REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0563.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Community-acquired pneumonia; incidence; prophylaxis; pneumococcal; vaccination
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:52:36 CEST)
Current epidemiological data reports that adults aged 65 years and older comprise the most vulnerable age group with the highest proportion of CAP-attributable hospitalizations. Pneumococcal vaccine efficacy (VE) has been shown to decrease over time, contributing to increasing incidence rates of CAP. A holistic evaluation of age, sex, seasonality, and VE are is conducted in this systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 prospective and retrospective cohort studies. The findings suggest that incidence and age are positively associated and that incidence in females is more often reported to be higher in females than in males. In studies that observed seasonality of CAP, high seasons and low seasons were reported to be in winter and summer months, respectively. Lastly, studies that reviewed the effect of vaccination on incidence consistently found decreased observance of CAP in elderly adults following reception of PCV13 or PPSV23. However, one study suggested that such vaccinations may have decreased effectiveness in elderly populations and that research examining potential explanations for this require further investigation. Furthermore, distinct diagnostic and case ascertainment standards, descriptive measures, and methods of prevention and treatment of CAP used across the US are outlined in this review. Public health guidance such as encouraging the reception of pneumococcal vaccinations and mask-wearing during high seasons of CAP, and communicating the risks of not adhering to the aforementioned preventative measures can facilitate an effort to reduce the incidence of CAP and its associated adverse outcomes in the US elderly population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: sepsis; community-acquired pneumonia; very old, pneumonia
Online: 19 June 2019 (10:00:15 CEST)
Background: Little is known about risk and prognostic factors in very old patients developing sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of data prospectively collected at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona over a 13-year period. Consecutive patients hospitalized with CAP were included if they were very old (≥80 years) and divided into those with and without sepsis for comparison. Sepsis was diagnosed based on the Sepsis-3 criteria. The main clinical outcome was 30-day mortality. Results: Among the 4,219 patients hospitalized with CAP during the study period, 1,238 (29%) were very old. The prevalence of sepsis in this aged group was 71%. Male sex, chronic renal disease, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for sepsis, while antibiotic therapy before admission was independently associated with a lower risk of sepsis. Thirty-day and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality did not differ between patients with and without sepsis. In CAP-sepsis group, chronic renal disease and neurological disease were independent risk factors for 30-day mortality. Conclusion: In very old patients hospitalized with CAP, in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were increased if they developed sepsis. Antibiotic therapy before hospital admission was associated with a lower risk of sepsis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Community-Acquired Pneumonia; Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia; COVID-19; Antibiotics; Mes-enchymal Stem Cells; Corticosteroids
Online: 1 April 2021 (16:18:25 CEST)
Pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially during COVID-19 pandemic. With the significant global health burden that pneumonia poses, it is es-sential to improve therapeutic and management strategies. The increasing emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains limits options for effective antibiotic use. New antibiotics for treatment of pneumonia may address deficits in current antimicrobial drugs, with an ability to cover both typical, atypical, and resistance pathogen. Several of these newer drugs also have structural characteristics that allow for a decreased propensity in development of bacterial resistance. Po-tential use of stem cell therapies in place of corticosteroid treatments may also offer an im-provement in patient outcomes. Human mesenchymal stem cell treatments have shown efficacy and safety in treating COVID-19 induced pneumonia. Combined treatment with both stem cells and antibiotics in pneumonia in a rabbit model has also shown significantly increased efficacy in comparison to antibiotic treatment alone, presenting yet another possible route for a novel strategy in treating pneumonia, though additional future studies are necessary before clinical implementation. While pneumonia remains a major disease of concern, having newer approved antibiotics as well as novel therapies such as stem cell treatments in the pipeline offers clinicians more options in effectively treating pneumonia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0362.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: tuberculosis (TB); human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS); World Health Organization (WHO); panel data; poisson; negative binomial; regression
Online: 31 October 2019 (04:33:45 CET)
Tuberculosis cause of death worldwide and the leading cause from a single infectious agent, ranking above Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The aim of this study is to ascertain the trend of tuberculosis prevalence and the effect of HIV prevalence onl Tuberculosis case in some West African countries from 2000 to 2016 using count panel data regression models. The data used annual HIV and Tuberculosis cases spanning from 2000 to 2016 extracted from online publication of World health Organization (WHO). Panel Poisson regression model and Negative binomial regression model for fixed and random effects were used to analyzed the count data, the result revealed a positive trend in TB cases while increased in HIV cases leads to increase in TB cases in West African countries. Among the competing models used in this study, Panel Negative Binomial Regression Model with fixed effect emerged the best model with log likelihood value of -1336.554. This study recommended that Government and NGOs need more strategies to fight against HIV menace in West Africa as this will in turn reduced TB cases in West Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0058.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Legionella; residential buildings; water risk; community-acquired Legionnaire’s disease cases
Online: 10 October 2017 (03:33:02 CEST)
Although the European reports highlight an increase in community-acquired Legionnaires’ disease cases, the risk of Legionella spp. in private houses is underestimated. In Pisa (Italy) we performed a three-year survey on Legionella presence in 121 buildings with an independent hot water production (IB); 64 buildings with a central hot water production (CB); and 35 buildings with a solar thermal system for hot water production (TB). From all the 220 buildings Legionella spp. was researched in two hot water samples collected either at the recirculation point or at on the first floor and on the last floor, while the potable water quality was analyzed in three cold water samples collected at the inlet from the aqueduct network, at the exit from the autoclave, and at the most remove remote? tap. Legionella pneumophila sg1, Legionella pneumophila sg2-16 and not-pneumophila Legionella species were detected in 26% of the hot water networks, mostly in CB and TB. In these buildings we detected correlations between the presence of Legionella and the total chlorine concentration decrease or/and the increase of the temperature. Cold water resulted free from microbiological hazards, with the exception of Serratia liquefaciens and Enterobacter cloacae isolated at the exit from two different autoclaves. We observed an increase in total microbial counts at 22 and 37°C between the samples collected at the most remote taps compared to the ones collected at the inlet from the aqueduct. The study highlights a condition of potential risk for susceptible categories of population and supports the need for measures of risk assessment and control.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Acquired Coagulation Disorders; Arterial thrombosis; prophylaxis; diagnosis; and treatment; Infections in immunocompromised hosts; Viral Infection; Venous thromboembolism; prophylaxis; diagnosis; treatment
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:09:23 CEST)
Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted within the OSF HealthCare System in Peoria, Illinois. The objectives were to determine the incidence of acute VTE and ACS within one year of CMV testing. The “study group” included patients with positive CMV IgM or positive CMV Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The “seropositive control” group included patients with positive CMV IgG and negative IgM. The “seronegative control” group included patients with negative CMV IgG and IgM, or negative PCR. Results: Within one year of CMV infection, 38 of 379 patients (10.0%) developed VTE in the study group compared to 41 of 1334 patients (3.1%) in the seropositive control and 37 of 1249 (3.0%) in the seronegative control. Adjusting for age and gender, both control groups were less likely to have VTE than the study group within one year (Seropositive Control: OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.5, p <0.0001; Seronegative Control: OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6, p <0.0001). ACS was more likely to occur in the study group, with incidence of 7.7% compared to 4.7% (p <0.0001) in the seropositive control and 1.9% (p <0.0001) in the seronegative control. Adjusting for age and gender, the seronegative control was less likely to develop ACS than the study group within one year (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7, p = 0.003). Conclusions: This retrospective study demonstrates that CMV infection may be a significant risk factor for VTE and ACS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: vitamin C; ascorbic acid; ascorbate; pneumonia; community acquired pneumonia; oxidative stress; protein carbonyls; hypovitaminosis C; vitamin C deficiency
Online: 15 April 2020 (10:12:26 CEST)
Pneumonia is a severe lower respiratory tract infection that is a common complication and a major cause of mortality of the vitamin C-deficiency disease scurvy. This suggests an important link between vitamin C status and lower respiratory tract infections. Due to the paucity of information on the vitamin C status of patients with pneumonia, we assessed the vitamin C status of 50 patients with community-acquired pneumonia and compared these with 50 healthy community controls. The pneumonia cohort comprised 44 patients recruited through the Acute Medical Assessment Unit (AMAU) and 6 patients recruited through the intensive care unit (ICU); mean age 68 ± 17 years, 54% male. Clinical, microbiological and haematological parameters were recorded. Blood samples were tested for vitamin C status using HPLC with electrochemical detection and protein carbonyl concentrations, a marker of oxidative stress, using ELISA. Patients with pneumonia had depleted vitamin C status compared with healthy controls (23 ± 14 µmol/L vs 56 ± 24 µmol/L, P <0.001). The more severe patients in the ICU had significantly lower vitamin C status than those recruited through AMAU (11 ± 3 µmol/L vs 24 ± 14 µmol/L, P = 0.02). The total pneumonia cohort comprised 62% with hypovitaminosis C and 22% with deficiency, compared with only 8% hypovitaminosis C and no cases of deficiency in the healthy controls. The pneumonia cohort also exhibited significantly elevated protein carbonyl concentrations compared with the healthy controls (P < 0.001), indicating enhanced oxidative stress in the patients. We were able to collect subsequent samples form 28% of the cohort (mean 2.7 ± 1.7 days; range 1-7 days). These showed no significant differences in vitamin C status or protein carbonyl concentrations compared with baseline values (P = 0.6). Overall, the depleted vitamin C status and elevated oxidative stress observed in the patients with pneumonia indicates an enhanced requirement for the vitamin during their illness. Due to the important roles that vitamin C plays in the immune system, low vitamin C status is possibly both a cause and a consequence of the disease. Therefore, these patients would likely benefit from additional vitamin C supplementation to restore their blood and tissue levels to optimal. This may decrease oxidative stress and aid in their recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0406.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Rhizosphere; Fungal diversity; Community structure; Wheat root rot disease
Online: 31 December 2019 (10:20:33 CET)
Background: Wheat root rot disease due to soil-borne fungal pathogens leads to tremendous yield losses worth billions of dollars worldwide every year. It is very important to study the relationship between rhizosphere fungal diversity and wheat roots to understand the occurrence and development of wheat root rot disease. Results: A significant difference in fungal diversity was observed between the diseased and healthy groups in the heading stage, but the trend was the opposite in the filling stage. The abundance of most genera with high richness decreased significantly from the heading to the filling stage in the diseased groups; the richness of approximately one-third of all genera remained unchanged, and only a few low-richness genera, such as Fusarium and Ceratobasidium, had a very significant increase from the heading to the filling stage. In the healthy groups, the abundance of most genera increased significantly from the heading to the filling stage; the abundance of some genera did not change markedly, or the abundance of very few genera increased significantly. Physical and chemical soil indicators showed that low soil pH and density, increases in ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen contributed to the occurrence of wheat root rot disease. Conclusions: Our results revealed that in the early stages of disease, highly diverse rhizosphere fungi and a complex community structure can easily cause wheat root rot disease. The existence of pathogenic fungi is a necessary condition for wheat root rot disease, but the richness of pathogenic fungi is not necessarily important. The increases in ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen contributed to the occurrence of wheat root rot disease. Low soil pH and soil density are beneficial to the occurrence of wheat root rot disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0691.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Alerts; Village Health Teams; Community Based Surveillance; Integrated Disease Surveillance and Reporting; Elgon; Climate Change; One Health
Online: 28 May 2021 (10:20:13 CEST)
In mountain communities like Sebei, Uganda, that are highly vulnerable to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, community-based surveillance plays an important role in the monitoring of public health hazards. In this survey, we explored capacities of Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Sebei communities of Mount Elgon in undertaking surveillance tasks for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases in the context of a changing climate. We used participatory epidemiology techniques to elucidate VHTs’ perceptions on climate change and public health and assess their capacities in conducting surveillance for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Overall, VHTs perceived climate change to be occurring with wider impacts on public health. However, they have inadequate capacities in collecting sur-veillance data. The VHTs lack transport to navigate through their communities and have in-sufficient capacities in using mobile phones for sending alerts. They do not engage in reporting other hazards related with the environment, wildlife and domestic livestock that would ac-celerate infectious disease outbreaks. Records are not maintained for disease surveillance ac-tivities and the abilities of VHTs to analyze data are also limited. However, VHTs have access to platforms that can enable them to disseminate public health information. The VHTs thus need to be retooled to conduct their work effectively and efficiently through equipping them with adequate logistics and knowledge on collecting, storing, analyzing, and relaying data, which will improve infectious disease response and mitigation efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: environmental health science; community engagement; community based participatory research; community-university partnerships
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:07:29 CET)
Community-engaged research is understood as existing on a continuum from less to more community engagement, defined by participation and decision-making authority. It has been widely assumed that more is better than less engagement. However, we argue that what makes for good community engagement is not simply the extent but the fit or alignment between the intended approach and the various contexts shaping the research projects. This article draws on case studies from three Community Engagement Cores (CECs) of NIEHS-funded Environmental Health Science Core Centers (Harvard University, UC Davis and University of Arizona,) to illustrate the ways in which community engagement approaches have been fit to different contexts and the successes and challenges experienced in each case. We analyze the processes through which the CECs work with researchers and community leaders to develop place-based community engagement approaches and find that different strategies are called for to fit distinct contexts. We find that alignment of the scale and scope of the environmental health issue and related research project, the capacities and resources of the researchers and community leaders, and the influences of the socio-political environment are critical for understanding and designing effective and equitable engagement approaches. These cases demonstrate that the types and degrees of alignment in community-engaged research projects are dynamic and evolve over time. Based on this analysis, we recommend that CBPR scholars and practitioners select a range of project planning and management techniques for designing and implementing their collaborative research approaches and both expect and allow for the dynamic and changing nature of alignment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0104.v1
Subject: Keywords: ethics; community; refusal; consent; peer review; community peer review
Online: 7 June 2018 (07:35:48 CEST)
Community peer review is a method that extends the ethics of consent into scientific practices. It gives communities affected by scientific research the ability to determine whether research may cause them harm and be part of determining how knowledge should best circulate to reduce or eliminate that harm. This paper introduces the method of community peer review by first looking at the concepts of consent and refusal, then outlining the steps to community peer review, using a case study of community meetings on a study of plastic ingestion by fish to elucidate the details of each step. Steps include: hiring a community member to the team; researching the social, cultural, and economic contexts of the community; identify the community; ensure skills for community conversation are in place; call the community meeting; conduct the community meeting; and analyze feedback for consent and refusal. Community peer review is premised on the idea that research is not inherently good and can cause harm, and that the best people to know whether and what kinds of harms are likely to occur are community members rather than researchers. The second premise is that the researcher’s “right” to research never supersedes a community’s right to not be harmed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0465.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: laboratory-acquired brucellosis; prevention; biosafety; cultures; identification; biochemical tests; MALDI-TOF; FISH; laboratory-acquired brucellosis; prevention; biosafety; cultures; identification; biochemical tests; MALDI-TOF; FISH
Online: 20 July 2020 (09:38:57 CEST)
Brucellosis is one of the most common etiologies of laboratory-acquired infections worldwide, and handling of living brucellae should be performed in a Class II biological safety cabinet. The low infecting dose, multiple portals of entry to the body, the great variety of potentially contaminated specimens, and the unspecific clinical manifestations of human infections facilitate the unintentional transmission of brucellae to laboratory personnel. Work accidents such as spillage of culture media cause only a small minority of exposures, whereas >80% of events result from unfamiliarity with the phenotypic features of the genus, misidentification of isolates, and unsafe laboratory practices such as aerosolization of bacteria and working on an open bench without protective goggles or gloves. Although the bacteriological diagnosis of brucellae by traditional methods is simple, the Gram stain and the biochemical profile of the organism, as determined by commercial kits, can be misleading, resulting in inadvertent exposure and contagion. The use of novel identification technologies is not hazard-free. The MALDI-TOF technology requires an initial bacterial inactivation step, while the instruments’ reference database may misidentify Brucella as belonging to other Gram-negative species. The rapid identification by the FISH method mistakes brucellar isolates for members of the closely related Ochrobactrum genus.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: RNA-based NGS; EGFR mutated NSCLC; acquired resistance; RET-fusion; rebiopsy
Online: 2 November 2021 (22:19:36 CET)
The unavoidable progression of EGFR-mutated NSCLC on EGFR-TKIs forces us to discover solutions for further therapies. Herein, we discuss the necessity of accurate genomic mapping of progressive disease illustrated by a patient case. Tumor rebiopsies at progression are strongly needed to characterize acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI. The necessary data, however, may be reliably obtained only by deep targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) of both DNA and RNA. The reported case is a patient with EGFR-mutant NSCLC, who progressed during second line Osimertinib with subsequent targeted treatment determined by the detection of an acquired intergenic ANK3-RET-fusion with concomitant PTEN-mutation and MDM2-amplification. These three acquired gene alterations represent potential mechanisms of TKI-resistance, not previously reported on second line Osimertinib. Yet, while PTEN-mutations and MDM2-amplification are currently undruggable, the ANK3-RET fusion allowed further personalized treatment by combining continuation of Osimertinib with the RET-TKI Pralsetinib, which resulted in objective partial response, so far for 7 months, and significant clinical improvement. Hence, complementary DNA- and RNA-based targeted NGS may be of importance in clinical routine to better reveal the current molecular state of the disease and contribute to the identification of further targeted therapy strategies. Indeed, further cases with acquired RET-fusions, including ANK3-RET, should be investigated to fully determine the effectiveness of RET-TKI-Osimertinib combinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0573.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: healthcare-associated infections; HCAIs; hospital acquired infections; nosocomial infections; statistical analysis
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:19:38 CEST)
Statistical data on officially registered cases of health care-associated infections (HCAIs) in Ukraine in the period 2009-2019 have been analysed. On average, 5089±756 cases of HCAIs were registered annually. Odessa region of Ukraine is the leading country in the number of reported cases. The majority of HCAIs cases involve surgical and therapeutic invasive interventions and perinatal HCAIs. On average, 78.0±5.8 % of HCAIs cases involved adults. The estimated minimum number of HCAIs in Ukraine was expected to be about 1 million per year. Official statistics on registered cases of HCAIs in Ukraine do not reflect reality, so the system of registration and investigation of HCAIs in Ukraine needs to be reformed.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: community health; complex interventions; hierarchy of evidence; health inequalities; community engagement; community organizing; PACT; Citizens UK; evaluation; methodology
Online: 12 January 2020 (17:36:11 CET)
It is widely recognized that public health interventions benefit from community engagement and leadership, yet there are challenges to evaluating complex, community-led interventions assuming hierarchies of evidence derived from laboratory experimentation and clinical trials. Particular challenges include, first, inconsistency of the intervention across sites; and second, absence of researcher control over the sampling frame and methodology. This report highlights these challenges as they played out in the evaluation of a community-organized health project in South London. The project aimed to benefit maternal mental health, health literacy and social capital, and especially to engage local populations known to have reduced contact with statutory services. We evaluated the project using two studies with different designs, sampling frames and methodologies. In one the sampling frame and methodology were under community control, permitting comparison of change in outcomes from before to after participation in the project. In the other, the sampling frame and methodology were under researcher control, permitting a case-control design. The two evaluations led to different results however: participants in the community-controlled study showed benefits, while participants in the researcher-controlled study did not. The principal conclusions are that while there are severe challenges to evaluating a community-led health intervention using a controlled design, measurement of pre-/post-participation changes in well-defined health outcomes should typically be a minimum evaluation requirement, and confidence in attributing causation of any positive changes to participation can be increased by use of interventions in the project and in the engagement process itself that have a credible theoretical and empirical basis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0260.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Community Radio; Holistic Development; Integrated Development; Sustainable Development; Community Radio Practices
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:59:05 CET)
Community radios play a paramount role in the development of the community. Community radio stations have been highly engaged in addressing social, economic, cultural, educational, health, environmental, sanitation, and disaster issues effectively and strategically using local languages in context. Community radios are also used to express, and share indigenous views, thoughts, ideas, problems, and perspectives of local people. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the role of community radio for integrated and sustainable development in Ethiopia. It used a systematic narrative review. Nine research works and five assessments report were selected purposively and analyzed in a quantitative approach. Currently, in Ethiopia, there are 50 community radio stations that received broadcast licenses from Ethiopian Broadcast Authority with four types of licensing and broadcasting in 29 local languages. Community radio helps the community to identify their common goals, create holistic plans, monitor the progress of their developmental activities, and guide on sustainable development. It contributes to integrated and sustainable development in a collaborative and creative process that cultivates the social, economic, and political conditions needed for the community to succeed which aimed to improve and sustain the livelihoods of the community. However, the media can’t achieve its target goal to support the development activities and bring holistic development of the community. As a result; this review paper focuses on reviewing how Ethiopians use community radios for holistic development. And it suggested the way how we can use community radios for the prospective holistic development in Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0111.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: ichthyological community; endorheic; Chapala
Online: 8 June 2022 (03:36:20 CEST)
Small, enclosed lake is in a tourist area called "Los Negritos", by the prominences a few steps from the lake on a perimeter of tens of meters with hot pools and mud bubbles. The lake originally belonged to Lake Chapala, so the group of fish present here derives from that. This is an endorheic vessel with at least one deep water inlet to the center, with a slight salinity (2.14 to 2.38 0/00), which is precisely greater at the point of upwelling and at a depth of approximately 36 m. This study to date has continued to collect and take data, also presents the characteristic of being an area of saline soils and halophilic vegetation. This body of water we consider is as relevant as that of Alchichica in Puebla. Its study is by monthly sampling with “chinchorro” and "chango" type trawl, recording morphological parameters, also environmental variables in the water, with a Data Sonde 4 brand Hydrolab. Knowing the structure and temporal dynamics of this fish community, along with the physical and chemical characterization of the water and implementa-tion of Importance Value Index (IVI).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0377.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: scientific community; Feyerabend; parrhesia
Online: 25 February 2021 (07:46:06 CET)
The scientific community of the XX and XXI centuries is a very large companionship, very fragmented and spread all over the world. Moreover, the status of the scientist, which in most cases is a member of the States’ apparati, is significantly different with respect to the one of the scientists up to the First World War.The concepts of scientific revolution of Thomas Kuhn and scientific anarchy of Paul Feyerabend should be reconsidered in this contest. In particular, the anarchist modus operandi should be shifted from the scientific method, that has become significantly standardized with protocols, to the sociology of the scientific community. A pluralism of the scientific method is possible, but an anarchy in the relationships among scientists emerges as more important. The scientist is in many cases a parrhesiastes, a person that says the truth even when he is going to pay because of that, that defends the developed theory or model, by respecting the protocols established in the scientific community. On the other side, each scientist should be a patient beholder that accepts the more solid, and intersubjectively recognized, theories of other scientists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0413.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Hospital-acquired infections; infection control; standard precautions; health-care workers; Saudi Arabia
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:32:09 CEST)
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) contribute to increased length of hospital stay, high mortality and higher health-care costs. Prevention and control of HAIs is a critical public health concern. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 213 hospital health-care workers in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. We assessed Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of standard infection control precautions using a structured questionnaire. Predictors of KAP were investigated using multivaraible logistic regression analyses and independent sample t tests. Prevalence of good (≥80% correct response) knowledge, attitude and practice were 67.6%, 61.5% and 73.2%, respectively. Predictors of good knowledge included age over 34 years (adjusted odds ratio: 30.5, p<0.001), and receiving training (13.3, p<0.001). Predictor of positive attitude was having >6 years of experience (5.5, p<0.001). While, the predictors of good practice were having >6 years of experience (2.9, p<0.01), previous exposure to HAIs (2.5, p<0.05) and training (3.5, p<0.01). However, being female (0.22, p<0.001) and older (>34 years) (0.34, p<0.01) were negatively associated with knowledge. Results indicate that older academic programs might not have adequately covered infection crontrol. Arranging training for HCWs might be useful in improving their knowledge of standard infection control precautions and is also expected to facilitate positive attitude and practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0079.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells; gene therapy
Online: 8 February 2019 (09:31:14 CET)
Although current antiretroviral drug therapy can suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication, a lifelong prescription is necessary to avoid viral rebound. The problem of persistent and ineradicable viral reservoirs in HIV-infected people continues to be a global threat. In addition, some HIV-infected patients do not experience sufficient T-cell immune restoration despite being aviremic during treatment, and this is likely due to altered hematopoietic potential. To achieve global eradication of HIV disease, a cure is needed. To this end, tremendous efforts have been made in the field of anti-HIV gene therapy. This review will discuss the concepts of HIV cure and relative viral attenuation and provide an overview of various gene therapy approaches aimed at a complete or functional HIV cure and protection of hematopoietic functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0062.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: dendritic cell; cancer vaccine; vaccination; acquired immunity; granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; tetramer analysis
Online: 5 August 2019 (12:35:50 CEST)
Significant recent advances in cancer immunotherapeutics include the vaccination of cancer patients with tumor antigen-associated peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs). DC vaccines with homogeneous, mature, and functional activities are required to achieve effective acquired immunity; however, the yield of autologous monocyte-derived DCs varies in each patient. Priming with a low dose of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) 16–18 h prior to apheresis resulted in 50% more harvested monocytes, with a significant increase in the ratio of CD11c+CD80+ DCs/apheresed monocytes. The detection of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes after Wilms’ tumor 1-pulsed DC vaccination was higher in patients treated with rhG-CSF than those who were not, based on immune monitoring using tetramer analysis. Our study is the first to report that DC vaccines for cancer immunotherapy primed with low-dose rhG-CSF are expected to achieve higher acquired immunogenicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0397.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: phage; dairy; Lactococcus; diversity; community
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:30:53 CEST)
Background: The dairy industry heavily relies on fermentation processes driven in high proportion by Lactococcus lactis. The fermentation process can be perturbed or even stopped by bacteriophage activity leading to complete loss of fermentation batch or decreased quality product. Monitoring of the phage diversity and dynamics in the process allows to implement protective measures (e.g. starter rotation) in order to maintain unperturbed production.; Methods: Universal primers were used to amplify sequences of the 936, c2, and P335 Lactococcus phage types. The amplicons were sequences with Sanger method and obtained degenerate sequences were analyzed using simple bioinformatic pipeline in R environment.; Results: The most prevalent phage type is 936, followed by P335, whereas c2 type is less frequent.; Conclusions: Curd cheeses prepared on non-pasteurized milk based on native milk microbiota had higher diversity of phages distinct of these found in dairy plants. Sanger sequencing of heterogenous amplicons generated on metagenome DNA can be used to asses low-complexity microbiota diversity.
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Fungi; Mycology; Canada; Research; Community
Online: 3 June 2020 (13:45:17 CEST)
Fungi critically impact the health and function of global ecosystems and economies. In Canada, fungal researchers often work within silos defined by sub-discipline and institutional type, complicating the collaborations necessary to understand the impacts fungi have on the environment, economy, and plant and animal health. Here, we announce the establishment of the Canadian Fungal Research Network (CanFunNet, https://fungalresearch.ca) whose mission is to strengthen and promote fungal research in Canada by facilitating dialogue among scientists. We summarize the challenges and opportunities for Canadian fungal research that were discussed at CanFunNet’s inaugural meeting in 2019, and identify four priorities for our community: 1) increasing collaboration among scientists; 2) studying diversity in the context of ecological disturbance; 3) preserving culture collections in the absence of sustained funding; and 4) leveraging diverse expertise to attract trainees. We have gathered additional information to support our recommendations, including a survey identifying underrepresentation of fungal-related courses at Canadian universities, a list of Canadian fungaria and culture collections, and a case study of a human fungal pathogen outbreak. We anticipate that these discussions will help prioritize fungal research in Canada, and we welcome all researchers to join this nationwide effort to enhance knowledge dissemination and funding advocacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0041.v1
Online: 6 April 2020 (07:25:12 CEST)
COVID-19 (SARS-Cov-2) is spreading around the globe in a highly contagious manner. China has shown the way to halt the progression of the disease by totally sealing Wuhan from rest of china but they could not prevent community spread resulting in more than 4000 deaths in a short period of time. India, following example of china, ordered national Lockdown early on 23 March, 2020. But it is difficult to determine the transition Here we have changed the way we look at available data to detect an early onset of the effect of Lockdown. Here a simple method is described for the first time to determine at the earliest when a change is beginning to take effect after Lockdown on the progression/regression of the spread of novel COVID-19 virus which could help to frame strategy for intervention to prevent community spread and save lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0241.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: leadership; community leadership; job performance
Online: 9 November 2018 (04:37:32 CET)
Leadership performance by village leaders is essential to promote sustainable life among rural communities, especially fisheries community who living along coastal villages. Otherwise, previous studies found that performance issues among village’s leaders remain as serious problems, and need to find the best solution. This study was conducted to profile the job performance among village leaders based on demographic factors such as educational level, age and experiences as village leader. The data of this cross-sectional survey were collected by questionnaires on 300 respondents consist of members of village organization through stratified sampling’s technique, while the data was analysed by SPSS using items of mean, standard deviation, independent-sample t-test and anova. The finding shown that there were differences in job performance among village leaders on educational level, age and experiences. Interestingly, the finding told the best on job performance among village leaders are (i) the age between 41 to 50 years old; (iii) the experience between 11 to 20 years; and (iii) the higher educational level the higher job performance among them. This result can be using by government or any responsible parties to improve job performance among village leaders, especially for recruitment selection and for in-service training.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Family and Community Nursing; Covid-19; Community health assessment; Primary Health Care; Health Promotion
Online: 22 November 2022 (02:57:35 CET)
The WHO European Region defined the role of a new central professional for primary care, the Family and Community Nurse (FCN). The introduction of FCN in the framework of health policies highlight a key role of nurses in addressing the families’ and communities’ needs. A scoping review was conducted in order to identify and describe the available tools which has been adopted for the assessment of the community health needs by FNC. A comprehensive literature review on Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and PsycInfo databases was conducted including all studies up to May 2021. A total of 1563 studies were identified and 36 of them were included. The literature review had made possible to identify studies employing twelve different community assessment's tools or modalities. Referring the WHO framework proposed in 2001 some common themes have been identified with an uneven distribution, as profiling the population, deciding on priorities for action and public healthcare programmes, implementing the planned activities, evaluation of health outcomes, multidisciplinary activity, flexibility and involving the community. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to provide an overview of community assessment tools, keeping the guidance provided by the WHO as a reference.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Nutritional Surveillance; Public Health; Community Health Nursing; Public Health Nursing; Children’s health; Community Participation
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:08:36 CEST)
Effectively responding to children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique requires a community-based care approach grounded in sound nursing research that is evidence-based. The Community Assessment, Intervention, and Empowerment Model (MAIEC) is a nursing theoretical model that bases clinical decision-making for community health nurses using communities as a unit of care. We used the MAIEC to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis to address children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique. Objectives: (1) To conduct a descriptive study of children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in a school community in Mavalane, Mozambique, and (2) to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis using the MAIEC clinical decision-making matrix in the same school community. Method: A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of children using anthropometric data, including brachial perimeter and the tricipital skinfold, and standard deviation for the relation of weight-height, in a sample of 227 children. To assess community management of the problem and identify a community-based nursing diagnosis, we surveyed 176 parents/guardians and 49 education professionals, using a questionnaire based on the MAIEC clinical decision matrix as a reference. Results: Malnutrition was identified in more than half of the children (51.3%). We also identified a community-based nursing diagnosis of impaired community management related to the promotion of child health and healthy eating as evident by lack of community leadership, participation, and processing among more than 70% of the community members (parents/guardians and education professionals). Conclusion: A nursing diagnosis and diagnostic criteria for nutritional status and community management were identified. The need to intervene using a multidisciplinary public health approach is imperative, with the school community as the unit of care. In addition, reliable anthropometric data were used to complement the nursing diagnosis and guide future public health interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0141.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; XDR; IMP-1; VIM-2; NDM-1; VAP; ICU; Hospital-acquired infections
Online: 9 June 2022 (10:58:13 CEST)
A 2-year prospective study carried out on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) patients in the intensive care unit at King Khalid hospital, Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), revealed a high prevalence of extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. About a 9% increase in the incidence rate of A. baumannii has occurred in the VAP patients between 2019 and 2020 (21.4% to 30.7%). In 2019 the isolates were positive for IMP-1 and VIM-2 (31.1% and 25.7%, respectively) as detected by PCR. In comparison, a higher proportion of isolates produced NDM-1 in 2020. Here, we observed a high resistant proportion of ICU isolates towards the most common antibiotics in use. Colistin sensitivity dropped to 91.4% in the year 2020 as compared to 2019 (100%). Thus, the finding of this study has a highly significant clinical implementation in the clinical management strategies for VAP patients. Furthermore, strict implementation of antibiotic stewardship policies, regular surveillance programs for antimicrobial resistance monitoring, and screening for genes encoding drug resistance phenotypes have become imperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0058.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Needlestick and other sharp injuries; hospital-acquired infection; biological hazards; infection control; occupational hazards
Online: 3 March 2022 (08:13:53 CET)
Needlestick and other sharp injuries (NSIs) are critical occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Exposure to blood and body fluids through NSIs increases the risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens among them. The objectives of this study were to estimate the one-year incidence of NSIs and investigate its associated factors among the healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between October and November 2021. A total of 361 healthcare workers participated in the survey from all over Saudi Arabia. The one-year incidence of NSIs among healthcare workers is estimated at 22.2%. More than half of the injury event (53.8%) was not reported to the authority by the healthcare worker. Incidence of NSIs was highest among the physicians (36%) and is followed by nurses (34.8%), dentists (29.2%), and medical technologists (21.1%). The likelihood of injury is higher (OR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.04, 6.03) among the works aged 26 – 30 years compared to the 20 – 25 years age group and the workers directly deal with needles or other sharp objects while working (OR: 5.90; 2.69, 12.97). The high incidence rate of injury and low reporting rate highlight the needs of an education program targeting healthcare providers with higher risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: next-generation sequencing; whole-genome sequencing; hospital-acquired pneumonia; antibiotic resistance; prediction; clinical metagenomics
Online: 30 September 2017 (04:49:23 CEST)
Clinical metagenomics (CMg), referred to as the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to clinical samples, is a promising tool for the diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). Indeed, CMg allows identifying pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), thereby providing the information required for the optimization of the antibiotic regimen. Hence, provided that CMg would be faster than conventional culture, the probabilistic regimen used in HAP could be tailored faster, which should lead to an expected decrease of mortality and morbidity. While the inference of the antibiotic susceptibility testing from metagenomic or even genomic data is challenging, a limited number of antibiotics are used in the probabilistic regimen of HAP (namely beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides and oxazolidinones). Accordingly in the perspective of applying CMg to the early diagnostic of HAP, we aimed at reviewing the performances of whole genomic sequencing (WGS) of the main HAP-causing bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Staphylococcus aureus) for the prediction of susceptibility to the antibiotic families advocated in the probabilistic regimen of HAP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0367.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Community health workers; Competence in prevention of non-communicable diseases; Associated factors literacy; Community commitment
Online: 21 March 2023 (02:39:23 CET)
Background Community health workers (CHWs) drawn from the general population are an important human resource in health care systems, preventing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and contributing to an increase in healthy life expectancy in Japan. Thus, we have developed the COmmunity health workers perceptual and behavioral Competency Scale for preventing Non-communicable diseases (COCS-N) to measure CHWs’ competence in preventing NCDs. The purpose of this study is to examine individual and community factors affecting CHWs’ COCS-N scores. Methods Municipal public health nurses and other public health professionals are responsible for training and supporting CHWs in Japan. Therefore, the existence of CHWs and their willingness to participate in the study were confirmed with the municipalities, who were asked to distribute the self-administered questionnaire to CHWs where consent was obtained (N = 6,480). Variables used included demographic characteristics, COCS-N scores, and individual- and community-related factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between variables. Results A total of 3,120 people completed the questionnaire, a valid response rate of 48.1%. The respondents’ mean age was 67.0 years (standard deviation = 9.0), and 88.0% were female. Comparison of the high- and low- competence groups in terms of NCD prevention based on COCS-N scores identified 13 factors associated with significant differences, including years spent working as a CHW (p < 0.001), subjective sense of health (p = 0.005), European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47) scores (p < 0.001), and community commitment scale (CCS) scores (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that HLS-EU-Q47 scores (odds ratio [OR]: 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.03) were a significant individual factor, while CCS scores (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.11–1.16) were a significant community factor. Conclusions We found that the COCS-N score was associated with the individual factors overall health literacy (HL), perceptions of HL, and subjective sense of health, and with the community factor CCS scores. These results suggest that strengthening individual factors such as HL and subjective sense of health, and community factors such as sense of community is an effective strategy for increasing CHWs’ competence in preventing NCDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0140.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: common lands; baldios; wild mushrooms; non-timber forest products; Portugal; community; community forestry; forest governance
Online: 24 May 2017 (17:01:57 CEST)
Forest community connections are crucial to ensure forest stewardship and sustainability. We explored the potential of mushrooming to enable such connections in contexts where these connections have been historically broken, alienating local people from forests. Taking the case of the recent devolution of a community forest (baldios) in central Portugal to the local population, we present a five-year pilot project to rework mycology from a mushroom-centered approach to a mushroom-in-baldios approach. Mushrooms were used as an entry-point to connect the forest ecology with the challenges of governance and community building. The devised activities provided an opportunity for people inside and outside the local community to adventure into the woods and find out more about their socio-ecological history, develop communal and convivial relationships and engage in the responsible gathering of wild mushrooms. However, the hosting of mushroomers to know, value and engage with the community forest recovery has constantly working against the enclosure of mushrooms to provide marketable forms of leisure. The outcome of these activities depends on the relationships established between mushrooms, mycologists, local administrators, commoners and poachers, all operating within a framework that favors the eradication of resources instead of long-term relationships that sustain places.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0019.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: sufficiency economy philosophy; community enterprises; sustainability
Online: 2 February 2023 (01:52:25 CET)
Sustainability is essential for every business and organization, but how can it be achieved? This work is a study of sustainability based on the sufficiency economy philosophy, a valuable concept introduced by the Thai people. We apply it to the notion of sustainability in 400 agricultural community enterprise owners in Thailand, who participated in the study. An oblique rotation component analysis was performed, finding that the variables on the same side are related, and a confirmative component analysis with structural equation models was conducted. The results showed that the approach to applying the sufficiency economy philosophy among community enterprises consists of 11 components, as follows: 1) financial control, 2) planning, 3) member management, 4) morals, 5) prevention plan, 6) moderation, 7) knowledge and expertise, 8) market development, 9) care, 10) quality control and 11) value of investment. The confirmative component analysis with structural equation modeling was consistent with the empirical data. Agricultural community enterprises and entrepreneurs focus on the moral component, conduct business with honesty and avoid causing problems for others, value justice without taking advantage with diligence and adhere to moral principles in life, because all of the above will lead to sustainability in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0402.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: cultural space; indigenous community; Indonesia; methodology
Online: 21 December 2022 (11:53:49 CET)
Indigenous knowledge is proven to be one of the foundations of sustainable land and marine management. While indigenous knowledge is acknowledged as of important factors on maintenance of biodiversity of the planet, it also ensures the sustenance of social and economic system of indigenous community. To facilitate the application of indigenous knowledge on management of customary forest in Indonesia, since 2012, the Government of Indonesia has been providing formal access for indigenous communities to their forests to maintain forest sustainability and to enhance the welfare of indigenous community. Nonetheless, the achievement of sustainable development goals in the scope of forest and conservation area management is threatened by various competing interests and power imbalance, which mostly leads to conversion of naturally vegetated area, as well as the inability of the community to integrate new economic opportunities to its institution. Moreover, the Government of Indonesia has not been regulating the involvement of indigenous community on the management of conservation area. Most importantly, such a program provides no reference on indigenous community, especially on the assessment of authenticity of indigenous community’s forest. Cultural space methodology may fill the aforementioned gaps. The methodology was developed based on the notion of cultural space and land administration, particularly the people-and-land/marine space relationship. Moreover, such a methodology was also constructed based on the experiences of agricultural and maritime communities in Indonesia on the administration of their territories. The methodology provides a procedure to convert information on the interrelation of indigenous community, its cultural space in forest and conservation area, and indigenous knowledge into geospatial information and data that represent the cultural space unit as a geographic feature. Therefore, such methodology may be utilised to assess the authenticity of a long-existing relationship between a community, especially an indigenous one, and its land, particularly that serves conservational function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0353.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: chlorothalonil; dissipation; enzyme activity; microbial community
Online: 28 March 2022 (03:46:35 CEST)
To get a better knowledge of the effects of residual chlorothalonil on soil characteristics and soil microbial communities, we evaluated the dissipation of chlorothalonil and the effects of different chlorothalonil concentrations on soil respiration, enzyme activities, and microbial community structure in yellow-brown loam soils. Bacterial and fungal soil communities were examined using traditional plate counting and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR–DGGE) methods. Soil properties and the results of DGGE band analysis were both used to estimate the status of the soil microbial ecosystem. The results show that residual chlorothalonil has considerable effects on soil respiration, enzymatic activities, and microbial community structure. In particular, soil respiration and phosphatase activities were increased, while saccharase activity, microbial biomass, and microbial community diversity were decreased by increasing levels of chlorothalonil treatment. Correlation analyses revealed that the application of chlorothalonil was significantly correlated with the change of the soil respiration, urease activity, sucrase activity, soil culturable bacteria and culturable fungi biomass. We conclude that residual chlorothalonil is directly related to soil respiration, enzyme activities, and microbial community structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0715.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: closure; interior; network generation; community; eigenvector
Online: 30 March 2021 (09:31:31 CEST)
Three computer algorithms are presented. One reduces a network $\CALN$ to its interior, $\CALI$. Another counts all the triangles in the network, and the last randomly generates networks similar to $\CALN$ given just its interior $\CALI$. But these algorithms are not the usual numeric programs that manipulate a matrix representation of the network; they are set-based. Union and meet are essential binary operators; contained_in is the basic relational comparator. The interior $\CALI$ is shown to have desirable formal properties and to provide an effective way of revealing ``communities'' in social networks.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0176.v1
Subject: Keywords: community cyberinfrastructure; accessibility; reproducibility; interoperability; models
Online: 17 January 2020 (04:28:34 CET)
In an era of rapid global change, our ability to understand and predict Earth's natural systems is lagging behind our ability to monitor and measure changes in the biosphere. Bottlenecks in our ability to process information have reduced our capacity to fully exploit the growing volume and variety of data. Here, we take a critical look at the information infrastructure that connects modeling and measurement efforts, and propose a roadmap that accelerates production of new knowledge. We propose that community cyberinfrastructure tools can help mend the divisions between empirical research and modeling, and accelerate the pace of discovery. A new era of data-model integration requires investment in accessible, scalable, transparent tools that integrate the expertise of the whole community, not just a clique of ‘modelers’. This roadmap focuses on five key opportunities for community tools: the underlying backbone to community cyberinfrastructure; data ingest; calibration of models to data; model-data benchmarking; and data assimilation and ecological forecasting. This community-driven approach is key to meeting the pressing needs of science and society in the 21st century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: smart community; smart dashboard; smart governance
Online: 4 November 2019 (02:54:13 CET)
Information and communication technologies play an increasingly important role in the process of knowledge and management of places at different scales. ICTs allow a rapid diffusion of data not only through institutional channels but also through social networks where the smart community share experiences and perceptions. In this sense, ICTs become strategic tools to support the promotion of sustainable tourism development of territories, especially if the digital data are organised within a circular smart dashboard. This research focuses on the case study of the Santa Barbara Walk (SBW), an ancient mining route in the Sulcis Iglesiente region (Sardinia, Italy), where the authors have recognized a state of disorganization in slow tourism promotion activities. In fact, if the SBW represents a network - material infrastructure - which connects the main points of interest along the Walk, its digital network - intangible infrastructure - is fragmented in terms of policies and contents. The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive set of data and to propose the architecture and design for a circular dashboard of the SBW, capable of organizing information concerning the main features of the walk, in order to facilitate a shared governance for an effective tourism promotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: community pharmacy; pharmacists; kap; travel health
Online: 2 October 2019 (05:50:05 CEST)
(1) Background: Travel medicine practice has not been a part of practice in the community pharmacies in Japan. However, it’s getting more common for pharmacists to run travel clinic in North America. With ongoing globalization, Japanese pharmacists might be practicing travel medicine in future. This descriptive study is to examine the current knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Japanese community pharmacists. (2) Methods: Invitation to the study was sent to all pharmacies or corporates listed on Nippon Pharmacist Association member list plus one another large size pharmacy chain that was not member of NPhA. Community pharmacists working under those companies received a weblink to the survey. The survey was conducted from June to July 2017 by online questionnaire. (3) Results: The self-declared knowledge level of infectious diseases as well as travel vaccinations was generally low. The frequency of correct answer of the antibiotic resistance in South East Asia was 48.5%. Knowledge level of qunine resistance to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ghana and Nicaragua was very low. (4) Conclusions: Japanese community pharmacists are not familiar with travel related infectious diseases and vaccines used in travel medicine. The knowledge on the antibiotic resistance in traveler’s diarrhea and malaria prophylaxis was all low that is consistent with low degree of exposure to travel health questions from patients in daily practice and low percentage of intention to earn travel health certificates.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0351.v1
Subject: Keywords: lecture based instruction; actual community-based instruction; maternal and child care; social competency skills; community awareness
Online: 13 April 2021 (12:47:52 CEST)
Maternal-child care is one of the foundations of primary health care. Nurses’ competency skills they have been taught. Community awareness is an important part of preventive healthcare, and nurses must be aware of the factors that impact the health of the community. This study examines the effectiveness of lecture-based instructions in maternal and child care and its implications to students' social competency skills and community awareness in Nursing Colleges in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. The researcher uses survey questionnaire and employed the descriptive design where fifteen (15) nursing students and five (5) teachers were purposively selected. The findings revealed that the weighted mean for the effectiveness of lecture based instruction in maternal and child care is 3.91 with verbal description of “Effective”, the effects of lecture based instruction in maternal and childcare to students’ social competency skills and community awareness got the weighted mean of 3.87 and interpreted as “very satisfactory” and the effectiveness of actual community-based instruction is very effective with weighted mean of 4.25 and is higher compare to lecture based instruction. The results also revealed that students and teachers were challenged in lecture-based instruction in maternal and chi8ldcare during distance learning. Recommendations for the enhancement of lecture-based instruction in maternal and childcare in social competency skills and community awareness were also made.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0280.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: phonagnosia, acquired, developmental, apperceptive, associative, voice-identity processing, speaker recognition, core-voice system, extended system
Online: 4 December 2018 (16:31:48 CET)
The voice contains elementary social communication cues, conveying speech, as well as paralinguistic information pertaining to the emotional state and the identity of the speaker. In contrast to vocal-speech and vocal-emotion processing, voice-identity processing has been less explored. This seems surprising, given the day-to-day significance of person recognition by voice. A valuable approach to unravel how voice-identity processing is accomplished is to investigate people who have a selective deficit in recognising voices. Such a deficit has been termed phonagnosia. In the present chapter, we provide a systematic overview of studies on phonagnosia and how they relate to current neurocognitive models of person recognition. We review studies that have characterised people who suffer from phonagnosia following brain damage (i.e. acquired phonagnosia) and also studies, which have examined phonagnosia cases without apparent brain lesion (i.e. developmental phonagnosia). Based on the reviewed literature, we emphasise the need for a careful behavioural characterisation of phonagnosia cases by taking into consideration the multistage nature of voice-identity processing and the resulting behavioural phonagnosia subtypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0152.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI); Klebsiella pneumoniae; Hospital-acquired infections; Proteus mirabilis; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; antibiogram
Online: 10 June 2022 (07:53:43 CEST)
Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Prolonged hospitalization, invasive devices such as catheters, and irrational use of antimicrobial agents are believed to be the major causes of high rates of HAIs. Infections such as pyelonephritis, urethritis, cystitis, and prostatitis are the main concern in catheterized ICU patients. In these cases, Gram-negative bacteria are the most common. The present study is undertaken to determine the frequency, antibiograms, disease pattern, and risk factors involved in providing an advocacy recommendation to prevent CAUTI. A total of 1078 patients were admitted to the hospital ICU, out of which healthcare-associated infection was reported in 316 patients. CAUTI was reported only in 70 patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae (20%) was the predominant isolate, with Serratia (3%) and Providencia (3%) species as the least common in this study. The present study provides CAUTI incidence rates in a tertiary care hospital in Hail, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, information on risk factors of CAUTI common causative organism associated, and their antibiogram patterns are also presented. This study provides vital information that can be used to formulate an effective antibiotic stewardship program that can be implemented throughout the kingdom.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0285.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: extended evolutionary synthesis; inheritance of acquired characters; stress-induced mutagenesis; fitness-dependent sex; horizontal gene transfer
Online: 25 July 2019 (08:24:32 CEST)
Here, I introduce a concept called autonomous selection to refer to a source of selection that is part of the individuals upon which it acts. The concept is motivated by a set of phenomena with the following characteristics: Natural selection shaped a variant (e.g., gene, epigenetic mark, or combination thereof) to act in a manner that reduces the frequency of one or more heritable traits of the individual in which it is located if those traits are detrimental to individual or group fitness. Phenomena with these characteristics are peculiar to traditional evolutionary theory but have been identified rather frequently in recent decades. They are also relevant to adaptive evolution: By reducing the frequency of a trait detrimental to fitness, the variant accelerates the evolution of adaptations, which allows its holders to adapt better to constantly changing environments. The variant is shaped by (natural) selection, but also does (autonomous) selection. Several phenomena with these characteristics have been invoked by proponents of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). The concept of autonomous selection helps resolve some of the controversy surrounding the EES: EES proponents call attention to the incompleteness of contemporary theory, emphasizing individuals’ processes that influence which adaptations those individuals evolve. I argue for the special importance of individuals’ processes that do not just influence those individuals’ adaptations, but also accelerate the adaptive evolution of those individuals. All known phenomena that fit this description are examples of autonomous selection. Other phenomena raised by EES proponents do not meet this threshold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0325.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Community disaster resilience; Lembang Fault; Indonesia; Japan
Online: 18 November 2021 (13:43:52 CET)
Having experienced large-scale disasters between 2004 and 2006, the fatalities due to large-scale disasters in 2018 were still high. In contrast, disaster risk management (DRM) and CDR in Japan have been continuously improved. Thus, there is a need to develop CDR for supporting DRM in Indonesia by learning from the Japanese experience, particularly in a disaster-prone area without large-scale disaster experience. This research was a pilot project on the development of CDR in Indonesia. The case study was a geological hazard-prone Lembang Fault area. People’s perception was collected using structured interviews, while demographic and local economic data was acquired from official statistical publications. Satellite imageries were utilized to acquire natural and built environment and land use/land cover and their changes between 2019 and 2021. Although the degrees of social capital, risk knowledge including indigenous knowledge and past disaster experience were high, government interventions on DRM and land administration are required to develop CDR in Lembang Fault area. Organized community development is expected rather than to solely involve NGOs. Moreover, strategies to develop economic resilience are needed to allow the community to bounce back from future disaster. Finally, a detail baseline data should be collected to develop DRM strategy and CDR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0243.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Traditional settlement; Vernacular architecture; Manipuri Community; Sylhet
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:13:56 CET)
This study intends to study a distinct typology of vernacular architecture built by the Manipuri communities of Bangladesh. The Manipuris are one of the ethnic diasporic communities in Bangladesh commonly known for their diverse cultural practice, including their dance form. This research aims to reveal the cultural entity of Manipuri that has been transformed into their living environment and household architecture. Architectural elements adapted by the Manipuris are assessed here as a part of cultural symbols to have a rigorous view of the philosophy of living. This study is a documentation of Manipuri habitat culture through the intervention of their living environment, which will attract any future working on this issue. This research shows that despite a rapid socio-economic change of context, the Manipuri housing practice is deeply connected to their socio-cultural and religious values. As the authors used an observational and ethnographical approach to studying vernacular architecture for this research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0630.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Attitude; Community; Knowledge; Mental health; Mental illness
Online: 30 October 2020 (08:59:46 CET)
Knowledge and attitude towards mental illness play major role in the recognition, management, sociocultural factors and health seeking behavior among those with mental disorders. The study aim was to determine the knowledge and attitude among Nyamagana community members towards mental illness, Tanzania; A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study involving 384 participants from sample population aged 18 years and above who were mentally health and semi-structured questionnaires was used to collect data. The results 110 (28.8%) respondents have good knowledge toward mental illness, about 292(76%) have negative attitude towards mentally ill people, 92(24%) respondents have positive attitude toward people who are mentally ill. More over about 318 (82.9%) respondents agreed that care and support of family and friends, could help people with mental illness to get rehabilitation while 66(17.1%) respondents disagreed on the care and support of the family and friends could help mentally ill people to get rehabilitation; The findings show most have poor knowledge and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness and may impair their social reintegration in the community. There’s need to develop strategies to enlighten the public regarding nature of mental illness so as to foster acceptance of people with mental illness by the community members.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0115.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: citrus; root rhizosphere; mancozeb; bacteria community; diversity
Online: 7 March 2020 (03:12:53 CET)
Mancozeb is extensively used fungicide to prevent citrus melanose in most Asian countries, especially in China. So far, however, there have been no reports of thet effect of Mancozeb on the citrus rhizosphere bacterial community. Therefore, this comparative experiment defined the genomic and functional related to community and soil health of 2-years old Citrus unshiu Marc. rhizosphere through amplicon sequencing and chemical analysis. This study evaluated the effect of mancozeb on the chemical properties of citrus-cultivated soil and the richness and diversity of rhizosphere bacterial community. We also investigated the abundance response of rhizosphere bacterial groups to 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 times application of 2 g mancozeb (active ingredient content, ai.) 600 times diluted with water. Our data revealed that the abundance of rhizosphere-associated bacterial species increased significantly after planting citrus. The relative abundance of Candidatus, Saccharibacteria, Parcubacteria, and Proteobacteria increased with the increase in mancozeb watering times. Meanwhile, the abundance of Nitrospirae decreased with the increase in mancozeb application times. The findings indicated that the chemical properties of the soil and the richness and diversity of rhizosphere bacterial community did not significantly differ across the mancozeb gradients in soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Disasters, Preparedness, Lembang Fault, Community Base, School
Online: 27 February 2019 (11:55:21 CET)
This research was conducted on the Maribaya Timur school community in Lembang Subdistrict, West Bandung Regency, Indonesia, which is an active community in the area that is threatened by the potential for earthquake disasters due to the active Lembang fault. Disaster risk reduction efforts are pursued through increasing school-based preparedness that involves members of the school community, surrounding communities and various institutions that are associated with reducing the risk of school-based earthquake. Increasing preparedness against earthquakes focuses more on aspects of capacity building of school communities in reducing disaster risk, while aspects of vulnerability and threats have not been the focus of disaster risk reduction. The steps taken refer to the element of preparedness by aligning with the conditions, needs and potential that exist in the school community. Theoretically, if the school community has preparedness to face an earthquake disaster, the risk of earthquake disaster in the school community will be reduced so that it can minimize losses, victims and suffering that will be caused by the earthquake disaster.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0041.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Crop rotation; Fertilization; Maize; Microbial community structure
Online: 2 November 2018 (09:37:31 CET)
Examining the soil microbiome structure has a great significance in exploring the mechanism behind plant growth changes due to maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) crop rotation. This study explored the effects of soil microbial community structure after soybean and maize crop rotation by designing nine treatments combining three crop rotations (continuous cropping maize or soybean; and maize after soybean) with three fertility treatments (organic compound fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, or without fertilizer). Soil was sampled to 30 cm depth the second year at approximately the middle of the growing season, and was analyzed for physical, chemical, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Bacteria was found to be the predominant component of soil microorganisms, which mainly contain the PLFAs i15:0, 16:1 ω 7c, 16:0, 10Me16:0, and 18:1 ω 7c. The concentration of soil gram-negative bacteria from the soybean and maize rotation was less than in soybean continuous cropping when organic fertilizer was applied to both. Crop rotation reduced the percentage of fungi in the soil, among which the effect of organic compound fertilizer application was significantly reduced 24%. The combined crop rotation with organic fertilizer can reduce maximum the percentage of fungi/bacteria. In addition, the content of soil aggregate and organic matter had great influence on gram-positive bacteria and actinomyces, and soil pH had a greater impact on other fungi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0168.v1
Subject: Keywords: stakeholders; community college; value; perspectives and recommendations
Online: 26 November 2017 (13:20:28 CET)
In 2002, the Higher Learning Commission, a regional accrediting agency in the US, placed the community college in this study on academic probation for several criteria and many residents of the community believed that closing doors was the best option for addressing these concerns. This study is designed to ascertain data from external stakeholders of the community college regarding their current perceived value of the community college and suggestions about moving from the present to the future. The main question of the study is: What are external stakeholders’ perceptions of the value of the college to the service area? This qualitative approach is used consisting of interviews, focus groups, surveys, and document review to triangulate stakeholder perspectives. Participants included 176 high school seniors from different counties, four counselors, and four focus groups. The findings from the data are presented in this study are planned to be used by community college officials to incorporate into their strategic plans. They showed that the college needs to consider the value that it brings to the service area including economic benefits, specifically community support; accessibility; and cost of tuition.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0108.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; antimicrobial resistance; circular dichroism spectroscopy; efflux protein; efflux pump; foodborne pathogen; hospital-acquired infection; polyamine
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:19:07 CET)
The aim of this work was to test polyamines as potential natural substrates of the Acinetobacter baumannii chlorhexidine efflux protein AceI using near-UV synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The Gram-negative bacterium A. Baumannii is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections and an important foodborne pathogen. A. Baumannii strains are becoming increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents, including the synthetic antiseptic chlorhexidine. AceI was the founding member of the recently recognised PACE family of bacterial multidrug efflux proteins. Using the plasmid construct pTTQ18-aceI(His6) containing the A. Baumannii aceI gene directly upstream from a His6-tag coding sequence, expression of AceI(His6) was amplified in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. Near-UV (250-340 nm) SRCD measurements were performed on detergent-solubilised and purified AceI(His6) at 20 °C. Sample and SRCD experimental conditions were identified that detected binding of the triamine spermidine to AceI(His6). In a titration with spermidine (0-10 mM) this binding was saturable and fitting of the curve for the change in signal intensity produced an apparent binding affinity (KD) of 3.97 +/- 0.45 mM. These SRCD results were the first experimental evidence obtained for polyamines as natural substrates of PACE proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0263.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: disaster; community resilience; social identity; predictive model; factors
Online: 16 February 2023 (02:34:49 CET)
The territory of Serbia is vulnerable to various types of natural and man-made disasters. The risk is not equal across the entire territory, depending on the type of hazard and the expected potential for damage. So far, the level of community disaster resilience has not been determined in Serbia. There are no scientific preconditions for its improvement to reduce the future material and intangible consequences of disasters. Regarding that, the project’s main objective is to develop and validate a predictive model of community disaster resilience based on social identity influences through an investigation impact of social identity indicators on the level of community disaster resilience in Serbia. The project is based on the upcoming research on whether the level of community disaster resilience can be predicted based on social identity indicators, how social identity indicators affect different dimensions of community disaster resilience, and how disasters shape social identity. The project is based on multimethod research in which quantitative (face-to-face interviews in 40 of the 191 municipalities), and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) research methodology will be applied. A developed predictive model with an index of community disaster resilience in Serbia will empower the creation of preconditions for designing public policies, strategies and procedures for improving resilience and reducing the consequences of disasters on people and their property and enhancing citizens’ security. The project will encourage the prediction of community disaster resilience based on social identity indicators, improving disaster foresight and preparing to limit disaster losses. Based on the development of analytical frameworks for understanding community disaster resilience and social identity in disasters, essential preconditions for designing innovative information systems will be created to enable local communities to increase their level of resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0246.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Cigar; stacking fermentation; microbial community; volatiles; interaction; aroma
Online: 15 February 2023 (01:49:13 CET)
Cigar stacking fermentation is a key step in tobacco aroma enhancement and miscellaneous gas reduction, which both have a great influence on increasing cigar flavor and improving industrial availability. To analyze the effect of cigar tobacco leaf (CTLs) microbial community structure on volatiles during cigar stacking fermentation, this study used multi-omics technology to reveal the changes in microbial community structure and volatiles of different cigar varieties during stacking fermentation, in addition to exploring the interaction mechanism of microbiome and volatiles. The results showed that the dominant microbial compositions of different CTL varieties during stacking fermentation were similar, which included Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium 1, Aerococcus, and Aspergillus. These dominant microbes mainly affected the microbial community structure and characteristic microorganisms of CTLs through microbial interactions, thereby influencing the transformation of volatiles. Characteristic microorganisms of different CTLs varieties such as Trichothecium, Trichosporon, Thioalkalicoccus and Jeotgalicoccus, were found to posively correlate with characteristic volatiles like megastigmatrienone 4, pyrazine, tetramethyl-, geranyl acetone, and 2-undecanone, 6,10-dimethyl-, respectively. This in turn affected the aroma and sensory quality of the CTLs. This study provides theoretical support for the analysis of the mechanism of microorganisms on volatiles and aroma, and development of microbial agents during cigar stacking fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0214.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: community transformations; species loss; geospatial classification; Spartina patens
Online: 12 January 2023 (07:20:07 CET)
Salt marshes are globally important ecosystems, but many have been lost or transformed due to the impacts of global change. There have been attempts to broadly quantify salt marsh communities, especially the ubiquitous grasses which serve as foundation species such as Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens, the latter of which is being lost due to sea level rise. However, few researchers have used high-resolution geospatial imagery to quantify fine-scale changes in the distribution of grasses or to track losses of S. patens. To address this issue, we utilized a simple and rapid method of classifying geospatial marsh imagery with cloud-based machine learning in Google Earth Engine (>92% accuracy for S. patens regardless of imagery age). Our methods allowed us to characterize full landscapes (two geospatially proximal areas, >7,000 ha each) of critical salt marshes on the New Jersey coast and to evaluate fine-scale (1-m) community transformations in response to global change with imagery from 2006 to 2019. Notably, one marsh experienced very little change while the other experienced an 81.17% (1,087 ha) loss of S. patens, illuminating disparate patterns of change for two geographically proximal ecosystems. Further exploration revealed an association in the loss of S. patens with increases in streamflow and total nitrogen content in the rivers that run through each marsh. These results signify the importance of broad-scale ecological studies that evaluate fine-scale community transformations and for management strategies that do not generalize across landscapes of an ecosystem-type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy Community, Scheduling, Renewable energy, Flex-Offers, Algorithms
Online: 20 October 2022 (11:01:14 CEST)
Renewable Energy Communities (RECs) are emerging as an effective concept and model to empower the active participation of citizens on the energy transition, not only as energy consumers, but also as promoters of environmentally friendly energy generation solutions. This paper aims to contribute to the management and optimization of individual and community Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The solution follows a price and source-based REC management program, in which consumers day-ahead flexible loads (Flex Offers) are shifted according to electricity generation availability, prices and personal preferences, to balance the grid and incentivize user participation. The heuristic approach used in the proposed algorithms allows the optimization of energy resources in a distributed edge and fog approach with a low computational overhead. The simulations performed using real world energy consumption and flexibility data of a REC with 50 dwellings show an average cost reduction of 10.6% and an average increase of 11.4% in individual self-consumption. Additionally, the case-study demonstrates promising results regarding grid load balancing and the introduction of intra-community energy trading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: community governance; conflict management; governance; peace; development; SSA
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:41:08 CEST)
This study provides an insightful overview of community-participatory governance and conflict management as instruments for utilizing resources for development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA is a region rich in natural resources but prone to conflict. The study is conceptual and critically engages the application of community governance and conflict management strategies that SSA countries need to adopt. The study praises the notion that community governance is characterized by recognizing and accepting intercultural diversity and creating a democratic institution for promoting good governance and conflict management in SSA. The study recommends that good community governance is required to drive local communities' development, growth, and transformation into a sturdy, innovative, and productive society capitalizing on opportunities. The study voice for the amalgamation of appropriate models and theories of governance cogently in the context of SSA due to the heterogeneity of communities. Therefore, to resolve conflict, conflict management, resolution, and transformation strategies are necessarily needed to accomplish a viable peace to maintain and sustain development.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0124.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: epistemic community; social media; active inference; opinion dynamics
Online: 10 January 2022 (15:14:16 CET)
The spread of ideas is a fundamental concern of today’s news ecology. Understanding the dynamics of the spread of information and its co-option by interested parties is of critical importance. Research on this topic has shown that individuals tend to cluster in echo-chambers and are driven by confirmation bias. In this paper, we leverage the active inference framework to provide an in silico model of confirmation bias and its effect on echo-chamber formation. We build a model based on active inference, where agents tend to sample information in order to justify their own view of reality, which eventually leads to them to have a high degree of certainty about their own beliefs. We show that, once agents have reached a certain level of certainty about their beliefs, it becomes very difficult to get them to change their views. This system of self-confirming beliefs is upheld and reinforced by the evolving relationship between agent's beliefs and its observations, which over time will continue to provide evidence for their ingrained ideas about the world. The epistemic communities that are consolidated by these shared beliefs, in turn, tend to produce perceptions of reality that reinforce those shared beliefs. We provide an active inference account of this community formation mechanism. We postulate that agents are driven by the epistemic value that they obtain from sampling or observing the behaviors of other agents. Inspired by digital social networks like Twitter, we build a generative model in which agents generate observable social claims or posts (e.g. `tweets') while reading the socially-observable claims of other agents, that lend support towards one of two mutually-exclusive abstract topics. Agents can choose which other agent they pay attention to at each timestep, and crucially who they attend to and what they choose to read influences their beliefs about the world. Agents also assess their local network’s perspective, influencing which kinds of posts they expect to see other agents making. The model was built and simulated simulated using the freely-available Python package pymdp. The proposed active inference model can reproduce the formation of echo-chambers over social networks, and gives us insight into the cognitive processes that lead to this phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Social media; Community; Facebook; Twitter; Google; Information; Interaction
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:03:09 CEST)
Background: Caregivers often use the internet to access information related to stroke care to improve preparedness, thereby reducing uncertainty and enhancing the quality of care. Method: Social media communities used by caregivers of people affected by stroke were identified using popular keywords searched for using Google. Communities were filtered based on their ability to provide support to caregivers. Data from the included communities were extracted and analysed to determine the content and level of interaction. Results: There was a significant rise in the use of social media by caregivers of people affected by stroke. The most popular social media communities were charitable and governmental organizations with the highest user interaction – this was for topics related to stroke prevention, signs and symptoms, and caregiver self-care delivered through video-based resources. Conclusion: Findings show the ability of social media to support stroke caregiver needs and practices that should be considered to increase their interaction and support.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: monarch butterfly; Danaus plexippus; arthropods; community structure; survivorship
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:48:42 CEST)
Based on surveys of winter roost sites, the eastern migratory population of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in North America appears to have declined in the last 20 years and this has prompted the implementation of numerous conservation strategies. However, there is little information on the survivorship of first-generation monarchs in the core area of occupancy in Texas, Oklahoma, and Louisiana where overwinter population recovery begins. The purpose of this study was to determine the survivorship of first-generation eggs to third instars at a site in north Texas and to evaluate host plant arthropods for their effect on survivorship. Survivorship to third instar averaged 13.4% and varied from 11.7% to 15.6% over three years. The host plants harbored 77 arthropod taxa, including 27 predatory taxa. Despite their abundance, neither predator abundance nor predator richness predicted monarch survival. However, host plants upon which monarchs survived often harbored higher numbers of non-predatory arthropod taxa and more individuals of non-predatory taxa. These results suggest that ecological processes may have buffered the effects of predators and improved monarch survival in our study. The creation of diverse functional arthropod communities should be considered for effective monarch conservation, particularly in southern latitudes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: stroke awareness; hypertensive patients; community health center; Indonesia
Online: 16 June 2021 (09:35:30 CEST)
The global burden of stroke is still high, particularly in developing countries, with hypertension serves as the main risk factor. Knowledge related to stroke is essential to establish better prevention strategies. This study aimed to identify factors associated with stroke awareness among hypertensive patients in Indonesia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in five Community Health Centers in Indonesia. We used a standardized questionnaire to asses stroke awareness and the influencing factors. The knowledge on hypertension was assessed using Hypertension Knowledge Level Scale (HK-LS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to measure factors associated with stroke awareness. A total of 457 hypertensive patients were included. Majority of patients (77.46%) had low stroke awareness. Having higher knowledge on hypertension, higher income, and a history of previous stroke were associated with higher level of stroke awareness (odds ratio [OR] 1.878, 95%CI 1.176-2.999, p 0.008; OR 1.887, 95%CI 1.170-3.045, p 0.009; OR 5.276, 95%CI 2.210-12.594, p<0.001, respectively). This study suggests that knowledge on hypertension, income, and history of previous stroke are factors which may influence the level of stroke awareness. This emphasizes the need to provide better campaign and education program to raise stroke awareness in a community setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0632.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: suicide; men; help-seeking; engagement; community-based intervention
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:12:38 CEST)
Due to the continuing high suicide rates among young men, there is a need to understand help-seeking behaviour and engagement with tailored suicide prevention interventions. The aim of this study was to compare help-seeking among younger and older men who attended a therapeutic centre for men in a suicidal crisis. In this case series study, data were collected from 546 men who were referred into a community-based therapeutic service in North West England. Of the 546 men, 337 (52%) received therapy; 161 (48%) were aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age 24 years, SD=3.4). Analyses included baseline differences, symptom trajectories for the CORE-34 Clinical Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and engagement with the therapy. For the CORE-OM there was a clinically significant reduction in mean scores between assessment and discharge (p<0.001) for both younger and older men. At initial assessment, younger men were less affected by entrapment (46% v 62%; p=.02), defeat (33% v 52%; p=.01), not engaging in new goals (38% v 47%; p=.02), and positive attitudes towards suicide (14% v 18%; p=.001) than older men. At discharge assessment, older men were significantly more likely to have an absence of positive future thinking (15% v 8%; p=0.03), have less social support (45% v 33%; p=.02) and feelings of entrapment (17% v 14%; p=.02) than younger men. Future research needs to assess the long-term effects of help-seeking using a brief psychological intervention for young men in order to understand whether the effects of the therapy are sustainable over a period of time following discharge from the service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: suicide, men, help-seeking, engagement, community-based intervention
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:04:18 CET)
Due to the continuing high suicide rates among young men, there is a need to understand help-seeking behaviour and engagement with tailored suicide prevention interventions. The aim of this study was to explore help-seeking behaviour and engagement for young men aged 18 to 30 years who attended a therapeutic centre for men in a suicidal crisis. In this prospective cohort study, data were collected from 546 men who were referred into a community-based therapeutic service in North West England. Of the 546 men, 337 (52%) received therapy; 161 (48%) were aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age 24 years, SD=3.4). One third (n=54; 34%) of the men were seen within 48 hours of their referral. Analyses included baseline differences, symptom trajectories for the CORE-34 Clinical Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and engagement with the therapy. For the CORE 34 there was a clinically significant reduction in mean scores between assessment and discharge (p<0.001), with all outcomes demonstrating a large effect size. Future research needs to assess the long-term effects of help-seeking using a brief psychological intervention for young men in order to understand whether the effects of the therapy are sustainable over a period of time following discharge from the service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0548.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Community; Human Capital; Socio-Cultural; Mobilization; Partnership; Development
Online: 26 January 2021 (16:24:22 CET)
Community is a veritable ingredient for social change and development in a society. The potentials of individuals and groups in the community are a great source or resource for promoting unity, development and patriotism. The general objective of this study is to examine the influence of diversity in community composition, on the operation of community policing style in Nigeria. The study adopted qualitative research approach to collect and analyze data. In-depth interview is the instrument of data collection while content analysis is the method of data analysis. The study took place in Kwara State, North central Nigeria. Twenty community leaders and youth groups heads were purposefully selected through snowball sampling method. Where this great resource or human capital is adequately galvanized by the leaders and community heads, the community becomes formidable and capable of solving her social problems together. However, these benefits of community are hampered by other socio-cultural and economic variables in its members. Community on its own cannot achieve much until members are mobilized to support and partner with government in any developmental projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Antibiotics; antibiotic resistance; rational drug use; community pharmacist
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:58:43 CET)
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is an emerging global threat to public health. Substantial evidence has indicated that community pharmacists (CPs) can play a critical role in managing the ever-increasing threat of antibiotic resistance. The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practices of CPs (n=180) towards antibiotics and antibiotic resistance as well as to improve the rational use of antibiotics. Two phases of mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) online study were conducted in Pakistan from August 2019 to March 2020 by using validated questionnaires and semi-structured interview data. Different statistical methods were used to tabulate the quantitative data whereas inductive thematic analysis was conducted to categorize themes from the qualitative data and draw conclusions. Approximately 64.4% were male (mean: 29-33 years old). Overall, CPs had good knowledge of and were familiar with superbugs and their roles in ABR (65.6%, Median=1, IQR=1) although they were poor in differentiating some antibiotic groups with their respective ABR patterns (31.1%, Median=1, IQR=1). Most CPs have a positive attitude towards antibiotics with most (90.0%) having identified ABR as a critical issue in public health (Median=1, IQR=0). Overall, CPs' practices towards antibiotics were reasonable where they tend to educate patients about the rational use of antibiotics (52.8%, Median=1, IQR=1). Two main themes (antibiotics and counseling of patients) were related to self-medication with while educational interventions are the sub-theme. ABR is multifactorial where the subthemes related to budget, time constraints incompetent staff, the absence of CPs, the lack of training, enforcement of laws and regulations are the need of the hour in Pakistan. Effective antibiotic stewardship programs, patient education, and awareness campaigns about antibiotics and ABR along with training of the CPs are important factors that have to be addressed in a timely manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0570.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Environmental Communication; Environmental preservation; Folk media; Guna community
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:20:58 CET)
This study focused on the assessment of folk media aimed at Environmental Communication (EC) in the Guna Community and suggested the dominant Guna Community folk media for environmental communication and preservation to conserve Mount Guna. Guna Mount is the home of different biodiversity and the tower of water, but it is becoming degraded. Folk media are operative in environmental communication and preservation. They have the power to transmitted environmental messages that incorporate cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes with societal needs. Folk media are locally oriented, easily accessible, flexible, portable, inclusive, and relatively inexpensive. A qualitative research approach was employed for this research. Ethnographic research design, snowball, and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. The researchers were gathered the data through in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and observation. For this survey, 16 FGDs, 45 individual in-depth interviews, and participant observation were employed. Guna community has unique and indigenous folk media that use as a source of entertainment, information, and education. Their folk music, songs, dances, campfire storytelling, traditional motifs, fairs, and festivals, and folk poems are the dominants. Using folk media for operative ecology preservation is vital in the form of EC that inspires and develops positive behavior in the community by educating about environmentalism in the method of facilitating environmental issues incorporating the latest message. Finally, we recommended some folk media for developmental activities that use inform of advocacy regarding recommended reasons
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Participation; community; systems dynamics; sustainable development; decision making.
Online: 5 October 2020 (10:48:12 CEST)
This research article presents the integration of participatory modeling and system dynamics as a novel methodology for the consolidation of social dynamic models for the subsequent evaluation and prioritization of green projects in Colombian post-conflict communities. In the first instance, through participatory work carried out along with the community, it was possible to identify, evaluate and systematize citizen factors in relation to the problems and needs of the region. Second, based on the results obtained, to calibrate a simulation model based on system dynamics that facilitates decision making with regard to the evaluation of green projects. The proposed methodology leads to the conclusion that, with the participation of the community and with a model based on the dynamics of variables such as supply and demand for natural resources of water and land, it is possible to warn decision makers about the variables that can lead to the maximization of investments and thus prioritize and select the most appropriate environmental, social or economic initiatives, that certainly meet the needs or expectations of the involved community. In the future, the model could be used to facilitate the management, administration and control of water and land resources by creating alerts called reserve margins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0266.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: hypogenous ectomycorrhizal fungi; truffles; soil nutrient; fungal community
Online: 12 September 2020 (08:04:07 CEST)
Truffles contribute to crucial dynamics in the soil systems, being involved in plentiful ecological functions important for ecosystems. Despite this, the interactions between truffles and surrounding mycobiota remain unknown. Here, we aimed to shed light on how much truffle species could affect its surrounding soil mycobiota. Using traditional chemical analysis and Illumina ITS amplicon sequencing, we compared soil nutrients and mycobiota surrounding two truffle species: Tuber indicum (Ti) and T. pseudohimalayense (Tp) inhabit in the same Pinus armandii forest in southwestern China. Tp soil was more acidic and had higher nutrients (total C, N, P contents) than Ti soil. Fungal richness and diversity of truffle ascomata and surrounding soils were significantly higher in Tp than in Ti. Redundancy analysis showed relationships between soil fungal taxa and soil properties had changed from negative (Tp) to positive (Ti) and shifted from a moisture-driving (Tp) to a total N-driving (Ti). Overall, our results showed that the interactions between truffle and soil system had been altered with species variation, although the causative peculiarity of these associations needs to be further studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0069.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: DEHP; biochemical pathways; immobilization; MBR; bacterial community dynamics
Online: 9 January 2020 (05:00:48 CET)
A bacterial strain that could effectively degrade DEHP was isolated from the activated sludge and identified as Bacillus sp. by DNA sequencing. The biochemical degradation pathway of DEHP was further analyzed by GC-MS, and the results showed that DEHP was first decomposed into phthalates (DBP). Diuretic sylycol (DEP) was then generated, and phthalates (PA) were generated by a continuous de-ehelateization reaction. Phthalic acid (PA) was oxidized, dehydrogenated, and decarboxylated into protocatechins. Protocatechins enter the TCA cycle through orthotopic ring opening. To enhance DEHP degradation, sodium alginate and calcium chloride were used as embedding and cross-linking materials, and the strain was immobilized. The immobilization conditions were optimized via an orthogonal experiment, and the results showed that the optimal immobilization conditions were SA mass fraction of 4%, CaCl2 mass fraction of 5%, ratio of bacteria to SA of 1:1, and the crosslinking time of 6 hours. The immobilized bacteria agent was further applied to MBR systems. The results showed that the removal rate of DEHP (5mg/L) in the system by immobilized bacteria was 91.9%, which is significantly higher than that of free bacteria. The 3, 4-dioxygenase gene and microbial community dynamics were analyzed by q-PCR and Illumina Miseq sequencing. The q-PCR results showed that the number of copies of 3, 4-dioxygenase gene in the immobilized system was significantly higher than that of free bacteria. Illumina Miseq sequencing results showed that Micromonospora, Rhodococcus, Bacteroides and Pseudomonas were the dominant generas in the MBR system. The analysis of bacterial community structure indicated that immobilization technology had a positive impact on the system stability. The results implied that this immobilized technique had potential applications in DEHP wastewater treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0376.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: steppe; habitat fragmentation; carabid beetles; community; richness; abundance
Online: 29 November 2019 (10:40:21 CET)
It is well known that human activities and climate change have increased steppe habitat loss and fragmentation in Northwest China. Carabid beetles are often used as bioindicators of environmental change because they are extremely sensitive to disturbance. We chose 42 landscapes (18 fragmented and 24 continuous) in both desert and typical steppes of Northwest China to examine the influence of habitat loss and fragmentation on carabid beetle communities. The results showed the largest correlation coefficient between carabid communities and landscape compositions within a 7-km spatial scale in both desert and typical steppes. Further, the response of carabid communities to habitat fragmentation was species-specific in both desert and typical steppes. Habitat fragmentation in the desert steppe had positive effects on the richness and abundance of carabid communities, while in the typical steppe, the effects were negative. Additionally, habitat fragmentation significantly decreased the abundance of two common carabid species in the desert steppe. Therefore, the effects of habitat fragmentation on carabid biodiversity differ with species characteristics and habitat traits, where plant communities, soil structure, and microclimate vary in the different steppe types. The results of this study provide experimental evidence and technical support for biodiversity conservation management in the steppes of Northwest China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0369.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: discourse; digital footprints; group reflexivity; network community; subjectness
Online: 31 October 2019 (09:48:19 CET)
The article is devoted to the assessment of the network community as a collective subject, as a group of interconnected and interdependent persons performing joint activities. According to the main research hypothesis, various forms of group subjectness, which determine its readiness for joint activities, are manifested in the discourse of the network community. Discourse constitutes a network community, mediates the interaction of its participants, represents ideas about the world, values, relationships, attitudes, sets patterns of behavior. A procedure is proposed for identifying discernible traces of the subjectness of a network community at various levels (lexical, semantic, content-analytical scales, etc.). The subjective structure of the network community is described based on experts’ implicit representations. The revealed components of the subjectness of network communities are compared with the characteristics of the subjectness of offline social groups. It is shown that the structure of the subjectness of network communities for some components is similar to the structure of the characteristics of the subjectness of offline social groups: the discourse of the network community represents a discussion of joint activities, group norms and values, problems of civic identity. The specificity of network communities’ subjectness is revealed, which is manifested in the positive support of communication within the community, the identification and support of distinction between “us” and “them”. Two models of the relationship between discursive features and the construct “subjectness” are compared: additive-cumulative and additive. The equivalence of models is established based on the discriminativeness and the level of consistency with expert evaluation by external criteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: maternal death; marginalized community; flood; natural disaster; Bangladesh
Online: 27 October 2019 (03:23:48 CET)
The study explored the community perception of maternal deaths influenced by natural disaster, practice of maternal complications during natural disaster among the rural population in Bangladesh. It also explored the challenges faced by the community for providing health care and referring the complicated pregnant mothers during disaster. Three focus group discussions (FGDs) and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted in the marginalized rural communities in the flood-prone Khaliajhuri sub-district, Netrakona district, Bangladesh. Flood is one of the major risk factors for influencing maternal death. Pregnant mothers seriously suffer from maternal complication, lack of antenatal checkup and even any doctor during flood. During the time of delivery, it is difficult to find even a skilled attendant and referring the patient with delivery complications to the healthcare facility. Boat is the only mode of transport. Majority maternal deaths occur on the boats during transfer from the community to the hospital. The rural people feel that the maternal deaths influenced by natural disaster are the natural phenomena. It needs some pre-preparation to support pregnant women during the disaster. There is unawareness of maternal health, related care and complications during disaster among the local health service providers and volunteers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0602.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Dust; Mining; Environment; Sustainability; community health; occupational health
Online: 27 November 2018 (12:10:56 CET)
Dust inhalation is a huge concern in the mining environment and within all its operations. In fact, dust to be one of the most serious occupational hazards in the mining industry. Coal and crystalline silica dust are the causes of serious, sometimes fatal lung diseases such as pneumoconiosis, which affects coal miners, as well as silicosis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic renal disease, which affect coal and other types of miners. The resulting effects both affect workers and nearby communities. The mining industry has in the past, employed several approaches to reduce effects of dust. But these strategies have often been ineffective because the grass withers during the dry season and sprayed water is rapidly absorbed or evaporates. This paper endeavors to review information on dust in the mining environment and how it is a nuisance to workers and communities and establish what strategies exist for this.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0303.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: community engagement; health disparities; precision medicine; participant recruitment
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:21:34 CEST)
In response to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) All of Us Medicine Research Initiative, the Precision Medicine Research (PreMeR) Diversity Consortium was formed by four institutions from the Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN). This synergistic approach proposed evidence-based, best practices used by experienced researchers to engage, recruit and retain diverse populations in the All of Us initiative. Conceptualization of the proposed approach was aided by social influence theories to better understand how people’s beliefs and opinions should be modified to affect change leading to action . The Social-Ecological Model (SEM), for Health Promotion , from Stokols  and Community-Based Participatory (CBPR) Models, guided proposed engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies contextualized with the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy spheres of influence. The PreMeR produced a partnership to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of current engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies for minority participation in scientific studies. This approach illustrates the need to incorporate multiple methods of engagement to reach a diverse audience to participate in scientific research. Engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies in community and biomedical research must be viewed as community engaged public health interventions, utilizing the same theoretical principles and approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0119.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: religion; law and rule violations; moral community; China
Online: 8 May 2018 (04:33:21 CEST)
This paper examines the moral community thesis in the secular context of China. Using multilevel logistic regression, we test (1) whether both individual- (measured by affiliation with institutional religion) and aggregate-level religiosity (measured by the number of religious sites per 10,000 people in province) are inversely related to law and rule violations at the individual level and (2) whether the province-level religiosity enhances the inverse relationship between individual religiosity and the deviant behaviors. Results from analyzing data from the 2010 China General Social Survey and the Spatial Explorer of Religions show that both individual- and aggregate-level religiosity are inversely related to the odds of violating the law and various rules of government, transportation, workplace, and other organizations. However, the cross-level interactions are not significant across models, indicating that the contextual religiosity does not increase the effect of individual-level religiosity on deviance. Implications of findings for the moral community thesis are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0016.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: soil; Robinia pseudoacacia; PLFA; stand age; microbial community
Online: 5 September 2017 (15:28:05 CEST)
Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) can be used as biomarkers for qualitative and quantitative analyses of soil microbial community diversity. In this study, we collected soil samples at 10-cm intervals to a depth of 1 m from Robinia pseudoacacia plantations of four different ages (10, 15, 25 and 40 years) in a loess area and analysed the soil microbial community structure by PLFA analysis. A total of 97 PLFAs were detected in soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations of different ages. The individual PLFA contents gradually decreased in the 0- to 40-cm soil layers, with little variation in the 40- to 100-cm soil layers. The individual PLFAs were similarly distributed in the soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations of different ages, and there was a clear variation with stand age and soil depth. The individual PLFA contents in the 0- to 20-cm soil layers were highest for the 25-year-old plantation, while those in the 20- to 40-cm soil layers were relatively high for the 25- and 40-year-old plantations; the 16:0 content was the highest among individual PLFAs. The total PLFA content and the PLFA contents of different microbial groups [bacteria, fungi, Gram-positive bacteria (G+), Gram-negative bacteria (G-) and actinomycetes] initially increased before decreasing in the soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations with increasing stand age, whereas these contents gradually decreased with increasing soil depth; the highest PLFA contents was found in the 25-year-old plantation. The total PLFA content and the contents of fungal, G- and actinomycete PLFAs in the soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations differed significantly among stands of different ages in the 0- to 10-cm, 10- to 20-cm and 30- to 40-cm soil layers, while no significant differences were found in the 20- to 30-cm soil layers; the G+ and bacterial PLFAs contents in each of the 0- to 40-cm soil layers were significantly different. The PLFA ratios between different microbial groups differed among the stands of different ages. The fungi/bacteria ratio showed a “decrease-increase-decrease” trend with stand age, while the G+/G- ratio showed an “increase-decrease” trend. The saturated/monounsaturated PLFA ratio initially decreased before plateauing, while the opposite trend was observed for the cyclopropyl/precursor ratio. The PLFA contents of different microbial groups were ranked as follows: bacteria > G- > G+ > actinomycetes > fungi. In the principle component analysis, 18:1ω9c, 10Me18:0, i17:0, a17:0, 18:1ω7c, 18:1ω5c and 18:0 made the greatest contribution to principal component 1, and a14:0, i14:0 3OH, i14:0, i14:1ω7c and 14:0 made the greatest contribution to principal component 2. In conclusion, soil nutrient status and other soil eco-environmental stress factors should be considered in 10- to 25-year-old (particularly ~15-year-old) plots for the management of R. pseudoacacia plantations to prevent forest soil degradation and improve forest stand quality, thereby achieving better soil and water conservation and environmental improvement in R. pseudoacacia plantations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: adaptive co-marketing; social marketing; community-based social marketing; social license to operate; community engagement; corporate social responsibility; marketing strategy
Online: 30 November 2016 (05:13:35 CET)
The concept of a Social License to Operate (SLO) has become increasingly important in the sustainability literature in recent years. Having its origins in the business discourse of the mining industry with respect to limiting opposition to mining projects, the notion of a social contract above and beyond legal requirements has since become applied across a number of different industries. Despite the concepts adoption confusion exists over the practices and outcomes of SLO, and particularly the nature of engagement. Given this situation it is surprising that not more attention to the role of marketing, and social marketing in particular, in operationalizing the concept. The paper discusses the potential of social marketing to contribute to SLO. Economic, political and social relations are complex in SLO and exchange is intricate in such relational environments. A community-based social marketing orientation is proposed as a means to improve exchange relations and enhance engagement. Seven models of SLO related social marketing models are discussed with community-based social marketing and adaptive co-marketing models being regarded as the most positive for the achievement of an SLO. Potential barriers to adoption of these approaches are noted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0036.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: ESKAPE-bacteria; persistence; resistance; Intrinsic/Acquired/ Multidrug (MDR) and Pan – Resistance; genetic background; experimental evolution; collateral sensitivity; agrocin
Online: 2 August 2018 (06:29:07 CEST)
The challenge posed by multi-drug resistance (MDR) of pathogenic organisms, spectacularly manifested in the 6 “ESKAPE” bacterium (two Gram-positive, four Gram-negative) species, should invoke new comprehensive strategies, and needs cooperation of scientists with medical, veterinary and natural science background. This review is aimed at informing newcomers, coming from the field of biology and genetics, about problems related to rapidly emerging, new multi-drug resistant, pathogenic, bacteria. Unlike persistence, the antibiotic resistance is inherited. A functioning “resistance gene” makes a susceptible organism resistant to a given antibiotic, encoding for polypeptides capable of acting either as decomposing enzymes, or acting as trans-membrane pumps, or membrane structure components capable of modifying the permeability implementing a «by pass» mechanism enabling the antibiotic molecule to reach its cellular target(s). A functioning “sensitivity gene” encode for a polypeptide, capable (directly or indirectly) of transferring toxic molecules into target cells, or of metabolizing non-transferable to transferable, or non-toxic molecules to toxic derivatives. A gene of a normal function could act as a “sensitivity” gene in the presence of antibiotics of chemical structures similar to the natural substrate of the gene product, (enzyme or binding/ trans-membrane protein). The Agrocin 84 story is a good example. Multi-drug resistance is a phenotypic consequence of the sequential accumulation of mutations, and/or up-take of plasmids or genomic islands carrying resistance genes from the environment via horizontal gene transfer, mediated by conjugative plasmid or bacteriophage carrying mobile genetic elements. Both multi-drug resistance and collateral sensitivity are evolutionary products. Some revealed evolutionary process and their Lamarckian and Darwinian interpretations are discussed. Toolkits of comparative full-genome sequencing, genomics, experimental evolution and population genetics may provide perspectives for overcoming the invincibility of multi-drug panresistance. The status of some recently emerging pathogenic bacterium species with zoonic features and of veterinary background is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0048.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Lead; Field trial; Phytostabilization; Phytomanagement; Aromatic plants; Bacterial community
Online: 5 October 2022 (17:51:14 CEST)
This field study aimed to assess the base line conditions of a long-term polluted shooting range in Argentina polluted with 428 mg kg-1 lead (Pb), to evaluate the establishment and development of Helianthus petiolaris plants and address the efficacy of the phytomanagement strategy through: i) element accumulation in plant tissues; ii) rhizosphere bacterial diversity changes by Illumina Miseq™ and iii) floral water and essential oil yield, composition and element concentration by GC-MS and ICP. After one life cycle growing in the polluted sites, in the roots of Helianthus petiolaris plants Pb concentration was between 195 and 304 mg kg-1 Pb. Only a limited fraction of the Pb was translocated to the aerial parts. The predominance of the genus Serratia in the rhizosphere of Helianthus petiolaris plants cultivated in the polluted sites and the decrees of the essential oil yield were some effects significantly associated with soil Pb concentration. No detectable Pb concentration was found in the floral water and essential oil obtained. Extractable Pb concentration in the soil reduced between 28-45 % after the harvest.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: integration of sports and health care; sports; health; community
Online: 23 February 2022 (07:06:51 CET)
(1) Background: With continuous globalization and modernization of people's lives, lifestyle has changed dramatically, with decreased physical activity and increased unhealthy eating patterns in many nations throughout the world. With the COVID-19 pandemic and changes taking place in people’s health and lifestyles around the world, the need for rehabilitation is expected to rise in the coming years.(2)Methods: This paper analyzes the integration model of sports and health care using theoretical analysis, literature reviews, logical reasoning, and other methods.(3)Results: The integration of sports and health care in China has entered the stage of practical implementation after many years of development, forming a few representative integration patterns. Governments, communities, community hospitals, hospitals, and third-party institutions are the main participants, with the community playing an important role in the integration. Pharmacies, sports venues, and schools with sufficient staff have a relatively low participation rate.(4)Conclusion: The grading treatment has been applied in health management and sports rehabilitation, based on the development of digital medicine, a government-led grading treatment model of "health management center" can promote the participation of multiple subjects in the integration of sports and health care, solving the problems existing in the current integration process to a certain extent.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Chlamydia; bacteria community; cryo-soft X-ray tomography; segmentation
Online: 16 July 2021 (08:57:06 CEST)
The impact of the cell community on its individual components in the prokaryotic realm is often overlooked. However, in the case of intracellular pathogens, where each infected cell can be considered as a single community, understanding how a population adapts to its environment to evolve and successfully propagate is key. Chlamydia infections are characterised by a silent propagation of the bacteria within individual hosts and the wider population. Chlamydia are strict intracellular pathogens residing within a specialised membrane-bound compartment called the inclusion. The life cycle of Chlamydia involves altering between the invasive elementary bodies (EBs) and replicative reticulate bodies (RBs). We have used cryo-soft X-ray tomography to observe individual inclusions, combining excellent resolution (40 nm) and large volume imaging (up to 16 µm). Combined with a semi-automated segmentation pipeline, we were able to consider each inclusion as an individual bacterial niche. Within the inclusion, we identified and classified different forms of the bacteria and confirmed the recent finding that RBs have a variety of volumes (small, large and abnormal). Moreover, we demonstrate that the proportions of these different RB forms depend on the bacterial concentration in the cell demonstrating the impact of the group on its individual component. We conclude that each inclusion operates as an autonomous community which regulates the characteristics of individual bacteria within the inclusion
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: community renewable energy; sociotechnical imaginary; multilevel perspective; energy transition
Online: 2 June 2021 (09:11:15 CEST)
The current paper aims to contribute to the literature on community renewable energy by considering two projects developed in the north-west of Italy, in the Piedmont region. The case-studies are analysed by combining two theoretical perspectives: the multilevel perspective and the sociotechnical imaginary approach. On the one hand, applying the first perspective helps reconstruct the context and circumstances that have permitted Piedmont’s energy community projects to emerge. In particular, attention is given to the windows of opportunity created by the passing of the Milleproroghe decree at the national level and by the ensuing regional law 12/2018, which acknowledged the establishment of energy communities in the Piedmont. On the other hand, the sociotechnical imaginary approach allows identifying collective ideas and meanings that emerge when individuals or groups promote a sociotechnical innovation. In our cases, two main future changes are associated with community renewable energy: an integral ecology approach and a stronger sense of community on the one hand, and local development opportunities for rural areas characterised by depopulation, low employment rate and high energy demand, on the other.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; Antimicrobial Resistance; Community pharmacist; Qualitative research; Jordan
Online: 2 March 2021 (16:05:40 CET)
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization issued a practical approach and Global Action Plan to control the threatening emerging antibacterial resistance. One of the main basis of this plan is the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASPs). This study aimed to evaluate community pharmacists’ awareness and perception towards antimicrobial resistance and ASPs in Jordan. Thus, a qualitative study was conducted through in-depth interviews with twenty community pharmacists. Convienience sampling was used in the study. Qualitative analysis of the data yielded four themes and eleven sub-themes. All the respondents showed good understanding about the causes of antimicrobial resistance. The most important causes reported by them was the non-restricted prescription of antimicrobials. Most of the pharmacists believed that they are competent to provide ASPs, however, they believed that there are several barriers against the implementation of ASPs in community pharmacies in Jordan. Barriers demonstrated by the pharmacists, including organizational obstacles, resources obstacles, and personal obstacles. As a conclusion, this study revealed several barriers against the implementation of ASPs in community pharmacies in Jordan. Incorporating ASPs in the community pharmacy settings requires proper pharmacist training, several academic disciplines team efforts, and good pharmacy practice of antimicrobial guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: community-dwelling older adults; physical frailty; prevalence; risk factors
Online: 18 September 2020 (08:57:56 CEST)
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, and it predicts the disability and mortality in the older population. This study aimed to investigate standardized prevalence and multidimensional risk factors associated with frailty among the Korean community-dwelling older adults. We analyzed the baseline data of 2,907 adults aged 70–84 years (mean age 75.8±3.9 years, 57.8% women) in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study. The Fried frailty phenotype was used to define frailty. Analyzed data included sociodemographic, physical, physical function, biological, lifestyle, health condition, medical condition, psychological, and social domains. Data were standardized using the national standard population composition ratio based on the Korean Population and Housing Census. The standardized prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 7.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8–8.9%) and 57.2% (95% CI 45.1–48.8%), respectively. The following 14 risk factors had a significant association with frailty: at risk of malnutrition, sarcopenia, severe mobility limitation, poor social capital, rural dwellers, depressive, poor self-perceived health, polypharmacy, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, elevated glycosylated hemoglobin, low 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, longer timed up and go, and low short physical performance battery score (p<0.05). Physico-nutritional, psychological, sociodemographic, and medical factors are strongly associated with frailty.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: systematic review; community intervention; greenhouse gas emissions; climate change
Online: 3 September 2020 (02:54:04 CEST)
This paper reviews research on community efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We conducted a systematic search of relevant literature and supplemented our findings with an analysis of review papers previously published on the topic. Results indicate that there have been no peer-reviewed experimental evaluations of community-wide interventions to reduce greenhouse gases involving electricity, refrigeration, or food. The lack of findings limits the conclusions which can be made about the efficacy of these efforts. As a result, we are not accumulating effective interventions and some communities may be implementing strategies that are not effective. We advocate the funding of experimental evaluations of multi-sector community interventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Such interventions would attempt to engage every sector of the community in identifying and implementing policies and practices to reduce emissions. Comprehensive multi-sector interventions are likely to have synergistic effects, such that the total impact is greater than the sum of impact of individual components. We describe the value of interrupted time-series designs as an alternative to randomized trials because these designs confer particular advantages for evaluating strategies in entire communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Participation; Wildlife; Community–Based Conservation; India; Interaction; Northeast India
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:42:21 CEST)
Participation by local communities in wildlife conservation projects have long been advocated since it is socially just and is effective to reach conservation and development goals. Socio–economic variables that drive participation and impact of participation have been studied, but the contextual process that stir up local community participation remains understudied. In this paper, we studied factors facilitating community participation in three wildlife conservation projects in Northeast India. Through ethnographic fieldwork at these sites we identified conservation actors and examined interactions between them.We found common modes of participation at these sites and these were related to gaining material incentives, providing labour, attending consultative workshops. Levels of interaction and coercion were found to be different in three sites. Three critical factors that drive participation were: (1) trigger, (2) negotiation and (3) sustenance. Trigger factors kickstart participation through establishment of a crisis narrative and facilitation by external actors. Negotiation factors emerge from day–to–day interaction between local community and external actors and involve effective entry stage activities, income opportunity, mediating voices within the community and intra–community dynamics. Sustenance factors affect the long term participation by community in the conservation project and involve tangible/intangible results, capability development of locals, funding and availability to critical information. In our paper we argue that investment of time and fund to understand the stakeholders and their concept of participation, periodic feedback sessions, capacity development of locals for self–mobilization, innovative information dissemination and securing long term funding are necessary for effective local community participation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0067.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: cognition; depression; agigng; elderly; nonpharmacological therapy; community day-care
Online: 5 May 2020 (10:32:05 CEST)
Nonpharmacological therapeutic interventions in elderly may lead to the reduction of cognitive and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in cognitive functions and mood er or not. in older adults participating in therapy, conducted in the community day-care center (CD-CC). 46 elderly adults (21 M, 25 W) (SG) were examined. The control group (CG) included 45 adults (12 M, 33 W), who participated in the activities of the University of the Third Age (U3A). The following measuring tools were used: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clock-Drawing Test (CDT), Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Digit Span Test (DST), Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT), Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The intervention consisted of CD-CC 6-month complex therapy. In the SG, compared to the CG, the scores on the: MMSE, CDT, VFT, DST, and SCWT were significantly lower (p<0,05), and BDI was significantly higher (p<0,05). After intervention, the SG and the CG, did not show substantial differences in their scores on the: MMSE, CDT, and BDI. In the SG, a significant improvement (p<0,05) was reported on the: VFT, BDI, and HADS scores. The CD-CC complex therapy can be helpful for the cognitive and emotional elderly functioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0141.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: conservation; biodiversity; human rights; livelihood; forest-dependent community; impact
Online: 9 April 2020 (08:18:52 CEST)
Background and Research Highlights: Despite all the concerns and initiatives, natural resources like forests, as well as biodiversity are decreasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Conservation is considered as one of the major tools to prevent such loss and rapid degradation. Evidence around the world shows the adverse effects of conservation laws and policies on indigenous peoples and other local communities. Objectives: This study was conducted in one of the forest-dependent communities situated in Sundarban (world’s largest mangrove forest) to understand the impact of conservation laws and policies on their livelihood. Materials and Methods: A qualitative methodology was designed to collect data, using focus group discussions and case study with community people, and individual interviews with the personnel from NGOs and relevant government departments. Findings: Strict conservation policies and restrictions in accessing forest resources made lives and livelihoods of the local community insecure and unstable, thus putting the community in a vulnerable situation. The had to leave their traditional mode of income and look for alternative livelihood options. Almost no evidence was found in relation to upkeeping their rights in conservation activities. Prohibited movement, provision of punishment for entering into the forest without proper permission and struggles in everyday life were some of the highlighted issues. They had no participation in conservation activities, management of alternative livelihood options, and even they were not sensitized before putting restrictions. Although they had a history of emotional and physical attachment with the forest, existing activities did not consider these issues. In addition, corruption and abuse of power by law enforcement agencies towards the local community intensified the sufferings. Conclusion: This study argues that the realization of human rights in conservation activities and the sensitization of the implementing stakeholders are prerequisites for ensuring the sustainability of both biodiversity and the affected people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: community detection; social network; convolutional neural network; auto-encoder
Online: 3 November 2019 (15:51:34 CET)
With the fast development of the mobile Internet, the online platforms of social networks have rapidly been developing for the purpose of making friends, sharing information, etc. In these online platforms, users being related to each other forms social networks. Literature reviews have shown that social networks have community structure. Through the studies of community structure, the characteristics and functions of networks structure and the dynamical evolution mechanism of networks can be used for predicting user behaviours and controlling information dissemination. Therefore, this study proposes a deep community detection method which includes (1) matrix reconstruction method, (2) spatial feature extraction method and (3) community detection method. The original adjacency matrix in social network is reconstructed based on the opinion leader and nearer neighbors for obtaining spatial proximity matrix. The spatial eigenvector of reconstructed adjacency matrix can be extracted by an auto-encoder based on convolution neural network for the improvement of modularity. In experiments, four open datasets of practical social networks were selected to evaluate the proposed method, and the experimental results show that the proposed deep community detection method obtained higher modularity than other methods. Therefore, the proposed deep community detection method can effectively detect high quality communities in social networks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0759.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pharmacy law, education, training, vaccines, community pharmacy, ambulatory care
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:01:34 CET)
Pharmacists and pharmacies are highly visible and accessible to the public and have long been regarded as a source for immunization services in the United States. As international travel continues to increase and grow in popularity in this country, there is a pressing need for expanded access to preventative health services including routine and travel vaccinations and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment of conditions that may be acquired overseas. In the United States, the scope of pharmacy practice continues to expand and incorporate these preventable health services to varying degrees on a state-by-state level. As a result, pharmacists can help to increase access to and awareness of the need for these services to insure that patients remain healthy while traveling abroad and that they do not acquire a travel-related disease while on their trip. For those pharmacists interested in starting a travel health service, considerations should be undertaken that ensures that they have the necessary training, education, and skill set in order to provide this specialty level of care and that their practice setting is optimally designed to facilitate this service. Outcomes from studies that have evaluated pharmacy-based travel health services are positive, which further supports the role of the pharmacist in this setting. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to highlight United States pharmacy laws and regulations, pharmacist training, travel clinic considerations, and patient care outcomes from pharmacy-based travel health services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0666.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: virus; South Scotia Ridge; viral community; diversity; Pgvv-like
Online: 29 October 2018 (09:43:50 CET)
Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in aquatic ecosystems and harbor an enormous genetic diversity. While their great influence on the marine ecosystems is widely acknowledged, current information about their diversity remains scarce. A viral metagenomic analysis of three water samples was conducted from sites on the South Scotia Ridge (SSR) near the Antarctic Peninsula, during the austral summer 2016. The taxonomic composition and diversity of the viral communities were investigated and a functional assessment of the sequences was determined. Phylotypic analysis showed that most viruses belonging to the order Caudovirales, especially the family Podoviridae (41.92-48.7%), similar to the viromes from the Pacific Ocean. Functional analysis revealed a relatively high frequency of phage-associated and metabolism genes. Phylogenetic analyses of phage TerL and Capsid_NCLDV (nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses) marker genes indicated that many sequences associated with Caudovirales and NCLDV were novel and distinct from known phage genomes. High Phaeocystis globosa virus virophage (Pgvv) signatures were found in SSR area and complete and partial Pgvv-like were obtained which may have an influence on host-virus interactions. Our study expands the existing knowledge of viral communities and their diversities from the Antarctic region and provides basic data for further exploring polar microbiomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0382.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: intercropping; microbial community; high throughput sequencing; nifH gene; sugarcane
Online: 17 October 2018 (10:20:19 CEST)
Intercropping significantly improves land use efficiency and soil fertility. This study examines the impact of three cultivation systems (monoculture sugarcane, peanut-sugarcane and soybean-sugarcane intercropping) on soil properties and diazotrophs. Sugarcane rhizosphere soil was sampled from the farmers’ field. Soil properties and nifH gene abundance were analyzed by high throughput sequencing. Moreover, a total of 436,458 nifH gene sequences were obtained and classified into the 3201 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Maximum unique OTUs resulted with soybean-sugarcane intercropping (<375). The dominant groups across all cultivation were Alpha-proteobacteria and Beta-proteobacteria. On the basis of microbial community structure, intercropping systems were more diverse than monoculture sugarcane. In the genus level, Bradyrhizobium, Burkholderia, Pelomonas, and Sphingomonas were predominant in the intercropping systems. Moreover, diazotrophic bacterial communities of these cultivation systems were positively correlated to the soil pH and soil enzyme protease. Moreover, low available P recovered from intercropping system showed a strong correlation with higher nutrient uptake activity of soil microbes. Based on the results, our investigation concluded that intercropping system caused a positive effect on the growth of diazotrophic bacterial communities and it might boost the soil fertility and this kind of study helps to develop an eco-friendly technology for sustainable sugarcane production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: post-disaster community; sustainable development; social network; government management
Online: 16 May 2018 (11:04:53 CEST)
The current urban environment is faced with the potential threat of frequent natural disasters, and the sustainable development of post-disaster community has become a global issue. As an intrinsic motivation influencing the social interaction and capital operation of community, social network is an important mechanism promoting such sustainable development. However, the difference in social network caused by different member structure, spatial arrangement and management mechanism of post-disaster communities in different reconstruction modes has influenced such sustainable development process. Therefore, reasonable selection of reconstruction mode is crucial. This paper applied analytic hierarchy process to comprehensively measure and compare the social network strength in post-disaster communities in the four reconstruction modes adopted by the government of China, i.e. unified planning and unified construction, unified planning and independent construction, in situ reconstruction and relocation resettlement, with communities after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in Chengdu, China as study objects from the perspective of three social relations (the relations between residents and residents, residents and managers, and residents and servers). The results showed that strong connections are generally presented in the social network of post-disaster communities in unified planning modes, that the strength is significantly higher than that of those in non-unified planning modes, and that the strength of UPIC communities is the highest. Meanwhile, government intervention, residents’ free participation and market operation are positively correlated to government trust, community interaction and community service respectively. The positive impact of government intervention is the most significant, but it has a peak value. No government management and excessive government intervention will exert negative impacts. The coordination of government, society and market is the key contents of post-disaster community reconstruction. The reconstruction modes based on “government leadership, resident participation and market operation” may become a feasible path for such sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0519.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Digital Mental Health community; Peer Online Community; Experience measure; Forums; User testing; Quality of Care; Measure design and development; Peer support; Affinity maps
Online: 31 December 2021 (12:34:46 CET)
Online digital mental health communities can contribute to users’ mental health positively and negatively. Yet the measurement of outcomes and impact relating to digital mental health communities is difficult to capture. In this paper we demonstrate the development of an online experience measure for a specific children and young people’s community inside a digital mental health service. The development is informed by three phases: (i) item reduction through Estimate-Talk-Estimate modified Delphi methods, (ii) user testing with participatory action research and (iii) a pilot within the digital service community to explore its use. Rounds of experts talks help to reduce the items. User experience workshops helped to inform the usability and appearance, wording, and purpose of the measure. Finally, the pilot results highlight completion rates, difference in scores for age and community roles and a preference to ‘relate to others’; as a mechanism of support. Outcomes frequently selected in the measure show the importance of certain aspects of the community, such as safety, connection, and non-judgment previously highlighted in the literature. Self-reported helpfulness scales like this one could be used as indicators of meaningful engagement within the community and its content but further research is required to ascertain its acceptability and validity. Phased approaches involving stakeholders and participatory action research enhances the development of digitally enabled measurement tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Machine learning; Scientometrics; Africa; Research community; Open science; Health informatics
Online: 1 February 2023 (10:57:26 CET)
Machine learning has seen enormous growth in the last decade, with healthcare being a prime application for advanced diagnostics and improved patient care. The application of machine learning for healthcare is particularly pertinent in Africa, where many countries are resource-scarce. However, it is unclear how much research on this topic is arising from African institutes themselves, which is a crucial aspect for applications of machine learning to unique contexts and challenges on the continent. Here, we conduct a bibliometric study of African contributions to research publications related to machine learning for healthcare, as indexed in Scopus, between 1993 and 2022. We identified 3,772 research outputs, with most of these published since 2020. North African countries currently lead the way with 64.5% of publications for the reported period, yet Sub-Saharan Africa is rapidly increasing its output. We found that international support in the form of funding and collaborations is correlated with research output generally for the continent, with local support garnering less attention. Understanding African research contributions to machine learning for healthcare is a crucial first step in surveying the broader academic landscape, forming stronger research communities, and providing advanced and contextually aware biomedical access to Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Kenya; COVID-19; community representatives; self-testing; diagnostics; qualitative research
Online: 10 May 2022 (09:38:58 CEST)
Rapid SARS-CoV-2 self-tests have the potential to expand access to COVID-19 testing and improve community-level case detection, particularly in resource-constrained countries such as Kenya. However, prior to their introduction, their acceptability must be assessed. This qualitative study explored key decision-takers’ values towards SARS-CoV-2 self-testing in Kenya. Healthcare workers, representatives of civil society, and potential implementors from Mombasa and Taita-Taveta were selected as decision-takers. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data on their values towards self-testing. A thematic analysis approach was applied. Most informants considered that the Kenyan public is equipped to accept and use self-testing safely as an approach to help to reduce workload at public healthcare facilities, and know one’s COVID-19 status in a private manner. The informants emphasized the need to provide counselling to end-users, to support those needing to self-isolate, and to engage different civil society stakeholders in information provision on self-testing. Fear of stigma and of forced isolation were noted as potential deterrents to self-testing uptake for some individuals. In conclusion, there is high acceptability of self-testing in Kenya among decision-takers. However, enhanced education, counselling, and addressing deterrents to testing would be helpful to ensure effective use of SARS-CoV-2 self-testing in Kenya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0102.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Design Morphology; Ecosystem Thinking and Methods; Ecological Environment; Form Community
Online: 7 February 2022 (16:31:36 CET)
As an emerging discipline, Design Morphology, with the advantage of "Form Study", has been integrated with many disciplines, and gradually formed its collaborative innovation paradigm. The inclusion of "Ecology" into Design Morphology is expected to promote the research of Design Morphology with the help of the systematic thinking and methods of ecology. The ecosystem of Design Morphology includes the natural ecosystem and the quasi-ecosystem closely related to human beings, and also put forward the concept of "Form Community" for the first time in the design field. In fact, this is exactly the research scope of Design Morphology. Advocating the ecological view of Design Morphology, can not only help to design researchers improve their values and world view, with new thinking and method to engage in "Form Study", but also contribute to the theoretical construction and thinking expansion of Design Morphology, and play a positive role in promoting interdisciplinary collaborative innovation led by Design Morphology. In addition, it can be used to evaluate the overall research and future development trend of Design Morphology, and provide the new research ideas and approaches for the development of design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0375.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: multi-pond saltern; salinity gradients; microbial community; assembly; ecological processes
Online: 25 January 2022 (09:58:30 CET)
Salinity acts as a critical environmental filter on microbial communities in natural systems, negatively affecting microbial diversity. However, how salinity affects the community assembly remains unclear. This study used Wendeng multi-pond saltern as a model to evaluate the prokaryotic community composition and diversity and quantify the relative importance of ecological processes across salinity gradients. Results showed that low saline salterns (45-80 g/L) exhibited higher bacterial diversity than those in high saline salterns (175-265 g/L). The relative abundance of taxa assigned to Halanaerobiaceae, Haloferacaceae, Desulfohalobiaceae, Phormidiaceae, Rohodobacteraceae, and Nitrococcaceae was higher with increasing salinity. Salinity and pH were the primary environmental factors that directly or indirectly determined the composition and diversity of prokaryotic communities. Microbial co-occurrence network dynamics were more complex in the sediment than in water of salterns. An infer Community Assembly Mechanisms by Phylogenetic-bin-based null model analysis (iCAMP) showed that microbial community assembly in sediment and water differed. Our findings provide more information about microbial community structure and the importance of various ecological processes in controlling microbial community diversity and succession along salinity gradients in water and sediment environments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0011.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: microgrids; Australia; ownership; business models; value streams; community; energy efficiency.
Online: 4 January 2022 (15:17:02 CET)
AAs the global energy market undergoes a wholesale transformation accelerated by the need to decarbonise, a rapid transition to renewable energy and the mass deployment of distributed energy resources, autonomous energy networks or microgrids are emerging as an attractive mechanism for the delivery of electricity to end users. Yet in Australia, at least, relatively little is known about key aspects of microgrids that are fundamental to their successful deployment, not least the more commercial and economic elements rather than the purely technical. Drawing on the extant global literature on microgrids, this paper explores the most important of these aspects including business models, ownership and investment. Identifying the ambiguity, inconsistency and uncertainty evident in many of the feasibility studies currently in train across Australia, this paper highlights specific areas for future research that need to be addressed if the full potential of microgrids is to be realised in the context of a global energy transition both domestically and internationally.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0106.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: ketogenic diet; exercise therapy; community health planning; natural; exercise intervention
Online: 6 October 2021 (12:40:59 CEST)
The ketogenic diet and walking exercise training activity are two key public health lifestyle factors. The potential of combined lifestyle factors interventions focused on getting to compliance in forced exercise. A balanced ketogenic diet and regular exercise activity is a key modifiable factor to the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Influence health across the lifespan and reduction of the risk of premature death through several biological mechanisms. Community older group’s lifestyle factors interventions contribute identity in their natural living environment. While the older health benefits of walking exercise training strategies are commonly to study, combined ketogenic diet and walking exercise interventions have induced greater benefits in community older groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0001.v1
Subject: Keywords: Sacred groves; biodiversity conservation; Community-based conservation; Indigenous People; Nigeria.
Online: 1 September 2021 (08:42:18 CEST)
Globally, sacred groves represent a traditional form of community-based conservation system, recognized for their capacity to preserve areas that are of cultural and religious importance to local people. In most cases, the entire community takes on a watchdog role to guard against encroachment and unauthorized access either by its members or outsiders who might desecrate such sites. Our paper investigates the effects of different governance arrangements on three sacred groves in southwest Nigeria⎯Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove (UNESCO World Heritage Site); Idanre Hills (Nigerian National Monument) and Igbo-Olodumare (local cultural site)⎯on their socio-economic and religio-cultural benefits and contribution to biodiversity conservation. Using a mixed-methods design of a semi-structured questionnaire (n=167), key informant interviews (n=2), and focus groups (n=7), we collected data from local community members, traditional priests, sacred grove devotees and tourism officials. We found that customary institutions have guided reverence for sacralized spaces and wise utilization of their unique resources. The growing recognition of sacred groves has paved the way for socioeconomic rewards for individuals and government as cultural tourism increases. We found that the involvement of formal institutions alongside customary institutions in sacred grove management reinforces compliance with conservation laws within the sacred groves, especially where traditional norms are weak or may be disregarded. We discuss the implications of these observations and offer suggestions to improve community engagement, uphold traditional ecological knowledge, and develop ecotourism within the groves. We conclude that the co-existence of community-based conservation through a system of established traditional norms and prohibitions as well as formal government legislation and management, offers assurance for the long-term preservation of sacred groves and their biodiversity.