ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0267.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: early childhood education (ECE); free early childhood education; policy cycle; sustainability
Online: 23 May 2022 (03:42:52 CEST)
Many countries have implemented free early childhood education to solve the affordability and accessibility problems without considering the sustainability of policy; thus, they have to discontinue the policy. The city of Nanjing, China, is no exception. This case study adopted a mixed-methods approach to understanding how and why the policy was formulated, implemented, and failed in the city, using the “policy cycle” framework. Altogether 232 kindergarten principals and teaching/research staff were randomly sampled and surveyed, and 5 kindergarten principals and 5 teaching/researcher staff were interviewed. The results indicated that there were many obstacles to the policy’s sustainability, including the conflict of interest, the inefficient policy implementation, the insufficient funding, and more social inequality issues. And the policymakers made mistakes in the five domains of the policy cycle: the context of influence, the context of policy text production, the context of practice, the context of outcomes, and the context of political strategy. Finally, the lessons for a more sustainable policy decision process are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0219.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: STEM for sustainability; early childhood education; English picture books, Chinese toddlers
Online: 27 February 2019 (08:42:09 CET)
Changes in curricula, publication policy and information technology, notably in China have led to concentrations in the role of STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) education in early childhood and applauded to proliferations of imported up-to-date reading materials and mobile apps in English. This paper proposes a longitude study of a Chinese toddler learning STEM by reading picture books and playing with tablet and suggests new horizons in parenting and in STEM education during children's early years. The present study carried out from 2016, when the participant reached one year old, eligible to learn to speak and to concentrate on the picture books read by parents who had filled a language background questionnaire with information on themselves and the participant. Tablet playing brought about for the two-year-old toddler and collections of STEM books in English was added for the second year. Data collection lasted for two years with an iLab video camera, capturing utterances and motions for five minutes per week transcribed by VoiceScript software. Tests were given quarterly at private home by tapping in mobile app "Bilingual Child Learning" which consists of 20 basic STEM themes before scores were collected. Findings indicate that (1) it is accessible for children of very early years to be engaged in English STEM resources, (2) kids' limited English dominance does not impede learning STEM, (3) and to think in English in early STEM contributes to children's English.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0549.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: childhood education; Hygiene; COVID-19; preventive behaviours; staying at home; mask wearing; hand washing; public goods
Online: 30 January 2023 (09:21:57 CET)
Childhood hygiene education has resulted in individuals engaging in hand washing and mask wearing to cope with COVID-19. Individuals can form sustainable development-related habits through childhood education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0052.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Dialectical Critical Realism; Education; Islam; Childhood Studies; Child Abuse; Work-Life-Balance; Roy Bhaskar; Priscilla Alderson; Margaret Archer
Online: 18 September 2016 (06:04:09 CEST)
Critical realism emerged from the philosophical writings of Roy Bhaskar, and has evolved into a philosophy of social science research using the model of “dialectical critical realism” (DCR) which begins with the researcher’s assumptions that the structures being researched have a real, ontological grounding which is independent of the researcher. This approach has proved fruitful in British and European social science research, but has had less influence in North America. We outline DCR’s four level model for understanding society and its changing social structures through “the pulse of freedom”. DCR has been used by Marxists, Muslims, Catholics and secular scholars who engage fruitfully in morphogenic dialogues leading to a critical realist understanding of society and social research, which transcends positivist and social constructionist models. Examples of DCR’s application in the fields of childhood research, child abuse, education, and research on organisations are outlined to illustrate the working of this new research paradigm. We are enthusiastic in our advocacy of DCR as a model of qualitative research, and for constructing models of positive social change, and are particularly impressed by the substantive and theoretical expositions of DCR by Priscilla Anderson, Matthew Wilkinson and Margaret Archer, whose work we document and review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0384.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Obesity; Childhood; Comorbidity; Malnutrition
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:23:59 CEST)
Childhood obesity is a preventable multi-systemic disease that has become an epidemic. In this narrative review, we showed evidence, in the literature, of the affectation of body systems by obesity. Co-morbid conditions of obesity in the cardiovascular, nervous, dermatological, respiratory, endocrine, reproductive, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and renal systems, and its effects on mental health are discussed. Obesity ultimately reduces the quality of life of children and is a leading cause of preventable deaths. Effective measures aimed at the prevention of obesity and the treatment of its co-morbid conditions should be taken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0438.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Neuroblastoma; Capsaicin; TRPV1; Childhood Cancer
Online: 28 October 2021 (13:07:00 CEST)
Neuroblastoma is an extra-cranial solid cancer that primarily affects children. Aggressive neuroblastoma tumors typically demonstrate resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic and radiotherapeutic regimens. Interestingly, the use of dietary supplements in the control of cancers has gained ascendance in recent scientific investigations. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin are bioactive components of Capsicum chinenses fruit. Qutenza (a high-dose capsaicin patch) is used in the management of neuropathic pain from postherpetic neuralgia and HIV-associated neuropathy. Research on the potency of capsaicin as an anticancer agent has been demonstrated on several cancer cell lines and in in vivo models. The possibility of conventional cancer therapies having long-term developmental and other side effects on pediatric patients invokes the need to search for other less toxic agents against neuroblastoma. In this study, we tested if Capsicum chinenses fruit extract has therapeutic potential against neuroblastoma. To carry out this study, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin extract were made from Capsicum chinenses red fruits via hexane extraction method. Then, a range of concentrations (1pg/mL–100 mg/mL) of the extract was administered to cultured SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and their viabilities assessed. The potency of capsaicin in destroying neuroblastoma cells indicated that it might act via multiple routes, hence we screen for possible receptors in and on neuroblastoma cells that might interact with capsaicin using molecular docking techniques. Our findings showed that capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin extracted from Capsicum chinenses reduced neuroblastoma cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 69.75 µg/mL. Our in-silico analysis determined that capsaicin might potentially bind to other receptors on the surface of neuroblastoma cells. We demonstrated a stronger binding affinity of capsaicin to human D4 Dopamine receptor (DRD4) than to the known vanilloid receptor TRPV1 using molecular docking. In conclusion, these results illustrated that Capsicum chinenses extract containing capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin is effective in reducing viability of neuroblastoma cells in vitro and may serve as a naturally derived treatment source for this pediatric cancer, secondly, capsaicin may have multiple targets, and its strong binding to human D4 Dopamine receptors may point to different pathways by which capsaicin exerts its cancer killing effects.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: early childhood development; stimulating parenting practices; effective early childhood reading practices; rural China; mixed methodology
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:26:49 CET)
Studies have shown that nearly half of rural toddlers in China have cognitive delays due to an absence of stimulating parenting practices, such as early childhood reading, during the critical first three years of life. However, few studies have examined the reasons behind these low levels of stimulating parenting, and no studies have sought to identify the factors that limit caregivers from providing effective early childhood reading practices (EECRP). This mixed-methods study investigates the perceptions, prevalence and correlates of EECRP in rural China, as well as associations with child cognitive development. We use quantitative survey results from 1,720 caregiver-child dyads across 100 rural villages/townships in northwestern China and field observation and interview data with 60 caregivers from these same sites. The quantitative results show significantly low rates of EECRP despite positive perceptions of early reading and positive associations between EECRP and cognitive development. Qualitative results suggest that low rates of EECRP in rural China are not due to the inability to access books, financial or time constraints, or the absence of aspirations. Rather, the low rate of book ownership and absence of reading to young children is driven by the insufficient and inaccurate knowledge of EECRP among caregivers, which leads to their delayed, misinformed reading decisions with their young children, ultimately contributing to developmental delays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: childhood; obesity; activPAL; steps; sedentary behavior
Online: 19 March 2018 (10:16:20 CET)
A major health threat for children in the 21st century is physical inactivity in conjunction with the elevated prevalence of obesity. In Malaysia, low physical activity among children is a major concern. The objective of the study was to analyze the day to day variation of step count in a sample of obese children using the activPALTM monitor. This was a cross sectional study conducted in Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu. The sample compromised 41 boys and 24 girls between the ages of 9-11 years. Number of steps was objectively measured using an activPALTM accelerometer over a period of 4-7 days and had their height and weight measured. Mean step count from this sample of obese children was 8861 ± 3157steps. Steps per day were significantly higher for boys compared to girls (p=0.034). Obese children took significantly more steps at weekdays than on weekends (p=0.001). Steps/hour were significantly higher in weekday compared to weekend between 0600 to 0700 (p<0.001), 0700 to 0800 (p<0.001), 0800 to 0900 am (p<0.001), 0900 to 1000 (p=0.032), 1000 to 1100 (p=0.046), 1100 to 1200 (p<0.001), 1300 to 1400 (p=0.002), 1400 to 1500 (p<0.001), 1800 to 1900 (p=0.026) and 2000 to 2100 (p=0.019). Detailed daily patterns of physical activity are required to fully understand the differences across days that help future interventions to target those falling short particularly during weekend.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0005.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: severe early childhood caries; risk factors
Online: 3 November 2016 (08:39:30 CET)
Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. Its multifactorial etiology has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program for this affected age group. The study reshuffled the risk factors contributing to severe early childhood caries and placed them in the order of their significance as follows: snacking of sugary food several times a day, increased number of siblings to 3 or more, night feeding, child self-employed brushing, mother caries experience, 2 siblings, on demand feeding, once/day sugary food, sharing utensils, 1 Sibling, male gender, father’s education, late first child dental visit, brushing time, mother’s education, no dental visit, decreased brushing frequency & no night brushing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1047.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: zero-dose; childhood vaccination; missed communities; Cameroon
Online: 27 April 2023 (05:05:59 CEST)
Background: Manoka Health District (MHD), an enclaved archipelago district in Cameroon, is home to about 1,732 under-2 children. Over 90% of these children have not received a single dose of any vaccine. In this paper, we explored the reasons for the high proportion of zero-dose children in this district so as to generate information that policymakers can use to develop context-specific interventions to boast coverage for routine immunization (RI) in this remote fishing island Methodology: We collected qualitative data via key informant interviews (KII) and focused group discussions (FGD) and analyzed it using thematic analysis. Participants for KII were selected using purposive sampling, and a snowballing approach helped to recruit an intermixed population of locals and immigrants for FGDs. Results: MHD is a hard-to-reach zone with a lone health facility that lack a functional cold chain equipment to cover the 47 islets of the district. Diurnal floods, long distance, sea turbulence, infrastructural and resource constraints, and immigrant population without residence permits hinders optimal childhood vaccination. Insufficient community health workers and lack of proper community engagement with feedback loops hamper effective communication and vaccine uptake during campaigns and outreaches. The reasons for vaccination hesitancy included hospital-based vaccination preference over home-based vaccination, fear of post-vaccination fever, rumors, repeated postponement of the vaccination schedules, and refusal by some ethnic group leaders. Conclusion: This study revealed context-specific reasons for zero-dose childhood vaccination status in MHD. These findings should be leveraged to design tailored interventions to raise RI in MHD and similar under-vaccinated communities. Keywords: zero-dose, childhood vaccination, missed communities, Cameroon
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0264.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: factors; suspected delayed language development; early childhood
Online: 18 March 2022 (07:34:39 CET)
Many children have suspected delayed language development and need extensive support from parents and the health care team. This study aimed to investigate suspected delayed language development and factors associated with suspected delayed language development among early childhood in Southern Thailand. Children aged 24 to 60 months were recruited as study samples using stratified random sampling conducted in 23 districts and simple randomized seven sections (425 children). Instruments comprised demographic data of the children and families, The preschool temperament questionnaire, and the Language Development Screening questionnaire using developmental surveillance and promotion manual. I was collecting data from July 2020 to January 2021. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The results showed that 40.9 percent suspected delayed development. Daily screen time exceeding 2 hours per day (A.O.R. = 17.30, 95% CI: 7.35-40.72), and regarding a child's temperament, moderate-to-difficult temperament (A.O.R. = 9.56, 95% CI: 5.12-17.85) were significantly associated with a suspected delay of language development. The study suggested two-way communication and appropriate responses will help develop children's language.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: paracetamol; breastfeeding; post; childhood; prophylactic; immunization; vaccination
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:09:16 CET)
Background: Paracetamol may be use as antipyretic agent for the treatment of fever, as well as an analgesic in the treatment of mild to moderate pain on post vaccination in infants. The use of Paracetamol during fever may be or may not be recommended since it may alter natural human body immune response although it may reduce pain. Objectives: This study described the relevancy of Paracetamol use post infants vaccination based on data collection systematic review analyses. This study aims to describe the effectiveness of breastfeeding in reducing pain and Paracetamol in reducing fever and pain post infants vaccination. Data Sources and Study Selection: Electronic literature search by hand searching six (6) databases which include Ovid LWW Total Access Collection and Medline, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Alled Health Literature) Plus with Fulltext, Science Direct, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, Proquest Education Journal and Proquest Health and Medical Complete. Additionally, manual reference checks of all articles on Paracetamol and breastfeeding post infants vaccination published in English Language between 1978 and 2017. Two level of screening were used on 9614 citations which include screening of abstracts and titles followed by full text screening. Data Synthesis: Data synthesis were tabulated into study characteristics, quality and effects. Authors of trials were not contacted for further details or provision of original data if the published report contained insufficient information. The study findings, as reported by the authors, were included in this review. The data in this research cannot be pool due to not enough data regarding odd ratio or relative risk as well as confidence interval in each study. Results: Systematic review of breastfeeding included three (3) studies from 9614 of database searching. The reviews of all these three (3) studies found significant benefit from breastfed in pain score and duration of crying as well as behavioral changes. None study stated the unbeneficial of breastfeeding before, during and after immunization. Meanwhile, systematic review of Paracetamol effectiveness included four (4) studies from 1177 of database searching. The reviews of two (2) studies found significant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fever and only one (1) study found significant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fussiness. On the other hand, there was one (1) study found not signifiant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fever. Other than that, there were two (2) studies evaluate the safety of prophylactic Paracetamol which revealed different outcomes, in which study by Prymula et. al. in 2009 found that antibody responses to several antigens were reduced significantly, and the other study by Uhari et. al. in 1988 found that antibody titres to DTP bacteria of placebo and PCM not differ significantly. Thus, Paracetamol seems to be not relevant post infants vaccination and breastfeeding was found to be beneficial post infants vaccination. Conclusions: The relevancy of giving Paracetamol post all types of vaccination may be questionable since the safety issue of this intervention may be arised. Breastfeeding before, during and after immunization are recommended for pain reduction as it was proved effectively. Finally, in deciding Paracetamol to be of rational use following infants immunization, it may need for further research which include in depth quantitative and qualitative studies to identify specific problem and causes regarding this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; epidemiology; diet; childhood infections; interaction
Online: 22 November 2016 (13:00:45 CET)
An increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) had been found when individuals had consumed large amounts of processed meat and sausages at young age (Lauer, 2014). Furthermore it was found in many studies that MS patients had acquired a number of common childhood infections at higher ages than controls. Therefore, MS patients from an epidemiological long-term investigation in Germany and different hospital controls, were evaluated for a statistical interaction of these two factors. 324 MS patients and 242 hospital controls were inquired. The study focussed on age 0 - 16. Subjects were tested for additive interaction by multiple linear regression analysis (Knol et al., 2007). There was an additive interaction of the age at any common childhood infection with the consumption of scalded sausages (regression estimate = 0.1370; standard error = 0.0603; p = 0.0239). In contrast, no such interaction could be shown for: animal fats; smoked meat (e.g. ham and bacon); and cold - smoked German salami. Thus there was a synergy of the intake of scalded sausages (e.g. frankfurters, bolognas, etc.) and age at common childhood infections, for the later risk of MS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: sodium; potassium; nutrition; diet; urine spot; food frequency questionnaire; cardiovascular disease; childhood cancer survivors; Swiss childhood cancer registry; Europe
Online: 16 October 2019 (10:25:07 CEST)
Risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), common in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), may be affected by diet. We assessed sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and morning urine spots, and its associations with cardiovascular risk in CCSs. We stratified CCS into three risk profiles based on A) personal history (CVD, CVD risk factors, or CVD risk free), B) body mass index (obese, overweight, or normal/underweight), and C) cardiotoxic treatment (anthracyclines and/or chest irradiation, or neither). We obtained a FFQ from 802, and sent a spot urine sample collection kit to 212, of which 111 (52%) returned. We estimated Na intake 2.9 g/day based on spot urine and 2.8 g/day based on FFQ; estimated K intake was 1.6 g/day (spot urine) and 2.7 g/day (FFQ). CCSs with CVD risk factors had a slightly higher Na intake (3.3 g/day), than CCSs risk free (2.9 g/day) or with CVD (2.7 g/day, p = 0.017), and obese participants had higher Na intake (4.2 g/day) than normal/underweight CCSs (2.7 g/day, p<0.001). Daily Na intake was above, and daily K intake below national recommended levels. Adult survivors of childhood cancer need dietary assistance to reduce Na and increase K intake.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0746.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cardiotoxicity, childhood cancer, chemotherapeutics agents, biomarkers, omics technology
Online: 24 April 2023 (04:06:08 CEST)
Improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer have considerably enhanced survival rates over the last decades, to over 80% as per today. However, this great achievement has been accompanied by the occurrence of several early and long-term treatment-related complications major of which is the cardiotoxicity. The chemotherapeutic agents that have been implicated as a cause of cardiotoxicity, are mostly anthracyclines and mitoxantrone, alkylating agents, proteasome inhibitors and to a lesser extent anti-microtubule agents, cisplatin, monoclonal antibodies, small molecular tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and nucleotide synthesis inhibitors. Routine diagnosis and monitoring of cardiotoxicity rely on electrocardiography and echocardiography. For the early detection of cardiotoxicity, in recent years, major studies have been conducted using biomarkers such as troponin, N-terminal pro b-natriuretic peptide, etc. Despite refinements in diagnostics still severe limitations exist, due to the increase of the above-mentioned biomarkers, only after significant cardiac damage has occurred. Lately, research has been expanded by introducing new technologies and finding new markers by omics approach. These new markers could be used not only for early detection, but also for early prevention of cardiotoxicity. The omics science, which includes genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, offers new opportunities for biomarker discovery in cardiotoxicity and may provide understanding of mechanisms of cardiotoxicity, beyond traditional technologies. This article reviews the contemporary definition of cardiotoxicity, older and newer chemotherapeutic agents mainly involved in cardiotoxicity and the methods of early and preventive diagnosis, using omics technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0263.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: fruit; vegetable; childhood; COVID-19; cash value benefit
Online: 20 June 2022 (09:46:42 CEST)
During the COVID-19 pandemic, WIC increased the Cash Value Benefit (CVB) for fruits and vegetables by roughly $25/month/person. We sought to understand WIC participant perceptions of this change and barriers and facilitators to using the CVB. We conducted 10 virtual focus groups (5 rural, 5 urban/suburban) with WIC participants (n=55) in North Carolina in March 2022. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed. We open coded the content and used thematic analysis to uncover consistencies within and between sampled groups. Participants expressed favorable perceptions of the CVB increase and stated the pre-pandemic CVB amount was insufficient. Barriers to using the increased CVB were identifying WIC approved fruits and vegetables in stores and insufficient supply of fruits and vegetables. Barriers were more pronounced in rural groups. CVB use facilitators were existing household preferences for fruits and vegetables and the variety of products that can be purchased with the CVB relative to other components of the WIC food package. Participants felt the CVB increase allowed their families to eat a wider variety of fruits and vegetables. The CVB increase may improve fruit and vegetable intake, particularly if made permanent, but barriers to CVB and WIC benefit use may be limiting the potential impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0314.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: food preferences; early childhood; variety; longitudinal; fruit; vegetables
Online: 20 June 2018 (08:42:52 CEST)
While it is generally accepted that food habits established during infancy will track into later childhood, longitudinal analysis of children’s food preferences is rare. This paper examines whether maternal-reported child food preferences at five years of age are the same as that reported at two years; and identifies any patterns of change from two- to five- years. Mothers in the Australian NOURISH trial reported child food preferences at two and five years of age. A four point scale was utilised - ‘like’, ‘neither like or dislike’, ‘dislike’, ‘never tried’. The proportion of children having the same preference at the two time points was calculated (95%CI) for 48 foods (cereals, 4; vegetables, 20; fruit, 14; meat/alternatives, 6; dairy, 4). For foods where ≤50% children had consistent preferences, the pattern of food preference change was determined. For 40/48 foods, more than half of the children were reported to have the same preference at two years of age, and three years later, at age five. Foods for which ≤50% children had the same preference at both ages were high-sugar breakfast cereals, zucchini, mushrooms, eggplant, spinach, lettuce, cabbage and celery. Findings reinforce the importance of promoting a consistent message regarding early and frequent exposure to a variety of healthy foods, particularly during the first 2 years of life, as the preferences established in these early years are likely to be maintained over time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs); Refugee children; Systematic review; Questionnaires
Online: 2 March 2023 (01:42:19 CET)
Today, various questionnaires are available to assess Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in children; however, it is uncertain if these questionnaires comprehensively address the adversities of vulnerable subgroups, specifically refugee children. This review's objectives are to (1) identify current ACE questionnaires and determine if they are suitable for assessing refugee children’s adversities, and (2) identify those previously used within a refugee population. A systematic literature search was conducted across five databases for articles published since 2010, including studies using an ACE questionnaire that recognized multiple adversities in healthy children and were published in English. A total of 103 ACE questionnaires were identified in 506 studies. Only 14 of the 103 questionnaires addressed a refugee-specific adversity. Their ability to capture refugee children’s experiences was limited: available questionnaires used a maximum of three items to assess refugee-specific adversities, covering only a fraction of forms of adversities relevant to refugee children. Psychometric characteristics were rarely reported. In addition, only two ACE questionnaires were used within a refugee population. With the tools currently available, it is not possible to comprehensively assess the exposure to and severity of the adversities faced by refugee children. The perpetuation of ongoing crises necessitates assessing refugee children's adversities to understand how their well-being is affected and to identify children at risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Childhood cancer; financial costs; Africa; systematic review; meta-analysis
Online: 15 August 2022 (11:53:44 CEST)
The high costs of cancer treatment and lack of investment in health care are significant obstacles to public health on the African continent. The objective of this study was to estimate the financial cost of treating children suffering from cancer in Africa. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of expert opinions between March 2000 and March 2020. The key search terms included ‘cost’, ‘cancer’ and ‘child’; we selected articles that specifically addressed the financial costs of childhood cancer in African countries. Of the 103 articles found, 18 met the inclusion criteria. Cancer care was a heavy financial burden in most of the countries studied, although costs varied from country to country; the average expenditure on healthcare was US$1017.39 ± US$319.1 per year. In countries without a health insurance system, the highest proportion of cancer care costs, 46.6%, was indirect, whereas in countries with a cancer financing system, the direct cost of treatment was low, 53.4%. The cost of treating childhood cancer is high in Africa in relation to the standard of living of individuals residing in this region.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Behaviours; Childhood; Infant feeding; Interventions; Obesity; Prevention; Physical activity.
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:35:46 CET)
Childhood overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health issue. Our objective was to describe planned, ongoing and completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed for the prevention of obesity in early childhood. Two databases (World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched to identify RCTs with the primary aim of preventing childhood obesity and at least one outcome related to child weight. Interventions needed to start in the first two years of childhood or earlier, continue for at least 6 months postnatally, include a component related to lifestyle or behaviors, and have a follow up time of at least 2 years. We identified 29 unique RCTs, implemented since 2008, with most being undertaken in high income countries. Interventions ranged from advice on diet, activity, sleep, emotion regulation and parenting education through individual home visits, clinic-based consultations or group education sessions. Eleven trials have published data on child weight related outcomes to date, though most were not sufficiently powered to detect significant effects. Many trials detected improvements in practices such as breastfeeding, screen time and physical activity in the intervention groups compared to the control groups. Further follow-up of ongoing trials is needed to assess longer-term effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: self-harm; dual harm; violence; childhood adversity; substance misuse
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:47:07 CET)
The etiology of ‘dual harm’ (the co-occurrence of self-harm and externalized violence in the same individual) is under-researched. Risk factors have mostly been investigated for each behavior separately. We aimed to examine adversities experienced between birth and age 15 years among adolescents and young adults with histories of self-harm and violent criminality, with a specific focus on dual harm. Three nested case-control studies were delineated using national interlinked Danish registers; 58,409 cases in total aged 15-35 were identified: 28,956 with a history of violent criminality (but not self-harm), 25,826 with a history of self-harm (but not violent criminality), and 3987 with dual harm history. Each case was matched by date of birth and gender to 20 controls who had not engaged in either behavior. We estimated exposure prevalence for cases vs. controls for each of the three behavior groups, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Experiencing 5 or more childhood adversities was more prevalent among individuals with dual harm history (19.3%; 95% CI 18.0, 20.8%) versus self-harm (10.9%; 10.5, 11.3%) and violence (11.4%; 11.0%, 11.8%) histories. The highest IRRs for dual harm were linked with parental unemployment (5.15; 95% CI 4.71, 5.64), parental hospitalization following self-harm (4.91; 4.40, 5.48) or assault (5.90; 5.07, 6.86), and parental violent criminality (6.11; 5.57, 6.70). Growing up in environments that are characterized by poverty, violence and substance misuse, and experiencing multiple adversities in childhood, appear to be especially strongly linked with elevated dual harm risk. These novel findings indicate potential etiologic pathways to dual harm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dietary fiber; childhood obesity; gut microbiota; metabolite; high-meat diet
Online: 13 March 2023 (02:18:52 CET)
The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in childhood obesity, and diet is a dominating driver. The effects of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), as a dietary fiber, on the composition and metabolism of gut microbiota in healthy children was investigated by vitro fermentation system with a reformative YCFA medium (rich in tryptic hydrolysates of meat). The 16S rRNA sequencing technology was utilized to analyze the varieties of gut microbiota. Measurement of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gases were used by the gas chromatograph. Majorbio Cloud Platform and MetOrigin, as the interactive cloud server, perform the microbiota analysis, the metabolic pathway enrichment analysis, the statistical correlations, and biological relationships using network visualization. We found that the FOS group significantly regulated the composition and metabolism of gut microbiota. The co-metabolism network showed that 3 metabolites were related to 6 differential bacteria and 8 metabolism pathways. These findings suggest that dietary fiber could regulate the composition of gut microbiota and its metabolites in a better direction, but when dietary fiber participates in precision nutrition formula, it may be relevant for precision obesity, may help identify windows of opportunity for the dietary intervention of childhood obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: childhood trauma; major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; sex difference; age
Online: 31 May 2022 (03:39:57 CEST)
Background. We investigated, for the first time, whether there are any sex differences in retrospective self-reported childhood maltreatment (CM) in Italian adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Furthermore, the potential impacts of patients’ age on the CM self-report was investigated. Methods. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used the data documented in the electronic medical records of patients who were hospitalized for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation program. The CM was assessed using the 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which evaluates emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect. The linear and logistic regression models were used (α = 0.01). Results. Three hundred thirty five patients with MDD (255 women and 80 men) and 168 with BD (97 women and 71 men) were included. In both samples, considerable CM rates were identified, but no statistically significant sex differences were detected in the variety of CTQ-based CM aspects. There was a significant association, with no sex differences, between the increasing patients’ age and a decreasing burden of CM. Conclusion. Both women and men with MDD or BD experienced a similar and considerable CM burden. Our findings support the routine CM assessment in psychiatric clinical practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: virtual reality; autism spectrum disorder; education; intervention; childhood and adolescence
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:17:12 CET)
Virtual reality (VR) technology gains theoretical support from rehabilitation and pedagogical theories and offers a variety of capabilities in educational and interventional contexts with affordable products. VR is attracting increasing attention in the medical and healthcare industry as it provides fully interactive three-dimensional simulations of real-world settings and social situations, which are particularly suitable for cognitive and performance training including social and interaction skills. The worldwide rising trend in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder calls for innovative and efficacious techniques for assessment and treatment. The article offers a summary of current perspectives and evidence-based applications of VR technology as an educational and intervention tool for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, with a primary focus on social communication including social functioning, emotion recognition, and speech and language. Technology- and design-related limitations as well as the disputes over the application of virtual reality to autism research and therapy are discussed and future directions of this emerging field are highlighted with regards to application expansion and improvement, technology enhancement, and the development of brain-based research and theoretical models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0669.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Antenatal depression; Adverse childhood experiences; intimate partner violence; social support
Online: 26 March 2021 (14:18:14 CET)
Background: Few studies examined the contributions of childhood adversities, intimate partner violence and social support to antenatal depression (AD). This study aims to 1) evaluate association of these psychosocial factors with AD symptoms in early pregnancy; and 2) examine the mediating effect of social support on the relationship between psychosocial stressors and AD symptoms.Methods: Participants were 120 pregnant women aged from 18 to 49 in less than 16 gestational weeks and attending at Antenatal Care Center at Khon Kaen hospital, Thailand. AD symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Childhood adversities, intimate partner violence and social support were measured using the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire (ACE questionnaire), Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Results: We found that the EPDS score was significantly and positively associated with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and negatively with social support. Partial Least Square analysis showed that 49.1% of the variance in the depressive subdomain of the EPDS score was predicted by ACEs, namely psychological and physical abuse and neglect, emotional or physical abuse by the partner, unplanned pregnancy, and no satisfaction with their relationship. The effects of adverse childhood experience due to neglect on the EDPS score was mediated by social support by friends. Limitations: ACEs were assessed retrospectively and, therefore, may be susceptible to recall bias.Conclusion: Prenatal depression scores are to a large extent predicted by psychological distress as indicated by early lifetime trauma, abuse by partner, relation satisfaction, and implications of unintended pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0562.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: ICT; digital competence; innovative education; primary education; early childhood education
Online: 23 March 2021 (10:40:16 CET)
Digital Educational Recourses (DER) have undergone a rapid evolution and integration into the educational contexts. Teachers play a fundamental role in incorporating technology into their classrooms, so it is important to identify the value that teachers on DER and reflect on the implications for their practice. Through the qualitative methodology the necessary data is obtained with open-response inter-views with teachers. This dataset was analysed and categorised using AQUAD. The results suggest that teachers acknowledge the importance of integrating digital re-sources into their classrooms, although there was no consensus regarding the appropriate level at which to do so. Further the inter-views revealed that younger teachers tend to use more self-elaborated or selected resources. Teachers noted the benefits of using technology, especially in regard to maintaining student motivation, how-ever they also highlighted a number of extrinsic challenges and limitations. The results indicate there is a relationship between teachers’ perceptions and their practice, although this could be improved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Opioid; CELF-P; Language; Early Childhood; Methadone; Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
Online: 8 March 2021 (15:58:21 CET)
Increasing evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to opioids can adversely influence brain development, yet, limited data exists on the effects of opioid-exposure on preschool language development. Our study aimed to characterize the nature and prevalence of language problems in children prenatally exposed to opioids, and the factors that support or hinder language acquisition. A sample of 100 children born to pregnant women in methadone maintenance treatment and 110 randomly identified non-exposed children were studied from birth to age 4.5 years. At 4.5 years, 89 opioid-exposed and 103 non-exposed children completed the preschool version of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF-P) as part of a comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessment. Children prenatally exposed to opioid had poorer receptive and expressive language outcomes at age 4.5 years compared to non-exposed children. After adjustment for child sex, maternal education, other pregnancy substance use, maternal pregnancy nutrition and prenatal depression, opioid exposure remained a significant independent predictor of children’s total CELF-P language score. Examination of a range of potential intervening factors showed that a composite measure of the quality of parenting and home environment at 18 months and early childhood education participation at 4.5 years were important positive mediators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: nutrition; brain; neurodevelopment; childhood; gut-brain axis; psychobiotics; macronutrients, micronutrients.
Online: 16 December 2020 (13:52:17 CET)
Proper nutrition is crucial for normal brain and neurocognitive development. Failure to optimize neurodevelopment early in life can have profound long-term implications for both mental health and quality of life. Although the first 1000 days of life represent the most critical period of neurodevelopment, the central and peripheral nervous systems continue to develop and change throughout life. All this time, development and functioning depend on many factors, including adequate nutrition. In this review, we outline the role of nutrients in cognitive, emotional, and neural development in infants and young children with special attention to the emerging roles of polar lipids and high quality (available) protein. Furthermore, we discuss the dynamic nature of the gut-brain axis and the importance of microbial diversity in relation to a variety of outcomes, including brain maturation/function and behavior are discussed. Finally, the promising therapeutic potential of psychobiotics to modify gut microbial ecology in order to improve mental well-being is presented. Here we show that the individual contribution of nutrients, their interaction with other micro-and macronutrients, and the way in which they are organized in the food matrix are of crucial importance for normal neurocognitive development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: childhood trauma; stressful life events; sleep patterns; anxiety; depression; adolescence
Online: 27 May 2019 (12:36:54 CEST)
Adolescence is a critical developmental period associated with an increase in stress, the appearance of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and changes in sleep patterns. Even though the disruption of sleep patterns in stress and anxiety and depressive disorders is well known, the independent effects of childhood trauma and stressful life events on sleep patterns are less understood. We tested the independent effects of stress (childhood trauma and stressful life events) while controlling for anxiety and depression on adolescent sleep patterns. Seven hundred fifty-two adolescents completed self-report questionnaires about childhood trauma, stressful life events, anxiety, and depression. Four sleep factors identifying movement during sleep, sleep regularity, sleep disturbances and sleep pressure were extracted in the principal component analysis of sleep questions. Both childhood trauma and recent stressful life events were significantly associated with sleep disturbances before and after controlling for anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0146.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: early childhood caries; mouth pain; malnutrition; ecuador; community-based intervention
Online: 24 April 2017 (05:43:03 CEST)
Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1,407 children from birth through age 6 in the “Alli Kiru” program (2011-2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for underweight (AOR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.54) and decreased odds for overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58 – 0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3-6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children’s risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: young children; early childhood; digital; wellbeing; review; definition; measurement; contributor; intervention.
Online: 30 December 2022 (04:29:30 CET)
Digital wellbeing concerns the balance and health we may experience in digital use, and the existing studies have focused on adolescents and adults. However, young children are more vulnerable to digital overuse and addiction than adults; thus, their digital wellbeing deserves empirical exploration. This scoping review synthesized and evaluated 35 collected studies on young children’s digital use and their wellbeing that were published until October of 2022 to understand the definitions, measurements, contributors, and interventions. The synthesis of evidence revealed that: (1) there was no consensus about its definition; (2) there were no effective measurements of young children’s digital wellbeing; (3) both child factors (duration and place of digital use, child demographic characteristics) and parent factors (digital use, parental perception, and mediation) contribute to young children’s wellbeing; and (4) there were some effective applications and interventions. This review contributes to the theoretical development by mapping the existing work on young children's digital wellbeing, proposing a model, and identifying the research gaps for future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: executive function; early childhood; fNIRS; working memory; cognitive shifting; inhibitory control
Online: 28 October 2022 (07:02:39 CEST)
This study examined the relationship among the three domains of executive function (EF; cognitive shifting, inhibitory control, and working memory) to test the applicability of the unity-diversity model in preschoolers using both behavioral and fNIRS approaches. Altogether 58 Chinese preschoolers (34 boys, 24 girls, Mage = 5.86 years, SD = 0.53, Age range = 4.83-6.67 years) were administered the Dimensional Card Change Sort (DCCS), go/no-go, and missing scan task. Their brain activations in the prefrontal cortex during the tasks were examined using fNIRS. First, the behavioral results indicated that the missing scan task scores (working memory) correlated with the DCCS (cognitive shifting) and go/no-go tasks (inhibitory control). But the latter two did not correlate with each other. Second, the fNIRS results demonstrated that the prefrontal activations during the working memory task correlated with those in the same regions during the cognitive shifting and inhibitory control tasks. Still, the latter two did not correlate. The behavioral and neuroimaging evidence jointly indicates that the unity-diversity model of EF does apply to Chinese preschoolers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0149.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: organotin(IV) dithiocarbamate; childhood leukemia; antileukemia activity; anticancer potential; inhibitory effects
Online: 11 May 2022 (08:27:20 CEST)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of leukemia affecting children under the age of 15 years old in Malaysia. Chemotherapy is the primary treatment for cancer, which involves the intake of chemotherapeutic drugs to kill cancer cells. Glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone are chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of ALL. Although dexamethasone is highly effective, it is also associated with adverse effects such as bone fractures and organ toxicity. Therefore, there is a need to develop a new anticancer drug which milder side effects and better efficacy. Organometallic compounds such as organotin have a high potential to be developed as an antineoplastic agent and show high specificity towards cancer cells compared to normal cells. This study is done to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of diphenyltin(IV) diisopropyl dithiocarbamate (DPDT) against leukemic cells CCL-119 using the Trypan Blue exclusion (TBE) method at the intervals of 24, 48 and 72 h. Dexamethasone was used as a positive control. The cell’s morphological changes were observed at 12, 24 and 48 h using the IC50 values obtained using TBE assay. Results show that DPDT has a lower IC50 value than dexamethasone against CCL-119 cells at 24 h with a value of 4.16 ± 0.44µM and a selectivity index of 2.02. Dexamethasone exhibited cytotoxic effects against CCL-119 but only IC25 and IC10 values were obtained. Cytotoxicity testing has shown that DPDT is toxic on CCL-119 cells with IC50 values of less than 10µM. Morphological changes in cells show characteristics of apoptosis such as cell shrinkage, blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies. In conclusion, DPDT has the potential to be made into an antineoplastic agent but requires a more detailed study involving the molecular pathway of DPDT leading to cell death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0129.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: unintentional childhood injuries; first aid; health seeking, community survey injuries; India
Online: 3 September 2018 (11:41:16 CEST)
Background: There is lack of data on types of community first aids use and treatment given post injuries from many low-middle income countries, including India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children up-to 18 years of age, in Ujjain district, India to understand types of first aid given and health seeking post injury. Results: A total of 1087 injuries, in 1049 children were identified in last one year, 729 (67%) received, first aid and 758 (72%) sought some healthcare. Children with burns received most (86%) first aid, while most children (84%) with road traffic accidents (RTA) sought health care. Most children (52%) sought healthcare from a private health set-up; most (65%) being transported within the golden hour; motorbikes being the most preferred (50%) mode of transport. Only 1% injured used ambulance services. Commonly reported first aid included: use of coconut oil on wounds from falls (38%) and burns (44%); antiseptic cream on wounds from RTA (31%), turmeric in falls (16%), and rubbing of metal on a bitten site (47%). Potentially harmful substances applied included lime, toothpaste, clay and mud. Conclusion: In most injuries, appropriate locally available substances, were used by the community. Our findings will help design community interventions to increase appropriate first aid in childhood injuries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0416.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Early Childhood Education; Mongolia; Father Involvement; Health Determinants; Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:57:34 CEST)
This study explored father involvement as a social determinant of child health within the context of macro-environmental changes in Mongolia. Using data for children aged 3-4 from UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, this cross-sectional analysis examined the association between father presence and engagement with child health and educational outcomes. Multivariate regression modeling was employed to identify associations between father presence, engagement, and child outcomes including fever, respiratory illness, diarrhea and preschool attendance. In unadjusted analyses, father engagement was associated with higher odds of pre-school attendance (OR=1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.20) but not with child illness (OR=1.04; 95% CI 0.95-1.14). Father engagement was no longer associated with pre-school attendance after controlling for potentially confounding variables (ORadj = 0.95; 95% CI 0.88-1.03). Unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed that father presence was not associated with acute illness or preschool attendance. Results also suggest that a larger proportion of children were engaged in activities by their mother compared to their father or other adults. Data indicate that father presence and engagement were not associated with child illness or pre-school attendance. Factors such as maternal education, household wealth, and region of residence are stronger predictors of preschool attendance and should continue to be considered for promoting child health and development in Mongolia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: care; neglected childhood; charity; philanthropy; newspaper publications; monarchy; First Republic; Faial; Portugal
Online: 2 October 2019 (09:29:10 CEST)
The aim of this article is to understand the symbolic representations of the assistance strategies aimed at disabled children, expressed in two newspapers published on the island of Faial, in the Azores, in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries (covering the time horizon between the end of the monarchic period and the implementation of the First Republic). The technique of documentary analysis and a subsequent qualitative thematic content analysis of childcare news collected in two local newspapers was used. The discursive records produced by the press on the assistance strategies value, on the one hand, an axiological dimension and forms of charitable intervention and, on the other hand, aggregate and reconcile the discourses and techniques inherent to charitable and philanthropic models. This mutual assimilation underlies the achievement of the same objective: the moralisation and integration of invalid childhood and, above all, the protection of the existing social order. We conclude that, perhaps contrary to what would be expected, the charitable logic articulated in a concomitant way with the philanthropic logic survived even with the stabilization of the republican period (result of a revolution that deposed the regime of the constitutional monarchy and implemented the republican regime in 1910 in Portugal whose political elites mobilized an official discourse that advocated the separation between the State and Religion, assigning the State the function of social assistance for children and youth). This demonstrates a certain dissociation, as well as a relative autonomy of conceptions about child and youth care between republican political ideology and current social practices at least in this specific context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dietary patterns; tracking; stability; longitudinal change; generalized estimating equations; childhood; adolescence; adulthood
Online: 20 June 2017 (09:00:37 CEST)
Dietary patterns established during adolescence might play a role in adulthood disease. We examined the stability of dietary patterns (DPs) from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood (from age 8 to 34 years). Data from 130 participants (53 females) of Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (aged 8-15 years, at baseline) were included. Multiple 24-hour recalls were collected annually from 1991 to 1997, 2002 to 2005 and 2010 and 2011. Using principal component analysis, “Vegetarian-style”, “Western-like”, “High-fat, high-protein”, “Mixed” and “Snack” DPs were derived at baseline. Applied DP scores for all annual measurements were calculated using factor loading of baseline DPs and energy-adjusted food group intakes. We analyzed data using generalized estimating equations. The tracking coefficient represents correlation between baseline dietary pattern scores and all other follow-up dietary pattern scores. We found a moderate tracking for the “Vegetarian-style” (ß=0.44, P<0.001) and “High-fat, high-protein” (ß=0.39, P<0.001) DPs in females and “Vegetarian-style” DP (ß=0.30, P<0.001) in males. Remaining DPs showed a poor-to-fair tracking in both sexes. No tracking for “Western-like” DP in females was observed. Assessing overall change in DP scores from childhood to young adulthood showed an increasing trend in adherence to “Vegetarian-style” DP and decreasing trend in adherence to “High-fat, high-protein” DP by age in both sexes (P<0.001). While “Western-like” and “Mixed” DP scores increased only in males (P<0.001). These findings suggest that healthy dietary habits established during childhood and adolescence moderately continue into adulthood.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1504.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Diabetes; pre-diabetes; early childhood dental caries; refined sugar; dietary counseling; Sri Lanka
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:42:40 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus and dental caries (tooth decay) are not only common Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) contributing to high burden of diseases but costly diseases to manage. Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of mortality and reduced life expectancy across the globe. Early child hood dental caries (ECC) denotes a common chronic childhood disease and cariogenic dietary patterns dominated by refined sugar is one of the main causative factors. Thus, high burden of ECC could be a proxy indicator of excessive refined sugar consumption of a child. If such unhealthy dietary patterns are continued through to adolescent to adulthood, there is a high probability of an individual becoming a diabetic. Therefore, it is rational to argue high ECC burden in a country could be an indicator of future burden of diabetes. Moreover, ECC provides a critical period and a window of opportunity across life-course perspective, to intervene with cariogenic dietary patterns underpinned by common risk factor approach. This could be achieved by tailored dietary counseling for parental care givers of children with ECC. A healthy dietary pattern fostered in the childhood, most probably would continue to adulthood which may become beneficial in reducing the incidence of diabetes. Against this backdrop, we provide a perspective from Sri Lanka: a lower-middle-income country (LMIC) which records the highest prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in south Asia. Our perspective will provide novel insights and innovative ideas into prevention and control of diabetes burden in LMICs, harnessing the potential of preventive dentistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0186.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: adverse childhood experiences; social information processing; behavior problems; Preschool; Social skills; externalizing problems; trauma
Online: 27 February 2018 (16:47:48 CET)
Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) has been found to have a profound negative impact on multiple child outcomes, including academic achievement, social cognition patterns, and behavioral adjustment. However, these links have yet to be examined in preschool children that are already experiencing behavior or social-emotional problems. Thus, the present study examined the links between the caregiver's and the child's exposure to ACE and multiple child and caregiver's outcomes in a sample of 30 preschool children enrolled in a Therapeutic Nursery Program (TNP). Children are typically referred to this TNP due to significant delays in their social emotional development that often result in difficulty functioning in typical childcare, home, and community settings. Analyses revealed some contradictory patterns that may be specific to this clinical sample. Children with higher exposure to ACE showed more biased social information processing patterns and their caregivers reported lower child social skills than caregivers of children with less exposure, however their inhibitory control levels were higher (better control) and staff reported that these children exhibited better social skills as well as better approaches to learning than children with less exposure. No such contradictions were found in relation to the caregiver's exposure to ACE, as it was positively associated with a number of negative child and caregiver outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1632.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: asthma management behavior; pediatric asthma; childhood asthma management; caregivers; wheezing; asthma triggers; inhaler; rural communities; and Nigeria
Online: 23 May 2023 (09:43:56 CEST)
Background: Caregivers of asthmatic children have poor knowledge of proper asthma man-agement practices in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors of caregivers in the management of asthma in children under age 5 in Oyo State, Nigeria, using the Health Belief Model. Methods: While a mixed method was used in the original research, this brief describes the quantitative method used in this study to evaluate caregiver’s asthma management practices A 55-item questionnaire investigating childhood asthma knowledge, attitude, and practice was administered during child welfare clinic visits to 118 caregivers. To gain insights into caregivers’ beliefs about asthma management practice behavior, focus group discussions were conducted among two groups of 10 caregivers. Data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Version 25.0. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 and 95% CI. Result: More than 70% of caregivers knew that asthma is associated with airway inflammation and about 90% knew that Flu infections triggered asthma attacks in their children. Overall, 70% of caregivers from the focus group discussions found preventive measures including avoidance of common triggers like dust and smoke, wearing warm clothes in cold weather, environmental sanitation, regular visits to the clinic, and medication adherence helpful. Similarly, caregivers reported the use of quick-to-relieve OTC drugs rather than seeking medical attention. Caregivers with higher income (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.558-5.778; P = 0.001) were 3.0 times more likely to practice proper asthma behavior than those with a lesser income. Conclusion: Despite having moderate knowledge of asthma, caregivers of asthmatic children had wrong perceptions and inadequate knowledge about preventive and treatment options. An optimal public health approach is needed to identify and target underserved communities that suffer poorer asthma outcomes and improve caregivers’ knowledge and skills in asthma management practices. The need to pay more attention to the proper management of childhood asthma among caregivers in underserved populations cannot be overemphasized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0463.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Early childhood education; play and learning; educational transitions; educational setting; research with children; visual methodologies; qualitative research
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:03:38 CET)
Based on a reflection on the tensions between play, education, and learning in early childhood, this article aims to identify and analyze the factors that limit or negatively condition the possibilities for play at school during the transition between Early Childhood Education and Primary Education in Chile. The study was conducted in four Chilean schools, with the Transition Levels of Chilean Early Childhood Education (children aged 4 and 5) and the first two levels of Primary Education (children aged 6 and 7). Based on an ethnographic approach, we combined 22 ethnographic observation days spread over two consecutive years and 59 interviews of various types with children, educators, and parents. The results show structural-material limitations on school play that mainly affect children in Primary Education. Beyond, factors associated with routines, indications, and statements governing functioning and participation in this level tend to limit or prevent play, often considered a "non-legitimate" activity. Conclusions highlight the potentialities that children's restricted or resisted play can present in terms of learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: childhood malnutrition; community-based management of acute malnutrition–CMAM; moderate acute malnutrition–MAM; supplementary feeding programs–SFP; Zambia
Online: 1 June 2018 (12:04:50 CEST)
Background: Evaluation of nutrition programs is essential to guarantee the effectiveness of community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM). Methods: The Rainbow Project Supplementary Feeding Programs (SFPs) in Zambia were evaluated between years 2015-17, following implementation of new recommendations based on previous evaluations (years 2012-14). Outcomes of the program were compared with International Standards and with those of 2012-14. Cox proportional risk regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of mortality and defaulting. Results: Data for 900 under age 5 years malnourished children (48.8% male; mean age 19.7months ±9.9) were analyzed. Rainbow 2015-17 program outcomes met International Standards, for general malnutrition or stratified moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM). When comparing with 2012-14 outcomes, better performance was noted: mortality rates were reduced by half (5.6% vs 3.1%, p = 0.01; for SAM: 12.4% vs 6.7%, p = 0.006), with significant improvement in average weight gain and mean length of stay (p<0.001), and increased awareness of HIV status (+30%; p < 0.001). HIV infection (5.5; 1.9–15.9), WAZ < −3 at baseline (4.6; 1.3–16.1) and kwashiorkor (3.5; 1.2–9.5) remained the major predictors of mortality. Conclusion: The effectiveness of the Rainbow SFPs for child malnutrition treatment and prevention in Zambia has significantly improved after evaluation and implementation activities, with impressive outcomes which resulted in a 50% reduction in mortality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: microbiome; adverse childhood experiences (ACEs); gerobiotics, microimmunosome; healthspan; circadian rhythms; sleep disorders; noncommunicable diseases and conditions (NCDs); chronic disorders; early life programming
Online: 7 December 2021 (12:48:17 CET)
Adverse childhood experiences are known to program children for disrupted biological cycles, premature aging, microbiome dysbiosis, immune-inflammatory misregulation, and chronic disease multimorbidity. To date, the microbiome has not been a major focus of deprogramming efforts despite its emerging role in every aspect of ACE-related dysbiosis and dysfunction. This article examines: 1) the utility of incorporating microorganism-based, anti-aging approaches to combat ACE-programmed chronic diseases (also known as noncommunicable diseases and conditions, NCDs) and 2) microbiome regulation of core systems biology cycles that affect NCD comorbid risk. In this review microbiota influence over three key cyclic rhythms (circadian cycles, the sleep cycle, and the lifespan/longevity cycle) as well as tissue inflammation and oxidative stress are discussed as an opportunity to deprogram ACE-driven chronic disorders. Microbiota, particularly those in the gut, have been shown to affect host-microbe interactions regulating the circadian clock, sleep quality, as well as immune function/senescence and regulation of tissue inflammation. The microimmunosome is one of several systems biology targets of gut microbiota regulation. Furthermore, correcting misregulated inflammation and increased oxidative stress is key to protecting telomere length and lifespan/longevity and extending what has become known as the healthspan. This review article concludes that to reverse the tragedy of ACE-programmed NCDs and premature aging, managing the human holobiont microbiome should become a routine part of healthcare and preventative medicine across the life course.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Impacts; Nurturing Care; Early Childhood Development (ECD); Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health; Child Growth Development; Early Brain Development; Vulnerable Children and Families
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:54:37 CEST)
In Kenya, millions of children have limited access to nurturing care. With the COVID-19 pandemic, it is anticipated that vulnerable children will bear the biggest brunt of the direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic. This review aimed to deepen understanding of the effects of COVID-19 on nurturing care from conception to four years of age, a period where the care of children is often delivered through caregivers or other informal platforms. The review has drawn upon the empirical evidence from previous pandemics and epidemics, and anecdotal and emerging evidence from the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. Multifactorial impacts fall into five key domains: direct health; health and nutrition systems, economic, social and child protection, and child development and early learning. The review proposes program and policy strategies to guide the re-orientation of nurturing care, prevent the detrimental effects associated with deteriorating nurturing care environments, and support the optimal development of the youngest and most vulnerable children. These include the provision of cash transfers and essential supplies for vulnerable households, and strengthening of community-based platforms for nurturing care. Further research on COVID-19 and the ability of children’s ecology to provide nurturing care is needed, as is further testing of new ideas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0263.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Childhood experiences; Adolescent experiences; UAE; Women; Leadership de-velopment; Qualitative research; Semi-structured interviews; Document analysis; Diary writing; Family upbringing; Cultural values; Education; Societal expectations
Online: 12 April 2023 (08:45:33 CEST)
This research paper aimed to explore the impact of childhood and adolescent experiences on the leadership development of Emirati women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Using a qualitative research methodology, the study utilized in-depth narrative semi-structured interviews, document analysis, and diary writing to understand the complex issue of leadership development. Findings indicate that childhood and adolescent experiences, including family upbringing, education, culture, and societal expectations, have significant impacts on the leadership development of Emirati women. Specifically, family upbringing and cultural values shape Emirati women's leadership aspirations and behaviors, while education and societal expectations provide opportunities and barriers for women's leadership development. The implications of these findings for policymakers and practitioners seeking to promote women's leadership development in the UAE are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MCP-1; C-C motif chemokine ligand 2; CCL2; childhood asthma; bronchial asthma; severe asthma; cystic fibrosis; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Online: 23 April 2018 (09:00:00 CEST)
C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), also called monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a key β-chemokine involved in the migration of monocytes and macrophages, playing a significant role in the inflammatory responses in the airways. We aimed to assess the serum levels of MCP-1/CCL2 in a pilot cross-sectional study of Bulgarian children with bronchial asthma (BA) and cystic fibrosis (CF). Forty-two children were recruited to the study as follows: twenty with BA, twelve with CF and ten healthy children. Serum MCP-1/CCL2 levels were measured using ELISA. We found higher serum level of MCP-1/CCL2 in children with BA (191.09±64.96 pg/ml) and CF (258.51±76.45 pg/ml) compared to healthy children (70.30±64.30 pg/ml, p=0.022, and p=0.068, respectively). Younger patients with BA had higher levels of MCP-1/CCL2, as well as children with CF, with levels decreasing gradually with age. We observed also higher levels of MCP-1/CCL2 in children with moderate to severe BA compared to mild BA. We documented the significantly higher level of MCP-1/CCL2 in children with these chronic pulmonary diseases than in healthy controls, which suggesting that investigation of serum MCP-1/CCL2 levels could turn out to be beneficial for the severity of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0646.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Torg-Winchester Syndrome; Torg syndrome; MONA syndrome; Nodulosis-Arthropathy-Osteolysis syndrome; Al-Aqeel Sewairi Syndrome; Matrix Metalloproteinase 14; MMP2 gene mutations; Osteochondrodysplasia; genetic skeletal dysplasia; Frank-Ter Haar syndrome; Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis syndrome; Childhood osteoporosis.
Online: 26 May 2021 (15:02:22 CEST)
Objectives: Multicentric Osteolysis, Nodulosis, and Arthropathy (MONA) syndrome is a rare genetic skeletal dysplasia. Its diagnosis can be deceptively similar to childhood-onset genetic skeletal dysplasias and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We aimed to report the syndrome’s clinical and radiologic features with emphasis on skeletal manifestations. And establish relevant phenotype-genotype correlations. Methods: We evaluated two boys, 4-and-7-years-old with MONA syndrome. Both patients had consanguineous parents. We verified the diagnosis by correlating the outcomes of clinical, radiologic and molecular analysis. We specifically evaluated the craniofacial morphology and clinical and radiographic skeletal abnormalities. We contextualized the resultant phenotype-genotype correlations to publications on MONA and its differential diagnosis. Results: Skeletal manifestations were the presenting symptoms and mostly restricted to hands and feet in terms of fixed extension deformity of the metacarpophalangeal and flexion deformity of the interphalangeal joints with extension deformity of big toes. There were arthritic symptoms in the older patient especially of the wrists and minute pathologic fractures. The skeletal radiographs showed osteopenia/dysplastic changes of hands and feet. Both patients had variants in the matrix metalloproteinase2 gene which conformed to phenotype of previously reported literature in one patient while the other had a novel variant which conformed to MONA phenotype. Craniofacial abnormalities were present. However, minimal extra-skeletal manifestations. Conclusion: Overall, there is an emerging distinctive skeletal pattern of involvement in terms of both clinical and radiographic features. This includes age of onset and location of presenting skeletal manifestations, chronological order of joint affection, longitudinal disease progression, specifics of skeletal radiographic pathology and craniofacial features. Nevertheless, physicians are cautioned against differential diagnosis of similar genetic skeletal dysplasias and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.