REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0304.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Vitrification; cooling; abiotic; biotic; stress; browning
Online: 14 December 2020 (08:17:26 CET)
Recent developments in the cryopreservation space has increased the trend in germplasm collections established through cryopreserved in vitro material. Cryopreservation of recalcitrant seeds through embryos and embryonic axes, is not uncommon. Tropical and sub-tropical plants are not acclimated to the cold season, therefore have no in-built natural resilience to the cold. Also, larger seeds from trees, such as avocado (Persea americana Mill.), mango (Mangifera indica) and durian (Durio zibethinus L.) are sensitive to desiccation, chilling and freezing stress, making them unsuitable for seed banking or cryopreservation. Alternatively, as seeds do not carry the same genetic make-up as the mother plant, especially in the context of woody rainforest species of which the cross-pollination is dominant; seed conservation does not serve the purpose of germplasm preservation. Other plant material and methods are needed for these plants to be successfully stored in liquid nitrogen (LN). One such method commonly used is shoot-tip cryopreservation which ensures the clonal fidelity of germplasm. There are many problems when using shoot tips of tropical recalcitrant-seeded species. These include: 1) the toxic effects of cryoprotective agents towards structural integrity; 2) optimum developmental stage for success and 3) oxidative stress associated with excision injury leading to necrosis triggering cell death and hindering regeneration for the shoot tips in culture. A pre-requisite for any cryopreservation system is the availability of an established tissue culture regeneration platform. This review will outline conservation strategies for avocado with special emphasis on attempts and improvements made in the cryopreservation space for storing this horticulturally important crop ‘avocado’ at ultra-low temperatures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0223.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Microalga; Chlamydomonas; Biotic interactions; Algal-microbial Consortia
Online: 12 January 2023 (09:35:58 CET)
The stability and harmony of ecological niches rely on intricated interactions between their members. During evolution, organisms have developed the ability to thrive in different environments taking advantage of each other’s metabolic symphonies. Among them, microalgae are a highly diverse and widely distributed group of major primary producers whose interactions with other organisms play essential roles in their habitats. Understanding the basis of these interactions is crucial to control and exploit these communities for ecological and biotechnological applications. The green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a well-established model, is emerging as a model organism for studying a wide variety of microbial interactions with ecological and economic significance. In this review, we bring together and discuss current knowledge that points to C. reinhardtii as a model organism for studying microbial interactions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0232.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: cyanobacteria, toxic, biotic factors, abiotic factors, interactions, allelopathy
Online: 11 May 2021 (10:36:33 CEST)
Environmental genetics-related modern methods are shown as important indicators of various cyanotoxins syntheses, and their knowledge and use are critically analyzed. Microcystins and other cyanotoxins loads and syntheses are related to different drivers, like various chemical elements and compounds (especially nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and their ratio), then to the light, conductivity, temperature, and other climatical and hydrological factors, to which spatial and geographical features (such as the surface of the water bodies) have to be added. The biotic relationships include different specific and supraspecific, uni- and bilateral links between the cyanobacteria, and subsequently their synthesized toxins, and protozoans (or protoctists), chromists, macrophytes, different systematical and ecological groups of zooplankton, and others. The importance of, but also the gaps in, the knowledge and the scarcity of studies involving ectocrines mediated interactions between different groups of algae and plants are highlighted. The paper ends with an interesting classification of lakes' trophicity, illustrated with conceptual diagrams, based on possible scenarios of cyanobacteria behavior.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0016.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: abiotic stress; biotic stress; biofortification; breeding; French bean; QTLs
Online: 3 June 2020 (09:43:01 CEST)
French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) a member of family Leguminosae is a useful source of protein (∼22%), minerals (folate), vitamins and fibre. Abiotic and biotic stresses are the constraints to high yield and production of French bean. Varieties reluctant to diseases as well as abiotic stresses is among the top breeding objectives for the French bean. Mendelian ratios could know the genetically reliable forms of resistance, whereas it's more robust to understand the intricate kinds, often referred to as quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here, we review and compile the information from the studies related to the identification of QTLs for critical biofortification traits, biotic and abiotic stresses in French bean. Successful map-based cloning requires QTLs represent single genes which could be isolated in near-isogenic lines, and also the genotypes could be unambiguously inferred by progeny testing. Overall, this information will be useful for directing the French bean breeders to select a suitable method for the inheritance evaluation of quantitative traits and determining the novel genes in germplasm resources to ensure that much more potential of genetic information may be uncovered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0244.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: GH3 family; sequencing plants; potato; jasmonic acids; tissues; biotic
Online: 17 May 2018 (12:01:00 CEST)
Glycoside Hydrolase 3 (GH3) is a phytohormone-responsive family of genes that has been found in many plant species. It is implicated in the biological activity of indolacetic (IAA) and jasmonic acids (JA), and also affects plant growth and developmental processes and some stresses. In this study, GH3 genes were identified in 48 plants, which belong to algae, moss, fern, gymnosperm and angiosperm. No GH3 representative gene has been found in algae, and our research identified 4 genes in mosses, 19 in ferns, 7 in gymnosperms, and numerous in Angiosperms. The results showed that GH3 genes mainly occur in seed plants. Phylogenetic analysis of all GH3 genes showed three separate clades. Group I was related to JA adenylation, group II was related to IAA adenylation, and group III was separated from group II but the function was not clear. The structure of GH3 protein indicated highly conserved sequence in the plant kingdom. The analysis of JA-adenylation related to gene expression of GH3 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) showed that StGH3.12 highly responded to Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Expression levels of StGH3.1, StGH3.11, and StGH3.12 were high in flower and StGH3.11 expression was also high in stolon. Our research revealed the evolution of the GH3 family, which is useful for studying the precise function about JA-adenylation GH3 genes in S. tuberosum under development and biotic stresses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0317.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Bioinformatics; Biotic stresses; Regulatory mechanisms; Protein structure; Gene expression; Evolution analysis
Online: 21 October 2022 (03:37:45 CEST)
Sulfate transporters (SULTRs) are responsible for the uptake of the sulfate (SO42−) ions in the rhizosphere by the roots and their distribution in plant organs. In this study, SULTR family members in the genome of the two oilseed crops, Camelina sativa, and Brassica napus, were identified and characterized based on their sequence structure, duplication events, phylogenetic relationships, phosphorylation sites, and expression levels. Herein, 36 and 45 putative SULTR genes were recognized from the genome of C. sativa, and B. napus, respectively. SULTR proteins were predicted as basophilic proteins with low hydrophilicity in both studied species. According to phylogenetic relationships, we divided SULTRs into five groups, in which SULTRs 3 showed highest variation. Besides, several duplication events were observed between SULTRs. The first duplication event was predicted approximately five million years ago between three SULTRs 3.1 in C. sativa. Two subunits were indicated in the 3D structure of SULTRs that the active binding sites differed between C. sativa and B. napus. According to available RNA-seq data, SULTRs showed diverse expression in tissues and response to stimuli. SULTRs 3 showed an expression in all tissues. SULTRs 3.1 were more upregulated in response to abiotic stresses in C. sativa, while SULTRs 3.3, and SULTRs 2.1 showed an upregulation in B. napus. Furthermore, SULTRs 3 and SULTRs 4.1 showed an upregulation in response to biotic stresses in B. napus. Based on the distribution of cis-regulatory elements in the promoter region, we speculated that SULTRs might be controlled by phytohormones such as ABA, and MeJA. Therefore, it seems that SULTR genes in C. sativa have been more influenced by evolutionary processes and have acquired more diversity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0404.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Abiotic stress; biotic stress; biotechnology; climate change; CRISPR; crop improvement; genome editing
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:44:22 CEST)
Climate change poses a serious threat to global agricultural activity and food production. To address this issue, plant genome editing technologies have been developed to provide an alternative solution for crop improvement. Unlike conventional breeding techniques (e.g., selective breeding and mutation breeding), modern genome editing tools offer more targeted and specific alterations of the plant genome to produce crops with desired traits, such as higher yield and/or stronger resilience to the changing environment. In this review, we discuss the current development and future applications of genome editing technologies in mitigating the impacts of biotic and abiotic stresses on agriculture. We focus specifically on the CRISPR/Cas system, which has been the center of attention in the last few years as a revolutionary genome-editing tool in various species. We also conducted a bibliographic analysis on CRISPR-related papers published from 2012 to 2021 (10 years) to identify trends and possible gaps in the CRISPR/Cas-related plant research. In addition, this review article outlines the current shortcomings and challenges of employing genome editing technologies in agriculture with notes on future prospective. We believe combining conventional and more innovative technologies in agriculture would be the key to optimizing crop improvement beyond the limitations of traditional agricultural practices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0364.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: stress tolerance; biological mechanisms; biotic/Abiotic stress; hybrid priming; high-quality seeds
Online: 21 September 2021 (14:02:07 CEST)
Farmers and seed companies constantly require high-quality seeds with excellent agronomic performance. However, faced with environmental adversity, limited natural resources and increasing food demand around the globe, more attention has turned to improving crop plant production by implementing efficient strategies. Seed priming technology has shown promising biological improvements leading to suitable agronomic performance in crop plants under adverse environmental conditions. Seeds are subjected to controlled conditions that are conducive to complex physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes, conferring specific stress tolerance to subsequent germination and growth conditions. In this review paper, we aimed to study the recent approaches in the efficiency of hydropriming, osmopriming, chemopriming, hormopriming, nanopriming, matrix priming, biopriming, physical priming and hybrid priming procedures in the production of crop plants under environmental adversity, as well as their biological mechanism changes. All priming methods demonstrated relevant changes in the biological mechanism related to crop plant production by mitigating salinity effects, heavy metals, and flooding stress and enhancing chilling, heat, drought and phytopathogen tolerance. We strongly recommend that researchers combine multiple priming methods, known as hybrid priming, in their investigations to provide novel technologies and additional biological approaches to enhance the knowledge of crop plant science. Thus, the findings shed light on the use of seed priming technology as a key strategy to increase crop plant production under environmental adversity by acquiring stress tolerance and enhancing agronomic traits to meet the global food demand.
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: global change; plant-herbivore interactions; plant-pathogen interactions; coexistence; antagonistic biotic interactions
Online: 23 July 2020 (10:36:26 CEST)
Indirect effects of global change via changing species interactions have been largely ignored in studies predicting global change impacts on ecosystems. Antagonistic biotic interactions, however, can strongly affect ecosystems and are likely to be affected by global change drivers themselves. We synthesize current knowledge on the impact of invertebrate herbivores and pathogens on plant productivity, diversity and community composition, and outline theory and expectations on how important global change drivers – nitrogen enrichment, climate change and elevated CO2, and plant and insect diversity loss, may affect enemy impact on plant communities. We illustrate that our ability to predict global change impact requires a holistic perspective, taking into account direct as well as indirect effects via the biotic component of ecosystems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0091.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: mangroves; Caribbean; climate change; sea levels; human disturbance; palynology; biotic responses; Pleistocene; Holocene
Online: 4 November 2022 (09:56:07 CET)
Mangroves are among the world’s most threatened ecosystems. Understanding how these ecosystems responded to past natural and anthropogenic drivers of ecological change is essential not only for understanding how extant mangroves have been shaped, but also for informing their conservation. This paper reviews the available paleoecological evidence for Pleistocene and Holocene responses of Caribbean mangroves to climatic, eustatic and anthropogenic drivers. The first records date from the Last Interglacial when global average temperatures sea levels were slightly higher than the present and mangroves grew in locations and conditions similar to today. During the Last Glaciation temperatures and sea levels were significantly lower and Caribbean mangroves grew far from their present locations, on presently submerged sites. Current mangrove configuration was progressively attained after Early Holocene warming and sea-level rise, in the absence of anthropogenic pressure. Human influence began to be important in the Mid-Late Holocene, especially during the Archaic and Ceramic cultural periods, when sea levels were already at their present position, and climatic and human drivers were the most influencing factors. During the last millennium, the most relevant drivers of ecological change have been the episodic droughts linked to the Little Ice Age and the historical developments of the last centuries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0520.v2
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Biotic interactions; Ecological modeling; Plant facilitation; Plant community ecology; Spatial ecology; Theoretical ecology.
Online: 15 January 2021 (12:37:06 CET)
Ecologists use the net biotic interactions among plants as a major factor to predict other ecosystem features, such as species diversity, community structure, or plant atmospheric carbon uptake. By adopting this approach, ecologists have built a giant body of theory founded on observational evidence. However, growing evidence points out that this may not be the right approach. The literature addressing the biophysical mechanisms underlying the plant interactions is much scarcer. A rising number of scientists claim the need for a mechanistic understanding of plant interactions due to the limitations that a phenomenological approach raises both in empirical and theoretical studies. Scattered studies have recently taken such a mechanistic approach, but we still lack a general theoretical framework to study mechanistically plant interactions. In this review, we first recapitulate the elementary units of plant interactions, i.e., all the known biophysical processes affected by the presence of an influencing plant and the possible phenotypic responses of plants influenced by those processes. Second, we discuss how a net interaction between two plants emerges from the simultaneous effect of these elementary units. Third, we touch upon the spatial and temporal variability of the net interaction and discuss the links between this variability and the underlying biophysical processes. We conclude by discussing how to integrate these processes into a mechanistic framework for plant interactions that must necessarily focus on the individual scale and explicitly incorporate the spatial structure of the community and environmental factors: the plant interaction models (PIM). A PIM incorporates a pair or few plants interacting with their physical environment so that the biotic interaction is not imposed but emerges from the model. This type of model can provide concise, mechanistic hypotheses to be tested empirically. This review calls for a paradigm shift in the ecology of plant interactions, from the classic species interaction study towards a more mechanistic individual-level approach. It also presents a comprehensive foundation for studying the mechanisms underpinning the net interaction between two plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0532.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Biotic stress; Abiotic stress; climate change; Plant Transcription Factors; Food Security; Crop Improvement
Online: 26 October 2020 (14:26:31 CET)
Crop plants should be resilient to climatic factors in order to feed ever-increasing populations. Plants have developed stress-responsive mechanisms by changing their metabolic pathways and switching the stress-responsive genes. The discovery of plant transcriptional factors (TFs) as key regulators of different biotic and abiotic stresses have opened up new horizons for plant scientists. TFs perceive the signal and switch certain stress-responsive genes on and off by binding to different cis-regulatory elements. The above 50 species of plant TFs have been reported in nature. DREB, bZIP, MYB, NAC, Zinc-finger, HSF, Dof, WRKY, and NF-Y are important with respect to biotic and abiotic stresses whereas the role of many TFs is yet to explore. In this review, we summarize the role of different stress-responsive TFs with respect to biotic and abiotic stresses. Further, challenges and future opportunities linked with TFs for developing climate-resilient crops are also elaborated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0091.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Evolutionary dynamics; life-history stages; mating systems; biotic interactions; climatic variability; ecological genomics
Online: 4 September 2020 (08:13:40 CEST)
Contemporary climate change is exposing plant populations to novel combinations of temperatures, drought stress, [CO2] and other abiotic and biotic conditions. These changes are rapidly disrupting the evolutionary dynamics of plants. Despite the multifactorial nature of climate change, most studies typically manipulate only one climatic factor. In this opinion piece, we seek to explore how climate change factors interact with each other and with biotic pressures to alter evolutionary processes. We first explore the ramifications of climate change for key life history stages (germination, growth and reproduction). We then examine how mating system variation influences population persistence under rapid environmental change and propose that mixed mating could be advantageous in future climates. Furthermore, we discuss how spatial and temporal mismatches between plants and their mutualists and antagonists could promote or constrain adaptive responses to climate change. For example, plant-virus interactions vary from highly pathogenic to mildly facilitative, and are partly mediated by temperature, moisture availability and [CO2]. Will host plants exposed to novel, stressful abiotic conditions be more susceptible to viral pathogens? Finally, we propose novel experimental approaches that could illuminate how plants will cope with unprecedented global change, such as resurrection studies combined with experimental evolution, genomics or epigenetics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0272.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: biotic stress; plant defense response; hypersensitive response; programmed cell death; reactive oxygen species
Online: 12 July 2020 (18:50:51 CEST)
Nonhost disease resistance is the most common type of plant defense mechanism against potential pathogens. In this study, the metabolic enzyme formate dehydrogenase (FDH1) was identified to be involved in nonhost disease resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, AtFDH1 was highly upregulated in response to both host and nonhost bacterial pathogens. Arabidopsis Atfdh1 mutants were compromised in nonhost resistance, basal resistance, and gene-for-gene resistance. The expression patterns of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) marker genes after pathogen infections in Atfdh1 mutant indicated that SA is most likely involved in the FDH1-mediated plant defense response to both host and nonhost bacterial pathogens. Previous studies reported that FDH1 localizes to only mitochondria, or both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Our results showed that the AtFDH1 localized to mitochondria and the amount of FDH1 localized to mitochondria increased upon infection with host or nonhost pathogens. Interestingly, the subcellular localization of FDH1 was observed in both mitochondria and chloroplasts after infection with a nonhost pathogen in Arabidopsis. We speculate that FDH1 plays a role in cellular signaling networks between mitochondria and chloroplasts to produce coordinated defense responses such as SA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and hypersensitive response (HR)-induced cell death against nonhost bacterial pathogens.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: statistical mechanics; resource partitioning; distribution of species; seasonally dry tropical forest; biotic resistance
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:36:47 CEST)
Data on the seasonally dry tropical forests of Mexico have been examined in the light of statistical mechanics. The results suggest a division into two classes of species. There are drifting populations of a cosmopolitan class capable of existing in most dry forest sites; these have a statistical distribution previously only observed (globally) for populations of alien species. A high proportion of species found only at a single site are endemic and these prefer sites comparatively low in species richness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0581.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: genetically encoded biosensors; live spatiotemporal imaging; multiparameter imaging; plant immune response; biotic stress; crops
Online: 28 January 2021 (12:33:42 CET)
Biosensors are indispensable tools to follow plant’s immunity as its spatiotemporal dimension is key in withstanding the complex plant immune signaling. The diversity of genetically encoded biosensors in plants is expanding, covering new analytes with ever higher sensitivity and robustness, but their assortment is limited in some aspects, such as their use to follow biotic stress response, employing more than one biosensor in the same chassis and their implementation into crops. In this review, we focused on the available biosensors that encompass these aspects. We show that in vivo imaging of calcium and reactive oxygen species is satisfactorily covered with the available genetically encoded biosensors, while on the other hand they are still underrepresented when it comes to imaging of the main three hormonal players of the immune response, salicylic acid, ethylene and jasmonic acid. Following more than one analyte in the same chassis, upon one or more conditions has so far been possible by using the most advanced genetically encoded biosensors in plants which allow to monitor calcium and two main hormonal pathways involved in plant development, auxin and cytokinin. These kinds of biosensors are also the most evolved in crops. In the last section, we gathered the challenges in the use of the biosensors and showed some strategies to overcome them.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0639.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Plants; polyamines; abiotic stresses; biotic stresses; transgenic plants; Plant-pathogen interaction; Plants-fungal interaction
Online: 30 October 2020 (13:10:51 CET)
The biotic and abiotic stresses are the main causes of the loss of agricultural crops productivity, their normal growth and development in the environment. It has been calculated that two-thirds of the major crops are frequently lost due to adverse environmental conditions. The productivity of crops under unfavorable environmental stresses is apparently the main challenge to the breeders and farmers where polyamines (PAs) play diverse roles in environmental stimuli. PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are low molecular weight positively charge compounds have the active potential power to negative charge molecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) is widely distributed in all living organisms. Evidence showed that PAs contribute a lot of different physiological and biological functions, such as cell growth and development, controlling the cell cycle, involve in gene expression, cell signaling, replication, transcription, translation, and membrane stabilization. Naturally occurring polyamines activity acuminated to their involvement with different biotic and abiotic stresses and contribute to the survival of the plant in the environment. Here, we have described the potential mechanisms, synthesis, and various roles of PAs during stresses tolerant and disease resistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0333.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Abiotic stress; Biotic stress; Adaptation; Climate change; Diaseases; Diversity; Genetic Resources; Gene bank; Wild relatives
Online: 15 July 2020 (11:21:07 CEST)
Abstract: A large number of collecting expeditions were launched in regions of ‘centers of diversity’ and hundreds of thousands of sample have been collected and stored in gene banks as ‘genetic resources’. So far, only a small number of the samples have been evaluated for their biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Now, their time to become useful has come. A new global phenomenon has arisen – climate change. The crop genetic resources and their wild progenitors that have survived countless years of changing environment during the last 11,000 years could harbor genes that may be useful under the new growing conditions and environmental factors thrown up by climate change and global warming. With the deployment of modern bio-engineering techniques selected genes or gene fragments can be transferred from genetic resources to modern varieties of crop plants to make them well-prepared to mitigate the effects of global warming and climate change. The latter is the most serious issue facing plant breeders today. New pests and diseases could affect crop production. These review paper discusses various impacts and issues as a result of this phenomenon and suggest ways to safeguard our most important crops through better management of crop plant genetic resources in the near future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0123.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass crops; biofuels; plant miRNAs; miR156; miR156/SPL-system; plant biotechnology; abiotic and biotic stresses; bio-confinement
Online: 9 June 2020 (11:52:23 CEST)
Currently, energy security and environmental degradation are the two biggest challenges before humanity that can be surmounted with the use of green and sustainable biofuels produced from lignocellulosic crops. In the future, to ensure adequate and cost-effective supply of biofuels, it requires a sufficient amount of amenable and quality lignocellulosic feedstocks. Therefore, agricultural yields of lignocellulosic biomass crops should be substantially increased by intense genetic maneuvering of key gene regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways that control plant biomass yield. Recently, numerous miRNAs families are identified, characterized, and validated across the plant kingdom. Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are 21 to 24 nucleotides long, non-coding small RNAs, act as regulators of their target genes via inducing modifications in transcription, translation, and epigenome. MiRNAs represent many hallmark characteristics like sequence-specific regulation, tissue, and species-specific expression, evolutionary conservation, and functional diversity. They coordinate well physiological and life cycle processes in plants under adverse environmental conditions. Hence, miRNAs offer accurate, precise, and efficient regulatory switches in the miRNA-targeted genetic networks. It is evident from the study of the miR156 family and its target SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes network that controls highly significant agronomic traits in crop plants. The miR156/SPL module acts as a master circuit that synchronizes many intricate complex biological functions such as growth and development, and metabolic processes by sensing internal and external environmental signals in plants. Therefore, miR156 can prove a potential target for miRNAs based plant biotechnology to harmonize complex biofuel traits and improve biomass yield in lignocellulosic biomass crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0110.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: invasion ecology; biotic resistance; exotic plants; heterospecific pollen; reproductive interference; alien plants; indirect plant-plant interactions; Darwin's naturalization hypothesis
Online: 9 February 2020 (16:32:53 CET)
1. Heterospecific pollen interference has recently been proposed as a mechanism contributing to the success of alien invaders, as heterospecific pollen of alien plants interferes with the reproduction of natives by reducing fruit and seed set. However, no study has looked at the opposite interaction. Moreover, few studies have considered the roles of phylogenetic and trait distances between pollen donors and recipients. 2. We did a large multi-species experiment in which we used alien and native species both as pollen recipients and as pollen donors, and included phylogenetic as well as trait distance as explanatory variables. 3. We found that both alien and native recipients suffered from heterospecific pollen from donors of the opposite status in terms of seed and fruit set. Phylogenetic distance and trait distance both affected heterospecific pollen interference, but the effect depended on recipient and donor statuses. 4. We conclude that heterospecific pollen interference affects both native and alien recipients, thus indirectly altering community composition and increasing biotic resistance against invaders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0640.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: European spruce bark beetle, Ips, Dendroctonus, global change, symbiosis, natural enemies, population dynamics, biotic interactions, tree killing, forest pest
Online: 26 October 2018 (16:30:11 CEST)
Tree-killing bark beetles are the most economically important insects in conifer forests worldwide. Yet despite >200 years of research, the drivers of population eruptions or crashes are still not fully understood, precluding reliable predictions of the effects of global change on beetle population dynamics and impacts on ecosystems and humans. We critically analyze potential biotic and abiotic drivers of population dynamics of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) and present a novel ecological framework that integrates the multiple drivers governing this bark beetle system. We call for large-scale collaborative research efforts to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of this important pest; an approach that might serve as a blueprint for other eruptive forest insects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0052.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Plant stress, abiotic stress, biotic stress, metabolomics, phytometabolomics, sensomics, phytohormonics, LC-MS/MS, NMR, targeted metabolomics, untargeted metabolomics, functional food.
Online: 3 July 2018 (14:18:19 CEST)
The breeding of stress-tolerant cultivated plants that would allow for a reduction in harvest losses and undesirable decrease in quality attributes requires a new quality of knowledge on molecular markers associated with relevant agronomic traits, on quantitative metabolic responses of plants on stress challenges, and on the mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these molecules. By combining metabolomics with genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics datasets a more comprehensive knowledge of the composition of crop plants used for food or animal feed is possible. In order to optimize crop trait developments, to enhance crop yields and quality, as well as to guarantee nutritional and health factors, that provides the possibility to create functional food or feedstuffs, the knowledge about the plants’ metabolome is crucial. Next to classical metabolomics studies, this review focusses on several metabolomics based working techniques, such as sensomics, lipidomics, hormonomics and phytometabolomics, which were used to characterize metabolome alterations during abiotic and biotic stress, to find resistant food crops with a preferred quality or at least to produce functional food crops are highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0142.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; indole-3-acetic acid; jasmonic acid; plant hormone crosstalk; transcriptional regulation; wound response; biotic stress; growth-defense trade-off
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:20:15 CEST)
The indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway is the major route for auxin biosynthesis in higher plants. Tryptophan aminotransferases (TAA1/TAR) and members of the YUCCA family of flavin-containing monooxygenases catalyze the conversion of L-tryptophan via indole-3-pyruvic acid into indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). It has been described that locally produced jasmonic acid (JA) in response to mechanical wounding, triggers de novo-formation of IAA through the induction of two YUCCA genes, YUC8 and YUC9. Here, we report the direct involvement of a small number of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors of the MYC family in this process. We show that the JA-mediated regulation of YUC8 and YUC9 gene expression depends on the abundance of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4. In support of this observation, seedlings of myc knockout mutants displayed a strongly reduced response to JA-mediated IAA formation. In addition, transactivation assays provided experimental evidence for the binding of the MYC transcription factors to a particular tandem G-box motif abundant in the promoter regions of YUC8 and YUC9, but not in those of the other YUCCA genes. Moreover, we clearly demonstrate that YUC8ox and YUC9ox overexpressing plants show less damage after spider mite infestation, thereby underlining a role of auxin in plant responses toward biotic stress cues.