REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0123.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COPD; fall risk factor; gait; balance; cognition; daily activity; muscle dysfunction
Online: 8 September 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly being recognized as a systemic disease rather than a mere disorder of the lungs. Central (respiratory) and peripheral (limb) muscle weakness are among the main pronounced systemic effects of COPD. While the disease primarily affects the lower limb muscles and contributes to gait impairment, COPD is also associated with an increasing risk of falls in patients (COPDp). Previous studies have reported higher rates of falls among COPDp (1.17 to 1.20 falls/person-year), amounting to four times higher than an age-matched healthy group. Potential fall risk factors include muscle weakness, impaired daily activities, cognitive dysfunction, and gait and balance impairment. Although COPDp often manifest many of these risk factors, there remains a gap in literature regarding falls during walking in this population. This study aimed to 1. analyze the literature to identify the risk factors of falling in COPDp, and 2. investigate the underlying mechanisms by which these risk factors can lead to increased prevalence of falling. The results suggest that in addition to the known risk factors of falling, low back pain and mental fatigue should also be considered as relevant risk factors in the treatment process of these patients. Moreover, respiratory problems, which are common in this population, have demonstrated pronounced effects on energy expenditure, gait, and other types of activities of daily living (ADLs), leading to reduced intensity, disrupted coordination of the trunk-pelvic structure with the lower limbs during gait, and altered motor control performance due to activation of muscles in an inefficient synergic manner. These problems potentially lead to the increased vulnerability of these patients to external disturbances and higher incidence risk of falls and injuries. Cognitive problems, which are typically due to reduced oxygen received by the brain, as well as general inflammation caused by COPD, also play a significant role in gait disruption and balance. Future research is warranted to determine the prevalence of falls in COPDp by examining the response of these patients to Medio-Lateral (ML) and Anterior-Posterior (AP) disturbances during gait in association with traditional and recommended fall risk factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: ventilatory assessment; physiotherapy; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Online: 29 August 2019 (04:52:15 CEST)
Background and objective: Addressing the global morbidity associated with pulmonary disease is an important need for the respiratory community. However, there is also a growing momentum to show the efficacy of new tools of diagnosis. Despite this, there are few physiotherapeutic tools that help identify and categorize these conditions. The aim was to analyze the variables of physiotherapy index of the ventilatory workload (PIVW) in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during stability and exacerbation in an outpatient setting. Material and Methods: Analyzed retrospectively of 198 clinical records were reviewed. The PIVW was extracted in stability and exacerbation of these patients with COPD. After applying the exclusion and inclusion criteria; 54 patients were classified. Through the statistical analysis of chi-square, a significant association was reported for each of the variables and the total PIVW score. Results: when analyzing the baseline with the peak of PIVW, there was a significant increase in patients COPD exacerbation. Similarly, the variables that constitute the loads, translations and supports underwent a significant increase from baseline to exacerbation (p<0.0001), except for the additional oxygen contribution, where the frequency of patients was the same in basal and exacerbation as well. Conclusions: the PIVW, serves to determine ventilatory problemas in outpatients, characterizing the specific changes of loads, translators or assistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: screening after pulmonary embolism; chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease; chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; diagnostic work-up of post-pulmonary syndrome
Online: 9 October 2022 (02:09:20 CEST)
Background: The annual mortality of patients with untreated chronic thromboembolism pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is approximately 50% unless a timely diagnosis is followed by adequate treatment. In pulmonary embolism (PE) survivors with functional limitation the diagnostic work-up starts with echocardiography. It is followed by lung scintigraphy and right heart catheterization. However, noninvasive test providing diagnostic clues to CTEPH, or ascertain this diagnosis as very unlikely, would be extremely useful since the majority of post PE functional limitations is caused by deconditioning. Methods: Patients after acute PE underwent a structured clinical evaluation with electrocardiogram, routine laboratory tests including NT-proBNP and echocardiography. The aim of study was to verify whether the parameters from echocardiographic or perhaps electrocardiographic examination and NT-proBNP concentration best determine the risk of CTEPH. Results: A total (n = 261, male n = 123) patients after PE were included into the study, in group of 155 patients (59.4%) with reported functional impairment 13 patients (8.4%) had CTEPH and 7 PE survivors had chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease (CTEPD) (4,5%). Echo parameters differed significantly between CTEPH/CTEPD cases and other symptomatic PE survivors. Patients with CTEPH/CTEPD had also higher level of NT-proBNP (p = 0.022) but concentration of NT-proBNP above 125 pg/ml did not differentiate patients with CTEPH/CTEPD (p>0.05). Additionally, proportion of patients with right bundle brunch block registered in ECG was higher in group with CTEPH/CTED (23.5% vs. 5.8%, p = 0.034) but there were no differences between other ECG characteristics of right ventricle overload. Conclusion: Screening for CTEPH/CTEPD should be performed in patients with reduced exercise tolerance compared to pre PE period, It is not effective in asymptomatic PE survivors. Patients with CTEPH/CTED had predominantly abnormalities indicatingchronic thromboembolism in the echocardiographic assessment. NT-proBNP and electrocardiographic characteristics of right ventricle overload proved to be insufficient in predicting CTEPH/CTEPD development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD); platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR); neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR); baso-phil-to-lymphocyte ratio (BLR); eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (ELR); in-hospital mortality; nom-ogram; decision curve analysis (DCA); clinical impact curve (CIC)
Online: 14 November 2022 (04:42:59 CET)
The study comprehensively evaluated the prognostic roles of PLR, NLR, MLR, BLR, and ELR in patients with acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). 619 patients with AECOPD and 300 healthy volunteers were retrospectively included into the study. The clinical characteristics containing laboratory findings of the AECOPD patients and the blood cell counts (CBCs) of the healthy volunteers were collected. Compared with the healthy volunteers, PLR, NLR, and MLR were elevated in COPD patients in stable condition, and were further ele-vated during exacerbation. ELR showed the opposite trend. PLR, NLR, and MLR were all posi-tively correlated with hospital LOS as well as CRP. In contrast, ELR was negatively correlated with hospital LOS as well as CRP. Elevated PLR, NLR, and MLR were all associated with more serious airflow limitation in AECOPD. Elevated PLR, NLR, and MLR were all associated with increased in-hospital mortality while Elevated ELR was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality in AECOPD. A nomogram was construct to predict in-hospital mortality in AECOPD. The nomo-gram had a C-index of 0.850 (95% CI: 0.799 – 0.901) with good predictive value and clinical ap-plicability. In summary, PLR, NLR, MLR, and ELR served as predictors for clinical outcomes in patients with AECOPD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: chronic diseases; cardiovascular; renal; endocrine; diabetes; therapeutic advances; tobacco
Online: 3 May 2018 (05:08:44 CEST)
Despite needs for new therapies and improvements in existing approaches in cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine, and renal disease, investment in these areas is lagging relative to other specialties. This article summarizes a meeting of key stakeholders of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officials, representatives from academia, national organizations, and patients and caregivers. The purpose was to identify and discuss high-priority issues, establish areas of common interest, and explore opportunities for collaboration. During the meeting (September 2016), the construct of a “multimorbidity continuum” emerged, in which chronic diseases are understood as their effects on the whole rather than individual organ systems. Cross-disciplinary priorities included: 1) the need to generate greater high-quality evidence at lower cost; 2) the imperative to develop and implement patient-centered approaches to clinical investigations; 3) the importance of trial participation in under-represented populations, particularly with comorbid conditions, and 4) the need for progress in tobacco regulation. Representatives from each therapeutic area reported on their consensus priorities, and FDA representatives discussed the agency’s role in facilitating broader approaches to therapeutic development and evaluation of disease as linked across organ systems rather than in isolation, and emphasized the importance of patient engagement, collaboration and communication across stakeholders.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: chronic-ataxic neuropathy; anti-disialosyl; IgM monoclonal gammopathy; CANOMAD
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:07:50 CEST)
Objective: Elucidate the main clinical aspects of the CANOMAD spectrum. Methods: Bibliographical review trough databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Orphanet, Oxford Academic) of articles from 1985 (1) to 2019 and later selection of the most applicable of the above, in order to construct a non-systematic review. Conclusion: CANOMAD is a chronic-ataxic autoimmune neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. The correct diagnosis of this rare and multi-faceted disease will help optimal treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Diabetes; Chronic Kidney Disease; Proteinuria; Dialysis; Inflammation; Diet; Nutrition
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:33:23 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease is a critical health crisis in the US, affecting about 37 million adults. Known as "the silent killer" because it is often undiagnosed until it has reached a stage of progression. Renal dysfunction causes many adverse effects to the body's biological mechanisms, such as fluid electrolyte and pH balance, blood pressure regulation, excretion of toxins and waste, vitamin D metabolism, and hormonal regulation. Many CKD patients experience hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, chronic metabolic acidosis, bone deterioration, blood pressure abnormalities, and edema. Symptoms experienced may be minimized, and the disease's progression may be slowed through an appropriate diet, which is why medical nutrition therapy is a critical aspect of the medical intervention for CKD. The current KDOQI recommendations are proposed as well as the physiological mechanisms behind the recommendations. Current biological explanations of the effects of a whole foods plant-based diet are included for possible contrast with the current renal diet. Strong evidence continues to support the importance of proper nutrition in the prevention and progression of kidney disease.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; exercise; motor activity; lung diseases; classificatory approach; sitting
Online: 21 August 2019 (09:59:39 CEST)
This study applies a cluster analysis to identify typical physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) patterns in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) before starting pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). We implemented an observational design which assessed baseline data on objectively measured PA and SB from the STAR (Stay Active after Rehabilitation) study. 355 persons wore a accelerometer (Actigraph wGT3X) for seven days before the start of their PR. Sociodemographic and disease-related parameters were assessed at the start of PR. We applied cluster analysis and compared groups applying univariate variance analyses. Data was available for 326 persons (31.6% women; age ø = 58 yr.). Cluster analysis revealed four movement clusters with distinct PA and SB patterns: sedentary non-movers (28.5%), sedentary occasional movers (41.7%), sedentary movers (19.6%), and sedentary exercisers (10.1%). The four clusters showed very different levels of moderate PA before rehabilitation (Ø daily minutes: 9; 28; 38; 70). Notably, all four clusters displayed considerably long average sitting time per day (Ø daily minutes: 644; 561; 490; 446). The groups differed significantly in disease-related parameters of GOLD severity, FEV1, CAT, and 6-Min-Walk-Test. In addition to PA promotion, PR programs should consider the reduction of sitting time as a valuable goal.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0298.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Endocytosis; Phagocytosis; Pinocytosis; Receptor endocytosis signaling; Chronic diseases
Online: 16 December 2022 (08:07:01 CET)
Endocytosis in mammalian cells is a fundamental cellular machinery that regulates vital physiological processes, such as the absorption of metabolites, release of neurotransmitters, hormonal secretion, cellular defense, and delivery of biomolecules across the plasma membrane. A remarkable characteristic of the endocytic machinery is the sequential assembly of the complex proteins at the plasma membrane followed by transportation of various cargo molecules to different cellular compartments. In all eukaryotic cells, functional characterization of endocytic pathways is based on dynamics of the protein complex modules. To coordinate the assembly and functions of the numerous parts of the endocytic machinery, the endocytic proteins interact significantly within and between the modules. Clathrin dependent and independent endocytosis, caveolar pathway and receptor mediated endocytosis have been attributed in a greater variety of physiological and pathophysiological roles such as, autophagy, metabolism, cell division, apoptosis, cellular defense, and intestinal permeabilization. Notably, any defect or alteration in the endocytic machinery results in the development of pathological consequences associated with human diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, and inflammatory diseases. In this review, an in-depth endeavor has made to illustrate the process of endocytosis, and associated mechanisms describing pathological manifestation associated with dysregulated endocytosis machinery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Medication-related burden; Questionnaire; chronic disease conditions; adherence
Online: 25 June 2018 (14:35:31 CEST)
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the perceived medication-related burden among patients with multiple non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and to investigate the association between perceived burden and adherence to medication therapy. Medication-related burden was measured in three primary care clinics in Qatar using the Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ) among adults with diabetes, with or without other comorbidities. Adherence was measured using the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS). Two hundred ninety-three eligible patients participated in the study. Majority of participants reported experiencing minimum (66.6%) to moderate (24.1%) medication-related burden. There was a significant positive correlation between the medication-related burden (measured by the LWQ) and medication adherence (measured by ARMS) (rs (253) = 0.317, p <0.0005). The duration of diabetes diagnosis, adherence score, marital status, employment status, and presence diagnosis of hypertension were significant predictors of medication burden. A considerable proportion of the patients in this study have reported experiencing medication-related burden. Healthcare providers should seek strategies to address this burden especially among patients with risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, non-adherent to their medication therapy, living alone, or non-employed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Chronic diseases; iron deficiency; haemoglobin; anaemia; aminoacids; rehabilitation
Online: 8 December 2020 (06:58:25 CET)
Chronic diseases are characterised by cell’s autophagy and proteins disarrangement resulting in sarcopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypo-haemoglobinaemia. Hypo-haemoglobinaemia couses worse prognosis independentely of the principal disease. Currently, the cornerstone of therapy of anaemia is iron supplementation, with or without erythropoietin for the stimulation of hematopoiesis. However, treatment strategies should incorporate the addition of heme, the principal biochemical constituent of haemoglobin. Heme synthesis follows a complex biochemical pathway. The limiting step of heme synthesis is D-ALA availability which, for its synthesis, requires Glycine and Succinil-CoA. Consequently, treatment of anaemia should not be based only on iron availability, but also on the availability of the molecules fundamental for heme synthesis. Therefore, an adequate clinical therapeutic strategy should integrate the standard iron infusion and the supply of essential amino acids and vitamins involved in the heme synthesis. We report preliminary data in selected elderly anaemic patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and catabolic disarrangement, who, in addition to standard iron therapy, received personalized therapy with essential-AAs and vitamins involved in the maintenance of heme. Notably, such individualized therapy resulted in a significant increase in the serum concentration of haemoglobin after 30 days of treatment compared to standard iron therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0353.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Diabetic; Chronic Kidney Disease; Metformin; Acidosis Lactate
Online: 28 February 2022 (09:28:33 CET)
Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolite disorder with parameters of high blood sugar levels. In the management of diabetes can be used the drug metformin is the gold of choice to achieve a therapeutic effect and rarely causes side effects of the drug, but it still has debate view. However, if used in excessive doses for patients with kidney disease, it will be contraindicated with side effects such as lactic acidosis. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the side effect of Metformin for diabetic kidney diseases (DKD) patients. Method: This study used the Narrative Review Method that was obtained from 2011 to 2021, in the English language from PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library. Results: Metformin is at the forefront of the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Metformin is likely to have lactic acidosis-related adverse effects in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, such as increased arterial lactate. Lactic acidosis is defined as an increase in arterial lactate with an indicator of more than five mmol/L and an arterial blood pH of less than 7.35. Metformin-induced lactate levels are considered to be below the parameters. DKD risk factors can be conceptually classified as several susceptibility factors, initiation factors, and developmental factors. The two most prominent risk factors are hyperglycemia and hypertension. Conclusion: Metformin can increase lactate levels in CKD patients but is still below the parameters of lactic acidosis. This study may have some weaknesses and requires further prospective research to validate the results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; chronic kidney disease; proteinuria
Online: 18 July 2018 (08:39:27 CEST)
Vitamin D (VD) is a pro-hormone essential for life in higher animals. It is present in few types of foods and is produced endogenously in the skin by a photochemical reaction. The final step of VD activation occurs in the kidneys involving a second hydroxylation reaction to generate the biologically active metabolite 1,25(OH)2-VD. Extrarenal 1α-hydroxylation has also been described to have an important role in autocrine and paracrine signaling. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been in the spotlight as a major public health-care issue with an estimated prevalence of more than a billion people worldwide. Among individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), VDD prevalence has been reported to be as high as 80%. Classically VD plays a pivotal role in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of evidence supporting the importance of VD in many vital nonskeletal biological processes such as endothelial function, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system modulation, redox balance and innate and adaptive immunity. In individuals with CKD, VDD has been associated with albuminuria, faster progression of kidney disease and increased all-cause mortality. Recent guidelines support VD supplementation in CKD based on extrapolation from cohorts conducted in the general population. In this review, we discuss new insights on the multifactorial pathophysiology of VDD in CKD as well as how it may negatively modulate different organs and systems. We also critically review the latest evidence and controversies of VD monitoring and supplementation in CKD patients.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0668.v1
Subject: Keywords: marijuana; medicinal cannabis (MC); chronic pain (CP); cannabidiol (CBD); tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Online: 26 November 2020 (11:22:28 CET)
Rationale:First discovered in 1990, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) was initially shown to have an intimate relationship with central areas of the nervous system associated with pain, reward, and motivation. Recently, however, the ECS has been extensively implicated in the cardiovascular system with contractility, heart rate, blood pressure, and vasodilation. Emerging data demonstrates modulation of the ECS plays an essential role in cardio metabolic risk, atherosclerosis, and can even limit damage to cardiomyocytes during ischemic events.Patient Concerns:This case describes a 63-year-old male who presented to a primary care physician for a medical cannabis (MC) consult due to unstable angina (UA) not relieved by morphine or cardiac medications; having failed all first- and second-line poly-pharmaceutical therapies. The patient reported frequent, unprovoked, angina and exertional dyspnea.Diagnosis:Having a complex cardiac history, the patient first presented 22 years ago after a suspected myocardial infarction (MI). He re-presented in 2010 and underwent stent placement at that time for inoperable triple-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) which was identified via percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. UA developed on follow up and, despite medical management over the past 6 years, his UA became progressively debilitating.Interventions and Outcomes:In conjunction with his standard cardiac care, patient had a gradual lessening of UA related pain, including frequency and character, after using an edible form of medical cannabis (MC) (1:1 CBD:THC). Following continued treatment, he ceased long term morphine treatment and describes the pain as no longer crippling. As demonstrated by his exercise tolerance tests, the patient experienced an improved functional capacity and reported an increase in his daily functioning, and overall activity.Lessons:This case uniquely highlights MC in possibly reducing the character, quality, and frequency of UA; while concordantly improving functional cardiac capacity in a patient with CAD. Additional case reports are necessary to verify this.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0104.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: myeloperoxidase, leukocytes, inflammation, oxidative stress, chronic diseases, disease biomarker
Online: 15 February 2018 (16:54:25 CET)
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) belong to the family of heme containing peroxidases, produced mostly from polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The active enzyme (150 kD) is the product of MPO gene located on long arm of chromosome 17. The primary gene product undergoes several modifications like removal of introns and signal peptide and leads to the formation of enzymatically inactive glycosylated apoproMPO which complexes with chaperons, producing active proMPO by the insertion of heme moiety. The active enzyme is a homodimer of heavy and light chain protomers. This enzyme is released into extracellular fluid after oxidative stress and different inflammatory responses. MPO is the only type of peroxidase using H2O2 to oxidize several halides and pseudohalides to form different hypohalous acids. So the antibacterial activities of MPO involve the production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Controlled MPO release at the site of infection is of prime importance for its efficient activities. Any uncontrolled degranulation exaggerates the inflammation that can also lead to tissue damage even in absence of inflammation. Several types of tissue injuries and pathogenesis of several other major chronic diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, liver diseases, diabetes and cancer have been reported to be linked with myeloperoxidase derived oxidants. So the enhanced level of MPO activity is one of the best diagnostic tool of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers among these commonly occurring diseases.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0486.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: high altitude, chronic hypobaric hypoxia, physiologic adaptation, travel to high altitude cities, high altitude physiology, pulmonary hypertension, lung disease, hemoglobin, tolerance to hypoxia, oxygen content.
Online: 18 June 2021 (15:22:04 CEST)
Acute high altitude illnesses are of great concern for physicians and people traveling to high altitude. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) can be better understood through the Oxygen Transport Triad which involves the Pneumo-Dynamic Pump (Ventilation), the Hemo-Dynamic Pump (Heart and circulation), and Hemoglobin. The two pumps are the first physiologic response upon initial exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Hemoglobin is the balancing energy-saving time-evolving equilibrating factor. The increased hemoglobin at high altitude reduces the percentage of dissolved oxygen in the arterial oxygen content with respect to sea level. At high altitude, the acid-base balance must be adequately interpreted using the high altitude Van-Slyke correction factors. Pulse-oximetry measurements during breath-holding at high altitude allow for the evaluation of high altitude diseases. The Tolerance to Hypoxia Formula shows that, paradoxically, the higher the altitude the more tolerance to hypoxia. All organisms adapt physiologically and optimally to a high-altitude environment to survive. Reduction of pulmonary hypertension in HAPE through oxygen administration results in a favorable outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi; Tickborne disease; Chronic infection; Spirochete culture
Online: 8 March 2018 (07:08:02 CET)
Introduction: Lyme disease is a tickborne illness that generates controversy among medical providers and researchers. One of the key topics of debate is the existence of persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in patients who have been treated with recommended doses of antibiotics yet remain symptomatic. Persistent spirochetal infection despite antibiotic therapy has recently been demonstrated in non-human primates. We present evidence of persistent Borrelia infection despite antibiotic therapy in patients with ongoing Lyme disease symptoms. Materials & Methods: In this pilot study, culture of body fluids and tissues was performed in a randomly selected group of 12 patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms who had been treated or who were being treated with antibiotics. Cultures were also performed on a group of 10 control subjects without Lyme disease. The cultures were subjected to corroborative microscopic, histopathological and molecular testing for Borrelia organisms in four independent laboratories in a blinded manner. Results: Motile spirochetes identified histopathologically as Borrelia were detected in culture specimens, and these spirochetes were genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi by three distinct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Spirochetes identified as Borrelia burgdorferi were cultured from the blood of seven subjects, from the genital secretions of ten subjects, and from a skin lesion of one subject. Cultures from control subjects without Lyme disease were negative for Borrelia using these methods. Conclusions: Using multiple corroborative detection methods, we showed that patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms may have ongoing spirochetal infection despite antibiotic treatment, similar to findings in non-human primates. The optimal treatment for persistent Borrelia infection remains to be determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0472.v1
Subject: Keywords: chronic kidney disease; folic acid; inflammation; oxidative stress; antioxidants; biomarkers
Online: 31 March 2020 (23:32:43 CEST)
Introduction: Increased oxidative stress, including elevated homocysteine (Hcy) plasma levels, and lowered levels of antioxidants participate in the pathophysiology and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Paraoxonase (PON)1 activity and folic acid are antioxidants which play a role in Hcy metabolism. However, there are no data whether, in CKD, treatment with folic acid improves glomerular filtration rate (GFR) through effects on PON1 activity and Hcy concentrations. Methods: In the current study, we determined PON1 genotypes and activity, Hcy and estimated GFR (eGFR) both before and after treatment with folic acid (5 mg/d) versus no treatment during three consecutive months in 113 outpatients with CKD classified into stages 4, 3b and 3a. Results: PON1 CMPAase and AREase activities were significantly lower in patients allocated to CKD stage 4 as compared with stages 3b and 3a. Treatment with folic acid significantly improved eGFR and increased levels of CMPAase and AREase in patients allocated to classes 4 and 3b, but not 3a. The improvement of eGFR was associated with increased CMPAase and AREase activities, while the latter were associated with increased levels of folic acid. Treatment with folic acid significantly reduced plasma Hcy levels and the Hcy/PON1 activity ratio. The effects of folic acid increasing PON1 activities were not mediated by changes in Hcy. Discussion: Treatment of CKD patients in early/intermediate stages of CKD patients improves oxidative stress by rebalancing the prooxidant (Hcy) / antioxidant (PON1 activities) ratio. Treatment with folic acid significantly improves eGFR and these effects are mediated via increased PON1 activities. Treatment with folic acid in phase G3b and G4 may reduce renal disease progression by enhancing antioxidant defenses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0381.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: coronary tortuosity; myocardial ischemia; coronary artery disease; chronic stable angina.
Online: 25 June 2018 (11:02:03 CEST)
Background: Coronary tortuosity is a common angiographic finding. Scarce data is available on clinical profile of patients with coronary tortuosity (CT) and its relation with coronary artery disease (CAD). Method: A total 224 patients undergoing angiography for suspected CAD were included in the study. CT was defined by the presence of ≥3 consecutive bends of > 45 degree measured at end-diastole in an epicardial artery ≥2 mm in diameter. CT was present in 45(20.08%) patients in the study and another 45 patients without CT was randomly selected as control (NCT group). Clinical profile of CT and NCT group was compared. Results: Incidence of CT was significantly higher in females (p=0.000) and hypertensives (p=0.001) patients. CT was most commonly seen in Left circumflex coronary artery. Incidence of CAD was significantly lower in CT group as compare to NCT group (0.02). Risk factors for CAD was associated with reduced incidence of CT. Majority (88.46%) patient with CT without CAD presented with chronic stable angina out of which (65.21%) had an objective evidence of myocardial ischemia. Conclusion: CT is more commonly seen females and hypertensive patients. It has negative correlation with CAD. Risk factors of CAD do not predict CT. CT itself can lead to myocardial ischemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0495.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: chronic venous disease; deep leaning; data mining; Resnet50; DeiT; automatic classification; automatic CEAP classification
Online: 29 August 2022 (12:46:56 CEST)
Chronic venous disease (CVD) occurs in a substantial proportion of the world's population. If the onset of CVD looks like a cosmetic defect, then over time, it can develop into serious problems that require surgical intervention. The aim of the work is to use deep learning (DL) methods for automatic classification of the stage of CVD for self-diagnosis of a patient by using the image of the patient’s legs. The required for DL algorithms images of legs with CVD were obtained by using Internet Data Mining. For images preprocessing, the binary classification problem “legs - no legs” was solved based on Resnet50 with accuracy 0.998. The application of this filter made it possible to collect a data set of 11,118 good quality leg images with various stages of CVD. For classification of various stages of CVD according to CEAP classification, the multi classification problem was set and resolved by using two neural networks with completely different architecture - Resnet50 and DeiT. The model based on DeiT without any tuning shows better results than the model based on Resnet50 (precision = 0.770 (DeiT) and 0.615 (Resnet50)). To demonstrate the results of the work, a telegram bot was developed, in which fully functioning DL algorithms are implemented. This bot allows evaluating the condition of the patient's legs with a fairly good accuracy for the CVD classification.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0706.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Chronic hepatitis B; NAFLD; NASH; biomarkers; magnetic resonance technology; NAFLD therapy
Online: 29 September 2020 (10:40:21 CEST)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global public problem despite the availability of effective vaccine. In the past decades, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has surpassed HBV as the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The prevalence of concomitant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and NAFLD, thus, reaches endemic in geographic regions where both conditions are common. Patients with CHB and NAFLD are at increased risk of liver disease progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to complexity of the pathogenesis, accurate diagnosis of NAFLD in CHB patients can be challenging. Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and determining the disease severity, but it is an invasive procedure with potential complications. There is a growing body of literatures on the application of novel noninvasive serum biomarkers and advanced radiological modalities to diagnose and evaluate NAFLD, but most have not been adequately validated especially for patients with CHB. Currently, there is no approved therapy for NAFLD though many new agents are in different phases of development. This review provides a summary of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and management of the NAFLD and highlights the unmet needs in the areas of CHB and NAFLD coexistence.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0267.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer dormancy; Low-grade chronic inflammation; Healthy aging; Physical exercise
Online: 11 August 2021 (17:57:09 CEST)
The paradigm of the Somatic Mutation Theory (SMT) is failing and a new paradigm is in the making but not yet established. What is being challenged is a conceptual approach that involves the entire human biology and the development of chronic diseases. The behavior of breast cancer is well compatible with the concept that the primary tumor is able to control its microscopic metastases, in the same way that an organ (e.g., the liver) is able to control its physiological size. This finding suggested that breast cancer and its metastases may behave as an organoid. The new paradigm under construction considers the origin of tumors as a disturbance in the communication network between tissue cell populations and between cells and extracellular matrix, and supports a systemic approach to the study of both healthy and pathologic tissues. The commentary provides a rationale for the role of physical exercise in the control of tumor dormancy according to a human evolutionary perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Chronic Kidney Diseases; Hypertension; Risk Factors; Bangladesh
Online: 19 November 2021 (09:26:12 CET)
Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are a major public health burden in low-and-middle-income countries. This study aimed to explore factors associated with CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 315 adults with T2D presenting at the outpatient department of Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences (BIHS) hospital between July 2013 to December 2013. CKD was diagnosed based on estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate using the ‘Modification of Diet in Renal Disease’ equations and presence of albuminuria estimated by the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with CKD. The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with T2D was 21.3%. In the unadjusted model Factors associated with CKD were: aged 40-49 years (OR: 5.7, 95% CI: 1.3-25.4), age 50-59 years (7.0, 1.6-39), age ≥60 years (7.6, 1.7-34); being female (2.2, 1.2-3.8), hypertensive (1.9, 1.1-3.5) and household income between 128.2-256.4 US$ (2.9, 1.0-8.2) compared with income ≤128.2$. However, after adjustment of other covariates, only duration of hypertension and household income (128.2-256.4 US$) remained statistically significant. There is a need to implement policies and programs for early detection and management of hypertension and CKD in T2D patients in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0198.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Magnesium deficiency; Body composition; Chronic kidney failure.
Online: 13 July 2022 (09:27:18 CEST)
(1) Background: Reduced magnesium (Mg) levels may be associated with a faster de-cline in renal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of serum and uri-nary Mg levels with body composition and inflammatory markers; (2) Methods: Lon-gitudinal study with patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing non-dialysis treatment in stages 3A, 3B and 4. Venous samples were collected after a 12-hour night fast. Body composition was evaluated by Double X-Ray Emission Absorptiometry and Air Displacement Plethysmog-raphy; (3) Results: The sample consisted of 134 patients. In the adjusted linear regression model, uric acid, percentage of lean mass and ali-mentar intake of Mg were positively associated with the sergic Mg. Triglyceride levels, WC and fat mass percentage were negatively associated with serum Mg. For the Mg urinal, in the adjusted model, the eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate), IL (interleukin 6), food intake of Mg and the percentage of lean mass showed a positive correlation.; (4) Conclusions: Serum Mg levels were positively associated with lean mass and negatively with total and central body fat and urinary Mg was positively associated with IL6 and lean mass.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0143.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: chronic kidney disease; low socioeconomic status; mortality
Online: 6 August 2020 (09:46:30 CEST)
Background: To examine the association between income levels and mortality rates in patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: We analyzed data obtained from 3,172 patients with chronic kidney disease obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance claims database (2003–2009). Each patient was monitored until December 2010 or until death, whichever came first. Individual income was estimated from the national health insurance premium. Information on mortality was obtained from the Korean National Statistical Office. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare mortality rates between different income groups after adjusting for possible confounding risk factors. Results: A low income was significantly associated with a high mortality rate after adjusting for covariates (adjusted HR 1.298 [1.082–1.556]). In addition, dialysis patients who had low incomes were more likely to have higher mortality rates compared to those in dialysis patients who had high incomes (adjusted HR 1.528 [1.122–2.082]). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that chronic kidney disease patients with low incomes have the highest mortality risk. Promotion of targeted policies and priority health services for patients with low incomes may help reduce the mortality rate in this vulnerable group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0371.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease; aminoacids; Dysbiosis; metabolic disorders
Online: 27 January 2022 (15:48:16 CET)
Background: A comparison of the amino acid (AA) plasma profile and markers of intestinal absorption-inflammation between healthy subjects aged 65-70 years and age-matched patients affected by stage 3b-4 chronic kidney disease (CKD3b-4) was performed. Methods: eleven healthy volunteers were compared with 12 CKD3b-4 patients at their first outpatient control (T0) and after 12-months (T12). Adherence to a low protein diet (LPD, 0.6±0.1 g/kg/day) was assessed by Urea Nitrogen Appearance. The following parameters were assessed: renal function, nutritional parameters, bioelectrical impedance analysis, plasma levels of 20 total aminoacids (TAAs), both essential (EAAs) including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and non-essential (NEAAs). Zonulin and faecal Calprotectin markers were used to evaluate intestinal permeability/inflammation. Results: Four patients dropped out of the study; in the remaining 8 residual kidney function (RKF) remained stable, their LPD adherence had risen to 0.89g/kg/day, anaemia had worsened and extracellular body fluid had increased. In comparison to healthy subjects, TAA levels of histidine, arginine, asparagine, threonine, glycine, and glutamine had all increased. No variation in BCAAs was observed. A significant increase was detected in faecal calprotectin and zonulin levels in CKD patients as the disease progressed. Conclusions: This study confirms the finding in aged patients of an alteration in levels of several AAs secondary to uraemia. Intestinal markers provide confirmation of a relevant alteration to the intestinal function in CKD patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: chronic kidney disease; disease progression; end stage renal disease; mortality; health-related behaviors; physical activity; smoking; alcohol
Online: 26 June 2019 (15:38:12 CEST)
Healthy life style is associated with decreased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and mortality in the general population. However, there is no definitive evidence on the benefits of physical activity and other health-related behaviors in the early-stage CKD. This study aimed to explore the association between health-related behaviors and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality in the early stages of CKD. The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database from January 1st, 2009 to December 31st, 2016 was used to screen 83,470 subjects with early stage CKD. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between health-related behaviors and ESRD and death. Kaplan-Meier curves for mortality and ESRD were plotted according to the physical activity, smoking status and alcohol consumption pattern. Risk of death decreased significantly in subjects who engaged in sufficient physical activity (adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.73; 95% CI: 0.64-0.83; p < 0.001). Risk of ESRD and death increased significantly in the current smoker with adjusted HR of 1.44 (95% CI: 1.06-1.95; p < 0.02) and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.44-1.80; p < 0.001) respectively. Therefore, systematic interventions to encourage physical activity and smoking cessation need to be actively considered in the early stages of CKD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0064.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: microcystins; climatic factors; chronic liver disease and cirrhosis; daily sunlight; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Online: 3 July 2019 (11:46:09 CEST)
Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) may rapidly propagate under favorable conditions, forming dense blooms. As water blooms deteriorate, blue-green algae can generate potent toxins, potentially harmful to companion animals, wildlife, and even humans. One widely recognized cyanobacterial toxin is microcystin. This algal toxin has been implicated in surface waters globally, increasing liver cancer and/or disease risk amongst those who depend on sources prone to microcystin contamination. Interestingly, no study looked at weather conditions when connecting liver health outcomes to freshwater cyanotoxins. The purpose of this study was to determine if climate was an important determinant of liver mortality and total microcystins at the ecological level. Secondary data was used to evaluate the proposed hypothesis. Environmental data (CDC WONDER) and toxin data (USEPA) were used in multivariate regression analysis. Mean daily sunlight and total microcystins were significant predictors of age-adjusted chronic liver disease and cirrhosis death rates. Mean annual precipitation and mean daily max temperature were non-significant predictors. This study demonstrated how microcystins in combination with climate may increase liver mortality. The results can prompt others to study environmental exposures of terminal liver diseases, guiding environmental health and the water industry of human survival needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0173.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: calcitriol; vitamin D; COVID-19; SARS-CoV2 infection; chronic kidney disease
Online: 6 April 2021 (11:50:28 CEST)
Treatment with calcitriol, the hormonal form of vitamin D, has shown beneficial effects in ex-perimental models of acute lung injury. In this study we aimed to analyze the associations be-tween calcitriol supplementation and the risk of SARS-CoV2 infection or COVID-19 mortality. Individuals ≥18 years old living in Catalonia and supplemented with calcitriol from April 2019 to February 2020 were compared with propensity score matched controls. Outcome variables were SARS-CoV2 infection, severe COVID-19 and COVID-19 mortality. Associations between calcitriol supplementation and outcome variables were analyzed using multivariable Cox proportional regression. A total of 8076 patients were identified as being on calcitriol treatment. Advanced chronic kidney disease and hypoparathyroidism were the most frequent reasons for calcitriol supplementation in our population. Calcitriol use was associated with reduced risk of SARS-CoV2 infection (HR 0.78 [CI 95% 0.64-0.94], p=0.010), reduced risk of severe COVID-19 and reduced COVID-19 mortality (HR 0.57 (CI 95% 0.41-0.80), p=0.001) in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. In addition, an inverse association between mean daily calcitriol dose and COVID-19 severity or mortality was observed in treated patients, independently of renal function. Our findings point out that patients with advanced chronic kidney disease could benefit from calcitriol supplementation during the COVID-19 pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: celiac disease; dermatitis herpetiformis; alopecia areata; cutaneous vasculitis; urticaria; atopic dermatitis; psoriasis; recurrent aphtous ulceration; chronic ulcerative stomatitis; gluten-free diet
Online: 10 May 2018 (08:04:40 CEST)
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated gluten-induced enteropathy that affects predisposed individuals of all ages. Many patients with CD do not report gastrointestinal symptoms making it difficult to reach an early diagnosis. On the other hand, CD is related to a wide spectrum of extra-intestinal manifestations, being dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) the best characterized. These associated conditions may be the clue for reaching the diagnosis of CD. Over the last years, there have been multiple reports of the association between CD and several cutaneous manifestations that may improve with a gluten-free diet (GFD). The presence of some of these skin diseases, even in absence of gastrointestinal symptoms, should give rise to an appropriate screening for CD. The aim of this paper is to describe the different cutaneous manifestations that have been associated to CD and the possible mechanisms involved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: dapsone; disulfiram; chronic Lyme disease; Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome; babesia; bartonella; persisters; biofilms.
Online: 29 April 2022 (10:12:41 CEST)
Lyme disease and associated co-infections are increasing worldwide and approximately 20% of individuals develop chronic Lyme disease (CLD)/Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS) despite early antibiotics. A 7–8-week protocol of double dose dapsone combination therapy (DDDCT) for CLD/PTLDS results in symptom remission in approximately 50% of patients for one year or longer, with published culture studies indicating higher doses of dapsone demonstrate efficacy against resistant biofilm forms of Borrelia burgdorferi. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate higher doses of dapsone in the treatment of resistant CLD/PTLDS and associated co-infections. Twenty-five patients with a history of Lyme and associated co-infections, most of whom had ongoing symptoms despite several courses of DDDCT, took one or more courses of high dose pulsed dapsone combination therapy (200 mg dapsone X 3-4 days and/or 200 mg BID x 4 days), depending on persistent symptoms. The majority of patients noticed sustained improvement in 8 major Lyme symptoms, including fatigue, pain, headaches, neuropathy, insomnia, cognition, and sweating, where dapsone dosage, not just treatment length, positively affected outcomes. High dose pulsed dapsone combination therapy may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of resistant CLD/PTLDS, and should be confirmed in randomized, controlled clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: troponin; high-sensitivity; chronic kidney disease; renal insufficiency; myocardial infarction; acute coronary syndrome
Online: 10 August 2021 (08:45:07 CEST)
Background: Patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD G4-G5) often have chronically elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) values above the 99th percentile of the upper reference limit. In these patients, optimal cutoff levels for diagnosing non-ST-elevation acute cor-onary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) requiring revascularization remain undefined. Methods: Of 11,912 patients undergoing coronary angiography from 2012 to 2017 for suspected NSTE-ACS, 325 (3%) had severe CKD. Of these, 290 with available serial hs-cTnT measurements were included and 300 matched patients with normal renal function were selected as a control cohort. Results: Diagnostic performance for patients with severe CKD was high at presentation and similar to that of the control population (AUC, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.75-0.87 versus 0.85, 0.80-0.89, p=0.68) and the ROC-derived cutoff value at presentation was 4 times higher compared to the conventional 99th percentile. Combining the ROC-derived cutoff levels for hs-cTnT at presentation and absolute 3-hour changes, sensitivity increased to 98%, PPV and NPV improved up to 93% and 86%, re-spectively. (4) Conclusions: In patients with severe CKD and suspected ACS the diagnostic accu-racy of hs-cTnT for the diagnosis of NSTE-ACS requiring revascularization is improved by using higher assay specific cutoff levels combined with early absolute changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: chronic kidney disease; gene polymorphism; angiotensin-converting enzyme; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular mortality risk; genotype
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:05:25 CEST)
The association between angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) polymorphisms and plasma ACE levels may allow for the optimization of a preventive intervention to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. In this study, we aimed to analyze the association between ACE I/D polymorphism and cardiovascular mortality risk among non-hemodialyzed chronic kidney disease patients. This cross-sectional study examined 70 patients of Javanese ethnic origin with stable CKD who did not receive hemodialysis. ACE I/D polymorphisms, plasma ACE levels, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk, and cardiovascular mortality risk were investigated. As per our findings, the I allele was found to be more frequent (78.6) than the D allele (21.4), and the DD genotype was less frequent than the II genotype (4.3 vs. 61.4). The ACE I/D polymorphism had a significant direct positive effect on plasma ACE levels (path coefficient = 0.302, p = 0.021). Similarly, plasma ACE levels had a direct and significant positive effect on the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (path coefficient = 0.410, p = 0.000). Moreover, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk had a significant positive effect on cardiovascular mortality risk (path coefficient = 0.918, p = 0.000). The ACE I/D polymorphism had no direct effect on ASCVD and cardiovascular mortality risk. However, our findings show that the indirect effects of high plasma ACE levels may be a factor in the increased risk of ASCVD and cardiovascular mortality in Javanese CKD patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0458.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Cost-sensitive feature selection; ensemble models; decision tree classifiers; chronic kidney disease; random forests; gradient boosted trees
Online: 6 July 2020 (09:56:15 CEST)
Automated medical diagnosis is one of the important machine learning applications in the domain of healthcare. In this regard, most of the approaches primarily focus on optimizing the accuracy of classification models. In this research, we argue that unlike general-purpose classification problems, medical applications, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis, require special treatment. In the case of CKD, apart from model performance, other factors such as the cost of data acquisition may also be taken into account to enhance the applicability of the automated diagnosis system. In this research, we have proposed two techniques for cost-sensitive feature ranking. An ensemble of decision tree models is employed in both the techniques for computing the worth of a feature in the CKD dataset. An automatic threshold selection heuristic is also introduced which is based on the intersection of features’ worth and their accumulated cost. A set of experiments are conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed techniques on both tree-based and non-tree based classification models. The proposed approaches are also evaluated against several comparative techniques. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the proposed techniques select around 1/4th of the original CKD features while reducing the cost by a factor of 7.42 of the original feature set. Based on the extensive experimentation it is concluded that the proposed techniques employing feature-cost interaction heuristic tend to select feature subsets that are both useful and cost-effective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: End-Stage Renal Disease, Chronic Kidney Disease, Wnt-Pathway, R-Spondin 1, β-Catenin, Dickkopf-Related Protein 1, and Sclerostin.
Online: 12 February 2021 (10:08:22 CET)
Background. Wnt-pathway proteins play a vital role in kidney development and defects in the Wnt-pathway are associated with kidney disorders. However, the knowledge on the role of Wnt/β-catenin pathway proteins in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is limited.Aim of the study. To delineate the association of ESRD and Wnt-proteins including the agonistR-spondin 1, the transducer β-catenin and the antagonists Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) and sclerostin.Methods. Serum Wnt-pathway proteins levels were measured by ELISA, while other biochemicals were measured spectrophotometrically in 60 ESRD patients and 30 normal controls.Results. DKK1 and sclerostin were significantly higher in ESRD than in controls, and β-catenin and the catenin + R-Sponin-1 / DKK1 + sclerostin ratio, reflecting the ratio of agonist and transducer on antagonists (AT/ANTA), were significantly lower in ESRD. Logistic regression analysis showed that ESRD was significantly predicted by increased levels of DDK1 and sclerostin and lowered β-catenin (p<0.001). eGFR was significantly associated with DKK1 and sclerostin (inversely), β-catenin (positively) and the AT/ANTA ratio (r=0.468, p<0.001). DKK1 levels were significantly and positively correlated with urea, creatinine, and copper. DKK1 and sclerostin were inversely associated with hemoglobin and packet cell volume. Catenin was significantly negatively associated with copper, urea and creatinine.Conclusion. Wnt/β-catenin pathway proteins show significant alterations in ESRD, indicating significantly increased levels of antagonists and, therefore, attenuated Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity. The latter is associated with lowered eGFR and increased serum copper levels. Wnt/β-catenin pathway proteins are possible drug targets to treat ESRD or its consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; Wnt pathway; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative stress; biomarkers
Online: 12 March 2021 (08:46:45 CET)
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms. The aims of this study are to delineate the associations between severity of fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms and glomerular filtration rate, inflammatory biomarkers, and Wnt/catenin-pathway proteins. The Wnt-pathway related proteins β-catenin, Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), R-spondin-1, and sclerostin were measured by ELISA technique in 60 ESRD patients and 30 controls. The Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (FF) Rating Scale was used to assess severity of FF symptoms. ESRD is characterized by a significant increase in the total FF score, muscle tension, fatigue, sadness, sleep disorders, GI symptoms, and a flu-like malaise. The total FF score was significantly correlated with serum levels of urea, creatinine, phosphate, and copper (positively), and β-catenin, eGFR, hemoglobin, albumin, and zinc (inversely). The total FF score was associated with the number of total dialysis and weekly dialysis sessions, and these dialysis characteristics were more important in predicting FF scores than eGFR measurements. Partial Least Squares analysis showed that the FF score comprised two factors which are differently associated with biomarkers: a) 43.0% of the variance in fatigue, GI symptoms, muscle tension, sadness, and insomnia is explained by hemoglobin, albumin, zinc, β-catenin, and R-spondin-1; and b) 22.3% of the variance in irritability, concentration and memory impairments by increased copper and cations/chloride ratio, and male sex. ESRD patients show high levels of fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms which are associated with hemodialysis and mediated by dialysis-induced changes in inflammatory pathways, the Wnt/catenin pathway, and copper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0188.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; Chronic Illness; ME/CFS; Management; Research
Online: 17 September 2019 (12:38:57 CEST)
We propose a framework for the understanding of the pathophysiology and management of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) that considers wider determinants of health and long-term temporal variation in pathophysiological features and disease phenotype throughout the natural history of the disease. As in other chronic diseases, ME/CFS evolves through different stages, from asymptomatic predisposition, progressing to a prodromal stage, and then to symptomatic disease. Disease incidence depends on genetic makeup and environment factors, the exposure to an insult, or repeated insults, and the nature of the host response. In people who develop ME/CFS, normal homeostatic processes in response to adverse insults may be replaced by aberrant responses leading to dysfunctional states. Thus, the predominantly neuro-immune and autonomic manifestations, underlined by a hyper-metabolic state, that characterise early disease, may be followed by various processes leading to multi-systemic related symptoms. This abnormal metabolic state and the effects of a range of mediators such as products of oxidative and nitrosamine stress, may lead to progressive cell and metabolic dysfunction culminating in a hypometabolic state with low energy production. These processes do not seem to happen uniformly; although a spiralling of progressive inter-related and self-sustaining abnormalities may ensue, reversion to states of milder abnormalities is possible if the host is able to restate responses to improve homeostatic equilibrium. Disease management and research efforts should seek to identify and apply strategies targeted at the different pathophysiological dysfunctions that characterise different disease stages. As disease presentation varies over time, no single case description, set of diagnostic criteria, or molecular feature is currently diagnostic for all patients at all times. While acknowledging its limitations due to the incomplete research evidence, we suggest the proposed framework may improve research design and health care interventions for people with ME/CFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Vascular inflammation; Peripheral arterial disease (PAD); Chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI); GHAS trial; TNF-α; hs-CRP; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); NOX4; eNOS; VEGF-A.
Online: 3 December 2021 (09:44:42 CET)
Background: Vascular inflammation plays a crucial role in peripheral arterial disease (PAD), although the role of the mediators involved has not yet been properly defined. The aim of this work is to investigate gene expression and plasma biomarkers in chronic limb-threating ischemia (CLTI). Methods: Using patients from the GHAS trial, both blood and ischemic muscle samples were obtained to analyze plasma markers and mRNA expression, respectively. Statistical analy-sis was performed by using univariate (Spearman, t-Student, X2) and multivariate (multiple lo-gistic regression) tests. Results: 35 patients were available at baseline (29 for mRNA expression). Baseline characteristics (mean): Age:71.4±12.4 (79.4% male); TNF-α:10.7±4.9; hs-CRP:1.6±2.2; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR):3.5±2.8. Plasma TNF-α was found elevated (≥8.1) in 68.6% of patients, while high hs-CRP (≥0.5) in 60.5%. Diabetic patients with high level of inflammation showed significantly higher levels of NOX4 expression at baseline (p=0.0346). Plasma TNF-α had a negative correlation with eNOS expression (-0.5, p=0.015) and hs-CRP with VEGF-A (-0.63, p=0.005). The expression of NOX4 was parallel to that of plasma TNF-α (0.305, p=0.037), especial-ly in DM. Cumulative mortality at 12-month was related to NLR ≥3 (p=0.019) and TNF-α ≥8.1 (p=0.048). The best cut-off point for NLR to predict mortality was 3.4. Conclusions: NOX4 and TNF-α are crucial for the development and complications of lower limb ischemia, especially in DM. hs-CRP could have a negative influence on angiogenesis too. NLR and TNF-α represent suita-ble markers of mortality in CLTI. These results are novel because they connect muscle gene expres-sion and plasma information in patients with advanced PAD, deepening the search of new and ac-curate targets for this condition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0507.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; BDNF
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:03:01 CET)
Various autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune hypothyroidism (AHT), are associated with a higher risk of developing mood disorders throughout life. Depression is accompanied by the changes in the levels of inflammatory and trophic factors, including interleukines (IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6), interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Similar disturbances in the cytokine profile are seen in AHT patients and their relatives. Disclosure of the relationship between the co-existence of depression and autoimmune subclinical thyroiditis indicates that the pathomecha-nism of depression may be related to the changes in the immune system, it is possible that both conditions may be caused by the same immune processes. The above hypothesis is indirectly sup-ported by the observations that the treatment with both antidepressants and levothyroxine leads to a decrease in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines with an increase in BDNF concentrations, simultaneously correlating with an improvement in the clinical parameters. However, so far there are no long-term studies determining the causal relationship between depression, thyroid auto-antibodies, and cytokine profile, which could bring us closer to understanding the interrelation-ships between them and facilitate the use of an adequate pharmacotherapy, not necessarily psy-chiatric. We consider the above issues insufficiently investigated but of great importance. This ar-ticle is an overview of the available literature as well as an introduction to our research project.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: lifestyle factors; chronic inflammatory diseases; treatment result; treatment response; diet; meat intake; dietary pattern; food; mucosa associated bacteria; epithelium-associated bacteria; microbiome; fibre intake; personalized medicine; mucus; sulphate-reducing bacteria; mucin-degrading bacteria; Western style diet; anti-TNF
Online: 15 March 2017 (07:29:13 CET)
We wanted to investigate the current knowledge on the impact of diet on anti-TNF response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), to identify dietary factors that warrant further investigations in relation to anti-TNF treatment response, and, finally, to discuss potential strategies for such investigations. PubMed was searched using specified search terms. One small prospective study on diet and anti-TNF treatment in 56 patients with CD found similar remission rates after 56 weeks among 32 patients with good compliance that received concomitant enteral nutrition and 24 with poor compliance that had no dietary restrictions (78% versus 67%, p = 0.51). A meta-analysis of 295 patients found higher odds of achieving clinical remission and remaining in clinical remission among patients on combination therapy with specialised enteral nutrition and Infliximab (IFX) compared with IFX monotherapy (OR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.73–4.31, p < 0.01, OR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.66–5.17, p < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, evidence-based knowledge on impact of diet on anti-TNF treatment response for clinical use is scarce. Here we propose a mechanism by which Western style diet high in meat and low in fibre may promote colonic inflammation and potentially impact treatment response to anti-TNF drugs. Further studies using hypothesis-driven and data-driven strategies in observational, animal and interventional studies are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0148.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: chronic hepatitis C; chronic hepatitis B; innate immune response; adaptive immune response; cytokine; chemokine
Online: 12 April 2019 (10:59:21 CEST)
Background: Cytokines and chemokines are critical regulators of innate and adaptive immunities during viral infection. We examined innate and adaptive immune responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) at baseline and against controls. Methods: Twenty-seven cytokines were evaluated before treatment in 27 patients with chronic hepatitis C(CHC) [genotype1 (n=20), genotype2 (n=7), HCVRNA 5.72IU/ml] and 12 chronic hepatitis B(CHB) [e-antigen (Ag) (+) (n=5), e-Ag (-) (n=7), HBVDNA 6.191.31Logcopies/ml] and against controls(n=5). Results: Th1 and Th2 cytokines were significantly higher (p<0.05) in CHB than in CHC. The levels of IL-IL10 in CHC and CHB, and IL15 in CHC(genotype2) and CHB were significantly lower (p<0.05) than in controls. The levels of CXCL8 in CHC and CHB, IL12 in CHC and CHB [e-Ag (-)] and CXCL10 in CHC and CHB were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in controls. IFN-γwas higher in CHB than in controls. Conclusion: Cytokines levels differed between CHB and CHC before treatment. Innate immune responses were impaired in CHB with HBeAg(-) and CHC, but not in CHB with HBeAg(+) with high viral loads. Adaptive immune responses were impaired in CHB and CHC and appear to reflect the distinct state of virus-host immune interactions between CHB and CHC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0343.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Chronic stress; Recovery; Burnout; Exhaustion; Maintenance
Online: 17 February 2021 (07:45:19 CET)
Burnout is common in many countries and is associated with several other problems, such as depression, anxiety, insomnia and memory deficits, and prospectively it predicts long-term sick-leave, cardiovascular disease and death. Clinical burnout or its residual symptoms often last several years and a common assumption is that recovery takes a long time by nature despite full time sick-leave and absence of work stress. Literature suggests models that hypothetically explain the development, but not maintenance, of the syndrome. Based on cognitive and behavioral principles and stress theory this paper describes a theoretical model explaining how clinical burnout can develop and be maintained. While the development of clinical burnout is mainly explained by prolonged stress reactions and disturbed recovery processes due to work related stressors, maintenance of the syndrome is particularly explained by prolonged stress reactions and disturbed recovery processes due to the new context of experiencing burnout and being on sick-leave. Worry about acquired memory deficits, passivity and excessive sleep, shame, fear of stress reactions, and the perception of not being safe are examples of responses that can contribute to the maintenance. The model has important implications for research and how to intervene clinical burnout.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Cataract surgery, acute endophthalmitis, chronic endophthalmitis
Online: 14 May 2019 (15:28:30 CEST)
Background: The assessment of the incidence and characteristic of acute and chronic post-operative endophthalmitis (POE) after cataract surgery in Poland during 2010 - 2015. Patients and methods: All hospitalizations of patients, in the National Database of Hospitalizations, who underwent cataract surgery alone or in combined procedures in Poland between January 2010 and December 2015, with a billing code of endophthalmitis, were selected. Acute endophthalmitis was identified if symptoms occurred within 1 - 42 days from the cataract surgery and chronic endophthalmitis if symptoms occurred ≥ 43 days after cataract surgery, respectively. Results: In total, 1331 cases of POE after 1,218,777 cataract extractions were identified. The overall incidence of POE decreased from 0.125% in 2010 to 0.066% in 2015. In multiple logistic regression analyses, increasing age was significantly associated with acute POE, while type II diabetes mellitus, extracapsular cataract extraction and one-day surgery were significantly associated with chronic POE. The combined cataract surgery and male sex were significant risk factors for both acute and chronic POE. A total of 62.51% of all eyes affected by POE received antibiotic treatment and 37.49% had vitrectomy treatment. Conclusions: During the study period, the total incidence of post-operative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery decreased significantly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0220.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Laminaria japonica; polysaccharide; chronic renal failure
Online: 22 January 2019 (11:50:15 CET)
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a major public health problem worldwide. In this work, we investigated the effects of a purified Laminaria japonica polysaccharide (LJP61A) on the renal function using adenine-induced CRF mice model. Results exhibited that adenine treatment caused serious renal pathological damages and elevation of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen of mice. However, these changes could be significantly reversed by the administration of LJP61A in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, LJP61A could dramatically reduce the weight loss, improve the urine biochemical index, and regulate the electrolyte disturbance of CRF mice. These results suggested that the renal functions of adenine-induced CRF mice could be improved by LJP61A, which might be developed to a potential therapeutic agent for CRF patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0609.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Chronic myeloid leukaemia; chronic phase; Tyrosine kinase inhibitor; Treatment free remission; deep molecular response; BCR-ABL.
Online: 25 June 2021 (08:13:40 CEST)
Following the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) drastically improved. With the introduction of these agents, CML is now considered a chronic disease, for some patients. Taking into consideration the side effects, toxicity, and high cost, discontinuing TKIs became a goal for patients with chronic phase CML. Patients who achieved deep molecular response (DMR) and discontinued TKI, remained in treatment-free remission (TFR). Currently, the data from the published literature demonstrate that 40-60% of patients achieve TFR, with relapses occurring within the first six months. In addition, almost all patients who relapsed regained a molecular response upon re-treatment, indicating TKI discontinuation is safe. However, there is still a gap in the understanding the mechanisms behind TFR, and whether there are prognostic factors that can predict the best candidates who qualify for TKI discontinuation with a view to keeping them in TFR. Furthermore, the information about a second TFR attempt and the role of gradual de-escalation of TKI before complete cessation is limited. This review highlights the factors predicting success or failure of TFR. In addition, it ex-amines the feasibility of a second TFR attempt after the failure of the first one, and the current guidelines concerning TFR in clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0301.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: Qianlie Tongli decoction; chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS); anti-inflammation; therapeutic effects; immunization
Online: 24 April 2020 (04:30:56 CEST)
Objectives: This study was undertaken to reveal therapeutic effects and the preliminary mechanism of Chinese medicine formula Qianlie Tongli decoction (QTD) in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Methods: A total of 50 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups. All groups except the control group were injected subcutaneously T2 peptide emulsion, which induced the CP/CPPS model. After the induction of CP/CPPS, the model group was given 0.9% NaCl by oral gavage while low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups were treated with Chinese medicine formula. Micturition habits and pain behavior of mice were analyzed for each group. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to investigate prostate inflammation. The serum level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Key findings: Chinese medicine formula significantly reduced the number of urine spots and improved pain response frequency in the medium-dose and high-dose group. The high-dose group showed reduced considerably inflammatory lesion and inflammatory cell infiltration than the low-dose and medium-dose groups. Serum levels of TNF-α in the high-dose group were significantly reduced compared with the model group. Conclusions: The results demonstrated the therapeutic effects of Qianlie Tongli decoction in CP/CPPS mice by analyzing clinically relevant symptoms (urinary tract system, pelvic pain, and prostate inflammation), and preliminary explored the inflammatory-related treatment mechanisms by measuring TNF-α.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: fecal microbiota transplant; domestic cat; chronic enteropathies
Online: 10 January 2023 (02:15:25 CET)
There is growing interest in the application of fecal microbiota transplants (FMTs) in small animal medicine, but there are few published studies that have tested their effectiveness in the domestic cat (Felis catus). Here we use 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine fecal microbiome changes in 68 domestic cats with chronic digestive issues that underwent FMT treatment using lyophilized stool that was delivered in oral capsules. Fecal samples were collected from FMT recipients before and two weeks after treatment, as well as from their stool donors, and healthy animals. We found that according to their owners, 77% of cats were reported to show improvement in their clinical signs (termed ‘Responders’), and 23% were reported to exhibit no change or a worsening of their clinical signs (termed ‘Non-Responders’). Variation in the fecal microbiomes of FMT recipients most strongly correlated with host clinical signs, diet, and IBD diagnosis. The relative abundances of Collinsella, Negativibacillus, Parabacteroides, and Peptoclostridium changed differentially in FMT recipients. Overall, on average 13% of the bacterial amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) were shared between stool donors and FMT recipients (excluding ASVs already present in FMT recipients prior to treatment). The most commonly shared ASVs were classified as Prevotella 9, Peptoclostridium, Bacteroides, Collinsella and unclassified Lachnospiraceae. Lastly, FMT recipients that had recently taken antibiotics exhibited increases in microbiome similarity to an age-matched healthy reference set compared to other cats. Cats that had diarrhea or diarrhea with vomiting became more similar to healthy cats than did cats exhibiting other clinical signs. Overall, our results suggest that oral capsule FMT treatment was effective in this group of cats and microbiome responses may be modulated by the FMT recipient’s initial presenting clinical signs, prior IBD diagnosis, recent antibiotic use, and their diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0365.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: blood cancer; chronic inflammation; inflammation; mutation; tumor
Online: 24 November 2022 (02:55:44 CET)
Chronic inflammation may have a detrimental impact on human health as it tends to result in cancer. In addition, it is often linked to different steps that participate in tumorigenesis, including cellular transformation, survival, promotion, invasion, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Hence, inflammation predisposes cancer development and plays a vital role in promoting all tumorigenesis stages. Inflammation is caused by many factors, such as bacterial and viral infections, tobacco smoking, autoimmune diseases, obesity, asbestos exposure, and many others, increasing cancer risk. Moreover, cancer can be enhanced by mutations that proceed to cancer progression. Consequently, it leads to immunosuppression and provides a favorable background for tumor development. Although many studies address the question of relationships between inflammation and cancer development, little attention is paid to the link between inflammation and blood cancer. Therefore, the current study reviews the role of inflammation in cancer development, particularly in blood cancer. A meta-analysis research approach meets the research objective and answers the research question. The review results indicate that chronic inflammation directly relates to the development of many cancer types, blood cancer in particular.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0341.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus; Chronic Hepatitis infection; Oncogenesis
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:18:26 CEST)
Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) Virus infection is major etiological factor for liver cirrhosis and/ or liver cancer. The viral protein, major contributor in predisposition of chronicity and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is Hepatitis B x (HBx) protein. Its dynamic subcellular distribution to an extent determines its multifactorial role. It is a regulatory protein which modulates viral as well as host machinery in favours to HBV persistence. An insight on HBx stabilising factors is critical for therapeutic purpose. The precise role of HBx in the pathogenesis of Chronicity of HBV is not known. Summary: This review comprehensively summarizing different mechanisms and their regulation by HBx protein with respect to chronicity and HCC emphasising viral persistence. Key Messages 1. HBx is a key protein for viral persistence. 2. Dynamic subcellular distribution of HBx determines its function. 3. HBx modulates cellular machinery to favours HBV survival. 4. HBx affects various intermediary mechanisms contributing to disease progression. 5. HBx may be a potent target to prevent the disease progression towards HCC.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: uremia; uremic toxins; microbiome; chronic kidney disease
Online: 14 July 2021 (13:04:35 CEST)
Uremic toxins are the compounds that emerge in the blood when kidney excretory function is impaired. The cumulative detrimental effect of uremic toxins results in numerous health problems and eventually death during acute or chronic uremia, especially in end-stage renal disease. More than 100 different solutes rise during uremia; however, the exact origin for most of them is still discussable. There are 3 main sources for such compounds: exogenous ones are consumed with food, whereas endogenous are produced by host metabolism or by symbiotic microbiota metabolism. In this article, we identified uremic toxins presumably of gut microbiota origin. We analyzed various databases to get information on enzymatic reactions in bacteria and human organism potentially yielded uremic toxins and to determine what toxins could be synthetized in bacteria residing in human gut. We selected biochemical pathways resulting in uremic toxins synthesis related to specific bacterial strains, and revealed links between toxin concentration in uremia and the proportion of different bacteria species, which can synthesize it. Moreover, we defined the relative abundance of human toxin-generating enzymes as well as the possibility of a particular toxin synthesis by the human metabolism. Finally, we analyzed which bacteria are potentially producing the biggest number of uremic toxins as well as which bacteria are decomposing them. Our study presents a bioinformatics-based approach for both elucidation of the origin of uremic toxins and search of the most likely human microbiome producers of toxins that can be targeted and used for the therapy of adverse consequences of uremia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0645.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: fascia; chronic low back pain; myofascial release
Online: 25 March 2021 (16:24:46 CET)
(1) Background: Although manual therapy for pain relief has been used as an adjunct in treatments for chronic low back pain (CLBP), there is still the belief that a single session of myofascial release would be effective. This study aimed to investigate whether a single session of a specific technique reduces pain and disability. (2) Methods: This was a crossover clinical trial in which 41 participants over 18 years old with CLBP were randomly enrolled into 3 situations - experimental, placebo, control, in a balanced and cross-over manner. The subjects underwent a single session of myofascial release on thoracolumbar fascia and compare it with the control and placebo. Outcome were pain and functionality, evaluated using the numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), pressure pain threshold (PPT) and Oswestry (ODI). (3) Results: There was no effects between-, within-tests, and interaction for all the outcomes, i.e., NPRS (η 2 = 0.32, F = 0.48, p = 0.61), PPT (η2 = 0.73, F = 2.80, p = 0.06), ODI (η 2 = 0.02, F = 0.02, p = 0.97). (4) Conclusion: A single trial of thoracolumbar myofascial release technique was not enough to reduce pain and disability in subjects with CLBP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0577.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Oral health; edentulism; chronic diseases; elders; Mexico
Online: 24 March 2021 (11:38:36 CET)
Objective: To determine the association of edentulism with different chronic diseases in Mexicans aged 60 years and over. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using data from the World Health Survey for Mexico, which had a probabilistic, multi-stage and cluster sampling. The results of the self-report of chronic diseases (diabetes, arthritis, depression, angina pectoris, asthma and schizophrenia) and of edentulism were analyzed. Dental data were available for 20 of the 32 States of the Mexican Republic. Statistical analysis was performed in Stata 14.0 using the svy module for complex samples. Results: In total, 4213 subjects were included, representing a population of 7,576,057 individuals. The mean age was 70.13 ± 7.82 years (limits 60 to 98). Women represented 56.2%. The chronic diseases analyzed were presented as follows: diabetes 15.0% (N = 1,132,693); arthritis 13.2% (N = 1,001,667); depression 5.5% (N = 414,912); angina pectoris 4.5% (344,315); asthma 3.6% (N = 269,287); and schizophrenia 2.2% (N = 16,988). The prevalence of edentulism was 26.3%, which represents 1,993,463 people aged 60 years and over with this characteristic. For the presence of angina in women aged 60 to 69 years (p <0.05) and depression in men aged 70 years and over (p <0.0001), a higher prevalence of edentulism was observed. Conclusions: In general, there was no observation of association between edentulism was observed on the different chronic diseases included in the study. In the stratified analysis, only in women aged 60 to 69 years, for angina, and in men aged 70 and over, for depression, were associated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0186.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: chronic pain; allodynia; trigeminocervical complex; glycine transporters
Online: 5 March 2021 (11:47:51 CET)
Craniofacial neuropathic pain affects millions of people worldwide and is often difficult to treat. Two key mechanisms underlying this condition are a loss of the negative control exerted by inhibitory interneurons and an early microglial reaction. Basic features of these mechanisms, however, are still poorly understood. Using the chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (CCI-IoN) model of neuropathic pain in mice, we have examined the changes in the expression of GAD, the synthetic enzyme of GABA, and GlyT2, the membrane transporter of glycine, as well as the microgliosis that occur at early (5 days) and late (21 days) stages post-CCI in the medullary and upper spinal dorsal horn. Our results show that CCI-IoN induces a down-regulation of GAD at both postinjury survival times, uniformly across the superficial laminae. The expression of GlyT2 showed a more discrete and heterogeneous reduction due to the basal presence in lamina III of ‘patches’ of higher expression, interspersed within a less immunoreactive ‘matrix’, which showed a more substantial reduction in the expression of GlyT2. These patches coincided with foci lacking any perceptible microglial reaction, which stood out against a more diffuse areas of strong microgliosis. These findings may provide clues to better understand the neural mechanisms underlying allodynia in neuropathic pain syndromes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0199.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia; BCR-ABL1 transcript; obesity
Online: 7 August 2020 (13:07:53 CEST)
Background: It has been reported that general adiposity in adulthood and early adulthood, and greater height may increase the risk of almost all types of lympho-haematopoietic cancers while a study done in MD Anderson found that obesity and adult weight gain are independent risk factors for CML however no study evaluated the role of obesity in the disease progression while more studies investigate the impact of translocation types. Method: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the files of 37 patients being treated in our center for CML in chronic phase (CMP-CP) with known BCR-ABL1 breakpoints, Results: patients’ management and response assessment was done based on ELN 2013 guidelines. Analysis is done based on two main groups, obese vs normal BMI, and then based on BCR-ABL1 transcripts: e13a2 vs e14a2. Although the number of cases is limited, in the patient-cohort studied an e14a2 BCR-ABL1 transcript type / normal body weight was associated with an inferior outcome when compared to e13a2 transcript / obesity groups Conclusion: our finding suggest the need to enlarge the series to better evaluate a potential role of altered metabolism and/or specific transcripts in the response to TKI in CML.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: chronic wound; hospital cost; epidemiology; public health
Online: 20 May 2019 (09:53:44 CEST)
Background: Chronic lower limb ulcers (CLLU) have an important burden to the individual and the healthcare system. However, there is a lack of information about the cost of CLLU in Argentina.Objective: To determinate the number and cost of consultation and hospitalization associated to CLLU in a public hospital in Argentina. Methods: Retrospective observational study. Cost estimation were calculated based on days of stay, treatments and laboratory tests in a inpatient population and the number of consultations, treatments and laboratory tests, in a outpatient population. Results: In 2013 and 2014, the overall number of consultation with ICD-10 codes was 7,224 and the number of inpatient was 359. The mean age for male and female outpatient consultations was 59.53(±13.06) years and 59.04(±10.93), respectively. For CLLU male and female inpatient, the mean age was 63.9(±10.4) years and 54.5(±8.6) years, respectively. The length of stay was 22.88 days. There was a mean of 0.41 surgeries per patient where 25% were amputations. The mean annual cost in a single public hospital was US$4,053.65 per inpatient and US$3,589.24 per outpatient. Conclusion: Cost information allows new public health policies to reduce socioeconomic burden due to CLLU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0028.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: photovoice; chronic illness; physical activity; barriers; facilitator
Online: 2 April 2019 (07:48:28 CEST)
Aims: A community-based multi-component intervention (increasing awareness of the importance of physical activity in chronic illness management through reading comic books, training regarding warm-up stretching exercises, identifying facilitators and barriers to exercise through photosharing, supporting self-reflection and development of action plans) was developed to promote physical activity (PA) among patients with diabetes and hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this intervention on health behaviour (walking) and health outcomes. Design: A non-randomized controlled trial with waitlisted control and pre- and post-measures. Setting: Community centres for the elderly. Participants: A total of 204 older adults with diabetes and/or hypertension were recruited. They were assigned to either the intervention group (IG) or waitlisted to the control group (CG). Intervention: Under the supervision of a nurse, six weekly group meetings were arranged in community centres for the elderly in which the participants freely exchanged their views regarding the barriers and facilitators of regular physical activity. Participants were encouraged to take photos in their neighbourhood or at home and brought these photos to share at the group meetings. The photos showed both the barriers and the facilitators to PA. In the last meeting, each participant worked out a plan to perform PA in the coming four weeks. Measures: PA referred to the number of steps taken per day and it was measured by a Garmin Accelerometer at baseline, Week 6 and Week 10. Other measures included the nine-item Self-Efficacy Scale for Exercise - Chinese version (SEE-C), the 23-item Chinese Barriers to Exercise Scale and Senior Fitness Tests. Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) models compared the outcomes over time between IG and CG. Results: A statistically significant difference in the changes in the average number of steps taken daily between the two groups at Week 10 (mean difference = 965.4; 95% confidence interval: 92.2, 1838.6, p = 0.030) was observed, although the difference at Week 6 was non-significant (mean difference = 777.6; 95% confidence interval: −35.3, 1590.5, p = 0.061). IG participants also showed significant improvements in lower body strength (mean difference = 0.967; 95% confidence interval: 0.029, 1.904, p = 0.043) and lower limb flexibility (mean difference = 2.068; 95% confidence interval: 0.404, 3.731, p = 0.015) at Week 10 compared to CG participants. Conclusion: This multi-component intervention improved the participants’ physical activity level and physical fitness, particularly in lower limb flexibility and body strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0545.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: qualitative, mindfulness, meditation, chronic illness, adolescents, eHealth
Online: 27 July 2018 (15:34:58 CEST)
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to improve health and well-being in adolescents with chronic illnesses. Because they are most often delivered in person in a group setting, there are several barriers that limit access to MBIs for youth with limited mobility or who cannot access in-person MBIs in their communities. The objective of this study was to determine if eHealth is a viable platform to increase accessibility to MBIs for teens with chronic illnesses. This study reports the qualitative results of a mixed method randomized trial describing the experience of the Mindful Awareness and Resilience Skills for Adolescents (MARS-A) program, an 8-week MBI, delivered either in person or via eHealth. Participants were adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 with a chronic illness recruited at a tertiary pediatric hospital in Toronto, Canada. Individual semi-structured post-participation audio-video interviews were conducted by a research assistant. A multiple-pass inductive process was used to review interview transcripts and interpret emergent themes from the participants’ lived experiences. Fifteen participants completed post-participation interviews. Four distinct themes emerged from participants in both the in-person and eHealth groups: creation of a safe space, fostering peer support and connection, integration of mindfulness skills into daily life and improved well-being through the application of mindfulness. Results from this study suggest that eHealth may be an acceptable and feasible mode of delivery for MBIs in adolescents with chronic illnesses. EHealth should be considered in future studies as a promising avenue to increase access to MBIs in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0158.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: subtalar joint instability; chronic ankle instability; footprint osteoarthritis
Online: 9 January 2023 (09:22:22 CET)
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between the joint and ligament structures of the subtalar joint and degeneration of the subtalar articular facet. We examined 50 feet from 25 Japanese cadavers. The number of articular facets, joint congruence, and intersecting angle were measured for the joint structure of the subtalar joint, and the footprint areas of the ligament attachments of the cervical ligament, interosseous talocalcaneal ligament (ITCL), and anterior capsular ligament were measured for the ligament structure. Also, subtalar joint facets were classified into Degeneration (+) and (-) groups according to degeneration of the talus and calcaneus. No significant relationship was identified between the joint structure of the subtalar joint and degeneration of the subtalar articular facet. In contrast, footprint area of the ITCL was significantly higher in the Degeneration (+) group than in the Degeneration (-) group for the subtalar joint facet. These results suggest that the joint structure of the subtalar joint may not affect degeneration of the subtalar articular facet. Degeneration of the subtalar articular facet may be related to the size of the ITCL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: fibromyalgia; myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; autoantibodies; autoimmunity
Online: 13 December 2022 (02:47:48 CET)
(1) Background: Recent studies provide some evidence for the contribution of antibody-mediated autoimmune mechanisms to the nature of fibromyalgia (FM) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Much attention was paid to the autoantibodies (AAb) targeting G protein-coupled receptors as natural components of the immune system. However, natural AAb network is much more extensive, and has not been previously investigated in these disorders; (2) Methods: The enzyme immunoassays ELI-Viscero-Test and ELI-Neuro-Test were used to determine changes in serum content of a 33 natural AAb to neural, organ-specific and non-tissue-specific autoantigens a) in 11 FM patients with comorbid ME/CFS; b) in 11 ME/CFS patients without FM; c) in 11 healthy controls. Individual autoantibody profiles and their correlation with some clinical symptoms were analyzed. (3) Results: both patients with ME/CFS and ME/CFS+FM were characterized by more frequent and pronounced deviations in the immunoreactivity to GABA-receptors than healthy controls. Although the level of other natural AAb did not differ between study groups, AAb correlation signatures were changing in patients compared to healthy controls. Both in patients and healthy controls the level of natural AAb to various neural and tissue-specific antigens correlated with the severity of fatigue, bodily pain, depression, anxiety, physical and mental-health related quality of life. Notably, that widely different correlation patterns were observed between study groups. (4) Conclusions: Findings from this pilot study provide some evidence that the homeostasis of autoimmune relationships, which are possibly a physiological part of our immune system, may break down in FM and ME/CFS. The correlation of disease-induced perturbations in individual AAb profiles with some clinical symptoms may arise from the immune system's ability to reflect qualitative and quantitative changes in antigenic composition of the body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Chronic Hypoparathyroidism; rhPTH (1-84); Natpar®; Treatment
Online: 24 December 2021 (23:55:38 CET)
The use of recombinant human PTH (1-84) [rhPTH(1-84)] is approved as hormonal replacement therapy in patients with hypoparathyroidism not adequately controlled with conventional therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 months of rhPTH (1-84) treatment in a cohort of patients selected according to the indications of recent hypoparathyroidism guidelines. It is a multicenter, observational, retro-prospective, open label study. Eleven Italian Endocrinological centers were involved. Fourteen adult subjects with chronic hypoparathyroidism treated with rhPTH (1-84) for 12 months were enrolled. Main outcome measures included serum and urinary parameters of mineral metabolism, renal function, oral calcium and vitamin D doses, and clinical manifestations. At 12 months, 61.5% of patients discontinued calcium supplement and 69.2% calcitriol. Mean serum calcium levels quickly normalized after initiation of rhPTH (1-84) treatment compared to baseline (p=0.009). Rare hypo-hypercalcemia episodes were reported. Renal function was maintained normal and no renal complications were reported. Serum and urinary phosphate and urinary calcium were maintained in the normal range. Mean phosphatemia levels linearly decreased from 3 months up to 12 months compared to baseline (p= 0.014). No severe adverse events were described. In conclusion, this study confirm the efficacy and safety of rhPTH (1-84) therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Chronic rhinosinusitis; probiotics; microbiome; nasal microbiota; microbiome therapy
Online: 21 October 2021 (23:00:15 CEST)
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a significant health problem. It affects 5%–12% of the general population. The causes that underlie the onset of CRS are not yet well known. However, many factors may contribute to its onset, such as environmental factors and the host’s condition. Medical treatment mainly uses local corticosteroids, nasal irrigation, and antibiotics. In recent years, a new therapeutic approach that employs the use of probiotics emerged. Probiotics have been extensively studied as a therapy for dysbiosis and inflammatory pathologies of various parts of the body . We aimed to examine the studies in the existing literature to update probiotics’ role in rhinosinusitis chronic medical treatment.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: chronic intermittent hypoxia; autophagy; apoptosis; cardiomyocyte damage; calcineurin
Online: 24 June 2021 (14:58:22 CEST)
Calcineurin plays a key role in cardiovascular pathogenesis by exerting pro-apoptotic effects in cardiomyocytes; however, its involvement in the regulation of cardiomyocyte autophagy under chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) remains largely unknown. Here we showed that CIH induced calcineurin activity in H9C2 cells, resulting in the attenuation of adenosine monophos-phate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and inhibition of H9C2 cell autophagy. Au-tophagy, LC3-II levels, and AMPK phosphorylation were significantly elevated in response to CIH in H9C2 cells by day 3; however, these effects were reversed, and calcineurin activity and apoptosis were significantly increased by day 5. The calcineurin inhibitor, FK506, restored AMPK activation and LC3 protein levels, and reduced CIH-induced H9C2 cell apoptosis, while calcineurin overexpression significantly attenuated the increase in LC3 levels and enhanced H9C2 cell apop-tosis. Calcineurin inhibition failed to induce autophagy or alleviate apoptosis in H9C2 cells ex-pressing a dominant negative K45R AMPK mutant. Autophagy downregulation abrogated the protective effects of FK506-mediated calcineurin inhibition. These results indicated that calcineurin suppressed adaptive autophagy during CIH by downregulating AMPK activation. Our findings showed the underlying mechanisms of calcineurin and autophagy regulation during H9C2 cell survival in response to CIH, and suggested a new strategy for preventing CIH-induced cardiomyocyte damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0493.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Chronic diarrhea, idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, microbiota, dysbiosis
Online: 21 June 2021 (08:56:30 CEST)
The long-term impact of treatment of dogs with steroid-responsive enteropathy (SRE) on the fe-cal microbiome and metabolome has not been investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the fecal microbiome and metabolome of dogs with SRE before, during, and following treatment with standard immunosuppressive therapy and an elimination diet. We retrospec-tively selected samples from 9 dogs with SRE enrolled in a previous clinical trial, which received treatment for 8 weeks, and had achieved remission as indicated by the post-treatment clinical scores. Long-term (1 year) samples were obtained from a subset (5/9) of dogs. Samples from 13 healthy dogs were included as controls (HC). We evaluated the microbiome using 16S rRNA sequencing and qPCR. To evaluate the recovery of gut function, we measured fecal metabolites using an untargeted approach. While improvement was observed for some bacterial taxa after 8 weeks of treatment, several bacterial taxa remained significantly different from HC. Seven-ty-five metabolites were altered in dogs with SRE, including increased fecal amino acids and vitamins, suggesting malabsorption as a component of SRE. One year after treatment, however, all bacterial species evaluated by qPCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and all but thirteen me-tabolites were no longer different from healthy controls.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chronic social defeat stress; anxiety; lithium chloride; mice
Online: 3 June 2021 (11:41:28 CEST)
There are experimental evidences that chronic social defeat stress is accompanied by development of anxiety- and depression-like state as well as downregulation of serotonergic genes in the midbrain raphe nuclei of male mice. The study was aimed at investigating the effect of chronic lithium chloride (LiCl) administrations on anxiety behavior and the expression of serotonergic genes in the midbrain raphe nuclei of affected mice. The pronounced anxiety in male mice was caused by chronic social defeat stress in daily agonistic interactions. After 6 days of social stress, defeated mice were treated with saline or LiCl (100 mg/kg, i.p. two weeks) against the background of continuing agonistic interactions. The level of anxiety was assessed using behavioral tests. The effect of chronic treatment with LiCl on the expression of serotonergic genes in the midbrain rapher nuclei was also studied. Mild anxiolytic effects of LiCl were found on communication in the partition test. Anxiogenic-like effects assessed using the elevated plus-maze and social interaction tests were found. Chronic LiCl treatment induced overexpression of the serotonergic genes in the midbrain raphe nuclei. The effects of chronic LiCl treatment depends on the method of treatment, psychoemotional state, and experimental context (tests).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0599.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Survey; children; health knowledge; chronic pain; pain education.
Online: 26 February 2021 (09:30:20 CET)
(1) Background: Research has shown that thoughts about pain are important for the management of chronic pain in children. In order to monitor changes in thoughts about pain over time and evaluate the efficacy of treatments, we need valid and reliable measures. The aims of this study were to develop a questionnaire to assess a child’s concept of pain and to evaluate its psychometric properties; (2) Methods: This is a cross-sectional, two-phase, mixed-method study. A total of 324 individuals aged 8 to 17 years old responded to the newly created questionnaire. The Survey of the Concept of Pain (SOCOPA) was calibrated using the Rasch model. The chi-square test was used for the fit statistics. Underfit and overfit of the model were determined and a descriptive analysis of infit and outfit was conducted to identify who responded erratically. Internal consistency was measured using the Person Separation Index (PSI); (3) Results: Fit to the Rasch model was good. Suitable targeting indicated which items were simple to answer; Person Fit identified 9.56% children who responded erratically; PSI=0.814; (4) Conclusions: The findings suggest that SOCOPA is a measure of a child’s concept of pain that is easy to administer and respond to. It has a good fit and a good internal consistency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Chronic wound classification; transfer learning; explainable artificial intelligence.
Online: 18 January 2021 (14:28:04 CET)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has seen increased application and widespread adoption over the past decade despite, at times, offering a limited understanding of its inner working. AI algorithms are, in large part, built on weights, and these weights are calculated as a result of large matrix multiplications. Computationally intensive processes are typically harder to interpret. Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) aims to solve this black box approach through the use of various techniques and tools. In this study, XAI techniques are applied to chronic wound classification. The proposed model classifies chronic wounds through the use of transfer learning and fully connected layers. Classified chronic wound images serve as input to the XAI model for an explanation. Interpretable results can help shed new perspectives to clinicians during the diagnostic phase. The proposed method successfully provides chronic wound classification and its associated explanation. This hybrid approach is shown to aid with the interpretation and understanding of AI decision-making processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0170.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Chronic musculoskeletal pain; Adolescents; functional disability; multidisciplinary rehabilitation.
Online: 3 November 2020 (15:41:07 CET)
(1) Background: Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) in adolescents can negatively affect physical, psychological and social functioning, resulting in functional disability. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an outpatient rehabilitation program based on graded exposure in vivo (EP) compared with care as usual (CAU) in a RCT. The aim of the interventions (EP and CAU) is to improve functional ability in adolescents with CMP, CAU is interdisciplinary outpatient rehabilitation care, based on graded activity. (2) Methods: A pragmatic multicenter randomized clinical trial with a 12-month follow-up was used. Adolescents (12-21 years) with musculoskeletal pain were invited to participate. Primary outcome was functional disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Most important secondary measures: perceived harmfulness, pain catastrophizing and intensity. Data analysis was performed by intention-to-treat linear mixed model analysis. (3) Results: Sixty adolescents were randomized to EP or CAU and data of 53 adolescents (93% female) could be analyzed (25 EP, 28 CAU). Mean age was 16.0 years (SD=1.87). Adolescents in EP showed a clinically relevant and statistically significant decrease in functional disability (estimated mean difference at least -8.81,p-values≤0.01) compared with CAU at all time points. Significant differences in favor of EP were found for perceived harmfulness at all time points (p-values≤0.002), for pain catastrophizing (PCS) at 2 months follow-up (p-value=0.039) and for pain intensity at 4 and 10 months follow-up (p-values≤0.028). (4) Conclusion: The effectiveness of the trial is in favor of the EP and leads to a significant and clinically relevant decrease in functional disability compared to usual care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: physical activity; elderly population; chronic pain; mediastinal lymphomas
Online: 30 December 2019 (09:44:54 CET)
Thoracotomy is one of the most painful types of incision a patient can experience. Pain is a very complex pathophysiological entity. Neuronal pathophysiological mechanisms are integrated with the immunological response, which amplify inflammation and pain. Prolonged inflammation induces a pathological response of the immune-system and constantly stimulate the nociceptive pathways generating chronic pain. The mechanisms are particularly altered in lymphomas, where pain following chest surgery often becomes chronic and reduces the quality of life. In this study 51 elderly patients who had undergone a transthoracic biopsy to verify the suspect of mediastinal lymphoma were examined for pain reduction with oral opioids, effect of epidural analgesia and paravertebral block. Subsequently, patients underwent tensed torsion exercises, progressively intensified. After the first few days, patients walked progressively for 20 minutes a day. Once discharged a program of patients started aerobic exercises to increase muscle endurance and to strengthen the extensor muscles of the legs and of the upper limbs. The systemic administration of opioids is the simplest and most common method of providing analgesia for postoperative pain, but early mobilization, respiratory rehabilitation, and muscle toning exercises are excellent support devices both for physical and psychological recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0435.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: chronic kidney disease; hemodialysis; cardiovascular disease; echocardiography; child
Online: 4 July 2019 (10:37:00 CEST)
Assessment of cardiac function is the leading parameter when evaluating the state of the cardiovascular system of patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. The aim of the paper: to assess the state of the cardiovascular system of these patients using new sensitive echocardiography and Doppler techniques and thus advance the prevention of cardiovascular disease.Method: Twenty children with end-stage renal insufficiency on chronic hemodialysis and twenty healthy controls underwent echocardiographic monitoring using standard Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging. Structural and functional changes in the left ventricle were evaluated.Results: Patients on hemodialysis had significantly greater left ventricular mass indices compared to the controls (p<0.001). The patients on hemodialysis had preserved systolic function – their fractional shortening, ejection fraction and Sm (systolic myocardial velocity) did not differ significantly compared to the controls (p>0.05). Early diastolic function in children on hemodialysis was also preserved: the E/A and Em/Am ratio did not differ significantly from the control group (p>0.05). Children on hemodialysis exhibited impaired late diastolic function (compliance index), that is, considerably higher E/Em compared to controls (p<0.00). Myocardial Performance Index values showed statistically significant elevation in children on hemodialysis compared to the control group (p<0.001).Conclusion: Tissue Doppler in tandem with conventional Pulsed Doppler can provide additional information on left ventricular filling pressures (E/Em) in children on hemodialysis. It is therefore recommended to perform routine measuring of Em waves and the E/Em ratio, not only in order to evaluate myocardial relaxation and ventricular filling pressures, but primarily to stratify risk and provide a prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: major depression; chronic fatigue; fibromyalgia; neuro-immune; inflammation
Online: 24 June 2019 (10:19:29 CEST)
Chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia symptoms frequently occur in major depressive disorder (MDD). The pathophysiology of these symptoms may in part, be ascribed to activated immune pathways, although it is unclear whether muscular factors play a role in their onset. The aim of the present study is to examine the role of muscle proteins in major depression in association with symptoms of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia. We measured serum levels of agrin, talin-2, titin, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) as well as the FibroFatigue (FF), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in 60 MDD patients and 30 healthy controls. The results show a significant increase in agrin and talin-2 in MDD patients as compared with controls. There were highly significant correlations between agrin and HAM-D, BDI-II and FF scores. Agrin, but not talin or titin, was significantly and positively associated with all 12 items of the FF scale. We found that a large part of the variance in HAM-D (47.4%), BDI-II (43.4%) and FF (43.5%) scores was explained by the regression on agrin, smoking, female sex (positively associated) and education (inversely associated). CPK was significantly and inversely associated with the total FF score and with muscle and gastro-intestinal symptoms, fatigue, a flu-like malaise, headache and memory, autonomic and sleep disturbances. These results suggest that aberrations in neuromuscular (NMJs) and myotendinous junctions may play a role in MDD and that the aberrations in NMJs coupled with lowered CPK may play a role in symptoms of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia in MDD. Moreover, the increase of agrin in MDD probably functions as part of the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: chronic heat stress; dairy buffaloes; proteomics; adaptation mechanisms
Online: 3 January 2019 (08:32:13 CET)
Chronic heat stress (HS), aggravated by global warming, reduces the production efficiency of the buffalo dairy industry. Here, we conducted a proteomic analysis to investigate the adaptation strategies used by buffalo in response to heat stress. Seventeen differentially abundant proteins with known functions were detected using label-free quantification (LFQ), and five of these differentially expressed proteins were validated with parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). These five proteins were associated with various aspects of heat stress, including decreased heat production, increased blood oxygen delivery, and enhanced natural disease resistance. Lipase (LPL), glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), cathelicidin-2 (CATHL2, LL-37), ceruloplasmin (CP), and hemoglobin subunit alpha 1 (HBA1) were shown to play cooperative roles in the tolerance of chronic HS in dairy buffalo. We found that high levels of HBA1 increased blood oxygen transport capacity. Our results increase our understanding of the adaptation of dairy buffalo to chronic heat stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0448.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: liver stiffness; MERTK; chronic hepatitis C; cirrhosis; SNPs
Online: 19 October 2018 (10:56:19 CEST)
Background: The myeloid-epithelial-reproductive tyrosine kinase (MERTK) is involved in hepatic steatosis, inflammation and liver fibrosis. Here we evaluated the association between the MERTK rs4374383 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and liver fibrosis progression in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective study (repeated measures design) in 208 patients who had liver stiffness measurement (LSM), which was assessed by transient elastography No patient had cirrhosis at baseline (LSM≥12.5 kPa). Results: At baseline, 53.8% were male, the median age was 47.1 years, 13.5% reported a high intake of alcohol, 10.1% were prior injection drug users, 85.3% were infected by HCV genotype 1, and 22.6% had previously failed antiviral therapy (pegylated-interferon-alpha/ribavirin). During a median follow-up of 46.6 months, 26 patients developed cirrhosis. The rs4374383 G carriers had a higher risk of increasing LSM (adjusted arithmetic mean ratio (aAMR)=1.14; p=0.006) and a higher likelihood of having an increase in LSM greater than 5 kPa (ΔLSM≥5 kPa) [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.37; p=0.029], and greater than 7 kPa (ΔLSM≥7 kPa) [aOR=3.24; p=0.032], after controlling for confounding. The SNP’s association with cirrhosis progression was close to statistical significance (aOR=2.18; p=0.070). Conclusions: MERTK rs4374383 A carriers had a lower risk of liver fibrosis progression than G carriers, supporting the hypothesis that this SNP seems to have a critical role in the pathogenesis of liver disease in HCV-infected patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: diabetes; chronic wounds; smart wound dressing; biochemical sensor
Online: 28 May 2018 (10:22:39 CEST)
Given their severity and non-healing nature, diabetic chronic wounds are a significant concern to the 30.3 million Americans diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (2015). Peripheral arterial diseases, neuropathy, and infection contribute to the development of these wounds, which lead to an increased incidence of lower extremity amputations. Early recognition, debridement, offloading, and controlling infection are imperative for timely treatment. However, wound characterization and treatment are highly subjective and based largely on the experience of the treating clinician. Many wound dressings have been designed to address particular clinical presentations, but a prescriptive method is lacking for identifying the particular state of chronic, non-healing wounds. The authors suggest that recent developments in wound dressings and biosensing may allow for the quantitative, real-time representation of the wound environment, including exudate levels, pathogen concentrations, and tissue regeneration. Development of such sensing capability could enable more strategic, personalized care at the onset of ulceration and limit the infection leading to amputation. This review presents an overview of the pathophysiology of diabetic chronic wounds, a brief summary of biomaterial wound dressing treatment options, and biosensor development for biomarker sensing in the wound environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0137.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: mycoses; epidemiology; Romania; candidaemia; aspergillosis; chronic pulmonary conditions
Online: 21 February 2018 (16:41:29 CET)
Objective: To estimate for the first time the burden of serious fungal infections in Romania; Methods: Data derived from the World Health Organization (WHO), National Institute of Statistics, Romanian public health agencies and non-profit health organizations and published annual reports on local epidemiology were used in the present study. When no data was available, specific at-risk populations were used to calculate frequencies of serious fungal diseases, using previously published epidemiological parameters. All data refer to the year 2016; 3) Results: The estimated number of serious fungal infections in Romanian population was 435,930 in 2016. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis accounts for up to 80% of total cases (more than 350,000 women annually). Concerning the HIV related infections, among 14349 infected persons, Pneumocystis pneumonia occurred in about 10% of late presenters (30 cases in 2016), while cryptococcal meningitis is rarely diagnosed (less than 20 cases). Annually, the total number of oesophageal candidiasis and oral thrush cases in HIV-positive patients may be as high as 1229 and 3066, respectively. In immunocompromised and cancer patient population, the annual incidence of candidaemia is 295, and at least 158 invasive aspergillosis cases and 4 mucormycosis cases occur yearly. With 4,966 critical care beds and approximately 200,000 abdominal surgeries performed, the estimated annual incidence of candidaemia and Candida peritonitis is 689 and 344, respectively. The annual incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis is still high in Romania (12,747 cases). Thus, the prevalence of post-TB chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is estimated to be 8.98/100,000 (1768 cases). The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma in adults is 6% and 6.5%, respectively. Therefore, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis prevalence is estimated at 29,387 and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation at 38,731 cases annually. 4) Conclusions: Not being on the list of reportable diseases, the number of patients presenting with severe mycoses in Romania can only be roughly estimated. Based on local reports and prevalence estimation, we consider that at least 2.2% of Romanians suffer a serious form of fungal disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0146.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cancer metastasis; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; exosomes; tumor microenvironment
Online: 29 September 2017 (03:17:31 CEST)
The lymphocyte function–associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) (also CD11a/CD18 and αLβ2), is just one of many integrins in the human body, but its significance derives from its exclusive presence in leukocytes. In this review, we summarize the studies relating LFA-1 and its major ligand ICAM-1 (CD54) with cancer, through the function of lymphocytes and myeloid cells on tumor cells. We consider how LFA-1 mediates the interaction of leukocytes with tumors and the role of ICAM-1 in tumor dynamics, which can be independent of its interaction with LFA-1. A more detailed examination of LFA’s role within B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia is made. Finally, we discuss the role of LFA-1-harboring exosomes in tumor growth and metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0220.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: innovation; service innovation; healthcare; chronic diseases; SD Logic
Online: 30 March 2017 (17:10:41 CEST)
In service economy, scholars and practitioners focus on the development and the appliance of innovative services. The importance of service innovation is rising in many sectors and among different organizations. Several disciplines (e.g. marketing, management, operations research, etc.) focus on this innovation, a concept widely used, but with different definitions. In this paper, service innovation has been analyzed according to SD Logic and a service ecosystem perspective. Literature still call for a deeper understanding of how new or renewed resources’ combination affect the shaping of service ecosystems. To contribute to fill this gap, the study explores the practices that different actors, internal and external to a healthcare service ecosystem, enact to co-create value in novel ways that is service innovation. The paper is structured as follows. In the next section, the main academic contributions on service research have been reviewed, focusing on healthcare service innovation. Follows, the research method and the discussion of research findings. Finally, theoretical and managerial implications have been detailed and an agenda for future research suggested. The paper offers interesting insights to develop new or renewed practices that foster the reshaping and maintaining of a healthcare service ecosystem. Some recommendations are included to support managers in the development of service innovation strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0416.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Malassezia; Chronic diseases; psoriasis; atopic dermatitis; chronic rhinosinusitis; asthma; cystic fibrosis; HIV infection; inflammatory bowel disease; colorectal cancer; neurodegenerative diseases
Online: 24 September 2021 (08:13:07 CEST)
Malassezia are lipid-dependent basidiomycetous yeast of the normal skin microbiome, although Malassezia DNA has been recently detected in other body sites and has been associated with cer-tain chronic human diseases. This new perspective raises many questions. Are these yeasts truly present in the investigated body site or were they contaminated by other body sites, adjacent or not? Does this DNA contamination come from living or dead yeast? If these yeasts are alive, do they belong to the resident mycobiota or are they transient colonizers which are not permanently established within these niches? And, finally, are these yeasts associated with certain chronic diseases or not? In an attempt to shed light on this knowledge gap, we critically re-viewed the 31 published studies focusing on the association of Malassezia spp. with chronic human diseases, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), HIV infection, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC), and neurodegenerative diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: PSPS; FBSS; chronic pain; health-related quality of life; mixture models analysis; personalized pain management; chronic pain after spinal surgery
Online: 27 August 2021 (15:23:27 CEST)
Persistent Spinal Pain Syndrome Type 2 (PSPS-T2), (Failed Back Surgery Syndrome), dramatically impacts on patient quality of life, as evidenced by Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) assessment tools. However, the importance of functioning, pain perception and psychological status in HRQoL can substantially vary between subjects. Our goal was to extract patient profiles based on HRQoL dimensions in a sample of PSPS-T2 patients and to identify factors associated with these profiles. Two classes were clearly identified using a mixture of mixed effect models from a clinical data set of 200 patients enrolled in “PREDIBACK”, a multicenter observational prospective study including PSPS-T2 patients with 1-year follow-up. We observed that HRQoL was more impacted by functional disability for first class patients (n=136) and by pain perception for second class patients (n=62). Males that perceive their work as physical were more impacted by disability than pain intensity. Lower education level, lack of adaptive coping strategies and higher pain intensity were significantly associated with HRQoL being more impacted by pain perception. The identification of such classes allows for a better understanding of HRQoL dimensions and opens the gate towards optimized health-related quality of life evaluation and personalized pain management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship; detection of bacteria in chronic wounds, chronic wounds, clinical decision support; diagnostic pathway; joint commission; fluorescence imaging; wound clinic
Online: 19 October 2020 (15:35:25 CEST)
Background: In 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) warned of an emerging world-wide crisis of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. In response, government and professional organizations recommended that health care systems adopt antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). In the United States, the Centers for Medicare Services (CMS) mandated antimicrobial stewardship in the hospital inpatient setting. Effective January 1, 2020, the Joint Commission required ambulatory centers that prescribe antibiotics, such as wound centers, to institute an ASP. Chronic wounds often remain open for months, during which time patients may receive multiple courses of antibiotics and numerous antimicrobial topical treatments. The wound clinician plays an integral role in reducing antimicrobial resistance in the outpatient setting: antibiotics prescribed for skin and soft tissue infections are among the most common in an outpatient setting. One of the most challenging aspects of antimicrobial stewardship in treating chronic wounds is the inaccuracy of bacterial and infection diagnosis. Methods: Joint Commission lists five elements of performance (EP): (1) Identifying an antimicrobial stewardship leader, (2) establishing an annual antimicrobial stewardship goal, (3) implementing evidence-based practice guidelines related to the antimicrobial stewardship goal, (4) providing clinical staff with educational resources related to the antimicrobial stewardship goal, and (5) collecting, analyzing, and reporting data related to the antimicrobial stewardship goal. This article focuses on choosing and implementing an evidence-based ASP goal for 2020. Discussion: Clinical trials have demonstrated the ability of fluorescence imaging (MLiX) to detect clinically significant levels of bacteria in chronic wounds. Combined with clinical examination of signs and symptoms of infection, the MLiX procedure improves the clinician’s ability to diagnose infection and can guide antimicrobial use. In order to satisfy the elements of performance, the MLiX procedure was incorporated into the annual ASP goal for several wound care centers. Clinicians were educated on the fluorescence imaging device and guidelines were instituted. Collection of antimicrobial utilization data is underway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0211.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: klotho; estrogen; hippocampus; chronic stress; sex difference; stress resilience
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:09:36 CET)
Klotho (KL) is a glycosyl hydrolase and aging-suppressor gene. Stress is a risk factor for depression and anxiety that are highly comorbid with each other. The aim of this study was to determine KL is regulated by estrogen and plays an important role in sex differences in stress resilience. Our results showed that KL was regulated by estrogen in rat hippocampal neurons in vivo and in vitro and was essential for estrogen-mediated increase in the number of presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (Vglut1) positive clusters on the dendrites of hippocampal neurons. The role of KL in sex differences in stress responses was examined in rats using three-week chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). CUMS produced a deficit in spatial learning and memory, anhedonic-like and anxiety-like behaviors in male but not female rats, which was accompanied by a reduction in KL protein levels in the hippocampus of male, but not female rats. This demonstrated the resilience of female rats to CUMS. Interestingly, knockdown of KL protein levels in the rat hippocampus of both sexes caused a decrease in stress resilience in both sexes, especially in female rats. These results suggest that regulation of KL by estrogen plays an important role in estrogen-mediated synapse formation, and KL plays a critical role in the sex differences in cognitive deficit, anhedonic-like and anxiety-like behaviors induced by chronic stress in rats, highlighting an important role of KL in sex differences in stress resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: chronic limb-threatening ischemia; outcome; sex; age; limb salvage
Online: 8 December 2022 (09:39:30 CET)
Background: Identifying sex-related differences/variables associated with 30-day/1-year mortality in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). Methods: Multicenter/retrospective/observational study. Database sent to all-the-Italian vascular surgeries to collect all-the¬-patients operated for CLTI in 2019. Acute lower-limb ischemia and neuropathic-diabetic foot not included. Follow-up: 1-year. Data on demographics/comorbidities, treatments/outcome, and 30-day/1-year mortality investigated. Results: Information on 2399 cases (69.8% men) from 36/143 (25.2%) centers. Median (IQR) age: 73 (66-80) and 79 (71-85) yrs for men/women, respectively (p<.0001). Women more over-75 (63.2%vs40.1%, p=.0001). More men smokers (73.7%vs42.2%, p<.0001), on hemodialysis (10.1%vs6.7%, p=.006), affected by diabetes (61.9%vs52.8%, p<.0001), dyslipidemia (69.3%vs61.3%, p<.0001), hypertension (91.8%vs88.5%, p=.011), coronaropathy (43.9%vs29.4%, p<.0001), bronchopneumopathy (37.1%vs25.6%, p<.0001), underwent more open/hybrid surgeries (37.9%vs28.8%, p<.0001), and minor amputations (22%vs13.7%, p<.0001). More women underwent endovascular revascularizations (61.6%vs55.2%, p=.004), major amputations (9.6%vs6.9%, p=.024), and obtained limb-salvage if with limited gangrene (50.8%vs44.9%, p=.017). Age >75 (HR3.63, p=.003) associated with 30-day mortality. Age >75 (HR2.14, p<.0001), nephropathy (HR1.54, p<.0001), coronaropathy (HR1.26, p=.036), infection/necrosis of the foot (dry, HR1.42, p=.040; wet, HR2.04, p<.0001) associated with 1-year mortality. No sex-linked difference in mortality statistics. Conclusion: Women exhibit fewer comorbidities, but are struck by CLTI when over-75, a factor associated with short/mid-term mortality, explaining why mortality doesn’t statistically differ between the sexes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Nursing; Spiritual care; Quality of life; Chronic disease; Children
Online: 13 June 2022 (05:17:18 CEST)
Background: Chronic disease is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Various complex stressors faced by children due to illness and a series of treatments can negatively impact children's welfare, which can negatively affect children's quality of life.Objectives: This literature aims to study the philosophy of spiritual-based care interventions to improve the quality of life of children with chronic diseases viewed from three philosophical perspectives, namely ontology, epistemology, and axiology.Methods: A literature search was performed on five databases, namely SCOPUS, PubMed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and SAGEPub. Population limitations and diagnoses in this literature of children with chronic disease. This research is a quantitative study focusing on publications between 2017-2021.Results: The philosophy of spiritual care intervention is humanistic, pragmatic, and religious intervention. Humanistic interventions are interventions in which nurses are actively involved in spiritual care. Pragmatic intervention is the activeness of a nurse in assessing the spiritual needs of patients. Meanwhile, religious intervention is an intervention that is directly related to the practice or ritual of a specific belief system. Spiritual care is an essential part of holistic care, which is considered an indicator of improving the quality of care. It will ultimately affect the optimal quality of life of children.Conclusion: Spiritual-based care interventions are essential to improve the quality of life of children with chronic diseases. Spiritual care given to children with chronic illnesses must consider all aspects such as developmental stage, life experience, and socio-cultural of the child.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia; dasatinib; ponatinib; pimozide; STAT inhibitors; K562
Online: 11 October 2021 (16:17:32 CEST)
Background: Though tyrosine kinase inhibitors managed to reach outstanding responses in the treatment of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, resistance is still a challenging point, occurring in approximately 10–20% of the cases, due to several mechanisms. STAT5 expression has been strictly linked to resistance and disease progression and may thus represent a significant target to overcome resistance to TKI in CML. The aim of the study is to explore the in vitro antineoplastic role of the STAT5 inhibitor Pimozide in association with 2nd and 3rd generation inhibitors on chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Methods: The cytotoxic effect was evaluated by the Trypan blue dye exclusion test. K562 cell lines were exposed to pimozide alone and in association with ponatinib and dasatinib at different concentrations to explore the drugs association effect and the in vitro cytotoxic concentrations. Conclusions: Pimozide showed a synergic effect when associated with ponatinib and dasatinib in survival inhibition of K562 cell lines. This results are of note and pave the way for a possible in vivo associations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Migraine; Headache; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Chronic Pain; Saudi Arabia
Online: 18 August 2021 (11:21:40 CEST)
Migraine is a primary headache disorder with a prevalence of 11.6% globally and 27% in Saudi Arabia. Irritable bowel syndrome has a prevalence of 9.2% worldwide. The prevalence of IBS has not been established nationally. However, provincial studies for both migraine and IBS have been conducted across the nation. There is a significant link between migraines and IBS globally. This identifies an association that needs to be investigated in a nationwide manner. This study aims to observe the association and the relationship between migraine and irritable bowel syndrome in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2021 to June 2021 among the general population of Saudi Arabia, whose ages are 15 years old or greater. The data collection tools included MS-Q for migraine symptoms, MIGSEV scale for severity of migraine, and The IBS module of the Rome IV Diagnostic Questionnaire (R4DQ) for IBS symptoms and its subtype. With a total of 2802 participants, the majority of the study sample were males, who constituted 52.5%. Among the study's sample, the prevalence of migraine consisted of 27.4%, and the prevalence of IBS was 16.4%. The odds of having IBS in migraineurs were much higher than in those without migraines (OR 4.127; 95% CI 3.325-5.121), and the association was statistically significant (P<0.001). In conclusion, there is a strong association between migraine and irritable bowel syndrome in Saudi Arabia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chronic limb-threatening ischemia; peripheral arterial disease; calcification pattern
Online: 7 April 2021 (14:45:17 CEST)
Objectives The most severe type of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is critical limb ischaemia (CLI). In CLI, calcification of the vessel wall plays an important role in symptoms, amputation rate and mortality. However, calcified arteries are also found in asymptomatic persons (non-PAD patients). We investigated whether the calcification pattern in CLI patients and non- PAD patients are different and could possibly explain the symptoms in CLI patients. Materials and Methods 130 CLI and 204 non-PAD patients underwent a CT of the lower extremities. This resulted in 118 CLI patients (mean age 72±12, 70.3% male) that were age-matched with 118 non-PAD patients (mean age 71±11, 51.7% male). The characteristics severity, annularity, thickness and continuity were assessed in the femoral and crural arteries and analysed by binary multiple logistic regression. Results Nearly all CLI patients have calcifications and these are equally frequent in the femoropopliteal (98.3%) and crural arteries (97.5%), while the non-PAD patients had in just 67% any calcifications with more calcifications in the femoropopliteal (70.3%) than in the crural arteries (55.9%, p<0.005). The crural arteries of the CLI patients had significantly more complete annular calcifications (OR 2.92, p=0.001.) while in the non-PAD patients dot-like calcifications dominated. In CLI patients, the femoropopliteal arteries had more severe, irregular / patchy and thick calcifications (OR 2.40, 3.27, 1.81, p≤0.05, respectively) while in non-PAD patients, thin continuous calcifications prevailed. Conclusions Compared with non-PAD patients CLI patients are more frequently and extensively calcified. Annular calcifications were found in the crural arteries of CLI patients while dot-like calcifications were mostly present in the non-PAD patients. These different patterns of calcifications in CLI point at different etiology and can have prognostic and eventually therapeutic consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0432.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; myalgic encephalomyelitis; schizophrenia; neuroimmunomodulation; inflammation; biomarkers
Online: 29 March 2020 (10:52:40 CEST)
Background: Physiosomatic symptoms are an important part of schizophrenia phenomenology. The aim of this study is to examine the biomarker, neurocognitive and symptomatic correlates of physiosomatic symptoms in schizophrenia. Methods: We recruited 115 schizophrenia patients and 43 healthy controls and measured the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Rating (FF) scale, schizophrenia symptom dimensions, and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. We measured neuro-immune markers including plasma CCL11 (eotaxin), interleukin-(IL)-6, IL-10, Dickkopf protein 1 (DKK1), high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and endogenous opioid system (EOS) markers including κ-opioid receptor (KOR), µ-opioid receptor (MOR), endomorphin-2 (EM2) and β-endorphin. Results: Patients with an increased FF score display increased ratings of psychosis, hostility, excitement, formal though disorders, psychomotor retardation and negative symptoms as compared with patients with lower FF scores. A large part of the variance in the FF score (55.1%) is explained by the regression on digit sequencing task, token motor task, list learning, IL-10, age (all inversely) and IL-6 (positively). Neural network analysis shows that the top-6 predictors of the FF score are (in descending order): IL-6, HMGB1, education, MOR, KOR and IL-10. We found that 45.1% of the variance in a latent vector extracted from cognitive test scores, schizophrenia symptoms and the FF score was explained by HMGB-1, MOR, EM2, DKK1, and CCL11. Conclusions: FF symptoms are an integral part of the phenome of schizophrenia. Neurotoxic immune and neurodegenerative pathways and to a lesser extent the EOS appear to drive FF symptoms in schizophrenia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0087.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Chronic stress; Vascular senescence; inflamamtion; atherosclerosis; dipeptidyl peptidase-4
Online: 9 January 2020 (13:05:26 CET)
Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including vascular aging, angiogenesis, and atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a complex enzyme (also called CD26) that acts as a membrane-anchored cell surface exopeptidase. DPP4 is upregulated in metabolic and inflammatory cardiovascular disorders. The widespread expression of DPP4 macrophages and immune cells and the noncatalytic function of DPP4 (also called CD26) as a signaling and binding protein across a wide range of species suggest a teleological role for DPP4 in inflammation and immune response. DPP-4 exhibits many physiological and pharmacological functions by regulating its extremely abundant substrates [e.g., stromal cell-derived factor-1α/ C-X-C chemokine receptor type-4, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), etc.]. Over last ten year, emerging data demonstrated unexpected roles for GLP-1 and DPP-4 in extracellular and intracellular signaling, immune activation, inflammation, oxidative stress production, cell apoptosis, insulin resistance, and lipid metabolism,. This mini review has focuses on recent novel findings in this field, highlighting an imbalance between GLP-1 and DPP4 as a potential therapeutic molecular target in treatments of chronic psychological stress-related atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in humans and animals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0261.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: rhinosinusitis; pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis; computed tomography; magnetic resonance imaging
Online: 26 June 2019 (07:21:24 CEST)
Pediatric rhinosinusitis are common encountered disorders caused by different pathogenic factors or predisposing conditions with a proportion of them progressing to chronicity with a meaningful impact on quality of life and related adverse effects. A deep understanding of pathophysiology, disease course and prognosis are the fundamental building block to an appropriate management of rhinosinusitis in order to avoid risks related to complications. This review gives concise answers to clinicians who want to know "when do we need imaging?" "what do we aspect from imaging?" and "what are the appropriate imaging modalities in different settings?” in pediatric patients in order to increase the appropriateness of imaging examinations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0033.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: apoptosis; viral persistence, hepatitis C virus; immunity; chronic infection
Online: 2 October 2018 (16:34:19 CEST)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a challenging global health threat in ~200 million infected individuals. Clinical data suggests that only ~10-15% of acutely HCV-infected individuals will achieve spontaneous viral clearance despite exuberant virus-specific immune responses, which is largely attributed to difficulties in recognizing the pathognomonic symptoms during the initial stages of exposure to the virus. Given the paucity of a suitable small animal model, it is also equally challenging to study the early phases of viral establishment. Further, the host factors contributing to HCV chronicity in a vast majority of acutely HCV-infected individuals largely remain unexplored. The last few years have witnessed a surge in studies showing that HCV adopts a myriad mechanisms to disconcert virus-specific immune responses in the host to establish persistence that includes, but not limited to viral escape mutations, viral growth at privileged sites, and antagonism. Here, we discussed a few hitherto poorly explained mechanisms employed by HCV that are believed to lead to chronicity in infected individuals. A better understanding of these mechanisms would aid the design of improved therapeutic targets against viral establishment in susceptible individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: sildenafil; phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors; chronic heart failure; meta-analysis
Online: 22 March 2017 (18:12:47 CET)
Background: In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, substantial clinical benefits have been reported with the use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors(PDE5i) . Moreover, some studies would have proven useful effects of PDE5i also on the clinical picture of the pulmonary hypertension(PH) secondary to left-sided chronic heart failure(CHF). Methods: We performed a meta-analysis comprising randomized controlled trials ( RCTs) which had compared PDE5i ( mostly sildenafil) with placebo in CHF patients. Results: 14 studies, including 928 patients overall , were admitted to the meta-analysis. In heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction(HFREF), PDE5i, compared to placebo, significantly improved the composite of death and hospitalization (OR= 0.28; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.74). They also improved peak VO2 (difference in means[MD]: 3.76; 95% CI: 3.27 to 4.25), six-minutes walk distance ( (6MWD)( MD, 22.7 meters ; 95% CI, 8.19 to 37.21) and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (MD: -11.52 mmHg; 95% CI: -15.56 to -7.49). Conversely, in CHF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction ( HFpEF), PDE5i were shown not to yield any beneficial effect concerning the investigated endpoints. Conclusions: In HFREF, PDE5i were shown to improve the composite of death and hospitalization, as well as exercise capacity and pulmonary hemodynamics. Conversely, in HFpEF, no significant clinical, ergospirometric or hemodynamic betterment was achieved using PDE5i treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: acute kidney disease; chronic kidney disease; gene therapy; cell therapy
Online: 25 January 2023 (04:29:25 CET)
The rising global incidence of acute and chronic kidney diseases has increased the demand for renal replacement therapy. This issue, compounded with the limited availability of viable kidneys for transplantation, has propelled the search for alternative strategies to address the growing health and economic burdens associated with these conditions. In the search for such alternatives, significant efforts have been devised to augment the current and primarily supportive management of renal injury with novel regenerative strategies. For example, gene- and cell-based approaches that utilize recombinant peptides/proteins, gene, cell, organoid, and RNAi technologies have shown promising outcomes primarily in experimental models. Supporting research has also been conducted to improve our understanding of the critical aspects that facilitate the development of efficient gene- and cell-based techniques that the complex structure of the kidney has traditionally limited. This manuscript is intended to communicate efforts that have driven the development of such therapies by identifying the vectors and delivery routes needed to drive exogenous transgene incorporation that may support the treatment of acute and chronic kidney diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0039.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA ST239, osteomyelitis, genome features, adaptation; chronic infection
Online: 2 November 2022 (03:34:29 CET)
Abstract. The increasing frequency of isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) limits the chances of effective antibacterial therapy of staphylococcal diseases and results in development of persistent infection such as bacteremia and osteomyelitis. The aim of this study was to identify features of the MRSAST239 0943-1505-2016 (SA943) genome, that contribute to the formation of both acute and chronic musculoskeletal infections. The analysis was performed using comparative genomics data of the dominant epidemic S. aureus lineages namely ST1, ST8, ST30, ST36, ST239. SA943 genome encodes proteins that provide resistance to the host immune system, suppress immunological memory and form biofilms. The molecular mechanisms of adaptation responsible for development of persistent infection were as follows: amino acid substitution in PBP2 and PBP2a, providing resistance to ceftaroline; loss of a large part of prophage DNA and restoration of nucleotide sequence of beta-hemolysin, that greatly facilitates escape of phagocytosed bacteria from phagosome and formation of biofilms; dysfunction of the AgrA system due to the presence of psm-mec and several amino acid substitutions in the AgrC; partial deletion of nucleotide sequence in genomic island vSAβ resulting in the loss of two proteases of Spl - operon; deletion of SD repeats in SdrE amino acid sequence.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0035.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Chronic Venous Insufficiency; Venous Leg Ulcer; Dehydrated Amniotic Membrane Allograft
Online: 5 September 2022 (10:57:27 CEST)
Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a lifelong, moribund, and debilitating disease process with tremendous personal and financial costs. At its core, CVI involves blood pooling in the lower extremities secondary to inadequate venous blood return, resulting in venous hypertension and incompetence of the one-way valves in the lower extremity veins. As venous circulation slows, metabolic demands of the cells in the lower extremities increase, leading to stasis dermatitis, infection, cellular death, and venous ulceration. This case study aims to report the efficacy of dehydrated amniotic membrane allograft (DAMA) applications to a chronic right lateral ankle ulcer resulting from chronic venous insufficiency. The patient in this study received DAMA applications weekly for six weeks. Upon examination at the initial application, the wound was wet and macerated due to drainage with significant hemosiderosis and lipodermatosclerosis consistent with a Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) of 2. Upon inspection at the final visit, the wound was closed, with a VCSS of 0. This case study demonstrates that the application of DAMA has the potential to act as an effective barrier to cover and accelerate wound closure time. Future non randomized and randomized controlled trials may further establish standardized protocols for DAMA application in venous ulceration, help create treatment algorithms to predict wound closure endpoints, and encourage innovation that may further accelerate healing time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0008.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia; BCR/ABL; CRISPR; Gene therapy; CRISPR-Trap.
Online: 4 May 2022 (12:30:11 CEST)
Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a haematological neoplasm driven by the BCR/ABL fusion oncogene. The monogenic aspect of the disease and the feasibility of ex vivo therapies in haematological disorders make CML an excellent candidate for gene therapy strategies. The ability to abolish any coding sequence by CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases offers a powerful therapeutic opportunity to CML patients. However, a definitive cure can only be achieved when only CRISPR-edited cells are selected. A gene-trapping approach combined with CRISPR technology would be an ideal approach to ensure this. Here, we have developed a CRISPR-Trap strategy that efficiently inserts a donor gene trap (SA-CMV-Venus) cassette into the BCR-ABL1-specific fusion point in the CML K562 human cell line. The trapping cassette interrupts the on-cogene coding sequence and expresses a reporter gene that enables the selection of edited cells. Quantitative expression analyses showed significantly higher level of expression of the BCR-Venus allele coupled with a drastically lower level of BCR/ABL expression in Venus+ cell fractions. Functional in vitro experiments showed cell proliferation arrest and apoptosis in selected Venus+ cells. Finally, xenograft experiments with the selected Venus+ cells showed a large reduction in tumour growth, thereby demonstrating a therapeutic benefit in vivo. This study is a proof of concept for the therapeutic potential of a CRISPR-Trap system as a novel strategy for gene elimination in haematological neoplasms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease; Protein-Energy Wasting; Modified-Subjective Global Assessment
Online: 25 April 2022 (04:53:13 CEST)
Background: Chronic kidney disease, one of the most common diseases in the world, is characterized by irreversible impairment of the kidney’s metabolic, excretory, and endocrine functions. During end-stage renal disease, patients require renal replacement therapy, such as hemodialysis (HD). Protein-energy wasting is a common health problem among HD patients. However, this study aims to assess the nutritional status of HD patients at two HD centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and to determine its associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at two different Dialysis Centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 211 female and male HD patients. Malnutrition was recognized using the Modified-SGA (M-SGA) comprising two parts: medical history and physical examination. Sociodemographic and health status for all patients were also determined. Patients were classified based on their M-SGA score into two groups: normal and malnourished. Results: Overall, 54.5% of the participants showed malnutrition. Unemployment, low muscle strength and mass, high level of medication use, and high dialysis vintage were positively (P<0.05) associated with malnutrition. Conclusion: The M-SGA score indicates a high prevalence of malnutrition among HD patients. These results show the importance of regular assessment and follow-ups for HD patients ensuring better health and nutritional status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0290.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: crescentic glomerulonephritis; BET proteins; NOTCH; GREMLIN; Chronic kidney disease; Bromodomain
Online: 23 December 2021 (14:40:45 CET)
Crescentic glomerulonephritis is a devastating autoimmune disease that without early and properly treat-ment may rapidly progress to end-stage renal disease and death. Current immunosuppressive treatment provided limited efficacy and an important burden of adverse events. Epigenetic drugs are a source of novel therapeutic tools. Among them, bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitors (iBETs) block the interaction between bromodomains and acetylated proteins, including histones and transcription factors. iBETs have demonstrated protective effects on malignancy, inflammatory conditions and experi-mental kidney disease. Recently, Gremlin-1 was proposed as a urinary biomarker of disease progression in human anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated crescentic glomerulonephritis. We have now evaluated whether iBETs regulate Gremlin-1 in experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis induced by nephrotoxic serum (NTS) in mice, a model of human crescentic glomerulonephritis. In NTS-injected mice, the iBET JQ1 inhibited renal Gremlin-1 overexpression and diminished glomerular damage, including podocyte loss. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated BRD4 enrichment of the Grem-1 gene promoter in injured kidneys, consistent with Gremlin-1 epigenetic regulation. Moreover, JQ1 blocked BRD4 binding and inhibited Grem-1 gene transcription. The beneficial effect of iBETs was also mediated by targeting NOTCH signaling pathway. JQ1 inhibited the gene expression of the NOTCH effec-tors Hes-1 and Hey-1 in NTS-injured kidneys. Our results further support the role for epigenetic drugs, such as iBETs, in the treatment of rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; depression; chronic fatigue syndrome; inflammation; neuro-immune; psychiatry
Online: 14 June 2021 (13:01:31 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 is associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms including increased depressive, anxiety and chronic fatigue-syndrome (CFS)-like physiosomatic (previously known as psychosomatic) symptoms.Aims: To delineate the associations between affective and CFS-like symptoms in COVID-19 and chest CT-scan anomalies (CCTAs), oxygen saturation (SpO2), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), albumin, calcium, magnesium, soluble angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2) and soluble advanced glycation products (sRAGEs).Method: The above biomarkers were assessed in 60 COVID-19 patients and 30 heathy controls who had measurements of the Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAM-A) and the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue (FF) Rating Scales. Results: Partial Least Squares-SEM analysis showed that reliable latent vectors could be extracted from a) key depressive and anxiety and physiosomatic symptoms (the physio-affective or PA-core), b) IL-6, IL-10, CRP, albumin, calcium, and sRAGEs (the immune response core); and c) different CCTAs (including ground glass opacities, consolidation, and crazy paving) and lowered SpO2% (lung lesions). PLS showed that 70.0% of the variance in the PA-core was explained by the regression on the immune response and lung lesions latent vectors. Moreover, one common “infection-immune-inflammatory (III) core” underpins pneumonia-associated CCTAs, lowered SpO2 and immune activation, and this III core explains 70% of the variance in the PA core, and a relevant part of the variance in melancholia, insomnia, and neurocognitive symptoms.Discussion: Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection is accompanied by lung lesions and lowered SpO2 which both may cause activated immune-inflammatory pathways, which mediate the effects of the former on the PA-core and other neuropsychiatric symptoms due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; diagnosis; Health services; clinical care
Online: 16 October 2020 (08:58:18 CEST)
Designed by a group of ME/CFS researchers and health professionals, the European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE) has received funding from the European Cooperation is Science and Technology (COST) (https://www.cost.eu/cost-actions/what-are-cost-actions/ ) - COST action 15111 - from 2016 to 2020. The main goal of the Cost Action was to assess the existing fragmented knowledge and experience on health care delivery for people with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) in European countries, and to enhance coordinated research and health care provision in this field. We report on the recommendations for clinical diagnosis, heath services and care for people with ME/CFS in Europe, as prepared by the group of clinicians and researchers from 22 countries and 55 European health professionals and researchers, who have been informed by people with ME/CFS (https://www.cost.eu/actions/CA15111/#tabs|Name:overview).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0175.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: inflammation; neuroimmunomodulation; major depression; chronic fatigue syndrome; myalgic encephalomyelitis; biomarkers
Online: 14 February 2020 (01:53:53 CET)
Objective: A previous study showed that schizophrenia is accompanied by lowered levels of trace/metal elements including cesium. There are no data whether changes in cesium, rubidium and rhenium are associated with activated immune-inflammatory pathways, cognitive impairments, and the symptomatology of schizophrenia. Methods: This study measured cesium, rubidium, and rhenium, cognitive impairments (using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) and the cytokines/chemokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and CCL11 (eotaxin) in 120 schizophrenia patients and 54 healthy controls. Severity of illness was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Rating (FF) Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Results: Serum cesium was significantly lower in schizophrenia patients as compared with controls. Serum cesium was significantly and inversely associated with CCL11 and TNF-α, but not IL-1β. Moreover, there were significant inverse associations between serum cesium levels and the BPRS, FF, HAM-D and SANS scores and positive correlations between cesium and neurocognitive probe results including the Tower of London, Symbol Coding, Controlled Word Association, Category Instances, Digit Sequencing Task, and List Learning tests. Conclusion: The results suggest that lowered serum cesium levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of SCZ, specific symptom domains including negative, depressive and fatigue symptoms, neurocognitive impairments (spatial working, episodic and semantic memory and executive functions) and neuro-immune pathways as well.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: renal diets; fiber; renal nutrition; chronic kidney disease; gut microbiota
Online: 26 August 2019 (12:23:22 CEST)
Nutrition is crucial for the management of patients affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) to slow down disease progression and to correct symptoms. The mainstay of the nutritional approach to renal patients is protein restriction coupled with adequate energy supply to prevent malnutrition. However, other aspects of renal diets, including fiber content, can be beneficial. This paper summarizes the latest literature on the role of different types of dietary fiber in CKD, with special attention to intestinal microbiota and the potential protective role of renal diets. Fibers have been identified based on aqueous solubility, but other features, such as viscosity, fermentability, and bulking effect in the colon should be considered. A proper amount of fiber should be recommended not only in the general population but also in CKD patients, to achieve an adequate composition and metabolism of intestinal microbiota and to reduce the risks connected with obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia.