ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular disease; smoking; drinking; underserved; disparities
Online: 11 February 2020 (14:55:10 CET)
The number one leading cause of death in 2017 for Americans was cardiovascular disease, and health disparities can exacerbate risks. This study evaluates the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n=437,436) to estimate population risks for behavioral, socio-economic, psychological, and biological factors. A general linear model with a quasi-binomial link function indicated higher risks for the following groups: smokers, individuals with higher body-mass index scores, persons unable to work, individuals with depression, workers who missed more days due to mental issues, the elderly, those in race categories “indigenous Americans, Alaskan non-Hispanics” or “other, non-Hispanic,” and individuals with lower income. The results confirm previous studies and raise more questions about drinking and cardiovascular disease. Policy and ethical considerations are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: chronic kidney disease; gene polymorphism; angiotensin-converting enzyme; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular mortality risk; genotype
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:05:25 CEST)
The association between angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) polymorphisms and plasma ACE levels may allow for the optimization of a preventive intervention to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. In this study, we aimed to analyze the association between ACE I/D polymorphism and cardiovascular mortality risk among non-hemodialyzed chronic kidney disease patients. This cross-sectional study examined 70 patients of Javanese ethnic origin with stable CKD who did not receive hemodialysis. ACE I/D polymorphisms, plasma ACE levels, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk, and cardiovascular mortality risk were investigated. As per our findings, the I allele was found to be more frequent (78.6) than the D allele (21.4), and the DD genotype was less frequent than the II genotype (4.3 vs. 61.4). The ACE I/D polymorphism had a significant direct positive effect on plasma ACE levels (path coefficient = 0.302, p = 0.021). Similarly, plasma ACE levels had a direct and significant positive effect on the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (path coefficient = 0.410, p = 0.000). Moreover, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk had a significant positive effect on cardiovascular mortality risk (path coefficient = 0.918, p = 0.000). The ACE I/D polymorphism had no direct effect on ASCVD and cardiovascular mortality risk. However, our findings show that the indirect effects of high plasma ACE levels may be a factor in the increased risk of ASCVD and cardiovascular mortality in Javanese CKD patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0097.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease; Model-Agnostic Meta-Learning
Online: 6 July 2022 (10:32:15 CEST)
The pervasiveness of cardiovascular disease and physician misdiagnosis creates the urgent need for artificial intelligence models to improve diagnosis accuracy. The first objective of this study was to train machine learning models on publicly available data sets containing simple medical information of patients to diagnose cardiovascular disease. The Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) assembled for this task performed optimally with an F1 score of 0.8968. This prompted the creation of an open-source, automated cardiovascular disease diagnosis tool, powered by the MLP. The second objective of this study was to employ a meta-learning methodology called Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanations (LIME) to understand the impact of different features on the model's diagnosis in the form of marginal probabilities. K-Means Clustering was employed to segment the data into ten clusters, after which each data example was passed through LIME. The resulting histograms depict the complex relationship between feature, cluster, and impact on diagnosis. A series of P-values with contrasting orders of magnitude shows the nuances in the MLP's understanding of patients from different clusters. The results of meta-learning analysis reveal that the most important features for cardiovascular disease diagnosis are fasting blood sugar, type of chest pain, and slope of the ST segment on an electrocardiogram. Future experiments should replicate the novel methodology introduced in this study on data sets containing more specialized medical features in order to gain practical medical insights about different types of cardiovascular disease represented by each cluster. Finally, feature engineering pathways should be explored with consideration of these results to create versatile diagnosis models not only for cardiovascular disease, but adaptable to other diseases as well.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0419.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Resveratrol; Cardiovascular disease; Bioavailability; Diet; COVID-19; Resveratrol carriers; Cardiovascular protection
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:00:17 CET)
Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced by many plants as a defense mechanism against stress-inducing conditions. The richest dietary sources of resveratrol are berries and grapes, their juices and wines. Good bioavailability of resveratrol is not reflected in its high biological activity in vivo because of resveratrol isomerization and its poor solubility in aqueous solutions. Proteins, cyclodextrins and nanomaterials have been explored as innovative delivery vehicles for resveratrol to overcome this limitation. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated beneficial effects of resveratrol in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Main beneficial effects of resveratrol intake are cardioprotective, anti-hypertensive, vasodilatory, anti-diabetic, and improvement of lipid status. As resveratrol can alleviate the numerous factors associated with CVD, it has potential as a functional supplement to reduce COVID-19 illness severity in patients displaying poor prognosis due to cardio-vascular complications. Resveratrol was shown to mitigate the major pathways involved in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 including regulation of the renin-angiotensin system and expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, stimulation of immune system and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines release. Therefore, several studies already have anticipated potential implementation of resveratrol in COVID-19 treatment. Regular intake of resveratrol rich diet, or resveratrol-based complementary medicaments, may contribute to a healthier cardio-vascular system, prevention and control of CVD, including COVID-19 disease related complications of CVD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Covid-19; coronavirus; cardiovascular disease; thrombosis; hypertension; endothelial dysfunction
Online: 13 April 2020 (02:23:33 CEST)
The symptoms most commonly reported by patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) include cough, fever, and shortness of breath. However, other major events usually observed in COVID-19 patients (e.g. high blood pressure, thrombosis, pulmonary embolism) seem to suggest that the virus is targeting the endothelium, one of the largest organs in the human body. Herein, we report both clinical and preclinical evidence supporting the hypothesis that the endothelium is a key target organ of COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0457.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cardiovascular disease; hypertension; atherosclerosis; electroneutral transport; cation-chloride-cotransporters; KCCs; NKCCs
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:00:59 CEST)
The SLC12 family of cation-chloride-cotransporters (CCCs), comprising potassium chloride cotransporters (KCCs)-mediated Cl- extrusion relative to sodium chloride cotransporters (NKCCs)-mediated Cl- loading, play vital roles in cell volume regulation and ion homeostasis. These functions of the CCCs influence a variety of physiological processes, many of which overlap with the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Although not all of the cotransporters have been linked to Mendelian genetic disorders, recent studies have provided new insights into their functional role in vascular and renal cells along with their contribution to cardiovascular diseases. Particularly, an imbalance in potassium levels promote the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and disturbances in sodium homeostasis are one of the causes of hypertension. Recent findings even suggest hypothalamic signalling as a key signalling pathway in the pathophysiology of hypertension. In this review, we summarize and discuss the role of CCCs in cardiovascular disease with particular emphasis on knowledge gained in recent years on NKCCs and KCCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: preeclampsia; cardiovascular disease; heart failure; ischemic/reperfusion injury; in vivo model system; in vitro model system; ex vivo model system
Online: 8 April 2021 (12:23:43 CEST)
Preeclampsia is a multifactorial cardiovascular disorder diagnosed after 20 weeks of gestation that is the leading cause of death for both mothers and babies in pregnancy. The pathophysiology remains poorly understood due to variability and unpredictability of disease manifestation when studied in animal models. After preeclampsia, both mothers and offspring have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) including myocardial infarction or heart attack and heart failure (HF). Myocardial infarction is an acute myocardial damage that can be treated through reperfusion, however, that therapeutic approach leads to ischemic/reperfusion injury (IRI) often leading to HF. In this review, we compared the current in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo model systems used to study preeclampsia, IRI and HF. Future studies aiming at evaluating CVD in preeclampsia patients could benefit from novel models that better mimic the complex scenario described in this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0074.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: data mining; cardiovascular diseases; cluster analysis; principle component analysis
Online: 4 August 2020 (03:56:19 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in the world and Quoting from WHO, around 31% of deaths in the world are caused by cardiovascular diseases and more than 75% of deaths occur in developing countries. The results of patients with cardiovascular disease produce many medical records that can be used for further patient management. This study aims to develop a method of data mining by grouping patients with cardiovascular disease to determine the level of patient complications in the two clusters. The method applied is principal component analysis (PCA) which aims to reduce the dimensions of the large data available and the techniques of data mining in the form of cluster analysis which implements the K-Medoids algorithm. The results of data reduction with PCA resulted in five new components with a cumulative proportion variance of 0.8311. The five new components are implemented for cluster formation using the K-Medoids algorithm which results in the form of two clusters with a silhouette coefficient of 0.35. Combination of techniques of Data reduction by PCA and the application of the K-Medoids clustering algorithm are new ways for grouping data of patients with cardiovascular disease based on the level of patient complications in each cluster of data generated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0318.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Interpretable Artificial Intelligence; Cardiovascular disease prediction; Machine Learning in Healthcare
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:49:13 CET)
Learning systems have been very focused on creating models that are capable of obtaining the best results in error metrics. Recently, the focus has shifted to improvement in order to interpret and explain their results. The need for interpretation is greater when these models are used to support decision making. In some areas this becomes an indispensable requirement, such as in medicine. This paper focuses on the prediction of cardiovascular disease by analyzing the well-known Statlog (Heart) Data Set from the UCI’s Automated Learning Repository. This study will analyze the cost of making predictions easier to interpret by reducing the number of features that explain the classification of health status versus the cost in accuracy. It will be analyzed on a large set of classification techniques and performance metrics. Demonstrating that it is possible to make explainable and reliable models that have a good commitment to predictive performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Cardiovascular Diseases; Sex differences; Pakistani; Dietary intake patterns
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:30:30 CEST)
Objective: To explore sex differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) related risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and nutritional differences among 40-60 years old Pakistani CVD patients.Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study.Setting: The present study was conducted at the Mayo/King Edward Medical University (K.E.M.U) Hospital Cardiology Department (CCU-I & CCU-II), Lahore, from February 2020 to June 2020. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.Participants: A random sample of 300 cardiac patients was included in the study. Patient records, food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall was used to solicit information about demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical measurements; dietary intake parameters; and CVD risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking. Results: Men CVD patients had higher BMI (33.43 kg/m2 vs. 28.69 kg/m2) and higher prevalence of hypertension (81.1% vs. 59%), hypercholesterolemia (82.4% vs. 54.5%) and smoked more cigarettes (72.6% vs. 9%) as compared to women while there was higher prevalence of diabetes among women as compared to men (59% vs. 29.4%). There were 85% women vs. 80% men consuming white bread, while half of the men reported using meat daily, as compared to only 16.6% women. There were 51.5% women and 17% men who reported consuming fruits and vegetables daily. There were 40% men and 16% women who reported consuming soft drinks. Conclusion: The study showed significant sex differences in the nutritional status and risk factors of patients with CVD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0206.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: cardiovascular variability; heart-rate variability; peripheral arterial disease; photoplethysmography; pulse
Online: 10 August 2018 (13:43:45 CEST)
Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a simple-to-perform vascular optics measurement technique that can detect changes in blood volume in the microvascular tissue bed. Beat-to-beat analysis of the PPG waveform enables the study of the variability of pulse features such as amplitude and pulse arrival time (PAT), and when quantified in the time and frequency domains, has considerable potential to shed light on perfusion changes associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In this pilot study innovative multi-site bilateral finger and toe PPG recordings from 43 healthy control subjects and 31 PAD subjects were compared (recordings each at least 5 minutes, collected in a warm temperature-controlled room). Beat-to-beat normalized amplitude and PAT variability was then quantified in the time-domain using SD and IQR measures and in the frequency-domain bilaterally using Magnitude Squared Coherence (MSC). Significantly reduced normalized amplitude variability (healthy control 0.0384 (IQR 0.0217-0.0744) vs PAD 0.0160 (0.0080-0.0338) (p<0.001) and significantly increased PAT variability (healthy control 0.0063 (0.0052-0.0086) vs PAD 0.0093 (0.0078-0.0144) (p<0.001) was demonstrated in PAD using the time-domain analysis. Frequency-domain analysis demonstrated significantly lower MSC values across a range of frequency bands for PAD patients. These changes suggest a loss of right-to-left body side coherence and cardiovascular control in PAD. This study has also demonstrated the feasibility of using these measurement and analysis methods in studies investigating multi-site PPG variability for a wide range of cardiac and vascular patient groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0241.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cardiovascular disease; particulate matter; cancer survivor; metropolitan area
Online: 21 January 2020 (11:10:42 CET)
Abstract: Cancer survivors are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between particulate matter (PM) and CVD risk among cancer survivors (alive >5 years since diagnosis) is unclear. We investigated the risk of CVD among 40,899 cancer survivors within the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Exposure to PM was determined by assessing yearly average PM levels obtained from the Air Korea database from 2008 to 2011. PMs with sizes <2.5 (PM2.5), <10 (PM10), or 2.5-10 (PM2.5-10) μm in diameter were compared, with each PM level exposure further divided into quintiles. Patients were followed up from January 2012 to date of CVD event, death, or December 2017, whichever came earliest. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression by PM exposure levels. Compared with cancer survivors in the lowest quintile of PM2.5 exposure, those within the highest quintile had a greater risk for CVD (aHR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.59). Conversely, increasing PM10 and PM2.5-10 levels were not associated with increased CVD risk (p for trend 0.078 and 0.361, respectively). Cancer survivors who reduce PM2.5 exposure may reduce their risk of developing CVD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0175.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD); atherosclerosis; gut dysbiosis; immune system; gut microbial metabolites; SCFAs; TMAO
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:45:20 CET)
Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease and mortality worldwide. Alterations in the gut microbiota composition, known as gut dysbiosis, have been shown to contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) development through several pathways. Disruptions in gut homeostasis are associated with activation of immune processes and systemic inflammation. The gut microbiota produces several metabolic products, namely trimethylamine (TMA), which is used to produce the proatherogenic metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, butyrate, and propionate, and certain bile acids (BAs) produced by the gut microbiota lead to inflammation resolution and decrease atherogenesis. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated to common risk factors for atherosclerosis, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity. Novel strategies for reducing ACVD include the use of nutraceuticals such as resveratrol, modification of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels, supplementation with probiotics, and administration of prebiotic SCFAs and BAs. Investigation into the relationship between the gut microbiota and its metabolites, and the host immune system could reveal promising insight into ACVD development, prognostic factors, and treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0021.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pioglitazone; DPP4-inhibitor; ESRD; Cardiovascular outcome; Mortality
Online: 1 October 2020 (15:41:50 CEST)
While pioglitazone reduces insulin resistance and hepatic gluconeogenesis effectively in patients with T2DM, these benefits remained controversial in patients with ESRD. We compared MACCEs and mortality (overall, infection-related, and MACCE-related) of pioglitazone to that of DPP4-inhibitors in patients with T2DM and ESRD. From Taiwan’s national health insurance database, 647 pioglitazone users and 6080 DPP4-inhibitors users between April 1st, 2006 and December 31th, 2016 were followed from the 91th date after the ESRD certification till study outcomes, independently; withdraw from the NHI program, death, or Dec. 31th, 2017. After weighting, risks of MACCEs (10.48% vs 12.62% per person-years, [HR]: 0.85, 95% [CI]: 0.729–0.985) and all-cause mortality (12.86% vs 13.22% per person-years, [HR]: 0.88, 95% [CI]: 0.771–0.995) are significantly lower in pioglitazone group. Subgroup analysis found lower MACCEs risk in the pioglitazone users without insulin therapy (6.44% vs 10.04% [HR]: 0.59, 95% [CI]: 0.42–0.82) and lower MACCEs related death (2.76% vs 3.84% [HR]: 0.61, 95% [CI]: 0.40–0.95) in the pioglitazone group with dyslipidemia, when comparing with DPP4-inhibitors users. Pioglitazone is associated with lower all-cause mortality and MACCEs in diabetic patients with ESRD, compared to DPP4-inhibitors. These benefits were further significant in the non-insulin users and patients with dyslipidemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0127.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease; Psychosocial Safety Climate; Demand-Control; Effort-Reward Imbalance; Epidemiology; Psychosocial Risks
Online: 15 January 2018 (16:58:20 CET)
Abstract: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the most prevalent disease worldwide, which has been linked to work stress because of poor job design as explained by the Job Demand-Control (JDC) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models. In this paper we explore for the first time relative impact of a specific aspect of organisational climate, Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC), on any CVD including angina, myocardial infarction, hypertension, and stroke. We used two waves of interview data from Australia, with an average lag of 5 years (excluding baseline CVD, final n = 1223). Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the prospective associations between PSC at baseline on incident CVD at follow-up. It was found that participants in low PSC environments were 59% more likely to develop new CVD than those in high PSC environments. Logistic regression showed that PSC at baseline predicts lower CVD risk at follow-up (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.00), and this risk remained unchanged even after joint adjustment for measures of ERI and JDC. These results suggest that PSC is an independent risk factor for CVD in Australia. Beyond job design this study implicates organisational climate and prevailing management values regarding worker psychological health as the genesis of CVD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0547.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: cardiovascular disease; ischemic disease; therapeutic angiogenesis; endothelial colony forming cells; signaling pathways; genetic modification; pharmacological conditioning
Online: 23 September 2020 (09:42:46 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) comprises a group of heart and circulatory disorders, which are regarded as a global medical issue with high prevalence and mortality rates. Currently, vascular regenerative surgery represents the most employed therapeutic option to treat ischemic disorders, even though not all the patients are amenable to surgical revascularization. Therefore, more efficient therapeutic approaches are urgently required to promote neovascularization. Therapeutic angiogenesis represents an emerging strategy that aims at reconstructing the damaged vascular network by stimulating local angiogenesis and/or promoting de novo blood vessel formation according to a process known as vasculogenesis. Circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), in turn, represent truly endothelial precursors able to aggregate into bidimensional tube networks and to originate patent vessels. Accordingly, ECFCs provide the most rationale and promising cellular candidate for therapeutic purposes. The current review provides a brief outline on the origin and characterization of ECFCs and a summary of the progress in preclinical studies aiming at assessing their efficacy in a variety of ischemic disorders, including AMI, PAD, ischemic brain disease and retinopathy. We also describe how to enhance the vasoreparative potential of ECFCs by boosting specific pro-angiogenic signalling pathways either pharmacologically or through gene manipulation. Taken together, these observations suggest that ECFCs represent a useful strategy to treat ischemic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: cardiovascular disease (CVD); Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); cost of admission; risk factors
Online: 16 January 2020 (09:05:32 CET)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered to be one of the leading health issues in Thailand. CVD not only contributes to an increase in the number of hospital admissions year on year but also impacts on the rising health care expenditure for the treatment and long-term care of CVD patients. Therefore, this study is aimed at examining the impacts of risk reduction strategies on the number of CVD hospital admissions, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and the costs of hospitalisation. To estimate such impacts a CVD cost-offset model wasapplied using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The number of the mid-year population was classified by age, gender and the CVD risk factor profiles from the recent Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV. This survey was chosen as the baseline population. The CVD risk factor profiles included age, gender, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking status. The Asia-Pacific Collaborative Cohort Study (APCCS) equation was applied to predict the probability of developing CVD over the next eight-year period. Estimates on the following were obtained from the model: (1.) the CVD events both fatal and non-fatal; (2.) the difference between the projected number of deaths and the actual number of deaths in that population; (3.) the number of patients who are expected to live with CVD; (4.) the DALYs from the estimated number of fatal and non-fatal events; (5.) the cost of hospital admissions. Four CVD risk strategy scenarios were investigated as follows: (1.) the do nothing scenario; (2.) the optimistic scenario; (3.) achieve the UN millennium development goal; and (4.) the worst-case scenario. The findings showed that over the next eight years there are likely to be 3,297,428 recorded cases of CVD; 5,870,049 cases of DALYs; and, approximately ฿57,000 million, ($1.9 billion), is projected as the total cost of hospital admissions. However, if the current health policy can reduce the levels of risk factors as defined in the optimistic scenario or such policy meets the specifications of the UN millennium development goal,there would be a significant reduction in the number of hospital admissions. These are estimated to be a reduction of 522,179 male and 515,416 female cases. With these results it is expected that health care costs would save approximately ฿9,000 million, ($298.3 million), for CVD and 900,000 million of DALYs over the next eight years. However, if there is an upward trend in the risk factors as predicted in the worst-case scenario, then there will be an increase of 428,220 CVD cases; consequently, DALYs cases may rise by 766,029 while the hospitalisation costs may increase by approximately ฿7,000 million, ($232.1 million). Based on our findings, reducing the levels of CVD risk factors in the population will drastically reduce: (1.) the number of CVD cases; (2.) DALYs cases; and (3.) health care costs. Therefore it is recommended that the health policy should enhance the primary prevention programs which would be targeted at reducing the CVD risk factors in the population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Tenofovir; Pre-exposure prophylaxis; anti-retroviral therapy; cardiovascular disease; LGBT
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:11:31 CEST)
The introduction of tenofovir-derived prodrugs has revolutionised the prevention and management of HIV, which has coincided with 23% reduction in new HIV incidences globally. To date, there are two formulations of tenofovir-derived nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI): tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate/emtricitabine (TAF/FTC). Although these prodrugs have shown favourable safety profile, their effects on cardiovascular health are differ from one another: TDF/FTC exhibits potential lipid-lowering effect, TAF/FTC demonstrates potential lipid-inducing effect, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, this issue has not been previously elucidated, especially among the marginalised populations [lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) and men who have sex with men (MSM)] who are likely be the main users of these prodrugs. This is of clinically significance as the cardiovascular health in these populations is often overlooked, in addition to a lack of appropriate cardiovascular risk prediction algorithm. Therefore, this review aims to (1) highlight the cardiovascular risks of tenofovir-derived prodrugs in the marginalized populations, and also to (2) establish the importance of having a cardiovascular risk prediction model that is specific to this particular populations so that their health management could be more comprehensive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: preeclampsia; placenta; histopathology; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular risk; postpartum
Online: 24 January 2022 (14:27:20 CET)
Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. Postpartum cardiovascular risk screening could identify patients who would benefit most from lifestyle interventions. However, there are no readily available methods to identify these high-risk women. We propose that placental lesions may be useful in this regard. Here, we sought to determine the association between placental lesions and lifetime CVD risk. Placentas from 85 PE women were evaluated for histopathological lesions. At 6 months postpartum, a lifetime cardiovascular risk score was calculated. Placental lesions were compared between CVD risk groups and the association was assessed using odds ratios. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop prediction models for CVD risk with placental pathology. Placentas from high-risk women had more severe lesions of maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) and resulted in a 3-fold increased risk of screening high-risk for CVD (OR 3.10[1.20-7.92]) compared to women without these lesions. MVM lesion severity was moderately predictive of high-risk screening (AUC 0.63[0.51,0.75]; sensitivity 71.8%[54.6,84.4]; specificity 54.7%[41.5,67.3]. When clinical parameters were added, the model’s predictive performance improved (AUC 0.73[0.62,0.84]; sensitivity 78.4%[65.4,87.5]; specificity 51.6%[34.8,68.0]. The results suggest that placenta pathology may provide a unique modality to identify women for cardiovascular screening.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; chaos theory; non-coding RNAs; Alu-elements; NF-κB; miRNA; miRNA sponges
Online: 4 April 2018 (06:36:55 CEST)
Atherosclerosis (ATH) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) are chronic inflammatory diseases with an important genetic background which derive from the cumulative effect of multiple common risk alleles, most of them located in genomic non-coding regions. These complex diseases behave as non-linear dynamical systems that show a high dependence on their initial conditions, so that long-term predictions of disease progression are unreliable. One likely possibility is that the non-linear nature of ATH could be dependent on non-linear correlations in the structure of the human genome. In this review we show how Chaos theory analysis highlighted genomic regions that shared specific structural constraints that could have a role in ATH progression. These regions were shown to be enriched in repetitive sequences of the Alu family, genomic parasites which colonized the human genome, which show a particular secondary structure and have been involved in the regulation of gene expression. We also review the impact of Alu elements on the mechanisms that regulate gene expression, especially highlighting the molecular mechanisms by which the Alu elements could alter the inflammatory homeostasis. We devise especial attention to their relationship with the lncRNA ANRIL, the strongest risk factor for ATH, their role as miRNA sponges, and their ability to interfere with the regulatory circuitry of the NF-kB response. We aim to characterize ATH as a non-linear dynamic system in which small initial alterations in the expression of a number of repetitive elements are somehow amplified to reach phenotypic significance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cancer; cardiovascular disease; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; fatty liver; infection; inflammation; metabolism; obesity; paraoxonase-1
Online: 1 June 2021 (10:46:20 CEST)
Infectious as well as most non-infectious diseases share certain common molecular mechanisms. Among them, oxidative stress and the subsequent inflammatory reaction are of particular note. Metabolic disorders induced by external agents, be they bacterial or viral pathogens, excessive calorie intake, poor-quality nutrients, or environmental factors, produce an imbalance between the production of free radicals and endogenous antioxidant systems; the consequence being the oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Oxidation and inflammation are closely related, and whether oxidative stress and inflammation represent the causes or consequences of cellular pathology, they produce metabolic alterations that influence the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review we highlight two key molecules in the regulation of these processes: Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). PON1 is an enzyme bound to high-density lipoproteins. It breaks down lipid peroxides in lipoproteins and cells, participates in the protection conferred by HDL against different infectious agents, and is considered part of the innate immune system. With PON1 deficiency, CCL2 production increases, which induces migration and infiltration of immune cells in target tissues, and is involved in disturbing normal metabolic function. This disruption involves pathways controlling cellular homeostasis as well as metabolically-driven chronic inflammatory states. Hence, an understanding of these relationships would help improve treatments and, as well, identify new therapeutic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: ideal cardiovascular health; cardiovascular disease; health status; prevention and control; Poland
Online: 12 September 2018 (00:53:55 CEST)
Perfect cardiovascular health (CVH) has been defined by the American Heart Association as the lack of cardiovascular disease and the presence of seven key factors and health behaviors. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of ideal and poor CVH among the Polish adult population, taking the chosen socio-demographic factors into consideration. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among 3,901 adults without cardiovascular diseases, aged between 35 and 64 years. Participants completed a questionnaire, and they had anthropometric and physiological measurements taken. Blood samples were analyzed for fasting glucose and cholesterol levels. Ideal CVH was found in 5.4% of the participants, with the advantage of being toward city dwellers over those living in the rural areas (6.3% vs. 5.0%) p = 0.02. In case of the residents of rural areas, their likelihood of having an ideal body mass index (BMI) was found to be 22% lower (odds ratio (OR) = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.66–0.92), their likelihood of having an ideal diet was found to be 27% lower (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.54–0.94), their likelihood of having perfect blood pressure was found to be 29% lower (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.56–0.89), and their likelihood of having the perfect glucose levels were found to be 28% lower (OR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.63–0.84), than the residents of urban areas. The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular behaviors and factors is lower in the rural community compared with people living in the city. Results indicate that more effort should be dedicated toward the country’s health policy, specifically concerning primary prevention. Preventive actions in the field of cardiovascular disease should be addressed to the residents of rural areas to a larger extent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0154.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: miRNA; cardiomyocytes; cardiovascular diseases
Online: 10 May 2018 (05:44:24 CEST)
Study of micro-RNA regulatory networks (known as miRNA’s or miR’s), during development and in known pathologies have been the basis of study over the past decades. Herein, we recapitulate these findings in order to highlight the best underlying mechanisms found to date. We also seek to elucidate how miRNA dysregulation can be associated with many cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, we discuss miR regulation mechanism during in early development in vivo and invitro. Since many of the miR’s are precursors to transcriptional regulation, we relate back to their molecular control as we can then look together at the fundamental disease they might be exacerbating by this dysregulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0625.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: heart failure; cardiovascular; comparative; evolution
Online: 30 October 2020 (08:06:24 CET)
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a leading form of human cardiovascular disease and commonly associated with systemic hypertension. Unique evolved adaptations in giraffe myocardia may be a natural animal model of resistance to HFpEF. In humans, pressure-overload induced left ventricular thickening (PLVT) impairs diastolic relaxation, elevates left atrial pressures and may progress to heart failure with symptoms including exercise intolerance. In healthy giraffe, the left ventricle thickens as developmental neck lengthening widens the vertical distance between the heart and head increasing pressures needed to maintain constant brain perfusion. Yet, diastolic relaxation and exercise capacity are unimpaired, a critical adaptation for prey species such as giraffe. The proximate mechanisms underlying this unique cardiovascular physiology are not yet characterized. Developmental PLVT in giraffe emerges as a species-specific evolved adaptation which offers a roadmap for identifying innovations in therapeutic and prevention strategies for HFpEF.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0128.v1
Online: 8 April 2020 (11:49:56 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. COVID-19 is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-Cov-2). Although primarily a respiratory disease, cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 have been increasingly recognized. In addition, higher fatality has been reported in COVID-19 patients with underlying cardiovascular diseases. Cancer survivors have a considerably increased risk for premature cardiovascular diseases, mainly due to cardiotoxic cancer treatments. Therefore, it is foreseeable that cancer survivors will be more vulnerable to cardiovascular complications caused by COVID-19. In this review, three scenarios for increased cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 in cancer patients are proposed. In the first scenario, cardiotoxic cancer treatment and COVID-19 synergize to exacerbate direct myocardial damage. In the second scenario, cardiotoxic cancer treatment leads to a reduced cardiac reserve in cancer survivors, making them more vulnerable to COVID-19 in a “two-hit” model. The third scenario suggests that several shared risk factors may aggravate cardiovascular complications caused by both cancer treatment and COVID-19. Taken together, cancer survivors may be more vulnerable to cardiovascular complications when challenged by the COVID-19, and special cardiovascular care should be given to these patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular risk assessment; postmenopausal women; cardiovascular risk factors; emerging risk factors; hormone replacement therapy
Online: 8 June 2018 (12:46:31 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are rising rapidly among the postmenopausal woman but they are less likely to identify their risk by an appropriate risk assessment tool. This review evaluates available literature on cardiovascular risk assessment among postmenopausal women to provide a concise view of risk factors and disease burden among them, present risk assessment systems including their drawbacks, emergence of new risk factors and their role in risk prediction, and finally use of hormone replacement therapy during menopause. Results demonstrate that menopause is a transition point for developing CVD not due to physiological changes only but psychosocial factors like depression and marital stress are also responsible. Both conventional and emerging risk factors burden are high among postmenopausal women. Though data regarding CVD risk assessment among postmenopausal population is lacking but existing evidences claimed underestimation or overestimation of risk among women. Moreover application of different tools on same population has revealed significant variation in result. In this regard, recalibration of conventional tools with local data and new risk factors has showed improvement of risk prediction. Hormone replacement therapy during early menopause has reported beneficial to prevent CVD but in secondary prevention it has no role. All of these findings demand further studies on cardiovascular risk assessment, especially in developing countries where women after menopause are not in consideration of health strategy makers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0322.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: wave reflection; cardiovascular modelling; arterial hemodynamics
Online: 24 March 2022 (05:21:26 CET)
Arterial ageing is thought to cause a diastolic-to-systolic shift in the return time (RT) of backward waves to central arteries. However, current methods of estimating RT—inflection point, zero crossing, and foot methods—depend on a single waveform feature and produce systolic RT throughout life. We propose a novel centroid method that accounts for the entire backward pressure waveform and develop a ground truth RT (GTRT), which can be used in computational models to test the accuracy of RT estimation methods. Linear wave tracking was implemented in a one-dimensional systemic arterial tree model and GTRT was calculated as the amplitude-weighted mean RT of backward waves at the ascending aorta. Using a virtual cohort of 1200 patients, the centroid RT was closest to GTRT compared to the zero crossing, inflection point, and foot methods; mean differences (limits of agreement) were -8 (-47,30), vs -42 (-136,52), -78 (-305,149), and -197 (-379,-15) ms, respectively. The sensitivity of the methods to changes in RT was also assessed in ten sheep. A balloon catheter in the descending thoracic aorta was used to generate a backward-running pulse that arrived at the ascending aorta at different times during diastole or systole, allowing the “bulk” RT of the backward-running wave ensemble to be manipulated. Only the centroid method was sensitive to both diastolic and systolic changes in RT. We conclude that the accuracy and robustness of the centroid method make it most suitable for evaluating the diastolic-to-systolic shift in RT of backward waves with ageing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cardiovascular modelling; arterial haemodynamics; wave reflection
Online: 16 March 2022 (10:05:44 CET)
The arterial network in healthy young adults is thought to be structured to minimise wave reflection in conduit arteries, producing an ascending aortic pressure waveform with three key features: early systolic peak, negative systolic augmentation, and diastolic hump. One-dimensional computer models have provided significant insights into arterial haemodynamics, but no previous models of the young adult have exhibited these three features. Since the latter was likely to be related to unrepresentative or non-optimised impedance properties of the model arterial networks, we developed a new ‘YoungAdult’ model that incorporated 1) a novel and more accurate empirical equation for approximating wave speeds, based on area and relative distance to elastic-muscular arterial transition points, 2) optimally-matched arterial junctions, and 3) an improved arterial network geometry that eliminated ‘within-segment’ taper (which causes wave reflection in conduit arteries) whilst establishing ‘impedance-preserving’ taper. These model properties led to wave reflection occurring predominantly at distal vascular beds, rather than in conduit arteries. The model predicted all three typical characteristics of an ascending aortic pressure waveform observed in young adults. When compared with non-invasively acquired pressure and velocity measurements (obtained via tonometry and Doppler ultrasound in 7 young adults), the model was also shown to reproduce the typical waveform morphology observed in the radial, brachial, carotid, temporal, femoral, and tibial arteries. The YoungAdult model provides support for the concept that the arterial tree impedance in healthy young adults is exquisitely optimised, and it provides an important baseline model for investigating cardiovascular changes in ageing and disease states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0254.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular; schizophrenia; prospective cohort; hospital admissions
Online: 30 December 2021 (19:42:41 CET)
(1) Background: Patients with schizophrenia have higher mortality, with cardiovascular diseases being the first cause of mortality. This study aims to estimate the excess risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events in schizophrenic patients, adjusting for comorbidity and risk factors. (2) Methods: The APNA study is a dynamic prospective cohort of all residents in Navarra, Spain. 505889 people over 18 years were followed for five years. The endpoint was hospital admissions for a cardiovascular event. Direct Acyclic Graphs (DAG) and Cox regression were used. (3) Results: Schizophrenic patients had a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.414 (95% CI 1.031-1.938) of hospital admission for a cardiovascular event after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, low income, obesity, antecedents of cardiovascular disease, and smoking. In non-adherent to antipsychotic treatment schizophrenia patients, the HR was 2.232 (95% CI 1.267-3.933). (4) Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events than persons with the same risk factors without schizophrenia. Primary care nursing interventions should monitor these patients and reduce cardiovascular risk factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; prediabetes; inflammation; microRNAs; cardiovascular function
Online: 8 December 2020 (07:56:14 CET)
Background: obese pre-diabetics have altered expression of cytokines, and sirtuin-1, that might influence myocardial function via microRNAs (miRs) expression. Objectives: to evaluate inflammatory/oxidative stress, miRs’ expression and cardiovascular function in obese pre-diabetics randomly assigned to metformin therapy vs. placebo vs. normo-glycemics at 12 months of follow-up. Materials and methods: eighty-three obese patients enrolled for abdominoplastic surgery, were divided in pre-diabetics (n 55), normo-glycemics (n 28), and assigned to hypocaloric diet. Pre-diabetics were randomly assigned to metformin (n 23) or to placebo (n 22) plus hypocaloric diet. Results: at enrollment, pre-diabetics obese vs. normo-glycemic presented higher values of glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, miR-195 and miR-27, and lower values of sirtuin-1 (p<0.05). At 12 months of follow up, obese pre-diabetics with metformin vs. placebo experienced significant reduction of glucose values, HOMA-IR, and inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, with significant reduction of intima-media thickness (IMT), septum and posterior wall thickness, and left ventricle mass (LVM), (p <0.05). At 12 months of follow-up, obese pre-diabetics with placebo vs. normo-glycemics had higher values of inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, higher values of IMT, septum and posterior wall thickness, LVM, and myocardial performance index (MPI), (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. placebo, and obese pre-diabetics with placebo vs. normoglycemics, had significant differences about IMT, MPI, and LVM (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. placebo showed significant reduction of serum miR-195 and miR-27 (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. normoglycemics showed higher expression of serum miR-195 and miR-27 ( p<0.05). Finally, we found inverse relation between IMT and insulin (R -0.351), HOMA-IR (R -0.340), miR-195 (R -0.355), miR-27 (R -0.181); between LVEF and Insulin (R -0.332), HOMA-IR (R -0.142), miR-195 (R -0.297) and miR-27 (R -0.163). We found inverse correlation between LVM and sirtuin-1 (R -0.272), Insulin (R -0.810), HOMA-IR (R-0.183), miR-195 (R -0.446) and miR-27 (R-0.433), and direct correlation with interleukin-6 (R 0.195). MPI inversely linked to miR-195 (R -0.260) and miR-27 (R -0.591). Conclusion: in obese pre-diabetics metformin therapy significantly reduces inflammation/oxidative stress, circulating miR-195 and miR-27, causing reduction of LVM, IMT and amelioration of cardiac performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: vitamin D; ACE2; diabetes; cardiovascular disease
Online: 20 April 2020 (01:37:43 CEST)
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a new virus which causes respiratory illness. Older adults and people who have previous chronic medical conditions are at higher risk for more serious complications from COVID-19.Hypovitaminosis D is attributed to the increased risk of lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as well as diabetes, Cardiovascular event and associated comorbidities, which are the main causes of severe clinical problem in COVID-19 patients. Considering the protective role of vitamin D through modulating the innate and adaptive immune system as well as inhibition of Renin Angiotensin System (RAS), vitamin D supplementation might boost the immune system of COVID-19 patients and reduce severity of the disease in vitamin D deficient individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0385.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: genetics of alcohol; urinary sodium; cardiovascular traits
Online: 30 May 2022 (03:34:20 CEST)
Abstract Background: Alcohol consumption is linked to urinary sodium excretion and both of these traits are linked to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The interplay between alcohol consumption and sodium on hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is not well-described. Here, we used genetically predicted alcohol consumption and explored relationships between alcohol consumption, urinary sodium, hypertension, and CVDs. Methods: We performed a comparative analysis among 295,189 participants from the prospective cohort of the UK Biobank (baseline data collected between 2006 and 2010). We created a genetic risk score (GRS) using 105 published genetic variants in Europeans that were associated with alcohol consumption. We explored relationships between GRS, alcohol consumption, urinary sodium, blood pressure traits, and incident CVD. We used linear, logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards (PH) models in our analysis. Results: Our analyses supported an interaction effect between alcohol GRS and urinary sodium on hypertension (P interaction =0.03) and CVD (P interaction =0.03). In presence of high urinary sodium excretion, alcohol GRS increases blood pressure in a more enhanced fashion. Conclusions: Our results show that decrease in urinary sodium excretion offsets the risk posed by genetic risk of alcohol consumption.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: variant effect maps; cardiac arrest; cardiovascular genetics
Online: 12 January 2022 (15:42:46 CET)
While genetic testing is becoming standard of care for patients with potentially inherited cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of uncertain results severely limits its utility. One promising approach is to generate variant effect maps that report the function of all possible variants in a gene prospectively. The proactive clinical application of these maps is nascent, and requires careful integration with current American College of Medical Genetics guidelines for variant interpretation. Here, we describe three pediatric cases of cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death with variants of uncertain significance in calmodulin genes. We demonstrate the prospective clinical utility of a calmodulin variant effect map to inform variant interpretation, and therefore diagnosis and family care, in each case. This study was approved by the Stanford University and Vanderbilt University Medical Center IRBs. Consent was waived based on low risk of de-identified retrospective data collection per the IRB.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0087.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: iPSCs; ESC; differentiation; Cardiovascular disease, Myocardial repair
Online: 6 September 2021 (12:03:49 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the contributing factors to more than one-third of human mortality and the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac myocyte death is a fundamental process in cardiac pathologies caused by various heart diseases, including myocardial infarction. Thus, strategies for replacing fibrotic tissue in the infarcted region with functional myocardium have long been a goal of cardiovascular research. This review focuses primarily on induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which have emerged as perhaps the most promising source of cardiomyocytes for both therapeutic applications and drug testing. We also briefly summarize other stems- and progenitor-cell populations that have been used for regenerative myocardial therapy and attempt to generate cardiomyocytes directly from cardiac fibroblasts (i.e., transdifferentiation), which, if successful, may enable the pool of endogenous cardiac fibroblasts to be used as an in-situ source of cardiomyocytes for myocardial repair.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; cardiovascular; Channa striatus; diabetes
Online: 9 August 2021 (14:59:08 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus remains a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular complications. Given the burden of diabetes-related cardiovascular complications, there is a need to identify strategies, safe and effective therapeutic agents that could effectively prevent and control diabetes. Presently, many patients living with diabetes depends on traditional medicines as an alternative cure. Channa striatus (Haruan) is a freshwater fish traditionally used to treat wounds, inflammations, and pains. Several pharmacological investigations have supported the folkloric claims of C. striatus extracts, including hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-platelet aggregation activities. The therapeutic potentials of C. striatus were demonstrated to be associated with the presence of high content essential amino acids and good fatty acids known to improve cell growth and facilitate wound healing. Therefore, C. striatus bioactive compounds have great potentials to serve as lead candidates in developing novel therapeutic agents for the management of diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological properties and therapeutic potentials of C. striatus for the management of diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0579.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: IRAK1; IRAK4; endothelial cells; inflammation; cardiovascular disease
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:09:08 CEST)
Inflammation associated endothelial dysfunction represents a pivotal contributor to atherosclerosis. Increasingly evidence has demonstrated that interleukin 1 receptor (IL1-R) / toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling participated in the development of atherosclerosis. Previous studies indicated the therapeutic potential of anti-inflammatory therapy in anti-atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of IL-1R-associated kinase 1 and 4 inhibitors (IRAK1/4i) in regulating endothelial dysfunction. IRAK1/4i showed little endothelial toxicity at concentrations from 1 to 10 μM. Inhibition of IRAK1/4 alleviated endothelial activation induced by LPS in vitro evidenced by attenuated monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. Mechanistically, blockade of IRAK1/4 ameliorated the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that dual inhibition of IRAK1 and IRAK4 attenuates endothelial dysfunction, suggesting pharmaceutical inhibition of IRAK1/4 might be a potential strategy to combat endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0629.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; metabolomics; cardiovascular disease; myectomy surgery
Online: 23 April 2021 (10:28:18 CEST)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited heart disorder complicated by left ventricle outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, which can be treated with surgical myectomy. To date, no reliable biomarkers for LVOT obstruction exist. To determine whether metabolomic biomarkers for obstruction can be identified, we conducted metabolomic profiling on plasma samples of 18 HCM patients before and after undergoing surgical myectomy to measure changes in the plasma metabolome in the postoperative state. Plasma was collected approximately 4 weeks before surgery at the preoperative visit and approximately 3 months after the surgery at the postoperative visit. We found that 215 metabolites were altered in the postoperative state (p-value < 0.05). Identified metabolites that were significantly reduced post-myectomy included metabolites of heme, such as bilirubin, and phenylacetylglutamine, a biomarker of urea cycle disorders, which suggests that liver and kidney function are improved in the postoperative state. Markers of arginine metabolism such as homoarginine and dimethylarginine are also decreased in the postoperative state, suggestive of reduction in nitric oxide production, inflammation and heart failure after surgery. 3-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) was also decreased, suggesting possible increased fatty acid utilization and a return to normal heart function. 12 of these metabolites were notably significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons (q-value < 0.05), including bilirubin, PFOS, PFOA, 3,5-dichloro-2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-hydroxylaurate, trigonelline and 6 unidentified compounds, which support improved kidney and liver function and increased lean soft tissue mass. These findings suggest improved organ metabolic function after surgical relief of LVOT obstruction in HCM and further underscore the beneficial systemic effects of surgical myectomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0308.v5
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Covid-19; SARS-Cov-2; Mortality rate; Cancer; Cardiovascular disease; Respiratory disease; Diabetes; Kidney diseases; April; May
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:49:12 CEST)
Covid-19 has given a halt to all the activities in the world. Europe was most affected, followed by the United States of America. It has taken more than 350000 lives until now. In this study, we have assessed the severity of Covid-19 by analyzing the mortality rate of Covid-19 and other chronic diseases. The Covid-19 data and “death rate” data caused by other diseases were downloaded from the world health organization (WHO) website. A normalized method was used to see the mortality rate of Covid-19 in comparison to other diseases. The deaths caused by Covid-19 in April 2020 have overtaken the average number of deaths caused by Cancer, Cardiovascular diseases, and other diseases in Belgium, the United Kingdom (UK), Spain, France, and Ireland. Covid-19 was found to be strongly correlated with non-communicable respiratory diseases and Cancer with correlation coefficients 0.73 and 0.67 respectively. The severity of Covid-19 in the United States of America (USA) was moderate. The severity of Covid-19 in Asian countries was found to be low. Europe showed the highest diversity in the mortality rate of Covid-19. On average, except for a few European countries, Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and non-communicable respiratory diseases were still more lethal and caused more deaths than Covid-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; risk factors; nutrition; ecological study
Online: 8 February 2018 (03:22:54 CET)
The aim of this study was a large-scale ecological analysis of nutritional and other environmental factors potentially associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the global context. Indicators of CVDs from 158 countries were compared with the statistics of mean intake (supply) of 60 food items between 1993 and 2011, obesity rates, health expenditure and life expectancy. This comparison shows that the relationship between CVD indicators (raised blood pressure, CVD mortality, raised blood glucose) and independent variables in the global context is influenced by various factors such as short life expectancy, religiously conditioned dietary customs, the imprecision of some statistics and undernutrition. However, regardless of the statistical method used, the results always show very similar trends and identify high carbohydrate consumption (mainly in the form of cereals and wheat in particular) as a dietary factor most consistently associated with the risk of CVDs. These findings are in line with the changing view of the causes of CVDs. Because only the statistics of raised blood glucose include people using medications and reflect true prevalence that is independent of healthcare, more objective data on the prevalence of CVDs are needed to confirm these observed trends.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: thiazide diuretics; cardiovascular risk; osteoporosis; vertebral fractures
Online: 28 July 2017 (12:20:23 CEST)
An alleged association of chronic use of thiazide diuretics with an increased risk of bone fragility fractures has been highlighted by a relatively recent prospective cohort study (Am J Med. 2016 Dec; 129(12):1299-1306). However, the concept that thiazides exert a beneficial effect on osteoporosis is still a predominant view. This effect would be mediated by the decrease in renal clearance of calcium ions, a pharmacological feature recognized for a long time now to this class of drugs , as opposed to the increase in calcium urinary excretion attributed instead to loop diuretics, i.e. furosemide and similar drugs . The purpose of this retrospective study is to attempt to clarify whether regular use of thiazide diuretics as antihypertensive therapeutics is associated with a significantly increased risk of osteoporotic fractures in female patients, aged over 70 years.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0028.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: mercury; antioxidants; cardiovascular diseases; cardiotoxicity; chelating agents
Online: 10 October 2016 (09:49:50 CEST)
Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence show that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Bayesian; cardiovascular disease; CVD; cross-sectional; logistic regression
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:55:06 CET)
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been one of the leading causes of death and disability-adjusted life years lost worldwide. Blood pressure, lipid, and cholesterol are good predictors of CVD risk and correspond upon age and physical fitness. However, few studies have explored the variation trend of CVD risk factors across different populations upon age and their muscle strength. Objective: to analysis the variation tendency of CVD risk factors in blood according to age and relative grip strength among different populations. Method: 25363 participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study and 24709 were included in the analysis. A logistic regression and a Bayesian probabilistic analysis based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Modeling is conducted to build probability prediction models of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hypercholesterolemia according to age, relative grip strength, body weight conditions, and physical activity levels. Results: 1) age might be the main influence factor of hypertension, which is regarded as one of the primary CVD risk factors. However, although keeping a high level of physical activity might have positive effect on preventing hypertension because that individuals with normal body weight and higher physical activity shows a lower probability of being diagnosed with hypertension, it might could not prevent individuals from getting hypertension with age. 2) After 60, individuals of normal body weight seem more likely to have hyperlipidemia than those are overweight or obese. 3) Larger relative grip strength might not be able to offset the negative effects of obesity, overweight and physical inactivity on hyperlipidemia. 4) The probability of getting hypercholesterolemia varies less with age and relative grip strength. Conclusion: Body weight management and keeping high levels of physical activity are recommended at any age. It might benefit to increase some bodyweight after 60 years old.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: telehealth; remote assessment; cardiology; cardiovascular diseases; COVID-19
Online: 7 July 2022 (08:11:31 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vitalness of telehealth in our medical world, where considering a restructuring of healthcare services has become paramount. In fact, telemedicine has recently earned a valuable place in many specialties; and its implications in cardiology and cardiovascular medicine were among the leading interests. In this letter, we gathered previous evidence supporting the merit of telemedicine in the fields of cardiology and cardiovascular medicine—medical branches in which patients require meticulous care and continuous monitoring—as well as protrusions of concerns about the uncertainty regarding the efficacy of telemedicine’s future implications and technologies. In sum, in the context of this still on-going pandemic, medical institutions must strive to improve telehealth technologies and implement solid future research directions in this growing field—to be able to persevere in meeting the needs of the patients. As long as no conclusive evidence exists regarding the fields where telemedicine is most worthwhile, healthcare systems will always keep the dread of wasting resources on developing ineffective programs. We conclude that telemedicine has been attributed a considerable attention in managing cardiac and cardiovascular conditions; nevertheless, further studies with solid designs are still needed to confirm its validity and utility in those specialties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0189.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; Mexico COVID-19; Mexico metropolitan area
Online: 14 June 2022 (03:11:35 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD´s) continue as the primary cause of death worldwide. During the past couple of years, and with the surge of the COVID-19 pandemic, deaths linked to CVD´s were -slightly overshadowed by those deaths related to COVID-19, albeit during the highest peaks of the pandemic. The present study derived form understanding the correlation between both diseases, from the standpoint of patients already diagnosed with CVD´s (n = 41883) and what comorbidities had the highest influence on overall patient death (n = 3637). Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are all linked to worsening the outcome of COVID-19 positive patients, hence they were considered when looking at the overview of all CVD positive patients. Our finding showed that 1697 deaths were related to diabetes (p < 0.001), 987 deaths were related to obesity (p < 0.001), and lastly 2499 deaths were attributed to hypertension (p < 0.001) individually. Using logistic regression modeling, we found diabetes (OR: 1.744, p < 0.001) and hypertension (OR: 2.179, p < 0.001) had a high impact on patient deaths. Hence, having a CVD diagnosis, with hypertension and/or diabetes seems to increase the likely-hood of complication leading to death in COVID-19 positive patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0514.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: cancer; cerebrovascular diseases; cardiovascular diseases; pleiotropic effect; statin
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:36:31 CET)
The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, are administered as first-line therapy for hypercholesterolemia, both as primary and secondary prevention. Besides the lipid-lowering effect, statins have been suggested to inhibit the development of cardiovascular disease through anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, vascular endothelial function-improving, plaque-stabilizing, and platelet aggregation-inhibiting effects. The preventive effect of statins on atherothrombotic stroke has been well established, but statins can influence other cerebrovascular diseases. This suggests that statins have many neuroprotective effects in addition to lowering cholesterol. Furthermore, research suggests that statins cause pro-apoptotic, growth-inhibitory, and pro-differentiation effects in various malignancies. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that statins inhibit tumor growth and induce apoptosis in specific cancer cell types. The pleiotropic effects of statins on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases have been well established; however, the effects of statins on cancer patients have not been fully elucidated and are still controversial. This review discusses the recent evidence on the effects of statins on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and cancer. Additionally, this study describes the pharmacological action of statins, focusing on the aspect of ‘beyond lipid-lowering.’
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Machine Learning; IoT; Ubiquitous Computing; Wearables; Cardiovascular Diseases.
Online: 11 October 2021 (14:03:09 CEST)
This article presents a systematic mapping study dedicated to conduct a literature review on machine learning and IoT applied in the identification of diseases through heart sounds. This research was conducted between January 2010 and July 2021, considering IEEE Xplore, PubMed Central, ACM Digital Library, JMIR- Journal of Medical Internet Research, Springer Library, and Science Direct. The initial search resulted in 4,372 papers, and after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 papers were selected for full reading to answer the research questions. The main results are: of the 58 articles selected, 46 (79.31%) mention heart rate observation methods with wearable sensors and digital stethoscopes, and 34 (58.62%) mention care with machine learning algorithms. The analysis of the studies based on the bibliometric network generated by the VOSviewer showed in 13 studies (22.41%) a trend related to the use of intelligent services in the prediction of diagnoses related to cardiovascular disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Hypertension management; Complications of cardiovascular; Quality of Life
Online: 23 September 2021 (09:03:57 CEST)
The aim of this study as to determine the relationship between the factors of demography, comor-bidity, medication, lifestyle, and access to health services related to the QoL of people with hy-pertension and its complications in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta. The study was conducted in a cross-sectional manner using data from Sleman HDSS (Health and Demographic Surveillance System) from 2015 to 2018 in cycles 3 and 2 with the inclusion criteria of hypertensive patients and their complications aged 25 years or older obtained by using a total sampling of 532 people. Measurement of QoL using Short Form 12v2 2a and 2b questionnaires presented in the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS). Data analysis using Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal Wallis test. The results showed factors related to the QoL in PCS were variables of gender, age, diagnosis of hypertension and its complications, the presence of comorbidities, fatty foods, drug consumption in the last two weeks, while factors related to the mental component (MCS) were education and occupation seen from the p-value <0.05. QoL with hypertension and its complications influence and decrease the physical than the patient's mental condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; proteomics; aptamer; cardiovascular disease; myectomy surgery
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:18:59 CET)
Left Ventricular Outflow Tract (LVOT) obstruction occurs in approximately 70% of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients and currently requires imaging or invasive testing for diagnosis, sometimes in conjunction with provocative physiological or pharmaceutical stimuli. To identify potential biomarkers of LVOT obstruction, we performed proteomics profiling of 1305 plasma proteins in 12 HCM patients with documented LVOT obstruction referred for surgical myectomy. Plasma was collected at the surgical preoperative visit approximately one month prior to surgery and then at the post surgical visit approximately 3 months later. Proteomic profiles were generated using the aptamer-based SOMAscan assay. Principal Component Analysis using the highest statistically significant proteins separated all preoperative samples from all postoperative samples. Further analysis revealed a set of 25 proteins that distinguished the preoperative and postoperative states with a paired t-test p value of <0.01. Ingenuity Pathway analysis facilitated the generation of protein interaction networks and the elucidation of key upstream regulators of the differentially expressed proteins such as interferon-, TGF-1 and TNF. Biological pathways affected by the surgery included organ inflammation, migration and motility of leukocytes, fibrosis, vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, acute coronary events, endothelial proliferation, eicosanoid metabolism, calcium flux, apoptosis and morphology of the cardiovascular system. Our results indicate that surgical relief of dynamic outflow tract obstruction in HCM patients is associated with unique alterations in plasma proteomic profiles that likely reflect improvement in organ inflammation and physiological function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; psychometric testing; Treatment Adherence and Compliance
Online: 5 November 2020 (19:17:33 CET)
Purpose: Determine the internal consistency and reproducibility test-retest of the Barrier Scale for Cardiac Rehabilitation (BSCR) in Colombian population. Methods: 190 patients (67% men, average age = 65 ± 12 years) completed the scale in two moments, with an average of eight days between applications. Cronbach's Alpha and Intraclass Correlation (ICC) coefficients were calculated. Results: The internal consistency of the Colombian version of the BSCR was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.85). The ICC of the instrument was 0.69 (95% CI 0.61-0.76), 0.78 (95% CI 0.71-0.84) when used in the interview type, and 0.47 (95% CI 0, 21-0.67) when it was self-completing. Conclusions: The EBRC has an acceptable reliability in the Colombian population, however, its reproducibility decreases when it is self-directed. Identifying barriers using this scale will allow developing strategies to increase participation and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programs focused on the real needs of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0435.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: chronic kidney disease; hemodialysis; cardiovascular disease; echocardiography; child
Online: 4 July 2019 (10:37:00 CEST)
Assessment of cardiac function is the leading parameter when evaluating the state of the cardiovascular system of patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. The aim of the paper: to assess the state of the cardiovascular system of these patients using new sensitive echocardiography and Doppler techniques and thus advance the prevention of cardiovascular disease.Method: Twenty children with end-stage renal insufficiency on chronic hemodialysis and twenty healthy controls underwent echocardiographic monitoring using standard Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging. Structural and functional changes in the left ventricle were evaluated.Results: Patients on hemodialysis had significantly greater left ventricular mass indices compared to the controls (p<0.001). The patients on hemodialysis had preserved systolic function – their fractional shortening, ejection fraction and Sm (systolic myocardial velocity) did not differ significantly compared to the controls (p>0.05). Early diastolic function in children on hemodialysis was also preserved: the E/A and Em/Am ratio did not differ significantly from the control group (p>0.05). Children on hemodialysis exhibited impaired late diastolic function (compliance index), that is, considerably higher E/Em compared to controls (p<0.00). Myocardial Performance Index values showed statistically significant elevation in children on hemodialysis compared to the control group (p<0.001).Conclusion: Tissue Doppler in tandem with conventional Pulsed Doppler can provide additional information on left ventricular filling pressures (E/Em) in children on hemodialysis. It is therefore recommended to perform routine measuring of Em waves and the E/Em ratio, not only in order to evaluate myocardial relaxation and ventricular filling pressures, but primarily to stratify risk and provide a prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Arthrospira maxima; antioxidant; cardiovascular; nutraceutical; systolic blood pressure
Online: 12 November 2018 (10:42:25 CET)
1) Background: Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has shown beneficial effects such anti-dyslipidemic, antiviral, antioxidant and antihypertensive. However, there are few and limited clinical studies. 2) Methods: a prospective, randomized, parallel pilot study of 4.5 g administration of Spirulina maxima or placebo for 12 weeks in 16 patients with systemic arterial hypertension undergoing treatment with ACE inhibitors was performed to assess the effects on endothelial damage and oxidative stress indicators. The blood levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, endothelin-1, and sE-selectin were quantified; the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and concentrations of reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive susbtances, were also quantified before and after the treatment period. 3) Results: There were statistically significant (p < 0.05) decreases in systolic blood pressure, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and endothelin-1 levels, and increases in glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidized glutathione levels. 4) Conclusion: The effects found in the present study agree with antihypertensive and antioxidant effects previously reported for Spirulina maxima. However, this is the first report about the effects on indicators of endothelial damage. More research in this field is necessary to gain an insight into the effects of Spirulina on these indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0431.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: hesperidin; L-NAME; cardiovascular remodeling; oxidative stress; inflammation
Online: 21 September 2018 (08:15:47 CEST)
Hesperidin is a major flavonoid isolated from citrus fruits that exhibits several biological activities. This study aims to evaluate the effect of hesperidin on cardiovascular remodeling induced by N-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg); L-NAME plus hesperidin (15 mg/kg), or hesperidin (30 mg/kg), or captopril (2.5 mg/kg) for five weeks (n = 8/group). Hesperidin or captopril significantly prevented the development of hypertension in L-NAME rats. Moreover, hesperidin or captopril alleviated L-NAME-induced cardiac remodeling; increases in wall thickness, cross sectional area (CSA) and fibrosis of left ventricular (LV), and vascular remodeling; increases in wall thickness, CSA, vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen deposition in the aorta. These were associated with reduced oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and enhancing plasma nitric oxide metabolite (NOx) in L-NAME treated groups. Furthermore, up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNF-R1) and TGF-β1 protein expression and the over-expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were suppressed in L-NAME rats treated with hesperidin or captopril. These data suggested that hesperidin had cardioprotective effects in L-NAME hypertensive rats. The possible mechanism may involve its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0265.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Restrictive Cardiomyopathy; Cardiomyopathy; Cardiovascular Genetics; Desmin; Troponin; Filamin-C
Online: 18 March 2022 (09:05:21 CET)
Restrictive cardiomyopathy is a rare cardiac disease causing severe diastolic dysfunction, ventricular stiffness and dilated atria. In consequence, it induces heart failure often with preserved ejection fraction and is associated with a high mortality. Since a poor clinical prognosis, patients with restrictive cardiomyopathy require frequently heart transplantation. Genetic as well as non-genetic factors contribute to restrictive cardiomyopathy and a significant portion of cases remains of unknown etiology. However, the genetic forms of restrictive cardiomyopathy and the involved molecular pathomechanisms are only partially understood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about primary genetic restrictive cardiomyopathy and describe its genetic landscape, which might be of interest for geneticists as well as for cardiologists.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: astaxanthin; cardiovascular disease; atherosclerosis; inflammation; oxidative stress; carotenoids; antioxidant
Online: 5 August 2020 (09:53:14 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death. Oxidative stress and inflammation are pathophysiological processes involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases, so anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents that modulate redox balance have become the targets of research to evaluate their molecular mechanisms and therapeutic properties. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid of the xanthophyll group, has potent antioxidant effects due to its molecular structure and its arrangement in the plasma membrane, factors that favor the neutralization of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This carotenoid also stands out for its anti-inflammatory activity, possibly interrelated with its antioxidant effect, as well as for its modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Considering the potential positive effects of astaxanthin on cardiovascular health evidenced by preclinical and clinical studies, this paper describes the molecular and cellular mechanisms related to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of this carotenoid in cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: adenosine receptor; nucleoside transport; CNS; inflammation; cardiovascular system; pain
Online: 9 April 2020 (16:19:14 CEST)
Many ligands directly target adenosine receptors (ARs). Here we review the effects of noncanonical AR drugs on adenosinergic signaling. Non-AR mechanisms include raising adenosine levels by inhibiting adenosine transport (e.g. ticagrelor, ethanol, cannabidiol), affecting intracellular metabolic pathways (e.g. methotrexate, nicotinamide riboside, salicylate, 5‐aminoimidazole‐4‐carboxamide riboside), or undetermined means (e.g. acupuncture). Yet other compounds bind ARs in addition to their canonical ‘on-target’ activity (e.g. mefloquine). The strength of experimental support for an adenosine-related role in a drug’s effects varies widely. AR knockout mice are the ‘gold standard’ method for investigating an AR role, but few drugs have been tested in these mice. Given the interest in AR modulation for treatment of cancer, CNS, immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal conditions, it is informative to consider AR and non-AR adenosinergic effects of approved drugs and conventional treatments.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0216.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: RMT, IMT, EMT, vascular compliance, pulmonary function, cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular
Online: 13 August 2019 (09:48:11 CEST)
Many lifestyle and occupational habits negatively impact on physical and mental health, increasing the risk of cardiovascular and other diseases. While larger institutions fulfill occupational health requirements to ensure their employees’ wellbeing at work, smaller business workers and entrepreneurs may neglect initial signs of stress or physical decline, putting themselves at increased risk. Early detection of compromised cardiopulmonary health or fitness has the potential to flag up indications for early interventions and reduce the risk of disease onset and progression. This case study highlights the usefulness of respiratory muscle training (RMT) in improving pulmonary and cardiovascular parameters as an early countermeasure to cardiopulmonary decline. We suggest RMT as an easily accessible, cost- and time effective opportunity to support a healthy lifestyle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: chronic diseases; cardiovascular; renal; endocrine; diabetes; therapeutic advances; tobacco
Online: 3 May 2018 (05:08:44 CEST)
Despite needs for new therapies and improvements in existing approaches in cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine, and renal disease, investment in these areas is lagging relative to other specialties. This article summarizes a meeting of key stakeholders of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officials, representatives from academia, national organizations, and patients and caregivers. The purpose was to identify and discuss high-priority issues, establish areas of common interest, and explore opportunities for collaboration. During the meeting (September 2016), the construct of a “multimorbidity continuum” emerged, in which chronic diseases are understood as their effects on the whole rather than individual organ systems. Cross-disciplinary priorities included: 1) the need to generate greater high-quality evidence at lower cost; 2) the imperative to develop and implement patient-centered approaches to clinical investigations; 3) the importance of trial participation in under-represented populations, particularly with comorbid conditions, and 4) the need for progress in tobacco regulation. Representatives from each therapeutic area reported on their consensus priorities, and FDA representatives discussed the agency’s role in facilitating broader approaches to therapeutic development and evaluation of disease as linked across organ systems rather than in isolation, and emphasized the importance of patient engagement, collaboration and communication across stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0403.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; physical activity; physical exercise; sedentarism; quality of life
Online: 22 November 2022 (03:39:54 CET)
Obesity is related to the establishment of chronic inflammation and metabolic diseases, but it can be positively influenced by the regular practice of physical activity. The study aimed to compare the anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters of physically active Military Police Officers (MPOs) with those who are less physically active. Sixty male MPOs, low activity (n=28) and physically active (n=32) participated. The following parameters were measured: plasma cytokine levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, circulating glucose triglyceride (TAG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and plasma glutamic oxalacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities. The physically active group presented lower body fat and reduced TAG and IL-8 levels compared to the low activity group. Moreover, a negative correlation between SPE and SBP, DBP, BPM was detected for the physically active group (p<0.05) but not in the low activity group. Furthermore, the physically active group's work time (WT) values were not correlated with the important metabolic markers SBP, DBP, BPM, GLU, TAG (p>0.05) but could be in the low activity group (p<0.05). These findings highlight the fundamental protective role of physical activity in controlling body composition, subclinical inflammation, and cardiovascular risk in MPOs.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0404.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Polypill; Cardiovascular Risk; Primary Prevention; Secondary Prevention; Adherence; Cost-effectivity
Online: 31 October 2022 (09:27:48 CET)
Primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention is less effective than expected due to the concern about polymedication by professionals and the lack of patient adherence to medications prescribed in the medium and long term. Polypills have been presented as a possible solution. A comprehensive bibliographic review is presented about polypills as mechanisms for facilitating adherence and a proposed guide for the use of polypills for the prevention of cardiovascular risk. 41 articles were included, showing options for the polypill as a method of primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention.The polypill increases therapeutic adherence in the medium and long term, also increasing the therapeutic results compared to the administration of the various drugs separately. Based on the evidence, a flow diagram is proposed for the prescription of a polypill.Polypills increase the effectiveness and adherence of patients to primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention programs, without increasing the cost of the intervention. The use of a polypill in cardiovascular prevention can be effective as a prescription tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0358.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: left ventricular noncompaction; cardiomyopathy; imaging; echocardiography; cardiovascular magnetic resonance; children
Online: 24 January 2022 (13:59:45 CET)
Background: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a distinct cardiomyopathy characterized by the presence of a two-layer myocardium with prominent trabeculation and deep intertrabecular recesses. The diagnosis of LVNC can be challenging because the diagnostic criteria are not uniform. The aim of our study was to evaluate echocardiographic and CMR findings in a group of children with isolated LVNC. Methods: From February 2008 to July 2021, pediatric patients under 18 years of age at the time of diagnosis with echocardiographic evidence of isolated LVNC were prospectively enrolled. The patients underwent echocardiography and contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement to assess myocardial noncompaction, ventricular size, and function. Results: A total of 34 patients with a median age of 11.9 years were recruited. Patients were followed prospectively for a median of 5.1 years. Of the 31 patients who met Jenni’s criteria in echocardiography, CMR was performed in 27 (79%). Further comprehensive analysis was performed in the group of 25 patients who met the echocardiographic and CMR criteria for LVNC. In echocardiography, the median NC/C ratio in systole was 2.60 and in diastole 3.40. In 25 out of 27 children (93%), LVNC was confirmed by CMR according to Petersen’s criteria, with a median NC/C ratio of 3.27. Conclusions: 1) Echocardiography precisely identifies patients with LVNC. 2) Echocardiography is a good method for monitoring LV systolic function, but CMR is indicated for the precise assessment of LV remodeling and RV size and function as well as for the detection of myocardial fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0243.v1
Subject: Keywords: Early Psychosis; Cardiovascular Disease Risk; Quality of Life; Lifestyle Behaviours.
Online: 11 August 2021 (08:55:02 CEST)
Introduction: People with schizophrenia have poor cardiometabolic health, with elevated 10-year cardiovascular disease risk (CVD-R) scores and poor quality of life (QOL). There is lack of understanding of these issues in early psychosis. Aims: To quantify CVD-R in people with early psychosis and profile their obesity prevalence, lifestyle behaviours and QOL. Secondary aim was to explore associations between lifestyle behaviours/treatment characteristics and CVD-R/QOL. Method:Baseline data from 81 RCT participants were used to profile cardiometabolic health risks (QRISK®3, BMI and waist circumference). Participants self-reported lifestyle behaviours and QOL. Relationships between modifiable treatment/lifestyle factors and QOL/CVD-R were explored using bivariate analyses. Results: Participants’ relative risk for CVD over 10 years was 1.93 times higher than healthy counterparts; 39% also had an obese BMI and physical QOL was poor. No significant associations were observed between CVD-R or QOL with treatment characteristics and lifestyle factors. Discussion: Despite positive lifestyle behaviours, participants had elevated CVD-R scores and poor physical health related QOL. Quantifying CVD-R with QRISK®3 may highlight the need for health promotion interventions. Implications for practice: Mental health professionals should be alert to elevated cardiometabolic health risks in early psychosis, particularly as these can occur in the context of relatively healthy lifestyle behaviours.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0193.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: gasotransmitters; hydrogen sulfide; cardiovascular system; circulation; hemostasis; erythrocytes; therapeutic potential.
Online: 11 January 2021 (12:48:43 CET)
this review summarizes current knowledge of the hydrogen sulfide role in cardiovascular system, the proposed mechanisms of its action and the prospects for its applicability in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Hydrogen sulfide was recently recognized as gasotransmitter – simple signaling molecule which freely penetrates the cell membrane and regulates a number of biological functions. In humans endogenous H2S is generated via enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways and its content varies in different tissues and is strictly regulated. In cardiovascular system H2S is produced by myocardial, vascular and blood cells and regulates a number of vital functions. Numerous experimental data prove that endogenously generated as well as exogenously administered H2S exerts a wide range of actions in cardiovascular system, including vasodilator/vasoconstrictor effects, regulation of blood pressure, pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in the vascular smooth muscle cells, influence on angiogenesis and erythropoiesis, myocardial cytoprotection in ischemia-reperfusion injury, oxygen sensing, inhibition of platelet aggregation and blood coagulation, modification of erythrocyte microrheological properties (aggregability and deformability). Understanding of molecular mechanisms of H2S action and molecular crosstalk between H2S, NO, and CO is essential for the development of its diagnostic and therapeutic potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: oxidative status; antioxidant status; oxidative stress; cardiovascular diseases; overweight; obesity
Online: 28 August 2019 (14:51:29 CEST)
Obesity is one of the factors leading to the development of atherosclerosis. This metabolic disorder is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species, which affect the oxidative stress level. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative/antioxidative status and to investigate the correlation between redox markers and anthropometric parameters and body composition in adult patients after myocardial infarction and in individuals without a cardiovascular event in the past. Descriptive data on socio-demographic, clinical, and anthropometric features and blood samples were collected and categorized into two equal groups: after myocardial infarction (study group (SG), n = 80) and without a cardiovascular event (control group (CG), n = 80). The oxidative/antioxidative status was assessed in plasma on the basis of total oxidative/capacitive status (PerOx), total antioxidative status/capacity (ImAnOx), and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). OxLDL was significantly higher in the CG group compared to the SG group (p = 0.02). No significant differences were found with regard to PerOx and ImAnOx values between the studied groups. Significant positive correlation between PerOx and percentage of adipose tissue (FM [%]) and body adiposity index (BAI) was found in the two studied groups. ImAnOx significantly positively correlated with VAI in SG and FM% in CG. OxLDL negatively correlated with body mass index and waist to hip circumference ratio in CG. The total oxidative/antioxidative status is related to the amount of adipose tissue and the BAI of the subjects. It was observed that it correlates more frequently with the visceral distribution of body fat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular risk; lipids; NMR spectroscopy; pulse wave velocity; retinal vessel diameters
Online: 22 June 2022 (03:37:53 CEST)
Lipoproteins are important cardiovascular (CV) risk biomarkers. This study aimed to investigate the associations of lipoprotein subclasses with micro- and macrovascular biomarkers to better understand how these subclasses relate to atherosclerotic CV diseases. One hundred fifty-eight serum samples from the EXAMIN AGE study, consisting of healthy individuals and CV risk patients, were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to quantify lipoprotein subclasses. Microvascular health was quantified by measuring retinal arteriolar and venular diameters. Macrovascular health was quantified by measuring carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Nineteen lipoprotein subclasses showed statistically significant associations with retinal vessel diameters and nine with PWV. These lipoprotein subclasses together explained up to 26% of variation (R2=0.26, F(29,121)=2.80, p<0.001) in micro- and 12% (R2=0.12, F(29,124)=1.70, p=0.025) of variation in macrovascular health. High-density (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as triglycerides together explained up to 13% (R2=0.13, F(3,143)=8.42, p<0.001) of micro and 8% (R2=0.08, F(3,145)=5.46, p=0.001) of macrovascular variation. Lipoprotein subclasses seem to reflect micro- and macrovascular end organ damage more precisely as compared to only measuring HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides. Further studies are needed to analyse how the additional quantification of lipoprotein subclasses can improve CV risk stratification and CV disease prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0118.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: spatial heterogeneity; AOD-PM2.5; respiratory-cardiovascular; lag grids; urban-rural; season
Online: 28 March 2022 (13:52:49 CEST)
Optimal use of Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM) assembled aerosol optical depth (AOD)-PM2.5 fused surfaces in epidemiologic studies requires homogeneous temporal and spatial fused surfaces. No analytical method is available to evaluate spatial heterogeneity. The temporal case-crossover design was modified to assess the spatial association between four experimental AOD-PM2.5 fused surfaces and four respiratory-cardiovascular hospital events in 12 km2 grids. The maximum number of adjacent lag grids with significant odds ratios (ORs) identified homogeneous spatial areas (HOSAs). The largest HOSA included 5 grids (lag grids 04; 720 km2) and the smallest HOSA contained 2 grids (lag grids 01; 288 km2). Emergency department asthma and inpatient asthma, myocardial infarction, and heart failure ORs were significantly higher in rural grids without air monitors than in urban grids with air monitors at lag grids 0, 1, and 01. Rural grids had higher AOD-PM2.5 concentration levels, population density, and poverty percent than urban grids. Warm season ORs were significantly higher than cold season ORs for all health outcomes at lag grids 0, 1, 01, and 04. The possibility of elevated fine and ultrafine PM and other demographic and environmental risk factors synergistically contributing to elevated respiratory-cardiovascular chronic diseases in persons residing in rural areas was discussed
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; Acute myocardial infarction; Congestive heart failure; Cardiovascular hospitalizations
Online: 10 February 2022 (02:47:49 CET)
Background A decline in cardiovascular hospitalizations was observed during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. We examine the continued effect of the pandemic on cardiovascular hospitalizations and the associated mortality rates during the first year of the pandemic in Israel. Methods We conduct a retrospective cohort study using the data of Clalit Health Services, the largest healthcare organization in Israel. We divide the Corona year into six periods (three lockdowns and three post-lockdowns) and compare the incidence rates of cardiovascular hospitalizations and their 30-day mortality during each period to the previous three years. Results The number of non-STEMI hospitalizations during the first year of the pandemic was 13.7% lower than the average of the previous three years (95% CI 11%-17%); STEMI hospitalizations were 15.7% lower (95% CI 13%-19%); and CHF hospitalizations were 23.9% lower (95%, CI 21%-27%). No significant differences in 30-day mortality rates were observed for AMI patients during most of the periods, whereas the annual 30-day all-cause mortality rate of CHF was 23% higher. Conclusions Hospitalizations for AMI and CHF were significantly lower during the first year of the pandemic relative to 2017–9. Mortality rates were higher in the case of CHF patients but not in the case of AMI patients, possibly due a change in the clinical acuity of patients arriving at the hospitals. We conclude that targeted public health messaging should be implemented, together with proactive monitoring in order to identify residual disability in patients that may have received non-optimal treatment during the pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0273.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: RNA therapeutics; cardiovascular disease; mRNA therapeutics; siRNA therapeutics; antisense oligonucleotide therapeutics
Online: 16 December 2021 (14:07:05 CET)
Abstract Purpose of review: RNA therapeutics are a new and rapidly expanding class of drugs to prevent or treat a wide spectrum of diseases. We discuss the defining characteristics of the diverse family of molecules under the RNA therapeutics umbrella. Recent findings:RNA therapeutics are designed to regulate gene expression in a transient manner. For example, depending upon the strategy employed, RNA therapies offer the versatility to replace, supplement, correct, suppress, or eliminate the expression of a targeted gene. RNA therapies include antisense nucleotides, microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, RNA aptamers, and messenger RNAs. Further, we discuss the mechanism(s) by which different RNA therapies either reduce or increase the expression of their targets. Summary: We review the RNA therapeutics approved (and those in trials) to treat cardiovascular indications. RNA-based therapeutics are a new, rapidly growing class of drugs that will offer new alternatives for an increasing array of cardiovascular conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: cardiovascular disease; inflammation; aging; senectome, telomerase; alternative splicing; relaxation response; microRNA
Online: 12 July 2020 (16:57:10 CEST)
Mental stress represents a pivotal factor in cardiovascular diseases. The mechanism by which stress produces its deleterious effects is still under study but one of the most explored pathway is cell senescence. In this scenario, circulating microRNAs appear to be mobile regulatory elements of the telomerase activity and alternative splicing within the ”senectome” network. Anti-stress techniques seem to be able to slow-down aging process. As we have recently verified how the practice of Relaxation Response (RR), counteracting psychological stress, determines favorable changes of some inflammatory genes expression, of some neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines and inflammatory circulating microRNAs, we aimed to verify a possible change even in serum levels of 4 senectome micro-RNAs (SE-miRNAs -20, -30, -410, -515), testing the activity of telomerase in peripheral blood mononuclear cells-PBMCs. We analyzed also alternative splicing microRNAs 134 and 183. According to our data, miRNA-20 and -30 levels and PBMCs-telomerase activity increase during the RR while -410 and -515 levels decrease. Moreover, during the RR sessions both miRNA-134 and -183 decrease. The mediators considered in this work seem to vary rapidly according to a (stress)-relaxation condition showing that psychic activity should be part of the study of aging factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: vascular endothelial function; inflammation; oxidative stress; cardiovascular disease prevention; disease management
Online: 6 July 2020 (09:08:34 CEST)
In atherosclerosis patients, vascular endothelial dysfunction is commonly observed with damage of vascular endothelial glycocalyx, an extracellular matrix-bound to and encapsulating the endothelial cell lining the blood vessel wall. Unfavorable lifestyle; smoking and physical inactivity, also induces glycocalyx degradation. Moreover, the vascular endothelial glycocalyx is damaged by various unfavorable disease conditions like as dehydration, acute infectious disease, trauma, sepsis, ARDS, Kawasaki disease, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, atherosclerosis, stroke, dementia, microvascular angina, acute coronary syndrome, and heart failure. The vascular endothelial glycocalyx has been shown to be important not only as a physical cytoprotective barrier for vascular endothelial cells but also as a mechanism that regulates intracellular cell signaling. Therefore, vascular endothelial glycocalyx has great potential to explore new strategies for assessing the benefit conditions of our healthy vasculature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; risk factors; outcomes; cardiovascular; Latin America.
Online: 19 June 2020 (10:22:50 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) fatal outcomes have been associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. In new epidemic areas, such as Latin America, there is a lack of studies about this. Here, we evaluated those factors in a retrospective cohort of patients in a national reference hospital of Lima, Peru. Design. A retrospective cohort observational study was done. For this study, information was obtained from clinical records of the hospital for the cases that were laboratory-diagnosed and related, during March 6th and April 30th, 2020. rRT-PCR was used for the detection of the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 following the protocol Charité, Berlin, Germany, from nasopharyngeal swabs at the National Institute of Health. Calculation of the odds ratio (OR) with the respective 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was done, also logistic regression for adjusted OR (multivariate) was done. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant for all analyses. Results. One hundred six hospitalized patients were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 61.58 years (SD 16.81). Cardiovascular risk factors among them were hypertension (46.2%), diabetes (28.3%), and obesity (28.3%), among others. Fifty-six patients died (52.8%). Mortality associated factors at the multivariate analysis were arterial hypertension (OR=1.343, 95% 1.089-1.667), myocardial injury (OR=1.303, 95% 1.031-1.642), and mechanical ventilation (OR 1.262, 95% 1.034-1.665), as associated factors. Conclusion. As observed in other regions of the world, cardiovascular risk factors represent a significant and independent threat to be considered in patients with COVID-19. Further studies and interventions in Peru and Latin America are expected.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0190.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: epigenetics; nucleic acids; RNA; DNA; cardiovascular disease; chronic disease; aging, metabolism
Online: 16 November 2019 (00:59:04 CET)
RNA epigenetics is perhaps the most recent aspect of interest for translational epigeneticists. RNA modifications create such an extensive network of epigenetically driven combination whose role in physiology and pathophysiology is still far from being elucidated. Not surprisingly, some of the players determining changes into RNA structure are in common with those involved in DNA and chromatin structure regulation, while other molecules seem very specific to RNA. It is envisaged, then, that new small molecules, acting selectively on RNA epigenetic changes, will be reported soon, opening new therapeutic interventions based on the correction of the RNA epigenetic landscape. In this review, we shall summarize some aspects of RNA epigenetics limited to those in which the potential clinical translatability to cardiovascular disease is emerging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0490.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: cardiovascular 0-D model; pulmonary arterial pressure; gradient-based optimization; automatic differentiation
Online: 29 August 2022 (10:57:18 CEST)
Reliable quantification of pulmonary arterial pressure is essential in the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of a range of cardiovascular pathologies including rheumatic heart disease, yet an accurate and routinely available method for its quantification remains elusive. This work proposes an approach to infer pulmonary arterial pressure based on scientific machine learning techniques and non-invasive, clinically available measurements. A 0-D multicompartment model of the cardiovascular system was optimized using several optimization algorithms, subject to forward-mode automatic differentiation. Measurement data were synthesized from known parameters to represent the healthy, mitral regurgitant, aortic stenosed and combined valvular disease situations with and without pulmonary hypertension. Eleven model parameters were selected for optimization based on 95 % explained variation in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. A hybrid Adam and limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno optimizer yielded the best results with input data including valvular flow rates, heart chamber volume changes and systematic arterial pressure. Mean absolute percentage errors ranged from 1.8 % to 3.78 % over the simulated test cases. The model was able to capture pressure dynamics under hypertensive conditions with pulmonary arterial systole, diastole, and mean pressure average percentage errors of 1.12 %, 2.49 % and 2.14 %, respectively. The relatively low errors highlight the potential of the proposed model to recover pulmonary pressures for diseased heart valve and pulmonary hypertensive conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0300.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Endocrine disruptors; gender; female; atherosclerosis; Cadmium; Bisphenol A; inflammatory cytokines; cardiovascular diseases
Online: 17 November 2021 (10:53:12 CET)
The number of aged individuals is increasing worldwide, rendering essential the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanisms of age-related alterations, that could facilitate the development of interventions contributing to “successful aging” and improvement of quality of life. Cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) include pathologies affecting heart or blood vessels, such as hyperten-sion, peripheral artery disease and coronary heart disease. Indeed, age-associated modifications in body composition, hormonal, nutritional and metabolic factors, as well as a decline in physical activity are all involved in the increased risk of developing atherogenic alterations raising the risk of CVD development. Several factors have been claimed to play a role in the alterations observed in muscle and endothelial cells and leading to increased CVD, such as genetic pattern, smoking, unhealthy lifestyle. Moreover, a difference in the risk of these diseases in women and men has been reported. Interestingly, in the last decades attention has been focused on a potential role of several pollutants which disrupt human health by interfering with hormonal pathways, and more specifically in non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes and CVD. This review will focus on the potential alteration induced by Endocrine Disruptors (Eds) in the attempt to characterize a potential role in the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the atheromatic process and CVD progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0339.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Great East Japan Earthquake; disaster; cardiovascular disease; psychological factors; evacuation; prospective study
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:01:44 CEST)
Evidence regarding the effect of psychological factors and evacuation on cardiovascular disease occurrence after large-scale disasters is limited. This prospective study followed up a total of 37,810 Japanese men and women aged 30–89 years from the Fukushima Prefecture with no history of stroke or heart disease at baseline (2012), until 2017. This period included 3000 cardiovascular events recorded through questionnaires and death certificates. The participants’ psychological distress, trauma reaction, and evacuation status were defined, and divided into four groups based on combinations of psychological factors and evacuation status. We calculated the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for only psychological, only evacuation, or both of them compared with neither using Cox proportional hazard models. Psychological factors along with evacuation resulted in approximately 5% to 25% higher magnitude of stroke and heart disease risk than psychological factors only among men. Compared to neither, the multivariable hazard ratios of those with both psychological distress and evacuation were 1.75 for stroke and 1.49 for heart disease, and those of both trauma reaction and evacuation were 2.01 and 1.57, respectively, among men. Evacuation combined with psychological factors increased the risk of stroke and heart disease risks especially in men after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0002.v1
Subject: Keywords: cardiovascular disease; human reproduction system; meteorological factor; SARS-COV-2; antigen testing
Online: 1 September 2020 (09:46:24 CEST)
A COVID-19 disease threatens the population and the economies of the countries significantly. Till now, this pandemic has affected 215 counties or territories. Unavailability of vaccine is the primary concern for the society. To avoid the spread of this disease, social isolation must be preserved and the inter and intra-population movement must be minimized. To reduce the possibility of transmission, the categorization of regions based on susceptibility to COVID-19 infection is a must.Due to the unavailability of a large amount of paper collection for this novel COVID-19 diseases, we used current literature available on a COVID-19 susceptibility of the diabetic patient, human reproductivity, hemodialysis patient’s, pregnant women and meteorological factors and geographical location. Countries in the cold region are more susceptible to the risk of COVID-19 transmission. There was no evidence of the spread of this disease from non-respiratory bodies. Diabetic patients and pregnant women were found to be more susceptible to COVID-19 infection. Anosmia was observed in the majority of the COVID-19 infected cases in European countries. No evidence indicates COVID-19's impact on the human reproductive system explicitly. No cases of vertical transmission of this disease have been observed until now. All the studies available till now is the small scale study. Correlation with something always does not mean causation. There are certain factor like pollution level, temperature Diurnal temperature range, geographical factor, humidity, pollution level, wind speed, population density, medical healthcare facilities social and political factor plays a critical role in transmitting the SARS-COV-2 virus. Besides the adverse effects, it has taught us to shed our selfish goals and to promote the welfare of all.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular disease; heavy metals; cooper; zinc; manganese; cobalt; iron; health risk assessment
Online: 9 June 2020 (03:25:06 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute the first cause of death among the population of developing and developed countries. Atherosclerosis, which is a disorder with multifactorial etiopathogenesis, underlies most CVDs. The available literature includes ample research studies on the influence of classic cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. However, environmental exposure to heavy metals, among other substances, is still an unappreciated risk factor of CVDs. This study aimed to assess the concentration of some heavy metals (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and iron (Fe)) in the blood serum of postmyocardial infarction (post-MI) patients and patients free from myocardial infarction (MI) as well as estimate the relationship between the occurrence of MI and increased concentration of heavy metals. The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, and Fe) was assessed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique in a group of 146 respondents divided into two groups: post-MI group (study group (SG), n = 74) and group without cardiovascular event (CVE) having a low CV risk (control group (CG), n = 72). The concentration of the analyzed heavy metals was higher in SG. All the heavy metals showed a significant diagnostic value (p < 0.001). The highest value of area under the curve (AUC) was observed for manganese (Mn) (0.955; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.922–0.988), while the lowest value was found for zinc (Zn) (0.691; 95% CI = 0.599–0.782). In one-dimensional models, high concentrations of each of the analyzed heavy metals significantly increased the chances of having MI from 7-fold (Cu) to 128-fold (Mn). All the models containing a particular metal showed a significant and high discrimination value for MI occurrence (AUC 0.72–0.92). Higher concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, and Fe were found to considerably increase the chances of having MI. Considering the increasingly higher environmental exposure to heavy metals in recent times, their concentrations can be distinguished as a potential risk factor of CVDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: gas chromatography assay; cardiovascular diseases; feeding patterns; lipids; nutritional status; vegan diet
Online: 19 June 2019 (15:47:29 CEST)
The vegan diet excludes animal-derived products consumption. The objective of the present study is to analyze dietary lipid intake, nine plasmatic fatty acids concentrations (from C14:0 [lauric acid] to C20:4 [arachidonic acid]), and conventional clinical lipid profile among vegan individuals with omnivore controls. A case-control and cross-sectional study was performed between 2016 and 2017. Vegans were paired in a 1:1 ratio with omnivores from Merida, Mexico. A 150-item Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted to evaluate eating patterns. Serum fatty acids were determined from total blood with a gas chromatography assay. Lower cholesterol, stearic, arachidonic and trans fatty acids intake, but higher consumption of lauric acid were observed in the vegan group (p= <0.001, 0.014, <0.001, 0.005, respectively). Decreased plasma concentrations of stearic, arachidonic and linoleic acids were found (p= 0.017, <0.001 and 0.026, respectively). Following a vegan diet for more than three years generate modifications in serum concentrations of saturated and polyunsaturated ω-6 fatty acids, which could lower inflammatory markers’ biosynthesis. Potential benefits regarding cardiovascular risk may be assumed in favor of vegan individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0136.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: acute toxicity; cardiovascular depression; intravenous lipid emulsion; propofol; rat model; respiratory depression
Online: 23 October 2018 (09:34:43 CEST)
Abstract: Background and objective: Propofol is an anesthetic agent that is frequently used in anesthesia induction, maintenance and sedation. Propofol has severe side effects such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression. Although propofol is commonly used, there is no known antidote for its toxic effects. An approach to prevent toxic effects of propofol would be beneficial. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy in the prevention of depressive effects of propofol on cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. The saline-administered group was determined as the Control group. The second group was administered propofol (PP group); the third group was administered ILE (ILE group), and the fourth was administered propofol with ILE therapy (ILE+PP group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), Respiratory rate (RR), Heart rate (HR) and mortality were recorded at 10 points during 60 minutes. A repeated measures linear mixed-effect model with unstructured covariance was used to compare the groups. Results: In the PP group, SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels were declining steadily; all rats in this group died after 60 minutes. In the ILE+PP group, after a while, the decreased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels increased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels of the Propofol group were found to be significantly lower than those of the other groups (p<0.01). The mortality rate was 100% (surviving period, 60 min) for the PP group, whereas 0% for the ILE, ILE+PP and Control groups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that undesirable side effects that can be seen after propofol application such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression might be prevented by using ILE therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine; cardiovascular effects; myocarditis; adolescents; Thailand
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:40:23 CEST)
This study focuses on cardiovascular effects, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis events, after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine injection in Thai adolescents. This prospective cohort study enrolled students from two schools aged 13–18 years who received the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Data including demographics, symptoms, vital signs, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes were collected at baseline, Day 3, Day 7, and Day 14 (optional) using case record forms.We enrolled 314 participants; of these, 13 participants were lost to follow up, leaving 301 participants for analysis. The most common cardiovascular effects were tachycardia (7.64%), shortness of breath (6.64%), palpitation (4.32%), chest pain (4.32%), and hypertension (3.99%). Seven participants (2.33%) exhibited at least one elevated cardiac biomarker or positive lab assessments. Cardiovascular effects were found in 29.24% of patients, ranging from tachycardia, palpitation, and myopericarditis. Myopericarditis was confirmed in one patient after vaccination. Two patients had suspected pericarditis and four patients had suspected subclinical myocarditis. Conclusion: Cardiovascular effects in adolescents after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination included tachycardia, palpitation, and myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myopericarditis after vaccination was usually mild, with all cases fully recovering within 14 days. Hence, adolescents receiving mRNA vaccines should be monitored for side effects. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05288231
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0102.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: lncRNA; LINC00961; SPAAR; scRNASeq; CRISPR/Cas9; cardiovascular physiology; fetal growth restriction; myocardial infarction
Online: 5 October 2020 (17:47:46 CEST)
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have structural and functional roles in development and disease. We have previously shown that the LINC00961/SPAAR locus regulates endothelial cell function, and that both the lncRNA and micropeptide counter-regulate angiogenesis. To assess human cardiac cell SPAAR expression we mined a publicly available scRNSeq dataset and confirmed LINC00961 locus expression and hypoxic response in a murine endothelial cell line. We investigated post-natal growth and development, basal cardiac function, the cardiac functional response and tissue-specific response to myocardial infarction. To investigate the contribution of the LINC00961/SPAAR locus to determination of longitudinal growth, cardiac function, and response to myocardial infarction, we used a novel CRISPR/Cas9 locus knockout mouse line. Data mining suggested that SPAAR is predominantly expressed in human cardiac endothelial cells and fibroblasts, while murine LINC00961 expression is hypoxia-responsive in mouse endothelial cells. LINC00961-/- mice displayed a sex-specific delay in longitudinal growth and development, smaller left ventricular systolic and diastolic areas and volumes, and greater risk area following myocardial infarction compared with wildtype littermates. These data suggest a role for the LINC00961/SPAAR locus in cardiac endothelial cell and fibroblast cell function and hypoxic-response, and in growth and development, and basal cardiovascular function in adulthood.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adipose tissue; adipose precursor cells; obesity; senescence; oxidative stress; type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular disease
Online: 4 April 2022 (07:34:50 CEST)
Adipose tissue (AT) is a remarkably plastic and active organ with functional pleiot-ropism and high remodeling capacity. Although the expansion of fat mass, by defini-tion, represents the hallmark of obesity, the dysregulation of the adipose organ emerges as the forefront of the link between adiposity and its associated metabolic and cardio-vascular complications. The dysfunctional fat displays distinct biological signatures, which include enlarged fat cells (i.e., adipocyte hypertrophy), low-grade inflammation, impaired redox homeostasis, and cellular senescence. While these events are orches-trated in a cell-type, context-dependent and temporal manner, the failure of the adipose precursor cells to form new mature adipocytes appears the main instigator of the adi-pose dysregulation, which, ultimately, poses a deleterious milieu either by promoting ectopic lipid overspill in non-adipose targets (i.e., lipotoxicity) or by inducing an al-tered secretion of different adipose-derived hormones (i.e., adipokines and lipokines). This novel paradigm (“expandability hypothesis”) challenges and extends previous “adipocentric view”, which implies a reduced plasticity of the adipose organ at the nexus between “unhealthy” fat expansion and the development of obesity-associated comorbidities. In this review, we will briefly summarize the potential mechanisms by which adaptive changes to variations of energy balance may impair adipose plasticity and promote fat organ dysfunction. We will also highlight the conundrum with the perturbation of the adipose microenvironment and the development of cardio-metabolic complications by focusing on adipose lipoxidation and cellular senescence. Finally, we discuss the sci-entific rationale for proposing adipose organ plasticity as a target to curb/prevent adi-posity-linked cardio-metabolic complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0363.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Platelet; ACKR3/CXCR7; Thrombosis; Thrombo-inflammation; Anti-platelet therapy; Cardiovascular disease; Coronary artery disease
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:27:01 CET)
The manifold actions of the pro-inflammatory and regenerative chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1α are executed through the canonical GProteinCoupledReceptor CXCR4, and the non-canonical ACKR3/CXCR7. Platelets express CXCR4, ACKR3/CXCR7, and are a vital source of CXCL12/SDF-1α themselves. In recent years, a regulatory impact of the CXCL12-CXCR4-CXCR7 axis on platelet biogenesis i.e. megakaryopoiesis, thrombotic and thrombo-inflammatory ac-tions have been revealed through experimental and clinical studies. Platelet surface expression of ACKR3/CXCR7 is significantly enhanced following myocardial infarction (MI) in acute coro-nary syndrome (ACS) patients, also associated with improved functional recovery and progno-sis. The therapeutic implications of ACKR3/CXCR7 in myocardial regeneration and improved recovery following an ischemic episode, are well documented. Cardiomyocytes, cardi-ac-fibroblasts, endothelial lining of the blood vessels perfusing the heart, besides infiltrating platelets and monocytes, all express ACKR3/CXCR7. This review recapitulates ligand induced differential trafficking of platelet CXCR4-ACKR3/CXCR7 affecting their surface availability, and in regulating thrombo-inflammatory platelet functions and survival through CXCR4 or ACKR3/CXCR7. It emphasizes the pro-thrombotic influence of CXCL12/SDF-1α exerted through CXCR4, as opposed to the anti-thrombotic impact of ACKR3/CXCR7. Offering an innovative translational perspective, this review also discusses the advantages and challenges of utilizing ACKR3/CXCR7 as a potential anti-thrombotic strategy in platelet associated cardiovascular dis-orders, particularly in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients post-MI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0051.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: PDE2; cAMP/cGMP crosstalk; natriuretic peptides; NO signalling; heart failure; arrhythmia; inflammation; cardiovascular disease
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:20:07 CEST)
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are the principal superfamily of enzymes responsible for degrading the secondary messengers 3’,5’-cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP. Their refined subcellular localization and substrate specificity contribute to finely regulate cAMP/cGMP gradients in various cellular microdomains. Redistribution of multiple signal compartmentalization components is often perceived under pathological conditions. Thereby PDEs have long been pursued as therapeutic targets in diverse disease conditions including neurological, metabolic, cancer and autoimmune disorders in addition to numerous cardiovascular diseases. PDE2 is a unique member of the broad family of PDEs. In addition to its capability to hydrolyze both cAMP and cGMP, PDE2 is the sole isoform that may be allosterically activated by cGMP increasing its cAMP hydrolyzing activity. Within the cardiovascular system, PDE2 serves as an integral regulator for the crosstalk between cAMP/cGMP pathways and thereby may couple chronically adverse augmented cAMP signalling with cardioprotective cGMP signalling. This review provides a comprehensive overview of PDE2 regulatory functions in multiple cellular components within the cardiovascular system and also within various subcellular microdomains. Implications for PDE2 mediated crosstalk mechanisms in diverse cardiovascular pathologies are discussed highlighting the prospective use of PDE2 as a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: wearable; photoplethysmography; spectral kurtosis; extreme learning machine (ELM) regression; respiration rate; cardiovascular diseases (CVD)
Online: 16 June 2017 (10:45:32 CEST)
In this paper, we present the design of a wearable photoplethysmography (PPG) system, R-band for acquiring the PPG signals. PPG signals are influenced by the respiration or breathing process and hence can be used for estimation of respiration rate. R-Band detects the PPG signal that is routed to a Bluetooth low energy device such as a nearbyplaced smartphone via microprocessor. Further, we developed an algorithm based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) regression for the estimation of respiration rate. We proposed spectral kurtosis features that are fused with the state-ofthe-art respiratory-induced amplitude, intensity and frequency variations-based features for the estimation of respiration rate (in units of breaths per minute). In contrast to the neural network (NN), ELM does not require tuning of hidden layer parameter and thus drastically reduces the computational cost as compared to NN trained by the standard backpropagation algorithm. We evaluated the proposed algorithm on Capnobase data available in the public domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0443.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: TLR4 signaling; H9C2 Myotube; C2C12 Myotube; Skeletal Muscle Cell; Cardiovascular disease; High Content Screening; MyD88
Online: 28 October 2022 (07:24:06 CEST)
Arjunolic acid (AA) is a triterpenoid saponin majorly found in the Terminalia arjuna and is claimed to exert the cardiovascular protective effects as a phytomedicine. However, it is unclear how AA exerts the effects at the molecular level. Hence, this study used an in vitro model using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated H9C2 and C2C12 myotubes to investigate the cardioprotective effects of arjunolic acid (AA) via MyD88-dependant TLR4 downstream signaling markers expression. The myotubes were developed by differentiating rat H9C2 and mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. The MTT viability assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of AA. LPS induced in vitro cardiovascular disease model was developed in H9C2 and C2C12 myotubes. The treatment groups were designed such as control (untreated), LPS control, positive control (LPS+ pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)-25 µM), and treatment groups were co-treated with LPS and three doses of AA (50, 75, and 100 µM). The changes in the expression of TLR4 downstream signaling markers were evaluated through High Content Screening (HCS) and Western Blot (WB) analysis. The outcomes demonstrated that the expression of MyD88, MAPK, JNK, and NFκB markers were significantly upregulated in the LPS-treated groups compared to the untreated control. Evidently, the HCS analysis revealed that MyD88, NF-κB, p38, and JNK were significantly downregulated in the H9C2 myotube in the AA treated groups (50, 75, and 100 µM). For, the C2C12 myotube, the expression of NFκB was downregulated. TLR4 marker expression in H9C2 and C2C12 myotubes was subsequently decreased by AA treatment, suggesting possible cardioprotective effects of AA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0702.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: telemonitoring; telemedicine; telecardiology; cardiology; wearable; sensors; consumer health devices; cardiovascular disease; heart failure; atrial fibrillation
Online: 30 July 2021 (13:22:06 CEST)
(1) Background: New sensor technologies in wearables and other consumer health devices open up promising opportunities to collect real-world data. As cardiovascular diseases remain reason number one for disease and mortality worldwide, cardiology offers potent monitoring use-cases with patients in their out-of-hospital daily routine. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to investigate the status quo of studies monitoring patients with cardiovascular risks and patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases in a telemedical setting using not only a smartphone-based app, but also consumer health devices such as wearables and other sensor-based devices. (2) Methods: A literature search was conducted across five databases and the results were examined according to the study protocols, technical approaches and qualitative and quantitative parameters measured. (3) Results: Out of 166 articles, 8 studies were included in this systematic review. These cover interventional and observational monitoring approaches in the area of cardiovascular diseases, heart failure and atrial fibrillation using various app, wearable and health device combination. (4) Conclusions: Depending on the researcher’s motivation a fusion of apps, patient reported outcome measures and non-invasive sensors can be orchestrated in a meaningful way adding major contributions to monitoring concepts for both, individual patients and larger cohorts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0137.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: almonds; lipids; heart disease; cardiovascular disease; nuts; dyslipidaemia; cholesterol; low density lipoprotein; high density lipoprotein
Online: 21 November 2017 (05:40:00 CET)
Background: Several preventive strategies to reduce dyslipidaemia, have been suggested of which dietary modification features as an important one. Addition of almonds in our daily diets has been proposed to beneficially impact the lipid profile. This review critically examines the available evidence assessing the effect of almonds on dyslipidaemia in the South Asian (particularly Indian) context. Methods: An extensive review comprising of epidemiological studies, clinical trials, meta-analyses and systematic reviews was conducted from published literature from across the world. Studies examining the effect of almonds on different aspects of dyslipidaemia viz. high LDL-C, low HDL-C, triglyceridaemia, high total cholesterol levels have been included. Results: Dyslipidaemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and strategies to manage dyslipidaemia have been shown to reduce the incidence of CVD. Although there are proven pharmacological therapies to help manage this condition, there are not many nutritional interventions which can impact dyslipidaemia. Almonds have been shown to reduce LDL-C which is a known risk factor for CHD, in several studies and the effect of almonds has been well documented in systematic reviews and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Conclusions: Addition of almonds in the diet has been shown to not only to reduce LDL-C levels, but also to maintain HDL-C levels. This review informs about the use of this simple nutritional strategy which may help manage known major risk factors for heart disease such as high LDL-C and low HDL-C levels especially in the context of South Asians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0073.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: MicroRNAs; miR-126; mir-197; mir-223; Cardiometabolic Disease; Diabetes; Cardiovascular disease; Atherosclerosis; Inter Media Thickness
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:52:25 CET)
We aim to investigate if serum levels of microRNAs: miR-126, mir-197 and mir-223, previously implicated in cardiometabolic disease, are reproducibly associated with incident-diabetes (inc-DM), incident-cardiovascular disease (inc-CVD) and with carotid atherosclerosis (measured for the maximum thickness of the intima-media of the carotid bulb (IMT)). The microRNAs were measured, one: in serum of 553 subjects from the baseline exam of the Swedish prospective cohort, Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDC-CC), with 169 subjects who developed CVD and 140 DM (16 years follow-up) and, two: in 1221 subjects from the Malmö Offspring Study (MOS), with 14 de-veloped CVD and 12 DM (3.7 years follow-up). Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship of serum-concentrations of the microRNAs and inc-DM, inc-CVD, IMT-bulb respectively. In MDC-CC, miR-126 showed significant positive association with inc-DM (p= 0.01) whereas in fully adjusted model, the association was borderline significant (p= 0.05). The results were not replicated in MOS. There was no consistent significant association between the microRNAs with IMT or inc-CVD in any cohort. Our results do not support previous reports on significant associations between these microRNAs and the risk of CMD, as they were not reproducible in our cohorts. In addition, the directionality of any associations found were not consistent with those previously reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Blood Pressure; Rope Exercise; physical activity; Lifestyle Modification; Adolescents; BMI; Hypertension; Cardiovascular risk factors; Academic Performance
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:21:34 CEST)
There are evidences of shared biological mechanisms between obesity and hypertension during childhood in the adulthood, and loads of research literatures have proven that, it will cost the economies and health of nations profoundly if neglected. The Prevention and early diagnosis of cardiovascular risk factors such as overweight and hypertension is an essential strategy for control, effective treatment and prevention of its’ complications. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of school based Exercise and Life style Motivation Intervention (SEAL-MI) on adolescent's cardiovascular risk factors and academic performance. An experimental study was conducted among 1005 adolescents - 520 and 485 adolescents were randomly selected for control and study group, respectively. Demographic details and the data related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep quality were collected by a structured interview questionnaire. The study group adolescents were given the SEAL-MI for six months which includes a school based rope exercise for 45 minutes per day for 5 days a week and a motivation intervention related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep. Post-test 1 and 2 were done after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The prevalence of overweight among adolescents was 28.73% and prehypertension was 9.26%. Among overweight adolescents, the prevalence of prehypertension was found to be very high (32.25%). In post intervention, there was a significant reduction in weight, BP (p=0.000) and improvement in dietary habits, physical activity, sleep (p=0.000) and academic performance. A significant positive correlation was found between BMI and SBP (p=0.000) and BMI and academic performance (p=0.003). The linear regression analyses revealed that the gender (ß: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.81), age (ß: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.46), family income (ß: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.5), residence (ß: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.27) and type of family (ß: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.02) had the strongest correlate with the BMI of the adolescents. Also, Mother’s education Mother’s education (ß: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.59) had the strongest correlate with the SBP of the adolescents. In contrast, the DBP was negatively persuaded by age (ß: -0.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 0.29) and gender (ß: -0.26, 95% CI: 1.34, 0.12) of the adolescents. Regular practice of rope exercise and lifestyle modification such as diet, physical activity and sleep quality among adolescents prevent and control childhood CVD risk factors like overweight, hypertension. The SEAL-MI may lead to age appropriate development of adolescents and improves their academic performance and quality of life. Giving importance to the adolescents from urban habitat, from affluent nuclear family and catching them young will bring significant change in the disease burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: lysophospholipids; lysophosphatidic acids; cardiovascular diseases; HPLC-MS/MS; rodent models; pulmonary hypertension; chronic heart failure; hypertension
Online: 3 September 2021 (15:19:54 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of premature death and disability in humans. Increasing data suggest that CVD is closely related to lipid metabolism and signaling. This study aimed to assess whether circulating lysophospholipids (LPL), lysophosphatidic acids (LPA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) may be considered as biomarkers of CVD. For this objective, the evolution of the plasma levels of 22 compounds (13 LPL, 6 LPA and 3 MAG) was monitored by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS²) in different rat models of CVD, i.e. angiotensin-II-induced hypertension (HTN), ischemic chronic heart failure (CHF) and sugen/hypoxia(SuHx)-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). On one hand, there was modest changes on the monitored compounds in HTN (LPA 16:0, 18:1 and 20:4), LPC 16:1) and CHF (LPA 16:0, LPC 18:1 and LPE 16:0 and 18:0) models compared to control rats but these changes were no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. On the other hand, PH was associated with important changes in plasma LPA with a significant increase in the 16:0, 18:1, 18:2, 20:4 and 22:6 species. A deleterious impact of LPA was confirmed on isolated human pulmonary smooth muscle cells with an increase in their proliferation. This study demonstrates that circulating LPA species are increased in rats with PH and may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease. Additional experiments are needed to assess whether the modulation of LPA signaling in PH may be of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0422.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: extravirgin olive oil; cryogen; Citrus genus; phytochemical; nutraceutical value; Citrus x aurantium; Citrus limon; cardiovascular protection
Online: 24 April 2020 (03:03:29 CEST)
Recently the use of food by products as natural sources of biologically active substances has been extensively investigated especially for the development of functional foods fortified with natural antioxidants. Due to their content of bioactive compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids and limonoids, Citrus peels could be suitable to formulate enriched olive oils able to boost a healthy nutrition. The aim of this study was: (i) to determine the compositional and sensory profiles of the Citrus olive oil and (ii) to evaluate its nutraceutical properties in rats with high fat diet-induced-metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress. The results obtained show the potential of using the Citrus peels as a source of bioactive compounds to improve the sensory profile as well as the phytochemical composition of olive oil. We demonstrated that the production system of C. aurantium olive oil and C. limon olive oil improves their organoleptic properties without altering their beneficial effects, which, like control extra virgin olive oil, showed protective effects on glucose and serum lipid levels, metabolic activity of adipocytes, myocardial tissue functionality, oxidative stress markers and endothelial function at blood vessel level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: wine; mediterranean diet; okinawa diet; health; nrf2; alcohol; polyphenols; hormesis; cardiovascular protection; cancer; Alzheimer; metabolic disease
Online: 2 November 2018 (05:08:46 CET)
Hippocrate, the father of medicine, already said:"Wine is a thing wonderfully appropriate to man if, in health as in disease, it is administered with appropriate and just measure according to the individual constitution." wine has always accompanied humanity, for religion or for health. Christians and Jews need wine for the liturgy. For Platon the wine was an indispensable element in society and took all its importance in the symposium. In this second part of the banquet, mixed with water, the wine gave the word. If the french paradox made a lot of ink flow; it was the wine that was originally responsible for it. Many researchers have tried to share the alcohol and polyphenols in order to solve the mystery. Beyond its cardiovascular effects, there are also effects on longevity, metabolism, cancer prevention and neuroprotection, and the list goes on. The purpose of this work is to make an analysis of current knowledge on the subject. Indeed, if the paradigm of the antioxidants is seductive, it is perhaps by their prooxidant effect that the polyphenols could act, by an epigenetic process mediated by nrf2. Wine is a preserve of antioxidants for the winter and it is by this property that the wine acts, in alcoholic solution. A wine without alcohol is pure heresy. By the way, we were not talking about elixir to design all this millennial pharmacopee that made the man was able to heal and prosper on the planet. From Alvise Cornaro to Serge Renaud, nutrition was the key to health and longevity, whether Cretan or Okinawa diet, it is the small dose of alcohol (wine or sake) that allows the bioavailability of polyphenols. Moderate drinking give a protection for diseases and a longevity potential. In conclusion, let’s drink fewer, but drink better to live older.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; atherosclerosis; oxidative stress; angiogenesis and arteriogenesis; endothelial dysfunction; growth hormone; IGF-I; wound healing
Online: 26 December 2017 (10:30:09 CET)
This review describes the positive effects of growth hormone on the cardiovascular system. We analyze why the vascular endothelium is a real internal secretion gland, whose inflammation is the first step for developing atherosclerosis, as well as the mechanisms by which GH acts on the vascular endothelium improving its dysfunction. We also report how GH acts on coronary arterial disease and heart failure, and on peripheral arterial disease inducing the generation of new collateral vessels able to bypass a major artery occlusion. We include some preliminary data from a trial in which GH or placebo is given to elder people suffering from critical limb ischemia, showing the effects of the hormone on plasma markers of inflammation, and stating that the administration of GH in short periods of time is safe and effective even in diabetic patients. We also analyze how Klotho may have strong relationships with GH, inducing, after being released from the damaged vascular endothelium, the pituitary secretion of GH to repair the damaged tissue. Lastly, we show how GH induces wound healing by increasing the blood flow to the ischemic tissue. In summary, we postulate that short-time GH administration is useful for treating cardiovascular diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0106.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: graphene; electrochemical biosensors; cancer; diagnosis; electrical detection; Alzheimer’s disease; dementia; neurodegenerative disorders; cardiovascular; blood biomarkers; antibodies; proteins
Online: 2 January 2018 (05:21:45 CET)
We report on the development of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) based graphene field effect transistor (GFET) immunosensors for the sensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), a glycoprotein risk biomarker of certain cancers. The GFET sensors were fabricated on Si/SiO2 substrate using photolithography with evaporated chromium and sputtered gold contacts. GFET channels were functionalized with a linker molecule to immobile anti-hCG antibody on the surface of graphene. Binding reaction of the antibody with varying concentration levels of hCG antigen demonstrated the limit of detection of the GFET sensors to be below 1 pg/mL using four-probe electrical measurements. We also show annealing can significantly improve the carrier transport properties of GFETs and shift the Dirac point (Fermi level) with reduced p-doping in back-gated measurements. The developed GFET biosensors are generic and could find applications in a broad range of medical diagnostics in addition to cancer, such as neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Lewy body) and cardiovascular disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: CARDIOSIM©; numerical simulator; lumped parameter model; e-learning; mechanical circulatory support; ventilatory; cardiovascular system; heart failure; clinician
Online: 7 June 2022 (09:07:19 CEST)
This review is devoted to present the history of CARDIOSIM© software simulator platform, which was developed in Italy to simulate the human cardiovascular and respiratory system. The first version of CARDIOSIM© was developed at the Institute of Biomedical Technologies of the National Research Council in Rome. The first platform version published in 1991 ran on PC with disk operating system (MS-DOS) and was developed using the Turbo Basic language. The last version runs on PC with Microsoft Windows 10 operating system; it is implemented in Visual Basic and C++ languages. The platform has a modular structure consisting of seven different general sections, which can be assembled to reproduce different pathophysiological conditions. The software simulator can reproduce the most important circulatory phenomena in terms of pressure and volume relationships. It represents the whole circulation using a lumped-parameter model and enables the simulation of different cardiovascular conditions according to Starling’s law of the heart and a modified time-varying elastance model. Different mechanical ventilatory and circulatory devices have been implemented in the platform including thoracic artificial lung, ECMO, IABP, pulsatile and continuous right and left ventricular assist devices, biventricular pacemaker and biventricular assist devices. CARDIOSIM© is used in clinical and educational environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0550.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Heat; Heatwave; Cardiovascular diseases; Respiratory diseases; Hospital admissions; Climate change; ambient temperature; Public health; time series; summer months
Online: 23 September 2020 (10:32:12 CEST)
There is a lack of knowledge concerning the effects of ambient heat exposure on morbidity in Northern Europe. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relationships of daily summer-time temperature and heatwaves with cardiorespiratory hospital admissions in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. Methods: Time-series models adjusted for potential confounders such as air pollution were used to investigate the associations of daily temperature and heatwaves with cause-specific cardiorespiratory hospital admissions, during summer months of 2001-2017. Daily number of hospitalizations was obtained from the national hospital discharge register, weather information from the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Results: Increased daily temperature was associated with decreased risk of total respiratory hospital admissions and asthma. Heatwave days were associated with 20.5% (95% CI: 6.9, 35.9) increased risk of pneumonia admissions and during long or intense heatwaves also with total respiratory admissions in the oldest age group (≥ 75 years). There were also suggestive positive associations between heatwave days and admissions due to myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular diseases. In contrast, risk of arrhythmia admissions was decreased 20.8% (95% CI: 8.0, 31.8) during heatwaves. Conclusions: Heatwaves, rather than single hot days, are a health threat affecting the morbidity even in a Northern climate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: sodium; potassium; nutrition; diet; urine spot; food frequency questionnaire; cardiovascular disease; childhood cancer survivors; Swiss childhood cancer registry; Europe
Online: 16 October 2019 (10:25:07 CEST)
Risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), common in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), may be affected by diet. We assessed sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and morning urine spots, and its associations with cardiovascular risk in CCSs. We stratified CCS into three risk profiles based on A) personal history (CVD, CVD risk factors, or CVD risk free), B) body mass index (obese, overweight, or normal/underweight), and C) cardiotoxic treatment (anthracyclines and/or chest irradiation, or neither). We obtained a FFQ from 802, and sent a spot urine sample collection kit to 212, of which 111 (52%) returned. We estimated Na intake 2.9 g/day based on spot urine and 2.8 g/day based on FFQ; estimated K intake was 1.6 g/day (spot urine) and 2.7 g/day (FFQ). CCSs with CVD risk factors had a slightly higher Na intake (3.3 g/day), than CCSs risk free (2.9 g/day) or with CVD (2.7 g/day, p = 0.017), and obese participants had higher Na intake (4.2 g/day) than normal/underweight CCSs (2.7 g/day, p<0.001). Daily Na intake was above, and daily K intake below national recommended levels. Adult survivors of childhood cancer need dietary assistance to reduce Na and increase K intake.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0014.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Diabetes; Neurological dysfunction; Cardiovascular complications; Pulmonary dysfunction; Renal dysfunction; bone loss; Eye disease; Gastrointestinal complications
Online: 23 May 2022 (11:00:06 CEST)
Since the discovery of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, a vast majority of studies have been carried out that confirmed the worst outcome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in people with preexisting health conditions, including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Likewise, diabetes itself is one of the leading causes of global public health concerns that impose a heavy global burden on public health as well as socio-economic development. Both diabetes and SARS-CoV-2 infection have their independent ability to induce the pathogenesis and severity of multi-system organ dysfunction, while the co-existence of these two culprits can accelerate the pathophysiology and magnify the severity of the diseases. However, the exact pathophysiology of multi-system organ failure in diabetic patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection is still obscure. This review summarized the organ-specific possible molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 and diabetes-induced pathophysiology of several diseases of multiple organs, including the lungs, heart, kidney, brain, eyes, gastrointestinal system, and bones, and subsequent manifestation of multi-system organ failure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: second-hand smoke; cardiovascular disease; third-hand smoke; passive vaping; electronic cigarettes; heated tobacco; water pipe; myocardial infarction; stroke; diabetes
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:07:13 CEST)
In deaths and diseases attributed to tobacco smoke cardiovascular events exceed cancer and respiratory diseases. Second hand smoke (SHS) promotes the development of arteriosclerosis and can also trigger acute changes of endothelial function and of blood coagulability. Indoor smoking bans reduced coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction 10-20% within one year and were followed by sustainable decreases of stroke and diabetes. With a smoke-free hospitality industry people recognized tobacco smoke as an air pollutant, smoking in public was denormalized and social acceptance of smoking in front of children and pregnant women decreased also in homes and in cars. Combined effects with ambient air pollution are proven for active smoking and suspected for SHS. Contamination with third hand smoke (THS, “cold smoke”) persists for months in homes and cars, creating secondary pollutants that in some cases are more toxic (e.g., tobacco-specific nitrosamines). Remnants found in air, dust, and on surfaces (carpets, wallpapers, upholstery, soft toys) were associated with their metabolites in saliva and urine of children and with elevated levels of nicotine on hands and cotinine in urine of nonsmokers residing in homes previously occupied by smokers. In animal experiments effects of THS were found on thrombogenesis, insulin resistance through oxidative stress, on the developing immune system, lipid metabolism and alterations in liver, lung, skin and behavior. Much less is known about health effects for bystanders from the aerosols exhaled during “vaping” of e-cigarettes, but nicotine and other toxins from e-cigarettes are certainly a hazard, which should be prevented by the use of dermal and oral nicotine products, which are safer for nicotine replacement and without risk for bystanders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells, DNAX-activating protein 12, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, coronary arteries diseases, acute myocardial infract, endocarditis
Online: 3 September 2018 (14:50:17 CEST)
Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) are still menacing and killing adults worldwide, notwithstanding the tremendous effort, to decrease their related mortality and morbidity. Lately, a growing body of evidences indicated that inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and complications of CVDs. A receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells -1 (TREM-1) was shown to induce and to amplify the inflammation in both acute and chronic diseases pathogenesis and progression and hence it is one of the important factors that complicates CVDs. Thus, studies endeavored to investigate the role played by TREM-1 in CVDs with respect to their etiologies, complications and possible therapeutics. We examined here, for the first time, the most relevant studies regarding TREM-1 involvement in CVDs. We summarized the finding after critically analyzing them and made some suggestions for furtherance of the investigations with the aim to utilize TREM-1 and its pathways for diagnostic, management and prognosis of CVDs. Overall, TREM-1 was found to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic cardiovascular conditions like Acute myocardial infraction (AMI) and atherosclerosis as well. Although most therapeutic approaches are yet to be elucidated, present research outcome displays a promising future to utilize TREM-1 pathway as potential target to understand and manage CVDs.