ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0707.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: multiphoton lithography; crystalline; 3D nanostructures; ceramic; glass; additive manufacturing
Online: 28 December 2020 (15:44:19 CET)
The current paper is focused on the rapidly developing field of nano-/micro three-dimensional production of inorganic materials. The fabrication method includes laserlithography of hybrid organic-inorganic materials with subsequent heat treatment lead-ing to a variety of crystalline phases in 3D structures. In this work, it was examineda series of organometallic polymer precursors with different silicon (Si) and zirconium (Zr) molar ratios, ranging from 9:1 to 5:5, prepared via sol-gel method. All mixtureswere examined for perspective used in 3D laser by manufacturing by fabricating nano-and micro-feature sized structures. Their deformation and surface morphology wereevaluated depending on chemical composition and crystallographic phase. The appear-ance of a crystalline phase was proven using single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis,which revealed a lower crystallization temperature for microstructures compared tobulk materials. Fabricated 3D objects retain a complex geometry without any distortion after heat treatment up to 1400oC. Under the proper conditions, a zircon phase (ZrSiO4 - a highly stable material) can be observed. In addition, the highest newrecord of achieved resolution below 60 nm has been reached. The proposed prepara-tion protocol can be used to manufacture micro/nano-devices with high precision andresistance to high temperature and aggressive environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0409.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: additive manufacturing; graphene oxide; graphene-based paste; direct ink writing; ceramic nanocomposites
Online: 23 April 2020 (10:09:23 CEST)
In the present work, the state of the art of the most common additive manufacturing (AM) technologies used for the manufacturing of complex shape structures of graphene-based ceramic nanocomposites, ceramic and graphene-based parts is explained. A brief overview of the AM processes for ceramic, which are grouped by the type of feedstock used in each technology, is presented. The main technical factors that affect the quality of the final product were reviewed. The AM processes used for 3D printing of graphene-based materials are described in more detail; moreover, some studies in a wide range of applications related to these AM techniques are cited. Furthermore, different feedstock formulations and their corresponding rheological behaviour were explained. Additionally, the most important works about the fabrication of composites using graphene-based ceramic pastes by Direct Ink Writing (DIW) are disclosed in detail and illustrated with representative examples. Various examples of the most relevant approaches for the manufacturing of graphene-based ceramic nanocomposites by DIW are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0001.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: direct laser writing; ultrafast laser; 3D laser lithography; 3D printing; hybrid polymer; integrated microoptics; optical damage; photonics; pyrolysis; ceramic 3D structures
Online: 1 November 2016 (04:59:50 CET)
We introduce optically clear and resilient free-form micro-optical of pure (non-photosensitized) organic-inorganic SZ2080 material made by femtosecond 3D laser lithography (3DLL). This is advantageous for rapid printing of 3D micro-/nanooptics, including their integration directly onto optical fibers. A systematic study on the fabrication peculiarities and quality of resultant structures is performed. Comparison of microlenses’ resiliency to CW and femtosecond pulsed exposure is determined. Experimental results prove that pure SZ2080 is ∼3 fold more resistant to high irradiance as compared with a standard photo-sensitized material and can sustain up to 1.91 GW/cm2 intensity. 3DLL is a promising manufacturing approach for high-intensity micro-optics for emerging fields in astro-photonics and atto-second pulse generation. Additionally, pyrolysis is employed to shrink structures up to 40% by removing organic SZ2080 constituents. This opens a promising route towards downscaling photonic lattices and creation of mechanically robust glass-ceramic structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0057.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: additive manufacturing (AM); Functionally Graded Materials (FGM); Thermoplastic 3D-Printing (T3DP; ceramics; ceramic-based 4D-components; zirconia; graded microstructure
Online: 10 October 2017 (03:21:04 CEST)
In our study we investigated the additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramic-based Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) by the direct AM technology Thermoplastic 3D-Printing (T3DP). Zirconia components with a varying microstructure were additively manufactured by using thermoplastic suspensions with different contents of pore forming agents (PFA) and were co-sintered defect-free. Different materials were investigated concerning their suitability as PFA for the T3DP process. Different zirconia-based suspensions were prepared and used for AM of single- and multi-material test components. All samples were sintered defect-free and in the end we could realize a brick wall-like component consisting of dense (<1% porosity) and porous (approx. 5% porosity) zirconia areas to combine different properties in one component. The T3DP opens the door to AM of further ceramic-based 4D-components like multi-color or multi-material, especially multi-functional components.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0296.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: CAD/CAM; dental restoration; ceramic; all-ceramic; survival; fixed dental prosthesis
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:18:51 CEST)
Although CAD/CAM ceramics present a promising alternative to metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses, little is known about their mid- and long-term clinical performance. This systematic review aims to estimate the survival and success rates and describes the underlying complication characteristics for CAD/CAM tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). We systematically searched MEDLINE and Web of Science to find relevant prospective studies with a follow-up of at least one year. We estimated pooled 1-, 5- and 10-year survival and success rates by combining the collected data in a Poisson regression model. Descriptive statistics were conducted to evaluate the distribution of failures and complications in the included studies. Risk of bias for the included studies was assessed with an adapted checklist for single-arm trials. Pooled estimated 1-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates ranged from 93.80% to 94.66%, 89.67% to 91.1%, and 79.33% to 82.20%, respectively. The corresponding success rates, excluding failures but including any other types of intervention, were 94.53% to 96.77%, 90.89% to 94.62%, and 81.78% to 89.25%. Secondary caries was the most frequent cause of failure, followed by chipping of the veneering. The most common cause of complication, excluding failures but requiring intervention, was chipping of the veneering. Risk of bias was generally acceptable for the included studies, with 7 studies associated with low risk of bias, 8 studies with a moderate risk of bias, and 3 studies with serious risk of bias. The current meta-analysis on CAD/CAM supported FDPs revealed satisfying survival and success rates for up to 10 years of exposure. More prospective studies focusing on long-term performance are needed to strengthen the evidence currently available in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0295.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Gas sensor; Jarosite; Manganite; Composite ceramic; Gas adsorption.
Online: 17 January 2023 (06:08:41 CET)
This report aimed to know the performance of local mineral-based composite ceramic. The materials used consist of Indonesian local minerals, which are jarosite and manganite minerals as sources of oxide iron and Mangan. The materials were synthesized using the precipitation method, whereas composite ceramic was fabricated using a screen printing method and fired at 600 oC using a furnace. The results of the characterizations indicate that the sample forms three phases on diffraction peaks. The differences in the resistance values in ambient and ethanol environments indicate that the sample has very different responses. The high porosity of the sample greatly support the gas adsorption process. Thus, the sample has a high level of sensitivity. With the above characteristics, the composite ceramic which was fabricated has the potential to be applied to gas sensors, especially ethanol gas sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0035.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: irrigation management, fertigation, TDR probe, ceramic extractors, salinity.
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:25:12 CET)
In precision agriculture in fertigated crops it is necessary to optimize the use of water and chemicals, and enable efficient application of fertilizers in order to ensure the best yield and avoid risks of soil salinization and contamination. In this study, an intelligent system was developed with the objective of monitoring, in real-time, moisture and solute concentrations in soil cultivated with lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum, var. Casablanca) fertigated under a protected environment. During one crop cycle, moisture was monitored in soil solution using TDR100 reflectometer and solute concentrations were monitored with ceramic cup extractors. Plants were fertigated with a solution containing five potassium concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg dm-3) applied when the soil reached moisture limits of 0.20, 0.15, 0.13, 0.11, and 0.09 cm3 cm-3. Experimental plots were arranged in a randomized block design in a 5 x 5 factorial scheme (moisture limits x potassium concentrations in soil solution), with four replicates. The proposed intelligent system enabled precise monitoring of moisture and electrical conductivity by TDR, and potassium, and other solute concentrations with extractors, being indicated for the management of lisianthus fertigation under greenhouse conditions with greater environmental safety and reduction of water consumption and risk of salinization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0052.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: metal-ceramic; microwave sintering; susceptor; phase modulation; nanostructures
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:42:02 CET)
This study provides a novel method to prepare metal-ceramic composites from magnetically selected iron ore using microwave heating. By introducing three different microwave susceptors (Activated Carbon, SiC, and a mixture of Activated Carbon and SiC) during the microwave process, effective control of the ratio of metallic and ceramic phases has been achieved easily. The effects of the three susceptors on the microstructure of the metal-ceramics and the related reaction mechanisms were also investigated in detail. The results show that the metal phase (Fe) and ceramic phase (Fe2SiO4, FeAl2O4) can be maintained, but the metal phase to ceramic phase changed significantly. In particular, the microstructures appeared as well-distributed nanosheet structures with diameters of ~400 nm and thicknesses of ~20 nm when SiC was used as the microwave susceptor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: ceramic membrane; combination process; microfiltration; optimization; recovery efficiency
Online: 3 February 2020 (03:58:04 CET)
The aim of this study is to evaluate the optimal conditions of membrane filtration process. Both laboratory test and pilot-scale test were conducted to examine a treated water on blending water. The water sample were prepared by blending a raw water and the effluent water filtered through an organic membrane. The optimal efficiency in the treatment of water quality at the lab-scale test was generated under conditions of flux at 2.0 m3/m2∙day, the blending ratio of 4:1, and the optimal dosage of coagulant at 20 ppm. The pilot-scale test resulted in that the optimal efficiency was obtained under conditions of flux at 2.0 m3/m2∙day and the blending ratio of 6.0:1. However, the different results between lab-scale and pilot-scale tests on the optimal dosage of coagulant implied that it is difficult to achieve the stable condition of process operation at the low level of coagulant. In summary, the results indicated that, in the combination process of organic membrane and ceramic membrane, the recovery efficiency was achieved above the level of 98.4 %. Compared to 92.1 % in a single organic membrane process, the combination process is 6.3 % more efficient than the single one. This combination process of water treatment lead to stable recovery rates by the optimal input of dosage, less pollution load to water, and a stabilized filtration system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0010.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: sustainability; competitive advantage, Sassuolo tile ceramic district; Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA); Italian ceramic industry; meso-economic level; interpretative method
Online: 13 June 2018 (09:49:25 CEST)
Talking about sustainable development refers mainly to the environmental sphere, but the concept is much broader and also takes into account the social and economic conditions. The concept of sustainability, in this sense, is linked to the compatibility between the development of economic activities, the related social phenomena, and the protection of the environment. Therefore, the ability to balance social, economic and environmental sustainability is the very meaning of the concept of sustainable development. Firms that choose to develop policies and strategies to enhance and pursue sustainable development in the medium to long term have the burden of having to quantitatively document the improvements in production processes with the aim of sustainable development. As a result, one of the biggest challenges for European industry is to introduce sustainability principles into business models leading to competitive advantage. This is particularly important in raw material and energy intensive manufacturing sectors such as the ceramic industry. The present state of knowledge lacks a comprehensive operational tool for industry to support decision-making processes geared towards sustainability. In the ceramic sector, the economic and social dimensions of the product and processes have not yet been given sufficient importance. Moreover, the traditional research on industrial districts lacks an analysis of the relations between firms and the territory with a view to sustainability. Finally, the attention of scholars in the field of economic and social sustainability, has not yet turned to the analysis of the Sassuolo district. Therefore, in this paper we introduce the Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), as a method that can be a suitable tool to fill this gap, because through a mathematical model it is possible to obtain the information useful for decision makers to integrate the principles of sustainability both at the microeconomic level in enterprises, and at the meso-economic level for the definition of economic policies and territorial governance. Environmental and socio-economic analysis was performed from the extraction of raw materials to the packaging of the product on different product categories manufactured by the Italian ceramic industries of the Sassuolo district (northern Italy). For the first time the LCSA model, usually applied to unitary processes, is extended to the economic and industrial activities of the entire district, extending the prospect of investigation from the enterprise and its value chain to the integrated network of district enterprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0757.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: Acoustic emission, ceramic matrix composites, matrix cracking, fiber breakage
Online: 1 November 2018 (17:58:48 CET)
Acoustic emission (AE) has proven to be a very useful technique for determining damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). CMCs rely on various cracking mechanisms which enable non-linear stress-strain behavior with ultimate failure of the composite due to fiber failure. Since these damage mechanisms are all micro-fracture mechanisms, they emit stress waves ideal for AE monitoring. These are typically plate waves since for most specimens or applications one dimension is significantly smaller than the wavelength of the sound waves emitted. By utilizing the information of the sound waveforms captured on multiple channels from individual events, the location and identity of the sources can often be elucidated. The keys to the technique are the use of wide-band frequency sensors, digitization of the waveforms (modal AE), strategic placement of sensors to sort the data and acquire important contents of the waveforms pertinent for identification, and familiarity with the material as to the damage mechanisms occurring at prescribed points of the stress history. The AE information informs the damage progression in a unique way which adds to the understanding of the process of failure for these composites. The AE methodology was applied to composites tested in fatigue at different frequencies where identification of when and where AE occurred coupled with waveform analysis leads to source identification and failure progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0095.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: ceramic materials; composite structure; additive technologies; dynamic loading; transformation hardening
Online: 7 April 2020 (11:27:49 CEST)
This paper presents a physical and mathematical model that has been developed in the framework of the approach used in the computational mechanics of materials. The model is designed to enable the study of the patterns of deformation and fracture of ceramic composites with a transformation-hardened matrix that are obtained by additive technologies at the mesoscopic and macroscopic levels under intense dynamic loading. The influence of the loading rate on the formation of the fracture and energy dissipation fronts for composite materials, based on the Al2O3 20%ZrO2 system, is shown. Nonlinear effects under intense dynamic loading in the considered composites are associated with the processes of self-organization of structural fragments at the mesoscopic level, as well as the occurrence of martensitic phase transformations in matrix volumes adjacent to the strengthening particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: piezoelectric ceramic; piezo-composite actuator; unimorph; piezoelectric single crystal; LIPCA
Online: 18 March 2020 (02:58:14 CET)
Research on piezo-composite actuators has been actively conducted over the past two decades as a response to strong demand for light, compact actuators to replace electro-magnetic motor actuators in micro robots, small flying drones, and compact missile systems. Layered piezo-composite unimorph actuators have been studied to provide active vibration control of thin-walled aerospace structures, control the shapes of aircraft wing airfoils, and control the fins of small missiles, because they require less space and provide better frequency responses than conventional electro-magnetic motor actuator systems. However, based on the limited actuation strains of conventional piezo-composite unimorph actuators with poly-crystalline piezoelectric ceramic layers, they have not been implemented effectively as actuators for small aerospace vehicles. In this study, a lightweight piezo-composite unimorph actuator (LIPCA-S2) was manufactured and analyzed to predict its flexural actuation displacement. It was found that the actuated tip displacement of a piezo-composite cantilever could be predicted accurately using the proposed prediction model based on the nonlinear properties of the piezoelectric strain coefficient and elastic modulus of a piezoelectric single crystal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0003.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: selective laser sintering (SLS); porous ceramic; carbon additive; laser absorptivity
Online: 1 October 2017 (06:20:03 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of a freeform fabrication of porous ceramic parts through selective laser sintering (SLS). SLS was proposed to manufacture ceramic green parts because this additive manufacturing technique can be used to fabricate three-dimensional objects directly without a mold, and the technique has the capability of generating porous ceramics with controlled porosity. However, ceramic printing has yet fully achieved its 3D fabrication capabilities without using polymer binder. Except for the limitation of high melting point, brittleness and low thermal shock resistance from instinct ceramic material properties, the key hurdle lies on very poor absorptivity of oxide ceramics to fiber laser which is widely installed in the commercial SLS equipment. An alternative solution to overcome the poor laser absorptivity via improving material compositions was presented in this study. The positive effect of carbon additive on the absorptivity of silica powder to fiber laser will be discussed. To investigate the capabilities of the SLS process, 3D porous silica structures were successfully prepared and characterized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0008.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: titania; kaolin; carbon; sintering temperatures; phases developed; sintered ceramic composite
Online: 4 September 2017 (06:37:14 CEST)
The effects of the additives (silicon carbide and titania) and sintering temperatures on the phases developed, physical and mechanical properties of sintered mullite-carbon ceramic composite produced from kaolin and graphite was investigated. The kaolin and graphite of known mineralogical composition were thoroughly blended with 5 and 3 (vol.) % silicon carbide and titania respectively. From the homogeneous mixture of kaolin, graphite and titania, standard samples were prepared via uniaxial compaction. The test samples produced were subjected to firing (sintering) at 1300˚C, 1400˚C and 1500˚C. The sintered samples were characterized for the developed phases using x‐ray diffractometry analysis, microstructural morphology using ultra‐high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope (UHRFEGSEM). Various physical and mechanical properties were determined. It was observed that the addition of SiC/TiO2 additives to the samples made them to possess very low oxidation indices .This also resulted in improvement in the bulk densities and cold crushing strength of the sample when compared with those without additives. It was concluded that the addition of SiC/TiO2 additives improves on the high temperature oxidation resistance of the mullite-carbon ceramic composite sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: concrete blocks; life cycle assessment; sealing masonry; structural masonry; ceramic bricks
Online: 6 July 2021 (15:18:55 CEST)
The civil construction industry is one of the sectors that most consume natural resources in the world and, consequently, one of that generate more waste. Thinking about constructive techniques that generate less impact on the environment is vital to ensure sustainable development. In this scenario, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been presented as an internationally recognized approach, that assesses the potential impact of products and services on human health and the environment, throughout its entire life cycle. Aimed to identify construction techniques and vertical closing systems that generate less impact and consumption of natural resources, the impacts generated by the life cycle of the three vertical closing systems most applied in construction sites in Brazil were compared: ceramic brick masonry system (CBr); concrete block masonry system (CBk); and structural blocks masonry system (SBk). The SBk proved to be the least impacting to the “Resource Scarcity”, “Damage to Human Health”, and “Damage to the diversity of Ecosystems” interesting areas. This performance is directly related to the use of cement CPIII type and also by the fact that the SBk consumes less concrete and mortar than the others. Already the "Water Consumption" area, the CBk was the least impacting due to the lower consumption of electricity during its life cycle. The reliability of the results was proven through a sensitivity analysis of the normalization and characterization factors, which consisted of comparing the results obtained by applying two different methodologies. It is believed that the LCA study carried out can assist in the decision-making process regarding the choice of the most sustainable construction method.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0382.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: nickel-based superalloys; ceramic instruments; carbides; cubic boron nitride; cermet; SiAlON
Online: 17 May 2021 (11:05:19 CEST)
Nickel-based superalloys are attractive to many industrial sectors (automotive, military, energy, aerospace etc.). However, their physical properties make them difficult to machining using traditional tools. Therefore, the new materials for the machining of Ni-based alloys are required. Ceramic-based composites could act as a tool to replace the current materials. The incentives for this paper are to provide an overview of existing ceramic composites and draw some conclusions that will help in solving the problem of choosing materials for processing of Ni-based superalloys. Despite the diversity of ceramic composites in this work the focus was on the SiAlON ceramic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0503.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: oily wastewater; ceramic membrane; fouling mitigation; fouling resistance; periodic feed pressure technique
Online: 30 August 2022 (04:01:08 CEST)
Fouling represents a bottleneck problem for promoting the use of membranes in filtration and separation applications. It becomes even more persistent when it comes to the filtration of fluid emulsions. In this case, a gel-like layer that combines droplets, impurities, salts, and other materials form at the membrane's surface, blocking its pores. It is, therefore, a privilege to combat fouling by minimizing the accumulation of these droplets that work as seeds for other incoming droplets to cluster and coalesce with. In this work, we explore the use of the newly developed and novel periodic feed pressure technique (PFPT) in combating the fouling of ceramic membranes upon the filtration of oily water systems. The PFPT is based on alternating the applied transmembrane pressure (TMP) between the operating one and zero. A PFPT cycle is composed of a filtration half-cycle and a cleaning half-cycle. Permeation occurs when the TMP is set at its working value, while the cleaning occurs when it is zero. Three PFPT patterns were examined over two feeds of oily water systems with oil contents of 100 and 200ppm, respectively. The results show that the PFPT is very effective in minimizing the problem of fouling compared to a non-PFPT normal filtration. Furthermore, the overall drops in permeate flux during the cleaning half cycles are compensated by appreciable enhancement due to the significant elimination of fouling development such that the overall production of filtered water is even increased. Inspection of the internal surface of the membrane post rinsing at the end of the experiment proves that all PFPT cycles maintained the ceramic membranes as clean after a 2-hours operation. This can ensure a prolonged lifespan of the ceramic membrane use and a continuous greater permeate volume production. The advantage of the PFPT is that it can be implemented on existing units with minimal modification, ease of operation, and saving energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0089.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: ZnO; ceramic nanopowders; Segmented Flow Tubular Reactor (SFTR); Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)
Online: 14 April 2017 (12:11:50 CEST)
Nanopowders are continuously under investigation as they open new perspectives in numerous fields. There are two main challenges to stimulate their development: sufficient low-cost high throughput synthesis methods leading to a production with well-defined and reproducible properties, and for ceramics, conservation of their nanostructure after sintering. In this context, this paper presents the synthesis of a pure nanosized powder of ZnO (dv50 ~ 60 nm, easily redispersable) by using a continuous Segmented Flow Tubular Reactor (SFTR), which has previously shown its versatility and its robustness, ensuring a high powder quality and reproducibility over time. A higher scale of production can be achieved based on a “scale-out” concept by replicating the tubular reactors. The sinterability of ZnO nanopowders synthesized by the SFTR was studied, by natural sintering at 900 °C and 1100 °C, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) at 900 °C. The performances of the synthesized nanopowder were compared to a commercial ZnO nanopowder of high quality. The samples obtained from the synthesized nanopowder could not be densified at low temperature by traditional sintering, whereas SPS led to a fully dense material after only 5 minutes at 900 °C, while limiting the grain growth and thus leading to a nanostructured material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0381.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: double ceramic coating; arc aluminum plating; stress; protection mechanism; finite element sim-ulation
Online: 22 September 2021 (11:52:46 CEST)
To understand the enhanced protection mechanism of CoCrNiAlY-YSZ-LaMgAl11O19 dou-ble-layer ceramic coating with aluminum plating, a finite element simulation method was used to simulate the distribution of thermal stress in the coating in all directions. The results show that in the air exposure of the un-aluminized coating, high temperature causes a large radial thermal stress on the surface of the LaMgAl11O19 (LMA) layer, and it increases with the increase in temperature, which is the main reason for the initiation of axial cracks. After arc aluminum plating, the aluminum plating layer effectively inhibited the volume shrinkage of the coating through good adhesion to the coating and internal diffusion, the thermal stress of the coating was considerably reduced, and the CoCrNiAlY-YSZ-LMA coating had an effective enhancement and protection effect; however, there was still a certain amount of shear thermal stress inside the LMA layer, the top of the crack, and the bottom of the crack. This thermal stress caused the initi-ation of radial microcracks in the LMA layer, which also becomes a risk point for the failure of the aluminum coating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0227.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: First principles; Metal/ceramic interfaces; Al matrix composite; Adhesion energy; Transition element additions
Online: 9 December 2020 (13:37:55 CET)
In this work, effects of 20 transition element additives on the interfacial adhesion energy and electronic structure of Al (111)/6H-SiC (0001) interfaces have been studied by first principles method. For clean Al (111)/6H–SiC (0001) interfaces, both Si-terminated and C-terminated interfaces have covalent bond characteristics. The C-terminated interface has stronger binding energy, which is mainly due to the stronger covalent bond formed by the larger charge transfer between C and Al. The results show that the introduction of many transition elements, such as 3d transitional group Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and 4d transitional group Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, can improve the interfacial adhesion energy of the Si-terminated Al (111)/6H-SiC (0001) interface. However, for the C-terminated Al (111)/6H-SiC (0001) interface, only the addition of Co element can improve the interfacial adhesion energy. Bader charge analysis shows that the increase of interfacial binding energy is mainly attributed to more charge transfer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0295.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: dendritic polymers; ceramic compounds; biomimetic; nanomaterials; dendrimers; hyperbranched polymers; silica composites; hybrid materials
Online: 10 November 2020 (09:22:43 CET)
As the field of nanoscience is rapidly evolving, interest for novel, upgraded nanomaterials with combinatory features is also inevitably increasing. Hybrid composites, offer simple, budget-conscious and environmental-friendly solutions that can cater multiple needs at the same time and be applicable in many nanotechnology-related and interdisciplinary studies. The physicochemical idiocrasies of dendritic polymers have inspired their implementation as sorbents, active ingredient carriers and templates for complex composites. Ceramics are distinguished for their mechanical superiority and absorption potential that render them ideal substrates for separation and catalysis technologies. The integration of dendritic compounds to these inorganic hosts can be achieved through chemical attachment of the organic moiety onto functionalized surfaces, impregnation and absorption inside the pores, conventional sol-gel reactions or via biomimetic mediation of dendritic matrices, inducing the formation of usually spherical hybrid nanoparticles. Alternatively, dendritic polymers can propagate from ceramic scaffolds. All these variants are covered in detail. Optimization techniques as well as established and prospected applications are also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0143.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: recycled ceramic mortars, stress-strain of mortars, elasticity module of mortars, recycled ceramic aggregates, toughness of recycled mortars, resilience of recycled mortars, formulation of recycled mortar behavior by numerical simulation
Online: 28 November 2016 (17:47:31 CET)
The difficult current environmental situation, caused by construction industry residues containing ceramic materials could be improved by using these materials as recycled aggregates in mortars, with their processing causing a reduction in their use in landfill, contributing to recycling and also minimizing the consumption of virgin materials. Although some research is currently being carried out into recycled mortars, little is known about their stress-strain (σ-ε); therefore this work will provide the experimental results obtained from recycled mortars with recycled ceramic aggregates (with contents of 0, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100%), such as: the density, the compression strength, as well as the σ-ε curves representative of their behavior. The values obtained from the analysis process of the results are those of: σ (elastic ranges and failure maximum), ε (elastic ranges and failure maximum), and Resilience and Toughness; in order to finally obtain, through numerical analysis, the equations to predict their behavior (related to their recycled content). At the end of the investigation it is established that mortars with recycled ceramic aggregate contents of up to 20% could be assimilated just like mortars with the usual aggregates, and the prediction equations produced could be used in cases of similar applications.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0158.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Samsung Note 7 Li-ion, Thermal runaway, Ceramic coating, battery, Tomographic image, Welding characterisation
Online: 21 December 2017 (17:32:42 CET)
Li-ion cell designs, component integrity and manufacturing processes all have critical influence on the safety of Li-ion batteries. Any internal defective features that induce a short circuit, can trigger a thermal runaway: a cascade of reactions, leading to a device fire. As consumer device manufacturers push aggressively for increased battery energy, instances of field failure are increasingly reported. Notably Samsung made a press release in 2017 following a total product recall of their Galaxy Note 7 mobile phone, confirming speculation that the events were attributable to the battery and its mode of manufacture. Recent incidences of battery swelling on the new iPhone 8 have been reported in the media, and the techniques and lessons reported herein may have future relevance. Here we look deeper into the key components of one of these cells and confirm evidence of cracking of electrode material in tightly folded areas, combined with a delamination of surface coating on the separator, which itself is an unusually thin monolayer. We report microstructural information about the electrodes, battery welding attributes and thermal mapping of the battery whilst operational. The findings point to the most likely combination of events and highlights the impact of design features, whilst providing structural considerations most likely to have led to the reported incidences relating to this phone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0274.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: ceramic waste particles; unsaturated polyester resin; X-ray diffraction; water absorption; thermal degradation; curing process
Online: 20 December 2019 (11:08:27 CET)
In this study, the properties of unsaturated polyester resin were studied in the presence of recycled ceramic waste particles. Herein, composites were created that contained 28.5-50 wt% porcelain particles (particle size <180 µm). High filler contents increased the gel time and decreased the exotherm temperature of unsaturated polyester resin during curing. The obtained results showed that physical parameters, such as the resin density and porosity, increased as the filler content increased. In addition, the X-ray diffraction results indicated that the produced samples were a combination of ceramic waste particles and unsaturated polyester resin, resulting in semi crystalline structure. The results showed that the maximum water absorption at 40°C increased from 0.97 to 1.5% as the filler content increased from 28.5 to 50 wt%; in this process, the materials experienced a color change but did not lose mechanical performance. Finally, the samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to study the effect of porcelain powder on the thermal degradation of the resin. The TGA scans were analyzed with the Friedman method. The results indicated that the samples with porcelain powder exhibited substantially better thermal stability than unsaturated polyester resin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: electric field coupling; differential input structure; non-contact voltage measurement; multi-layer ceramic capacitor; transient response
Online: 13 October 2020 (15:41:01 CEST)
Traditional potential transformers have problems of large volume, difficulty in insulation, iron core saturation, ferroresonance overvoltage and poor transient response characteristics. The voltage sensor based on the principle of electric field coupling and differential input structure does not need to contact the measured object or ground, and can avoid the above problems. However, it requires a sufficiently high capacitance between the differential electrodes to obtain sufficient accuracy and a high voltage division ratio. The existing method of using mutual capacitance between the differential electrodes will cause many problems and fail to meet the practical needs. To solve the above problems, this paper innovatively uses multi-layer ceramic capacitor to replace the mutual capacitance and designs a new type of voltage sensor. In addition, by using single bypass small resistance grounding method to increase the input impedance of the differential signal processing circuit, error of the sensor is further reduced. The experimental results show that the sensor has excellent accuracy and great transient response characteristics. The ratio error under power frequency is within ±0.5% and the phase error is within 1. The ratio error in the range of 500 Hz∼30 kHz is within ±5% and the phase error is within 5. Moreover, it has the advantages of low cost, miniaturization, flexible shape and easy to adjust the voltage division ratio. These characteristics indicate that the sensor has good voltage measurement and sensor network potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0085.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: TCP-C2S, Nurse ´A ceramic, Biomaterials, adult human mesenchymal stem cells, Solid State Reaction, Biomedical applications.
Online: 14 March 2017 (13:43:13 CET)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity and cell response of a well-characterized Nurse´s A-phase (7CaO•P2O5•2SiO2) ceramic and his effect compared to a control (tissue culture polystyrene-TCPS) on the adhesion, viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of ahMSCs in vitro. Cell proliferation (Alamar Blue Assay), Alizarin Red-S (AR-s) staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) and collagen I (Col I) were evaluated. Also, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images were acquired in order to visualise the cells and the topography of the material. The proliferation of cells growing in a direct contact with the material was slower at early stages of the study because of the new environmental conditions. However, the entire surface was colonized after 28 days of culture in growth medium (GM). Osteoblastic differentiation markers were significantly enhanced in cells growing on Nurse´s A phase ceramic and cultured with osteogenic medium (OM), probably due to the role of silica to stimulate the differentiation of ahMSCs. Moreover, calcium nodules were formed under the influence of ceramic material. Therefore, it is predicted that Nurse´s A-phase ceramic would present high biocompatibility and osteoinductive properties being a good candidate to be used as a biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0200.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: artificial neural network; APS; cavitation erosion; ceramic coatings; multi-objectives optimization; wear; hardness; microstructure; alumina – titania; Al2O3-13%TiO2.
Online: 4 November 2020 (16:01:50 CET)
The study aims to elaborate a neural model and algorithm for optimising hardness and porosity of coatings and thus ensure that they have superior cavitation erosion resistance. Al2O3-13wt.%TiO2 ceramic coatings were deposited onto 316L stainless steel by atmospheric plasma spray (ASP). The coatings were prepared with different values of two spray process parameters: the stand-off distance and torch velocity. Microstructure, porosity and microhardness of the coatings were examined. Cavitation erosion tests were conducted in compliance with the ASTM G32 standard. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were employed to elaborate the model, and the multi-objectives genetic algorithm (MOGA) was used to optimise both properties and cavitation erosion resistance of the coatings. Results were analysed with Matlab software by Neural Network Toolbox and Global Optimization Toolbox. The fusion of artificial intelligence methods (ANN+MOGA) is essential for future selection of thermal spray process parameters, especially for the design of ceramic coatings with specified functional properties. Selection of these parameters is a multicriteria decision problem. The proposed method made it possible to find a Pareto front, i.e. trade-offs between several conflicting objectives – maximising the hardness and cavitation erosion resistance of Al2O3-13%TiO2 coatings and, at the same time, minimizing their porosity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0245.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: thermoremanent magnetization; fluxgate-sensor; selection of co-belonging ceramic fragments; vase reconstruction; vase surface grooves; vases with arbitrary rotational symmetry; archaeometry.
Online: 20 May 2019 (11:58:34 CEST)
Selection of co-belonging fragments from the numerous ceramic findings of an archaeological excavation remains a difficult process of questionable effectiveness, based exclusively on the experience and patience of the conservators. While the screening of the fragments is a central prerequisite and the most important stage of the process of vase reconstruction, established methods based on scientific criteria and guaranteed efficiency for the detection of co-belonging ceramic fragments suggested in the bibliography, do not exist. On the contrary, for methods dealing with the assembly of vases from co-belonging fragments, which is a secondary process that can be done more easily and effectively in an empirical way, there exist numerous studies based on fragment morphology. However, even these are also not implemented because of the time requirements, sheer volume and complexity of the proposed methods, in order for them to be applicable in practice. The proposed methods in this paper are based on thermoremanent magnetization (A/m), which is calculated from the weak magnetic field measurements by a fluxgate-sensor/magnet apparatus forming a three-dimensional orthogonal system. Experimental measurements from fragments of 6 vases show that the magnetization magnitude of co-belonging fragments display similar values, despite the magnetic anisotropy of the ceramic material, since these belong to vases that are made of the same clay and fired under the same conditions. This is the criterion for finding ceramic fragments of the same vase from archaeological excavations. The thermoremanent magnetism directionality of fragments, which is aligned along the geomagnetic field at the same place and time during the vase firing process, as it is configured by their rotational symmetry, defines the position of the fragments on the body of the 6 vases. The shape of the original vase can be reconstructed when only a few non adjacent fragments are available. The proposed measurement apparatus can be used for the construction of a useable portable magnetometer specialized for ceramic surface measurements to achieve the above objectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0275.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: alumina; Additive Manufacturing (AM); CerAMfacturing; vat photopolymerization (VPP); digi-tal light processing (DLP); Lithography-based Ceramic Manufacturing (LCM); cold-gas nozzle; aerospike nozzle
Online: 21 March 2022 (07:31:31 CET)
Advanced ceramics are recognized as key enabling materials possessing combinations of properties not achievable in other material classes. They are characterized by very high thermal, chemical and mechanical resistance and also usually have a lower density than metals. These properties predestine ceramics for many different applications, especially space applications.In the aerospace sector aerospike nozzles promise performance and application advantages compared to classic bell nozzles but are also inherently more complex to manufacture due to their shape. AM methods drastically simplify or even enable the fabrication of those complex structures while minimising the number of individual parts. The applicability of ceramic AM (“CerAMfacturing”) on rocket engines and especially nozzles is consequently investigated in the frame of the “MACARONIS” project, a cooperation of the Institute of Aerospace Engineering at Technische Universität Dresden and the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS) in Dresden. The goal is to develop novel large size aerospike thrust nozzles including areas of highest resolution and fineness. Finding a suitable AM process that enables the realisation of both aspects is extremely challenging. One possibility could be the hybridization of shaping methods, in that case CerAM VPP (ceramic additive manufacturing via vat photopolymerization) and CerAM FFF (ceramic additive manufacturing via fused filament fabrication) in combination with sinter joining. This contribution focuses on the high resolution CerAM VPP process, in particular the development, characterization and testing of a new photoreactive Al2O3 suspension validated by AM of novel aerospike nozzles.