantile cross-spectral dependence. The findings indicate a positive return interdependence between BTC and EPU is high in short-term, and this dependence decreases as investment horizons increase from weekly to yearly. The information on above interdependence is also extracted by applying wavelet coherence analysis and the estimation results suggest that correlation between BTC and EPU is positive during short-term investment horizon. Furthermore, more diversification benefits of BTC can be obtained during USA-EPU as compared to China-EPU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0052.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Crystallization; Nucleation; Cross-links; Fast scanning calorimetry (FSC); Classical nucleation theory (CNT)
Online: 4 October 2021 (11:50:36 CEST)
The crystal nucleation and overall crystallization kinetics of cross-linked poly(ε-caprolactone) was studied experimentally by fast scanning calorimetry in a wide temperature range. With an increasing degree of cross-linking, both the nucleation and crystallization half-times increase. Concurrently, the glass transition range shifts to higher temperatures. In contrast, the temperatures of the maximum nucleation and the overall crystallization rates remain the same independent of the degree of cross-linking. The cold crystallization peak temperature generally increases as a function of heating rate, reaching an asymptotic value near the temperature of the maximum growth rate. A theoretical interpretation of these results is given in terms of classical nucleation theory. In addition, it is shown that the average distance between the nearest cross-links is smaller than the estimated lamellae thickness, which indicates the inclusion of cross-links in the crystalline phase of the polymer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0253.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: social media, Covid-19, cross-sectional, trans-national, mental health, loneliness, pandemic
Online: 31 May 2021 (23:10:36 CEST)
Background Due to the Covid-19 pandemic and the strict national policies regarding social distancing behavior in Europe, America and Australia, people became reliant on social media as a means for gathering information and a tool for staying connected to family, friends and work. This is the first trans-national study exploring the qualitative experiences and challenges of using social media while in lockdown or shelter in place during the current pandemic. Methods This study was part of a wider cross-sectional online survey conducted in Norway, UK, USA and Australia during April/May 2020. The manuscript reports on the qualitative free text component of the study asking about the challenges of social media users during the Covid-19 pandemic in UK, USA and Australia. 1991 responses were included in the analysis. Thematic analysis was conducted independently by two researchers. Results Three overarching themes identified were: Emotional/Mental Health, Information and Being Connected. Participants experienced that using social media during the pandemic amplified anxiety, depression, fear, panic, anger, frustration and loneliness. They felt that there was information overload and social media was full of misleading or polarized opinions from which was difficult to switch off. Nonetheless, participants also thought that there was an urge for connection and learning which was positive and stressful and the same time. Conclusion Using social media while in shelter in place or lockdown could have a negative impact on the emotional and mental health of some of the population. To support policy and practice in strengthening mental health care in the community, social media could be used to deliver practical advice on coping and stress management. Communication with the public should be strengthened by unambiguous and clear messages and clear communication pathways. We should be looking at alternative ways of staying connected.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0586.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Coronavirus; COVID-19; cross-species transmission; evolution; immune response; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 21 April 2021 (16:25:25 CEST)
Nowadays, the human population is facing the third and may be the worst pandemic caused by human coronaviruses (CoVs). The virus was first reported in Wuhan, China on 31 December 2019 and spread within short time to almost all countries of the world. Genome analysis of the early virus isolates has revealed high similarity with SARS-CoV and hence the new virus was officially named SARS-CoV-2. Since CoVs have the largest genome among all RNA viruses, they can adapt many point mutation and recombination events; particularly in spike gene, that enable these viruses to rapidly change and evolve in nature. CoVs are known to cross the species boundaries by using different cellular receptors. SARS-CoV-2 is believed to originate in bats and transmitted to human being through an ill-defined intermediate host. In the current review, different aspects of SARS-CoV-2 biology and pathogenicity are discussed including virus genetics and evolution, spike protein and its role in evolution and adaptation to novel hosts, and virus transmission and persistence in nature. In addition, the immune response developed during SARS-CoV-2 infection is demonstrated with special reference to the interplay between immune cells and their role in disease progression. We believe that SARS-CoV-2 outbreak will not be the last and spillover of CoVs from bats will continue. Therefore, establishing intervention approaches to reduce the likelihood of future CoVs spillover from the natural reservoirs is a priority.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0671.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Dengue; Dengue vaccine trials; vaccine efficacy; cross-protection; serotypes; serostatus; Bayesian approach
Online: 27 September 2020 (08:37:14 CEST)
There is a growing public health need for effective preventive interventions against dengue, and a safe, effective and affordable dengue vaccine against the four serotypes would be a significant achievement for disease prevention and control. Two tetravalent dengue vaccines, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur) and DENVax (Takeda Pharmaceutical Company), have now completed phase 3 clinical trials. While Dengvaxia resulted in serious adverse events and is restricted to individuals with prior dengue infections, DENVax has shown, at first glance, some encouraging results. Using the available data for the TAK 003 trial, we estimate, via the Bayesian approach, vaccine efficacy (VE) of the post-vaccination surveillance periods. Although better measurement over long time was expected for the second part of the post-vaccination surveillance, variation in serotype-specific efficacy needs careful consideration. Besides observing that individual serostatus prior to vaccination is determinant of DENVax vaccine efficacy, we also compare the VE estimations for 12 and 18 months and we observe that the efficacy is decreasing over time. The comparison of efficacies over time is informative and very important, bring up the discussion of the role of temporary cross-immunity in dengue vaccine trials and the impact of serostatus prior to vaccination in the context of dengue fever epidemiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Cationic cyclodextrin; cyclodextrin polymer; epichlorohydrin cross-linker; nasal delivery; cytotoxicity; cell uptake
Online: 9 July 2020 (08:05:35 CEST)
Cyclodextrin polymers have high applicability in pharmaceutical formulations due to better biocompatibility, solubility enhancement, loading capacity and controlled drug release than parent the cyclodextrins. The cytotoxicity and cell uptake of new cationic beta-cyclodextrin monomers and polymers were evaluated as suitable material for nasal formulations and their protective effects on cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide were studied. PC12 and CACO-2 cells were selected as the neuronal and epithelial type cells, respectively, to mimic the structure of respiratory and olfactory epithelia of the nasal cavity. All cationic beta-cyclodextrin polymers tested showed dose- and time-dependent toxicity; nevertheless, at 5 µM concentration and 60 min of exposure, the quaternary-ammonium-beta-cyclodextrin soluble polymer could be recognized as non-toxic. Based on these results, fluorescently labelled quaternary-ammonium-beta-cyclodextrin monomer and polymer were selected for uptake studies in CACO-2 cells. The monomeric and polymeric beta-cyclodextrins were internalized in the cytoplasm of CACO-2 cells; the cationic monomer showed higher permeability than the hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, employed as comparison. Therefore, these cationic beta-cyclodextrins showed potential as excipients able to improve the nasal absorption of drugs. Furthermore, amino-beta-cyclodextrin and beta-cyclodextrin soluble polymers were able to reduce oxidative damage in PC12 and CACO-2 cells and thus could be studied as bioactive carriers or potential drugs for cells protection against oxidative stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0333.v1
Subject: Keywords: Lung Cancer Prediction; Neural Network; Cross-validation; Gradient Boosting Classifier; Automated tool
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:56:30 CEST)
Lung cancer is known as lung carcinoma. It is a disease which is malignant tumor leading to the uncontrolled cell growth in the lung tissue. Lung Cancer disease is one of the most prominent cause of death in all over world. Early detection of this disease can assist medical care unit as well as physicians to provide counter measures to the patients. The objective of this paper is to approach an automated tool that takes influential causes of lung cancer as input and detect patients with higher probabilities of being affected by this disease. A neural network classifier accompanied by cross-validation technique is proposed in this paper as a predictive tool. Later, this proposed method is compared with another baseline classifier Gradient Boosting Classifier in order to justify the prediction performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: DILIrank; DILI; drug hepatotoxicity; QSAR; nested cross-validation; virtual screening; in silico
Online: 14 February 2020 (02:24:04 CET)
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) remains one of the challenges in the safety profile of both authorized drugs and candidate drugs and predicting hepatotoxicity from the chemical structure of a substance remains a challenge worth pursuing, being also coherent with the current tendency for replacing non-clinical tests with in vitro or in silico alternatives. In 2016 a group of researchers from FDA published an improved annotated list of drugs with respect to their DILI risk, constituting “the largest reference drug list ranked by the risk for developing drug-induced liver injury in humans”, DILIrank. This paper is one of the few attempting to predict liver toxicity using the DILIrank dataset. Molecular descriptors were computed with the Dragon 7.0 software, and a variety of feature selection and machine learning algorithms were implemented in the R computing environment. Nested (double) cross-validation was used to externally validate the models selected. A number of 78 models with reasonable performance have been selected and stacked through several approaches, including the building of multiple meta-models. The performance of the stacked models was slightly superior to other models published. The models were applied in a virtual screening exercise on over 100,000 compounds from the ZINC database and about 20% of them were predicted to be non-hepatotoxic.