ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0136.v1
Online: 27 September 2017 (04:45:28 CEST)
This paper builds on previous work introducing the Secure Remote Update Protocol (SRUP)—a secure communications protocol for Command & Control applications in the Internet of Things, built on top of MQTT. This paper builds on the original protocol, and introduces a number of additional message types: adding additional capabilities to the protocol. We also discuss the difficulty of proving that a physical device has an identity corresponding with a logical device on the network, and propose a mechanism to overcome this within the protocol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0282.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: PTEN; SHIP2; C2 domain; Ptase domain; MD
Online: 16 February 2023 (09:22:30 CET)
Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and SH2-containing-inositol-5’-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) are structurally and functionally similar. They both consist of a Phosphastase (Ptase) domain and an adjacent C2 domain, and both proteins dephosphorylate phosphoinositol-tri(3,4,5)phosphate, PI(3,4,5)P3; PTEN at the 3-phophate and SHIP2 at the 5-phosphate. Therefore, they play pivotal roles in the PI3K/Akt pathway. Here, we investigate the role of the C2 domain in membrane interactions of PTEN and SHIP2, using molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. It is generally accepted that for PTEN the C2 domain interacts strongly with anionic lipids and therefore significantly contributes to membrane recruitment. In contrast, for the C2 domain in SHIP2 we previously found much weaker binding affinity for anionic membranes. Our simulations confirm the membrane anchor role of the C2 domain in PTEN, as well as its necessity for the Ptase domain in gaining its productive membrane binding conformation. In contrast, we identified that the C2 domain in SHIP2 undertakes neither of these roles, which are generally proposed for C2 domains. Our data support a model in which the main role of the C2 domain in SHIP2 is to introduce allosteric interdomain changes that enhance catalytic activity of the Ptase domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0125.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: isolation; purification; phage; T4; c2; phiX174; phi29
Online: 13 June 2019 (13:33:30 CEST)
The human gut microbiome (GM) plays an important role in human health and diseases. However, while substantial progress has been made in understanding the role of bacterial inhabitants of the gut, much less is known regarding the viral component of the GM. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses attacking specific host bacteria and likely play important roles in shaping the GM. Although metagenomic approaches have led to the discoveries of many new viruses, they largely remain uncultured as their hosts have not been identified, which hampers our understanding of their biological roles. Existing protocols for isolation of viromes generally require relatively high input volumes and are generally more focused on extracting nucleic acids of good quality and purity for down-stream analysis and less on purification of still infective viruses. Here we report the development of an efficient protocol requiring low sample input yielding purified viromes containing still infective phages which also are of sufficient purity for genome sequencing. We validated the method through spiking of known phages followed by plaque assays, qPCR and metagenomic sequencing. The protocol should facilitate the culturing of novel viruses from the gut as well as large scale studies on gut viromes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0170.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: molecular mechanisms; N2 fixation; NRR; CO2-to-C2+; CO2RR; electrocatalysis; bioinspired
Online: 7 December 2020 (15:12:00 CET)
Molecular mechanisms for N2 fixation (solar NH3) and CO2 conversion to C2+ products in enzymatic conversion (Nitrogenase), electrocatalysis, metal-complexes and plasma-catalysis are analysed and compared. It is evidenced that differently from what present in thermal and plasma-catalysis, the electrocatalysis path requires not only the direct coordination and hydrogenation of undissociated N2 molecule, but to realize a series of features present in the Nitrogenase mechanism. There is the need of i) a multi-electron and -proton simultaneous transfer, not as sequential steps, ii) forming bridging metal hydride species, iii) generate intermediates stabilized by bridging multiple metal atoms, iv) have the capability of the same sites to be effective both in N2 fixation and in COx reduction to C2+ products. Only iron oxide/hydroxide stabilized at defective sites of nanocarbons was found to have these features. This comparison of the molecular mechanisms in solar NH3 production and relations with CO2 reduction is proposed to be a source of inspiration to develop the next generation electrocatalysts to address the challenging transition to a future sustainable energy and chemistry beyond fossil fuels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: C2 domain; E3 ubiquitin ligase; lipid binding; phosphoinositide; plasma membrane; smurf1; ubiquitin
Online: 8 January 2020 (04:34:28 CET)
SMAD ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) is a Nedd4 family E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates cell motility, polarity and TGFβ signaling. Smurf1 contains an N-terminal protein kinase C conserved 2 (C2) domain that targets cell membranes and is required for interactions with membrane-localized substrates such as RhoA. Here we investigated the lipid-binding mechanism of Smurf1 C2, revealing a general affinity for anionic membranes in addition to a selective affinity for phosphoinositides (PIPs). We found that Smurf1 C2 localizes not only to the plasma membrane but also to negatively charged intracellular sites, acting as an anionic charge sensor and selective PIP-binding domain. Site-directed mutagenesis combined with docking/molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the Smurf1 C2 domain loop region primarily interacts with PIPs and cell membranes, as opposed to the β-surface cationic patch employed by other C2 domains. By depleting PIPs from the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, we found that PIP binding is necessary for plasma membrane localization. Finally, we used a Smurf1 cellular ubiquitination assay to show that the amount of ubiquitin at the plasma membrane interface depends on the lipid-binding properties of Smurf1. This study shows the mechanism by which Smurf1 C2 targets membrane-based substrates and reveals a novel interaction based on PI(4,5)P2 and PIP3 selectivity.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cytosolic phospholipase A2; electron microscopy; C2 domain; Golgi; membrane bending; membrane curvature; oligomerization
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:10:52 CET)
Group IV phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) regulates the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes via the formation of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. The targeting and membrane binding of cPLA2α to the Golgi involves the N-terminal C2 domain whereas the catalytic domain produces arachidonic acid. Although most studies of cPLA2α concern its catalytic activity, it is also linked to homeostatic processes involving the generation of vesicles that traffic material from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. Here we investigate how membrane curvature influences the homeostatic role of cPLA2α in vesicular trafficking. The cPLA2α C2 domain is known to induce changes in positive membrane curvature, a process which is dependent on cPLA2α membrane penetration. We show that cPLA2α undergoes C2 domain-dependent oligomerization on membranes in vitro and in A549 cells. We found that the association of the cPLA2α C2 domain with membranes is limited to membranes with positive curvature, and enhanced C2 domain oligomerization was observed on vesicles ~50 nm in diameter. We demonstrated that the cPLA2α C2 domain generates cholesterol enriched Golgi-derived vesicles independently of cPLA2α catalytic activity. Our results therefore provide novel insight into the molecular forces that mediate C2 domain-dependent membrane localization in vitro and in cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: C2; command and control; Identity; Internet of Things; IoT; MQTT; NFC; security; QR Code
Online: 22 July 2020 (10:17:33 CEST)
This paper examines dynamic identity, as it pertains to the IoT; and explores the practical implementation of a mitigation to some of the key weaknesses of a conventional dynamic identity model. This paper explores human-centric and machine-based observer approaches for confirming device identity, permitting automated identity confirmation for deployed systems. It also assesses the advantages of dynamic identity in the context of identity revocation permitting secure change of ownership for IoT devices. The paper explores use-cases for human and machine-based observation for authentication of device identity when devices join a C2 network, and considers the relative merits for these two approaches for different types of system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0083.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: nonrelativistic QED; many-body theories; Lagrangian; gauge invariance; Coulomb gauge; Hamiltonian; external fields; quantization; 1/c2 approximation; current-current interaction
Online: 5 May 2020 (15:14:06 CEST)
We describe here the coherent formulation of electromagnetism in the nonrelativistic quantummechanical many-body theory. We use the mathematical frame of the field theory and its quantization in the spirit of the QED. This is necessary because of the manifold of misinterpretations emerging from the hystorical development of quantum mechanics, starting from the Schrödinger equation of a single particle in the presence of given electromagnetic fields, followed by the many-body theories of many charged identical particles having just Coulomb interactions inspired from the classical electromagnetic theory of point-like charges. However, this later is known to be inconsistent due to the self-interaction. This way could not be continued further to include properly the magnetic forces between the charged particles and lead to a lot of confusion about the interpretation of the magnetic field in the Hamiltonian, as well as about the gauge invariance. We emphasize the importance of the distinction between the applied (external fields) and the field in the matter. All these problems are length properly solved within the non-relativistic QED, nevertheless the confusion dominates in all the problems related to the magnetic properties of the solid state.