ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0026.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: atmospheric dispersion modelling; backward Lagrangian stochastic model; atmospheric surface-layer; micrometeorological techniques; gaseous emissions; atmospheric ammonia; dry deposition; grassland; open-path measurements; differential optical absorption spectroscopy
Online: 3 March 2018 (12:04:50 CET)
A controlled ammonia (NH3) release experiment was performed at a grassland site to quantify the effect of dry deposition, at the field scale between the source and the receptors (NH3 measurement locations), on the estimates of emission rates by means of inverse dispersion modelling. NH3 was released for 3 hours at a constant rate of Q = 6.29 mg s−1 from a grid of 36 orifices spread over an area of 250 m2. The increase in line-integrated NH3 concentration was measured with open-path optical miniDOAS devices at different locations downwind of the artificial source. Using a backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) dispersion model (bLSmodelR), the fraction of the modelled release rate to the emitted NH3 (QbLS/Q) was calculated from the measurements of the individual instruments. QbLS/Q was found to be systematically lower than 1, on average between 0.69 and 0.91, depending on the location of the receptor. We hypothesized that NH3 dry deposition to grass and soil surfaces was the main factor responsible for the observed depletion of NH3 between source and receptor. A dry deposition algorithm based on a deposition velocity approach was included in the bLS modelling. Model deposition velocities were evaluated from a ‘big‑leaf’ canopy resistance analogy. Canopy resistances (generally termed Rc) that provided QbLS/Q = 1 ranged from 75 to 290 s m−1, showing that surface removal of NH3 by dry deposition can plausibly explain the original underestimation of QbLS/Q. The inclusion of a dry deposition process in dispersion modelling is crucial for emission estimates, which are based on concentration measurements of depositing tracers downwind of homogeneous area sources or heterogeneously distributed hot spots, such as e.g. urine patches on pastures in the case of NH3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0280.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: atmospheric pollution; dispersion modeling; particulate matter; urban and environmental planning; public health
Online: 27 September 2018 (05:15:40 CEST)
It is currently difficult to obtain accurate fine dust information in residential areas due to the insufficient number of air quality monitoring systems and spatial imbalances. Therefore, a detailed particulate matter dispersion model including factors such as land use and meteorological information was developed in this study and used to create fine dust concentration distribution maps. The fine dust concentration distribution maps currently available to citizens were compared with those obtained by dispersion modeling, and population distribution data were employed to compare the populations exposed to fine dust according to the two methods. The results of the existing method and the developed particulate matter dispersion model differed significantly. For instance, the PM2.5 concentrations in Daejeon, South Korea, on February 17, 2018, were 56% “Good” and 44% “Moderate,” according to the existing method, while they were 31% “Good,” 26% “Moderate,” 28% “Unhealthy,” and 15% “Very Unhealthy,” according to the dispersion model. Furthermore, the existing method indicated that no portion of the population was exposed to poor fine dust concentrations, while the proposed model revealed that over 170 thousand people were exposed to such concentrations. These results on fine dust distributions will contribute to sustainable urban and environmental planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0756.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Atmospheric Dispersion; Integral Model; Flammable Hazards; Flammable distances
Online: 31 March 2021 (10:11:28 CEST)
Integral atmospheric dispersion models are used widely for flammable hazard and its risk analysis. There is a widespread belief that flammable distances from these models are conservative when flammable ranges are calculated using the 0.5 lower flammability limits (LFL) concentration threshold. This is erroneous. This paper traces through the development of these models and the research that led to the Birch Guidance. It shows that the 0.5 LFL is a necessary factor to transform the results of dispersion models designed for environmental assessment to applications to flammable hazard assessment in quiescent conditions. Current applications do not take account of turbulence due to wind, large and small obstructions, etc. A set of simple guidance is given in the paper to manage flammable hazards based on results from atmospheric dispersion models, including topics for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0363.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: atmospheric boundary layer; spatiotemporal dynamics of the atmospheric kinetic energy; turbulence; minisodar measurements
Online: 15 March 2021 (08:14:10 CET)
Spatiotemporal dynamics of the atmospheric kinetic energy and its components caused by the ordered and turbulent motions of air masses are estimated from minisodar measurements of three velocity vector components and their variances within the lowest 5–200 m layer of the atmosphere, with a particular emphasis on the turbulent kinetic energy. The layered structure of the total atmospheric kinetic energy has been established. From the diurnal hourly dynamics of the altitude profiles of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) retrieved from minisodar data, four layers are established by the character of the altitude TKE dependence, namely, the near-ground layer, the surface layer, the layer with a linear TKE increase, and the transitive layer above. In the first layer, the most significant changes of the ТКЕ were observed in the evening hours. In the second layer, no significant changes in the TKE values were observed. A linear increase in the TKE values with altitude was observed in the third layer. In the fourth layer, the TKE slightly increased with altitude and exhibited variations during the entire observation period. The altitudes of the upper boundaries of these layers depended on the time of day. The MKE values were much less than the corresponding TKE values, they did not exceed 50 m2/s2. From two to four MKE layers were distinguished based on the character of its altitude dependence. The two-layer structures were observed in the evening and at night (under conditions of the stable atmospheric boundary layer). In the morning and daytime, the four-layer MKE structures with intermediate layers of linear increase and subsequent decrease in the MKE values were observed. Our estimates demonstrated that the ТКЕ contribution to the total atmospheric kinetic energy considerably (by a factor of 2.5–3) exceeded the corresponding МКЕ contribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0014.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: atmospheric compensation; Gaussian process; hyperspectral
Online: 1 November 2022 (03:47:57 CET)
Atmospheric correction is the processes of converting radiance measured at a spectral 1 sensor to the reflectance of the materials in a multispectral or hyperspectral image. This is an 2 important step for detecting or identifying the materials present in the pixel spectra. We present 3 two machine learning models for atmospheric correction trained and tested on 100,000 batches of 40 4 reflectance spectra converted to radiance using MODTRAN, so the machine learning model learns 5 the radiative transfer physics from MODTRAN. We created a theoretically interpretable Bayesian 6 Gaussian process model and a deep learning autoencoder treating the atmosphere as noise. We 7 compare both methods for estimating gain in the correction model to the well-know QUAC method 8 of assuming a constant mean endmember reflectance. Prediction of reflectance using the Gaussian 9 process model outperforms the other methods in terms of both accuracy and reliability.
Online: 16 June 2021 (08:50:03 CEST)
The application of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) observations from ground-based GNSS Reflectometry is becoming an operational tool for coastal sea-level altimetry. As in all data analyses, systematic influences must be reduced here too, to achieve reliable results. A prominent influence results from atmospheric refraction. Different approaches exist to describe or to correct for this influence. In our contribution we will revise the latest developments and suggest a simple atmospheric interferometric delay model that takes into account ray bending as well as along-path propagation delay. The model takes into account a spherical reflector and can therefore be applied for data from very low elevation angles, too. The findings are double-checked by numerical experiments based on a step-by-step raytracing procedure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0287.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: turbulence and thermals; atmospheric boundary layer
Online: 19 July 2022 (10:49:15 CEST)
This brief review introduces some general properties of lower atmospheric motions that may be exploited by birds, linking historical findings and current knowledge from both observational and modeling perspectives. The relative importance of turbulent mixing resulting from wind shear and that from buoyant thermals is emphasized as well as the determinants of the geometry of the resulting vertical motions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0027.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: eukaryogenesis; genome complexification; atmospheric oxidation; macroevolution
Online: 1 October 2021 (15:26:03 CEST)
The origin of the nucleus remains a great mystery in life science, although nearly two centuries have passed since the discovery of nuclei. To date, studies of eukaryogenesis have focused largely on micro-evolutionary explanations. Here, we examined macro-patterns of C-values (the total amount of DNA within the haploid chromosome set of an organism) for over 110,000 species and the chromosome numbers for over 11,000 species and their potential links with the state of atmospheric oxidation over geological time. Eukaryogenesis was in sync with an over 2.5 order-of-magnitude increase in genome size from prokaryote to eukaryote, and also with a rapid rise of atmospheric oxidation, suggesting that eukaryogenesis would have resulted from a regime shift of genomes driven by the oxidation-driven complexification and structuralization (e.g. chromatin packing).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0171.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Atmospheric Monitoring; DOAS; Tomography; UAV; Drone
Online: 3 November 2020 (15:48:26 CET)
TomoSim comes as part of project ATMOS, a miniaturised DOAS tomographic atmospheric evaluation device, designed to fit a small drone. During the development of the project, it became necessary to write a simulation tool for system validation. TomoSim is the answer to this problem. The software has two main goals: to mathematically validate the tomographic acquisition method; and to allow some adjustments to the system before reaching final product stages. This measurement strategy was based on a drone performing a sequential trajectory and gathering projections arranged in fan beams, before using some classical tomographic methods to reconstruct a spectral image. The team tested three different reconstruction algorithms, all of which were able to produce an image, validating the team’s initial assumptions regarding the trajectory and acquisition strategy. All algorithms were assessed on their computational performance and their ability for reconstructing spectral "images", using two phantoms, one of which custom made for this purpose. In the end, the team was also able to uncover certain limitations of the TomoSim approach that should be addressed before the final stages of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: atmospheric propagation; communication system performance; attenuation; communication
Online: 29 July 2022 (11:15:18 CEST)
6G is already being planned and will employ much higher frequencies, leading to a revolutionary era in communication between people as well as things. It is well known that weather, especially rain, can cause increased attenuation of signal transmission for higher frequencies. The standard methods for evaluating the effect of rain on symbol error rate are based on long-term averaging. These methods are an inaccurate, which results with an inefficient system design. This is critical regarding bandwidth scarcity and energy consumption and requires a more significant margin of effort to cope with the imprecision. Recently we have developed a new and more precise method for calculating communication system performance in case of rain, using the probability density function of rain rate. For high rain rate (above 10mm/hr), for a typical set of parameters, our method shows the symbol error rate in this range to be higher by orders of magnitude than that found by ITU standard methods. Our model also indicates that sensing and measuring the rain rate probability is important in order to provide the required bit error rate to the users. To the best knowledge of the authors, this novel analysis is unique. It can constitute a more effi-cient performance metric for the new era of 6G communication and prevent disruption due to incorrect system design. Keywords: atmospheric propagation, communication system performance, attenuation, com-munication
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0531.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: scatterometer; sea surface wind; storm surge; atmospheric model
Online: 28 December 2022 (08:24:58 CET)
Sea surface wind forecasts in the Adriatic Sea often suffer for unadequate modelling, especially for the wind speed. This has detrimental effects on the accuracy of sea level and storm surge predictions. We present a numerical method to reduce the bias between the sea surface wind observed by the scatterometers and that supplied by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global atmospheric model, for storm surge forecasting applications. The method, called “wind bias mitigation”, relies on scatterometer observations to determine a multiplicative factor ∆ws which modulates the standard model wind in order to decrease the bias between scatterometer and model. We compare four different mathematical approaches to this method, for a total of eight different formulations of the multiplicative factor ∆ws. Four datasets are used for the assessment of the eight different bias mitigation methods: a collection of 29 Storm Surge Events (SEVs) cases in the years 2004-2014, a collection of 48 SEVs in the years 2013-2016, a collection of 364 cases of random sea level conditions in the same period, and a collection of the seven SEVs in 2012-2016 that were worst predicted by the Centro Previsioni e Segnalazioni Maree, Comune di Venezia (Tide Forecast and Early Warning Centre of the Venice Municipality - CPSM). The statistical analysis shows that the bias mitigation procedures supplies a mean wind speed more accurate than the standard forecast, when compared with scatterometer observations, in more than 70% of the analyzed cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0237.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Atmospheric-Observing-System; Aerosol; High-Spectral-Resolution-lidar
Online: 13 December 2022 (09:51:59 CET)
In the context of the Atmospheric Observing System (AOS) international program, a new generation spaceborne lidar is expected to be in polar orbit for deriving new observations of aerosol and clouds. In this work, we analyze the added values of these new observations for characterizing aerosol vertical distribution. For this, synthetic observations are simulated using the BLISS lidar simulator in terms of backscatter coefficient at 532 nm. We consider two types of lidar instruments, an elastic backscatter lidar instrument and a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL). These simulations are performed with atmospheric profiles from a Nature Run (NR) modeled by the MOCAGE Chemical Transport Model. In three case studies involving large events of different aerosol species, the added value of the HSRL channel for measuring aerosol backscatter profiles with respect to simple backscatter measurements is shown. Observations independent from an a-priori lidar Ratio assumption, as done typically for simple backscattering instruments, allows probing the vertical structure of aerosol layers without divergence, even in case of intense episodes. Relative error in the backscatter coefficient profiles are observed to lay between +40% and -40% for low abudancies, with mean biases between +5% and -5%. A 5-day study in the case of desert dust completes the study of the added value of the HSRL channel with relative mean bias from the NR of the order of 1.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0048.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: ocean color; sun glint; atmospheric correction; Landsat 8
Online: 4 July 2022 (09:57:15 CEST)
Sun glint, i.e., direct solar radiation reflected from a water surface, negatively affects the accuracy of ocean color retrieval schemes if entering the field-of-view of the observing instrument. Herein, a simple and robust method to quantify the sun glint contribution to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) is proposed, exploiting concomitant observations of the sun glint’s morphology in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) characterized by reflectance contrasts typically higher than those resulting from other in-water or atmospheric processes. The proposed method, termed Glint Removal through Contrast Minimization (GRCM), requires high spatial resolution (ca. 10–50 m) imagery to resolve the sun glint’s characteristic morphology, meeting additional criteria on radiometric resolution and temporal delay between the individual band’s acquisitions. It has been applied with good success to a selection of Landsat 8 (L8) Operational Land Imager (OLI) scenes encompassing a wide range of environmental conditions in terms of observation geometry and glint intensity, as well as aerosol and Rayleigh optical depth. The method proposed herein is entirely image based and does not require ancillary information on the sea surface roughness or related parameters (e.g., surface wind), neither the presence of clear water areas in the image under consideration. Limitations of the proposed method are discussed, and its potential for sensors other than OLI and applications beyond glint removal is sketched.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0317.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions; carbon dioxide concentrations; Atmospheric Fraction
Online: 23 February 2020 (10:48:35 CET)
In this work, a semi-empirical relationship of carbon dioxide emissions with atmospheric CO2 concentrations has been developed that is capable of closely replicating observations from 1751 to 2018. The correlation consists of a superposition of a linear component that may be attributed to the net emission flux from land use changes coupled with a rapidly varying component of the terrestrial sink combined with a fossil-fuel combustion/cement production emissions-based calculation with a single, fixed, scaling parameter determined by the ocean sink coupled with the remaining slowly varying component of the land sink (the fossil-fuel combustion airborne fraction).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: wind turbine; wake; atmospheric stability; MOST; turbulence models
Online: 16 August 2019 (07:52:44 CEST)
Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) overestimates wind shear in some atmospheric stable conditions, i.e. Richardson number $R_f<0.25$. The overestimated wind shear that leads to an under-predicted friction wind speed and a lower ambient turbulence intensity for a given hub-height reference wind speed and a given roughness length, could influence wake modeling of a wind turbine. This work investigates the side effects of the breakdown of MOST on wake modeling under stable conditions and makes some modifications to the flow similarity functions to eliminate these side effects. Based on a field measurement in a wind farm, we firstly show that MOST predicts a larger wind shear for the atmospheric stability parameter $\zeta>0.1$ and proposes new flow similarity functions without constraining $R_f$ to limit the overestimated wind shear by MOST. Next, different turbulence models based on MOST and a modified one based on the new similarity functions are investigated through numerical simulations. These turbulence models are combined with the actuator disk model (AD) and Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) to model wind turbine wakes under stable conditions. As compared to measurements, numerical results show that turbulence models based on MOST result in larger wake deficits and slower wake recovery rate with a square root of the mean-squared-error (RSME) of wake deficit in the range of 0.07-0.18. This overestimated wake effect is improved by applying the new similarity functions and the RSME of wake deficit is averagely reduced by 0.05. Finally, we check the role of the under-predicted turbulence intensity playing in the larger wake deficit predicted by models based MOST. Additional numerical simulations using the modified turbulence model are carried out, in which the roughness length is reduced to impose a hub-height ambient turbulence intensity equivalent to the MOST case. Simulation results show that reducing turbulence intensity enhances wake effects, however, it cannot reproduce the large wake deficit predicted by models based on MOST, which suggests that the overestimated wake effect by MOST could be also related to the overestimated wind shear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: wind turbine; wake; atmospheric stability; actuator disk; BEM
Online: 2 July 2019 (04:11:13 CEST)
Atmospheric stability affects wind turbine wakes significantly. High-fidelity approaches such as large eddy simulations (LES) with the actuator line (AL) model which predicts detailed wake structures, fail to be applied in wind farm engineering applications due to its expensive cost. In order to make wind farm simulations computationally affordable, this paper proposes a new actuator disk model (AD) based on the blade element method (BEM) and combined with Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) to model turbine wakes under different atmospheric stability conditions. In the proposed model, the upstream reference velocity is firstly estimated from the disk averaged velocity based on the one-dimensional momentum theory, and then is used to evaluate the rotor speed to calculate blade element forces. Flow similarity functions based on field measurement are applied to limit wind shear under strongly stable conditions, and turbulence source terms are added to take the buoyant-driven effects into consideration. Results from the new AD model are compared with field measurements and results from the AD model based on the thrust coefficient, the BEM-AD model with classical similarity functions and a high-fidelity LES approach. The results show that the proposed method is better in simulating wakes under various atmospheric stability conditions than the other AD models and has a similar performance to the high-fidelity LES approach however in much lower computational cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0468.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: reactive gases; atmospheric aerosol; air sampling; smart technologies
Online: 24 September 2018 (16:47:52 CEST)
Nowadays a recognized need for accurate observations of atmospheric aerosols (AEs) and reactive gases (RGs) exists in the framework of regional, national and global near-surface networks based on permanent or mobile measurement stations. In this context, a paramount and not-trivial issue is related to the correct execution of continuous sampling of ambient air and its subsequent distribution to measurement analyzers hosted inside the stations. Sampling artifacts must be minimized for obtaining reliable pictures of ambient air composition. To respond to this need, a suite of novel “smart” and relatively low-cost systems for the continuous sampling of ambient air was developed in the framework of the Project I-AMICA (2012 – 2015, www.i-amica.eu). These systems were designed to execute AE and RG measurements according with WMO/GAW and ACTRIS recommendations and standard operation procedures. A particular attention was dedicated to the stabilization and control of the sampling flow rates and temperatures. The analysis of one full year of operations at the WMO/GAW regional station of Capo Granitola (GAW ID: CGR, Italy), allowed to conclude that these systems are effective in meeting the technical requirements for correct execution of AE and RG measurements
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0119.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: satellite sensors capturing; spectral- and hyperspectral imaging; atmospheric model; outgoing radiation; atmospheric correction; spectral radiance; surface albedo; spectral brightness factor (coefficient)
Online: 23 October 2018 (15:40:12 CEST)
Atmospheric correction is a necessary step in image processing data and spectra recorded by spaceborne sensors for pure cloudless atmosphere, primarily in the visible and near-IR spectral range. We have present a fast and sufficiently accurate method of atmospheric correction based on the proposed analytical solutions describing with high accuracy the spectrum of outgoing radiation at the top boundary of the cloudless atmosphere. This technique includes the model of the atmosphere and its optical parameters that are important in terms of radiation transfer. The solution of the inverse problem for finding unknown parameters of the model is carried out by the method of non-linear least squares (Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm) for an individual selected pixel of the image (its spectrum), taking into account the adjacency effects. Using the found parameters of the atmosphere and the average surface albedo, assuming homogeneity of the atmosphere within a certain area of the hyperspectral image (or the whole frame), the spectral albedo at the Earth's surface is calculated for all other pixels. It is essential that the procedure of the numerical simulation with non-linear least squares of the direct transfer problem is based on using analytical solutions, which provides a very short calculation time of the atmospheric parameters (seconds or less) and the ability to perform atmospheric correction "on-fly." Testing methods of atmospheric correction was performed using the synthetic outgoing radiation spectra at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), obtained by numerical simulation in the LibRadTran code, as well as spectra of real space images of the Hyperion hyperspectrometer. A comparison with the results of atmospheric correction in module FLAASH of ENVI package has been performed. Finally, to validate our data obtained by the SHARK method, a comparative analysis with ground-based measurements of Radiometric Calibration Network (RadCalNet) was carried out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0250.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: snow remote sensing; cloud screening; atmospheric correction; radiative transfer
Online: 14 November 2022 (09:38:42 CET)
We present the update of the Snow and Ice (SICE) property retrieval algorithm proposed initially by Kokhanovsky et al. (2019). The algorithm is based on the spectral measurements of Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) onboard Sentinel-3 satellites combined with the asymptotic radiative transfer theory valid for weakly absorbing turbid media. The main improvements include the introduction of a new atmospheric correction, retrieval of snow impurity load and properties, retrievals for partially snow-covered ground and also accounting for various thresholds to be used to assess the retrieval quality. The algorithm is available as python and Fortran packages at https://github.com/GEUS-SICE/pySICE. The technique can be applied to various optical sensors (satellite and ground-based) operated in the visible and near infrared regions of electromagnetic spectra.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0262.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Stereo winds; midwave infrared; weather satellite; atmospheric motion vectors
Online: 18 January 2022 (15:15:47 CET)
The Compact Midwave Imaging System (CMIS) is a wide field of view, multi-angle, multi-spectral pushframe imager that relies on the forward motion of the satellite to create a two-dimensional (2D) image swath. An airborne demonstration of CMIS was successfully completed in January-February 2021 on the NASA Langley Research Center Gulfstream III. The primary objective of the four-flight campaign was to demonstrate the capability of this unique instrument to perform stereo observations of clouds and other particulates (e.g. smoke) in the atmosphere. It is shown that the midwave infrared (MWIR) spectral bands of CMIS provide a unique 24/7 capability with high resolution for accurate stereo sensing. The instrument relies on new focal plane array (FPA) technology, which provides excellent sensitivity at much warmer detector temperatures than traditional technologies. This capability enabled a compact, low-cost design that can provide atmospheric motion vectors and cloud heights to support requirements for atmospheric winds in the 2017-2027 Earth Science Decadal Survey. Applications include day/night observations of the planetary boundary layer, severe weather, and wildfires. A comparison with current space-based earth science instruments demonstrates that the SWIR/MWIR multi-spectral capability of CMIS is competitive with larger, more expensive instrumentation. Imagery obtained over a controlled burn and operating nuclear power plant demonstrated the sensitivity of the instrument to temperature variations. The system relies on a mature stereoscopic imaging technique applied to the same scene from two independent platforms to unambiguously retrieve atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) with accurate height assignment. This capability has been successfully applied to geostationary and low-earth orbit satellites to achieve excellent accuracy. When applied to a ground-point validation case, the accuracy for the CMIS aircraft observations was 20 m and 0.3 m/s for cloud heights and motion vectors, respectively. This result was confirmed by a detailed error analysis with analytical and covariance models. The results for CMIS cases with underflights of Aeolus, CALIPSO and Aqua provided a good validation of expected accuracies. The paper also showed the feasibility of accommodating CMIS on CubeSats to enable multiple instruments to be flown in a leader-follower mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0477.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: rain cells; atmospheric attenuation; microwave radar; Ka-band; altimetry
Online: 28 September 2021 (21:32:59 CEST)
The impact of large atmospheric attenuation events on data quality and availability is a critical aspect for future altimetry missions based on Ka-band altimetry. The SARAL/AltiKa mission and its Ka-band nadir altimeter offer a unique opportunity to assess this impact. Previous publications (Tournadre et al. 2009, 2015) already analyzed the impact of rain on the waveforms at Ka-band and proposed a definition of an elaborate rain flag. This notion tends to give a simpler black and white view of the atmospheric attenuation when the effect on the altimeter measurement is intense. But in practice, there is continuum of measurements that may be partially distorted or corrupted by rain events. The present study proposes a wider point of view , the ACECAL approach providing statistics on rain cells occurrences as well as their amplitude and their size, as guidelines for future Ka-band missions concerning the impact of the atmosphere. At global scale, 1 % of the measurements are affected by an attenuation larger than 23 dB and 10 % of the atmospheric attenuation events have a size larger than 40 km. This study demonstrates that the data quality and availability over some regions of particular interest for oceanography as Gulf Stream, North Pacific and Brazil currents could be affected compared to global statistics. It also opens some perspectives on the benefits that the community could be drawn from the systematic distribution of the rain cells parameters as secondary products of altimetry missions.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Superhydrophobicity; superamphiphobicity; aerospace; atmospheric icing; durability; ultra-light aircraft
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:17:42 CEST)
Fabrics treated to repel water, superhydrophobic, and water and oil, superamphiphobic, have numerous industrial and consumer-level benefits. These coatings are typically non-permanent. This is largely due to chemical or physical changes of the coating to prolonged exposure to relatively harsh environments. To develop more durable fabric treatments for specific applications, it is necessary to measure the extent to which the treated fabrics retain their low-wettability after being subjected to controlled aggressive environmental conditions. In this study, plain weave fabrics made from polyester filaments and coated with silicone nanofilaments in-solution were exposed to aerodynamic icing conditions. The coated fabrics showed superhydrophobic behavior, or superamphiphobic for those that were fluorinated. The wettability of the fabrics was progressively evaluated by contact angle and roll-off-angle measurements. The fabrics were able to maintain their low-wettability characteristics after exposure to water droplet clouds at airspeeds up to 120 m/s, despite damage to the silicone nanofilaments, visible through scanning electron microscopy.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0333.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: atmospheric river; avalanche; debris flow; flooding; snow level; typhoon
Online: 24 May 2018 (05:53:39 CEST)
On 5-7 April 2018 a landfalling atmospheric river resulted in widespread heavy precipitation in the Sierra Nevada of California and Nevada. Observed snow levels during this event were among the highest snow levels recorded since observations began in 2002 and exceeded 2.75 km for 31 hours in the northern Sierra Nevada and 3.75 km for 12 hours in the southern Sierra Nevada. The anomalously high snow levels and over 80 mm of precipitation caused flooding, debris flows, and wet snow avalanches in the upper elevations of the Sierra Nevada. The origin of this atmospheric river was super typhoon Jelawat, whose moisture remnants were entrained and maintained by an extratropical cyclone in the northeast Pacific. This event was notable due to its April occurrence, as six other typhoon remnants that caused heavy precipitation with high snow levels (mean = 2.92 km) in the northern Sierra Nevada all occurred during October.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0413.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: CO2 turnover time, anthropogenic emissions, CO2 atmospheric flux, global warming
Online: 17 January 2023 (02:24:26 CET)
Although total nett CO2 atmospheric flow can be estimated with reasonable accuracy, the contributing gross fluxes between the atmosphere and the earth's surface are poorly understood. This paper presents a method, driven by the objective of simplicity, by which the global outflow and inflow of CO2 between atmosphere and a globally equivalent "mixing reservoir" can be estimated, using the isotopes 14C and 13C as tracers. It has been asserted that the isotopic carbon in CO2 cannot be directly used as a tracer in flow studies because it is not subject to the Revelle factor. Evidence is provided showing that this view is mistaken. The model contains 7 key parameters which are used to create synthetic records of Δ14C and d13C spanning 200 years or more, including during the period of atmospheric weapons testing and its decay known as the "bomb pulse". By optimising the fit between these computed values and the historical records of d13C and Δ14C, all seven key parameters are determined. The effective "mixing reservoir" is thereby determined to have a size around six times that of the atmosphere, with global outflux rising from 39.7 GTC yr-1 in 1750 to 58.9 GTC/yr in 2020, this figure probably not including annually cycled carbon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0049.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: sea brightness coefficient; optical characteristics; ocean color; dust; atmospheric correction
Online: 23 December 2022 (07:27:12 CET)
Satellite measurements are one of the main sources of data on the state of the marine environment. To obtain information about the sea brightness coefficient , it is needed to correctly carry out atmospheric correction. In the presence of dust aerosol over the Black Sea, physically incorrect values of the spectral brightness coefficient often occur, and specifically negative values in the IR region of the spectrum. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the influence of dust aerosol on the spectral dependence of sea brightness, based on analytical calculations from the transfer theory using the principle of plane-parallel layers and results of validation of AERONET-OC field and remote sensing data. The work analyzes spectral dependence of the first error eigenvector of the standard atmospheric correction in the presence of dust aerosol. As result it is given that with an absorbing aerosol, the atmospheric correction error is described by the spectral course of molecular scattering, i.e. close to
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0468.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: review; ammonia; modeling; measurement; atmospheric chemistry; particle formation and PM2.5
Online: 21 August 2020 (04:06:33 CEST)
Ammonia (NH3), the most prevalent alkaline gas in the atmosphere, plays a significant role in PM2.5 formation, atmospheric chemistry, and new particle formation. This paper reviews quantification of [NH3] through measurements, satellite-remote-sensing, and modeling reported in over 500 publications towards synthesizing current knowledge of [NH3], focusing on spatiotemporal variations, controlling processes, and quantification issues. Most measurements are through regional passive sampler networks. [NH3] hotspots are typically over agricultural regions like the Midwest US and North China Plain, with elevated concentrations reaching monthly averages of 20 and 74 ppbv, respectively. Topographical effects dramatically increase [NH3] over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, North India and San Joaquin Valley, US. Measurements are sparse over oceans, where [NH3] ≈ few tens of ppbv, variations of which can affect aerosol formation. Satellite-remote-sensing (AIRS, CrIS, IASI, TANSO-FTS, TES) provides global [NH3] quantification in the column and at surface since 2002. Modeling is crucial for improving understanding of NH3 chemistry and transport, its spatiotemporal variations, source apportionment, exploring physicochemical mechanisms, and predicting future scenarios. GEOS-Chem (global) and FRAME (UK) models are commonly applied for this. A synergistic approach of measurements↔satellite-inference↔modeling is needed towards improved understanding of atmospheric ammonia, of concern from the standpoint of human health and the ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0469.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: radiometric calibration; remote sensing; atmospheric effects; UAS; empirical line method
Online: 31 March 2020 (23:13:23 CEST)
The current study sets out to develop an empirical line method (ELM) radiometric calibration framework for reducing atmospheric contributions in UAS imagery and for producing scaled remote sensing reflectance imagery. Using a MicaSense RedEdge camera flown on a custom-built octocopter, the research reported herein finds that atmospheric contributions have an important impact on UAS imagery. Data collected over the Lower Pearl River Estuary in Mississippi during five week-long missions covering a wide range of environmental conditions was used to develop and test a simplified ELM radiometric calibration framework designed specifically for the reduction of atmospheric contributions to UAS imagery in studies with limited site accessibility or data acquisition time constraints. The framework was effective in reducing atmospheric and other external contributions to UAS imagery. Unique to the proposed radiometric calibration framework is the radiance to reflectance conversion conducted externally from the calibration equations which allows for the normalization of illumination independent from the time of UAS image acquisition and from the time of calibration equations development. This paper presents the simplified ELM radiometric calibration framework that can be used as a time-effective calibration technique to reduce errors in the UAS imagery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0062.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Hyperspectral Imagery, Machine Learning, Atmospheric Compensation, Autoencoders, Radiative Transfer Modeling
Online: 7 June 2019 (14:45:54 CEST)
The increasing spatial and spectral resolution of hyperspectral imagers yields detailed spectroscopy measurements from both space-based and airborne platforms. Machine learning algorithms have achieved state-of-the-art material classification performance on benchmark hyperspectral data sets; however, these techniques often do not consider varying atmospheric conditions experienced in a real-world detection scenario. To reduce the impact of atmospheric effects in the at-sensor signal, atmospheric compensation must be performed. Radiative Transfer (RT) modeling can generate high-fidelity atmospheric estimates at detailed spectral resolutions, but is often too time-consuming for real-time detection scenarios. This research utilizes machine learning methods to perform dimension reduction on the transmittance, upwelling radiance, and downwelling radiance (TUD) data to create high accuracy atmospheric estimates with lower computational cost than RT modeling. The utility of this approach is investigated using the instrument line shape for the Mako long-wave infrared hyperspectral sensor. This study employs physics-based metrics and loss functions to identify promising dimension reduction techniques. As a result, TUD vectors can be produced in real-time allowing for atmospheric compensation across diverse remote sensing scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0261.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: sea ice; atmospheric circulation; Rossby waves; climate changes; Arctic; numerical modeling
Online: 11 August 2021 (13:17:14 CEST)
The amplified Arctic warming is one of several factors influencing atmospheric dynamics. In this work, we consider a series of numerical experiments to identify the direct role of the Arctic sea ice reduction process in forming climatic trends in the northern hemisphere. Aimed at this, we used two more or less independent mechanisms of ice reduction. The first is traditionally associated with increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from the historic level of 360 ppm to 450 ppm and 600 ppm. This growth increases air temperature and decreases the ice volume. The second mechanism is associated with a reduction in the reflectivity of ice and snow. We assume that comparing the results of these two experiments allows us to judge the direct role of ice reduction. The most prominent consequences of ice reduction, as a result, were the weakening of temperature gradient at the tropopause level in mid-latitudes, the slower zonal wind at 50-60∘N, intensification of wave activity in Europe, Western America, and Chukotka, and its weakening in the south of Siberia and Kazakhstan. We also consider how climate change may alter regimes such as blocking and stationary Rossby waves. The study used the INM-CM48 climate system model .
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Anthropogenic heat emissions; global energy use; atmospheric temperature; carbon dioxide emissions.
Online: 28 April 2021 (07:47:05 CEST)
The use of different primary energy sources in human society has led to two major polluting emissions in the environment: energy (mostly heat), and chemical substances (mostly carbon dioxide). In this paper, the total global anthropogenic emissions of heat to the atmosphere during the industrial era (years 1850-2018) were determined and their effect on the change of global atmospheric temperature was calculated. The concept of a theoretical three-phase Earth reactor was introduced to estimate global atmospheric temperature increase caused by anthro-pogenic heat emissions. The resulting calculations closely approximated the actual atmospheric temperature change recorded during the last 170-year period. These results suggest that the temperature change of the atmosphere (global warming) is entirely due to anthropogenic heat emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040077
Subject: Keywords: temperature; global warming; greenhouse gases; atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentration
Online: 20 October 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
It is common knowledge that increasing CO2 concentration plays a major role in enhancement of the greenhouse effect and contributes to global warming. The purpose of this study is to complement the conventional and established theory that increased CO2 concentration due to human emissions causes an increase of temperature, by considering the reverse causality. Since increased temperature causes an increase in CO2 concentration, the relationship of atmospheric CO2 and temperature may qualify as belonging to the category of “hen-or-egg” problems, where it is not always clear which of two interrelated events is the cause and which the effect. We examine the relationship of global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration at the monthly time step, covering the time interval 1980–2019, in which reliable instrumental measurements are available. While both causality directions exist, the results of our study support the hypothesis that the dominant direction is
T → CO2. Changes in CO2 follow changes in T by about six months on a monthly scale, or about one year on an annual scale. We attempt to interpret this mechanism by involving biochemical reactions, as at higher temperatures soil respiration, and hence CO2 emission, are increasing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0259.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: non-thermal atmospheric-pressure biocompatible plasma; diffusion; ozone species; plasma sterilizer
Online: 18 February 2020 (06:47:42 CET)
Medical institutions, where several patients are treated and medical workers engaged, are always exposed to secondary viral and bacterial infections. It is critical to prevent infection transmission by indirect as well as direct contact through air or splash. The infections of most diseases can be transmitted through the air. HEPA filters installed in air conditioning equipment are used to prevent infection transmission through air in medical institutions, but air circulation takes a long time in a large space. Virus and bacteria smaller than 0.3 μm cannot be removed by the HEPA filter; hence, those microbes remain alive throughout the air ventilation. A plasma sterilizer has the capability to provide environmental friendly sterilization by employing reactive oxide species and reactive nitrogen species at a low cost. We developed an excellent plasma sterilizer by using a non-thermal atmospheric-pressure biocompatible plasma (NBP). Ozone concentration in plasma sources has been derived by Kuhn et al. . The diffusion coefficients inside (D0) and outside (D1) the plasma sterilizer have been calculated to be 0.0641 m2 s-1 and 0.717 m2 s-1, respectively. To sustain high O3 concentrations over 121 ppm inside the plasma source and low O3 concentrations below 0.05 ppm outside the sterilizer, it is necessary to keep O3 concentrations at the exit of plasma sterilizer below 0.28 ppm. so that diffusion coefficient D1 has been designed to be as large as 11 times of D0.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: breeze; sodar; atmospheric boundary layer; internal gravity waves; Kelvin-Helmholtz billows
Online: 22 October 2019 (11:26:12 CEST)
The three-axes Doppler sodar Latan-3 operated on an oceanographic stationary platform in the coastal zone of the Black Sea in June 2015. The platform is located 450 meters offshore from the southern coast of the Crimea Peninsula in the region of Katsiveli (44.39°N, 33.99°E). The water depth at the site is about 30 meters. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) typical for the mediterranean seas was observed when the wind is from the sea. The physical processes typical for the coastal mountain terrain was observed when the wind was from the shore. Complex measurements of the ABL parameters were performed using a sodar. Auxiliary measurements of the ABL parameters were performed using a temperature profiler and an ultrasonic thermometer-anemometer. Observations were made mostly during a fair weather with a pronounced diurnal course of meteorological parameters. Sodar data analysis revealed a strong wave activity in the ABL. Internal gravity waves with amplitudes of up to one hundred meters were regularly observed in a layered turbulence structure under stable conditions. Various forms of Kelvin-Helmholtz billows were observed at the interface between the sea breeze and the return flow aloft and in the low level jets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0351.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Ionic liquid; synergistic activation; aminoethanol; 2-oxazolidinone; atmospheric CO2; sustainable catalysis
Online: 16 October 2018 (10:48:43 CEST)
To circumvent the thermodynamic limitation of the synthesis of oxazolidinones starting from 2-aminoethanols and CO2 and realize incorporation CO2 under atmospheric pressure, a protic ionic liquid-facilitated three-component reaction of propargyl alcohols, CO2 and 2-aminoethanols was developed to produce 2-oxazolidinones along with equal amount of α-hydroxyl ketones. The ionic liquid structure, reaction temperature and reaction time were in detail investigated. And 15 mol% [TBDH][TFE] (1,5,7-triazabicylo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene trifluoroethanol) was found to be able to synergistically activate the substrate and CO2, thus catalyzing this cascade reaction under atmospheric CO2 pressure. By employing this task-specific ionic liquid as sustainable catalyst, 2-aminoethanols with different substituents were successfully transformed to 2-oxazolidinones with moderate to excellent yield after 12 h at 80 oC. This three-component reaction running under atmospheric pressure proves to be a clever detour to avoid the thermodynamic issue in the synthesis of 2-oxazolidinones starting from 2-aminoethanols and CO2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0213.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: atmospheric pollution; Pb accumulation rate; peat geochemistry; Roman period; Pb isotopes
Online: 22 May 2018 (07:44:10 CEST)
Two peat cores from two bogs were used to reconstruct high–resolution changes in atmospheric Pb accumulation rate (Pb AR) in Belgium during the Roman period. The two records were compared to assess the reliability of peat cores as archives of atmospheric Pb deposition and to established histories of atmospheric emissions from anthropogenic sources. To address these issues we analyze Pb concentration and isotopes, using ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS in two peat sections, spanning 1000 yr each. Lead concentrations in the two cores range from 0.1 to 60 μg g−1, with the maxima between 15 and 60 μg g−1. The average natural background of Pb AR was 0.005± 0.002 mg m-2 yr-1 and the maximum ranges from 0.7 to 1.2 mg m-2 yr-1 between 50 BC and AD 215. The highest Pb AR exceed the pre-Roman period values by a factor of 25-30. Pb isotopic composition indicates that mining and metallurgical activities were the predominant sources of pollution during the Roman period. The Pb AR and chronologies in the Belgian peat cores are consistent with those reported for other continental archives as lake sediments, peat and ice cores.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0165.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: oil and gas production; atmospheric emissions; greenhouse gases; gas flaring; H2S
Online: 26 November 2017 (12:21:40 CET)
This paper addresses the atmospheric emissions from oil and gas extraction and production in Greece. The study was carried out in 2014 in the Kavala gulf, which currently is the only location of oil and gas production in Greece and where the exploration activities for hydrocarbons started in the late ‘60’s. This study presents the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of atmospheric emissions, in relation also to the emissions’ control management system. Particular reference is made to sulphur compounds since the existence of volcanic rocks results to increased amounts of H2S. The results shows that, currently, atmospheric emissions of pollutants during extraction and production of hydrocarbons in Greece are very low and do not have any significant effect on air quality and climate change. Since it is expected that exploitation of hydrocarbons and oil and gas extraction and production will increase in the future, appropriate measures should be taken to ensure environmental protection, such as the development of integrated monitoring systems and the use of up to date emission control technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0159.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: atmospheric mercury; Baltic Sea; mapping of TGM levels; long range transport
Online: 24 November 2017 (09:00:15 CET)
Mercury is a toxic pollutant emitted from both natural sources and through human activities. A global interest in atmospheric mercury has risen ever since the discovery of the Minamata disease in 1956. Properties of gaseous elemental mercury enable long range transport which can cause pollution even in pristine environments. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was measured from winter 2016 to spring 2017 over the Baltic Sea. A Tekran 2357A mercury analyser was installed aboard the research and icebreaking vessel Oden for the purpose of continuous measurements of gaseous mercury in ambient air. Measurements were performed during a campaign along the Swedish east coast and in the Bothnian Bay near Lulea during the icebreaking season. Data was evaluated from Gothenburg using a plotting software and back trajectories for air masses were calculated. The TGM average of 1.365 ± 0.054 ng/m3 during winter and 1.288 ± 0.140 ng/m3 during spring was calculated as well as a total average of 1.362 ± 0.158 ng/m3. Back trajectories showed a possible correlation of anthropogenic sources elevating the mercury background level in some areas. There were also indications of depleted air, i.e., air with lower concentrations than average, being transported from the Arctic to northern Sweden resulting in a drop in TGM levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0258.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Humus; soil biota; organic soil carbon; atmospheric CO2; carbon credits and deficits
Online: 14 December 2022 (14:02:26 CET)
Land’s basic biota metric is soil organic carbon (SOC) yet global estimates range 1,417–15,000 Gt C. Erosion of ancient topsoil and loss of vital soil taxa are most urgent – and most ignored – of all context-triaged concerns. Albeit topographical terrain increases most soil calculations and inventories on a non-flat Earth, re-evaluation shows the major contribution to unrelenting atmospheric CO2 increase more from topsoil loss than fossil fuels. Although increased CO2 has resulted in a global greening effect with NPP productivity now ~220 Gt C/yr, this is arguably outweighed by more rapid erosion of topsoil and expansion of desertification at 2-15 Gt SOC/yr volatilized due to excessive meat eating with unsupportable soil extractive, toxic farm management. In particular excess synthetic Nitrogen acidifies topsoil and depletes the organic SOC biotic-dynamics. Carbon credits of our disappearing soil biotic stocks are enumerated for plant roots (916 Gt C), litter (600 Gt C), microbes (200 Gt C), fungi (30 Gt C), biocrust (10-20 Gt C), earthworms (2.3-3.6 Gt C), termites (0.15 Gt C), nematodes (0.06 Gt C), ants (0.024 Gt C), and soil viruses (0.02–4.0 Gt C). Consideration of soil microbes and review of global SOC inventories reveal critical topsoil loss up to 20,000 tonnes per second with species extinction as high as 23 taxa each second. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) fail without a solid soil foundation. However, heritage soil data points to remedy in modern organic farm restoration. Safe solution is via natural vermi-composting, 100% organic farming, and Permaculture under a simple logical premise that the Problem (i.e., SOC loss) is the Solution (viz., SOC restoration).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Environmental impact; atmospheric pollution; lifestyle changes; health effects; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:16:12 CEST)
This article analyses the environmental impact of the measures imposed during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We compare the evolution of atmospheric pollution levels in recent years and during lockdown, and assess the effects of the decrease in mobility and changes in patterns and lifestyles during the latter period. Thus, the reduction in the risk to human health brought about by the improvement of air quality during the months of confinement through the use of dose-response functions is estimated. The focus of the case study is the island of Tenerife. The island of Tenerife has been selected because it can serve as an example for other sites in Europe. We distinguish between the three areas with the highest population concentrations: the Metropolitan, Southern, and Northern areas. The impacts of air pollution and its relationship with changes in consumption and activity patterns are clearly distinguishable. Therefore, the lessons learned can be easily extrapolated to other areas, in both island and mainland contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0595.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle; low-altitude sounding; atmospheric turbulence; wind velocity; fluctuations; spectrum
Online: 25 September 2020 (05:43:34 CEST)
Based on the theory of turbulence, equations are derived for estimations of turbulent fluctuations of the longitudinal and transverse components of the wind velocity during ideal hovering of a quadcopter in a turbulent atmosphere. We present the results of experiments which were carried out on the territory of the Geophysical Observatory of Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, located in Tomsk Akademgorodok on the territory with complex orography, in a parkland zone with buildings of research institutes and motorways. Time series of turbulent fluctuations of the longitudinal and transverse components of wind velocity fluctuations were received with the use of an automated weather station, and time series of estimates of these components, from data of a DJI Phantom 4 Pro quadcopter during hovering. According to the automated weather station data, anisotropy was observed in one experiment during measurements in the atmosphere, but this phenomenon was not observed in the other experiment: the fluctuation spectra of all components of wind speed fluctuations coincide. The spectra of fluctuations of the longitudinal and transverse wind velocity components based on the automated weather station data and UAV telemetry are presented. The fluctuation spectra of these components for the automated weather station data and quadcopter generally coincide. The behavior of the spectra coincides with the spectrum which corresponds to Kolmogorov–Obukhov “–5/3” law within the inertial range. The turbulent spectra of the wind velocity fluctuations obtained with the use of the automatic weather station and with the unmanned aerial vehicle differ in the high-frequency spectral region.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0126.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Cold atmospheric Plasma; sterilization; Plasma-activated medium; Nitric oxide; Immunotherapy; COVID-19
Online: 8 April 2020 (11:34:11 CEST)
The recent pandemic has greatly stressed supply chains, treatment modalities, and medical resources. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has been used for a wide range of applications in biomedical engineering due to its many components including electrons, charged particles, reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), free radicals, ultraviolet (UV) photons, molecules, electromagnetic fields, physical forces, and electric fields. In this manuscript, we develop CAP devices for COVID-19. Our manuscript indicates the advantages of highlydeployable CAP devices for both sanitation and treatment, without the need for supply chains of special consumables such as hand sanitizers and the like. We hope that this timely research will help engage the broader community of engineers that wish to help the medical community with this pandemic and to prevent and treat future outbreaks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0607.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: radon; atmospheric stability; air quality; model evaluation; modelling; SNBL; ABL; urban pollution
Online: 28 November 2018 (07:00:41 CET)
We propose a new technique to prepare statistically-robust benchmarking data for evaluating chemical transport model meteorology and air quality parameters within the urban boundary layer. The approach employs atmospheric class-typing, using nocturnal radon measurements to assign atmospheric mixing classes, and can be applied temporally (across the diurnal cycle), or spatially (to create angular distributions of pollutants as a top-down constraint on emissions inventories). In this study only a short (<1-month) campaign is used, but grouping of the relative mixing classes based on nocturnal mean radon concentrations can be adjusted according to dataset length (i.e., number of days per category), or desired range of within-class variability. Calculating hourly distributions of observed and simulated values across diurnal composites of each class-type helps to: (i) bridge the gap between scales of simulation and observation, (ii) represent the variability associated with spatial and temporal heterogeneity of sources and meteorology without being confused by it, and (iii) provide an objective way to group results over whole diurnal cycles that separates ‘natural complicating factors’ (synoptic non-stationarity, rainfall, mesoscale motions, extreme stability, etc.) from problems related to parameterizations, or between-model differences. We demonstrate the utility of this technique using output from a suite of seven contemporary regional forecast and chemical transport models. Meteorological model skill varied across the diurnal cycle for all models, with an additional dependence on the atmospheric mixing class that varied between models. From an air quality perspective, model skill regarding the duration and magnitude of morning and evening “rush hour” pollution events varied strongly as a function of mixing class. Model skill was typically the lowest when public exposure would have been the highest, which has important implications for assessing potential health risks in new and rapidly evolving urban regions, and also for prioritizing the areas of model improvement for future applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0750.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: fast gas-liquid reactions; online electrospray ionization mass spectrometry; heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry
Online: 31 October 2018 (10:54:59 CET)
One of the research priorities in atmospheric chemistry is to advance our understanding of heterogeneous reactions and their effect on the composition of the troposphere. Chemistry on aqueous surfaces is particularly important in this regard because of their ubiquity and expanse. They range from the surfaces of oceans (360 million km2), cloud and aerosol drops (~10 trillion km2) to the fluids lining the human lung (~200 m2). Typically, ambient air contains reactive gases that may affect human health, influence climate and participate in biogeochemical cycles. Despite their importance, reactions between gases and solutes at air-aqueous interfaces are not well understood. New, surface-specific techniques are required that detect and identify the intermediates and products of such reactions as they happen on liquids. This is a tall order because genuine interfacial reactions are faster than mass diffusion into bulk liquids, and may produce novel species at low concentrations. Herein, we review evidence that validates online pneumatic ionization mass spectrometry of liquid microjets dosed by reactive gases as a technique meeting such requirements. Next, we call attention to results obtained by this approach on reactions of ozone, nitrogen dioxide and hydroxyl radicals with various solutes on aqueous surfaces. The overarching conclusion is that the outermost layers of aqueous solutions are unique media, where equilibria shift and reactions proceed faster than, in some cases along different pathways from the bulk liquids. The fact that the rates and mechanisms of reactions at air-aqueous interfaces may not be deduced from experiments in bulk liquids opens new conceptual frameworks and lines of research, and adds an overlooked dimension to atmospheric chemistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010002
Subject: Keywords: atmospheric evolution; seismicity; low-energy nuclear reactions; carbon pollution; time series analysis
Online: 28 September 2018 (00:00:00 CEST)
The crucial stages in the geochemical evolution of the Earth’s crust, ocean, and atmosphere could be explained by the assumed low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) that are triggered by seismic activity. LENR result in the fission of medium-weight elements accompanied by neutron emissions, involving Fe and Ni as starting elements, and C, N, O as resultants. Geochemical data and experimental evidences support the LENR hypothesis. A spectral analysis of the period 1955-2013 shows common cycles between interannual changes in atmospheric CO2 growth rate and global seismic-moment release, whereas the trending behavior of the atmospheric CO2 was in response to the anthropogenic emissions. Assuming a correlation between such seismic and atmospheric fluctuations, the latter could be explained by cycles of worldwide seismicity, which would trigger massively LENR in the Earth’s Crust. In this framework, LENR from active faults could be considered as a relevant cause of carbon formation and degassing of freshly-formed CO2 during seismic activity. However, further studies are necessary to validate the present hypothesis which, at the present time, mainly aims to stimulate debate on the models which regulates atmospheric CO2.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0153.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: lead pollution; alpine environments; Alticola argentatus; Microtus gregalis; atmospheric deposition; heavy metals
Online: 17 January 2018 (11:37:36 CET)
High mountain areas are an appropriate indicator of anthropogenic lead (Pb), which can reach the remote mountain ranges through long distance atmospheric transport. We compared the content of Pb in ecologically equivalent rodent species from Tian-Shan with European mountain ranges Tatra, Vitosha and Rila mountains. We used bone tissues from terminal tail vertebrae of small rodents for detection of Pb levels by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The tail bones of Tian-Shan rodents had significantly lower Pb levels than snow voles from Tatra mountains, but there was no significant difference in comparison with Vitosha and Rila mountains. We can conclude that Tian-Shan shows lower pollution by Pb than Tatra mountains, what may be a reason of longer lasting industrialization of north-western Europe and strongly prevailing west winds in Tatra mountains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Plasma devices; atmospheric-pressure plasmas; glow discharge devices; power amplifiers; terahertz switches
Online: 17 February 2017 (07:33:01 CET)
Micro plasma devices (MPD) with power gains are of interest in applications involving operations in the presence of ionizing radiations, in propulsion, in control, amplification of high power electromagnetic waves, and in metamaterials for energy management. Here we review and discuss MPDs with an emphasis on new architectures that have evolved during the past 7 years. Devices with programmable impact ionization rates and programmable boundaries are developed to control the plasma ignition voltage and current to achieve power gain. Plasma devices with 1-10 μm gaps are shown to operate in the sub-Paschen regime in atmospheric pressures where ion-assisted field emission results in a breakdown voltage that linearly depends on the gap distance in contrast to the exponential dependence dictated by the Paschen curve. Small gap devices offer higher operation frequencies at low operation voltages with applications in metamaterial skins for energy management and in harsh environment inside nuclear reactors and in space. In addition to analog plasma devices, logic gates, digital circuits, and distributed amplifiers are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0579.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Airglow; All-Sky Imagery; Atmospheric Gravity Waves; Cancelation Factor; Lidar; Mesosphere-Lower-Thermosphere
Online: 28 October 2020 (10:06:49 CET)
The cancelation factor (CF) is a model for the ratio between gravity wave perturbations in the airglow intensity to that in the ambient temperature. The CF model allows to estimate the momentum and energy flux of gravity waves seen in nightglow images as well as the divergence of these fluxes due to waves propagating through the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region, where the nightglow and the Na layers are located. This study uses a set of T/W Na Lidar data and zenith nightglow image observations of the OH and O(1S) emissions to test and validate the CF model from the experimental perspective. The dataset analyzed was obtained during campaigns carried out at the Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO), Chile in 2015, 2016, and 2017. The CF modeled function was compared with observed points from an empirical method for vertically propagating waves that calculates directly the ratio of the gravity wave amplitude seen in nightglow images to the wave amplitude seen in lidar temperatures. We show that the CF analytical relationship underestimates the observed results generally. However, the O(1S) emission line has better agreement respect to the theoretical value due to simpler nightglow photochemistry. In contrast, the observed CF ratio from the OH emission deviates by a factor of two from the modeled asymptotic value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0319.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: altimeter; sea surface wind speed; significant wave height; mean wave period; atmospheric instability
Online: 23 February 2020 (11:09:10 CET)
Spaceborne altimeters are an important data source for obtaining global sea surface wind speeds (U10). Although many altimeter U10 algorithms have been proposed and they perform well, there is still room for improvement. In this study, the data from ten altimeters were collocated with buoys to investigate the error of the altimeter U10 retrievals. The U10 residuals were found to be significantly dependent on many oceanic and atmospheric parameters. Because these oceanic and atmospheric parameters are inter-correlated, an asymptotic strategy was used to isolate the impact of different parameters and establish a neural-network-based correction model of altimeter U10. The results indicated that significant wave heights and mean wave periods are effective in correcting U10 retrievals, probably due to the tilting modulation of long-waves on the sea surface. After the wave correction, the root-mean-square error of the retrieved U10 was reduced from 1.42 m/s to 1.24 m/s and the impacts of thermodynamic parameters, such as sea surface (air) temperate, became negligible. The U10 residuals after correction showed that the atmospheric instability can lead to errors on extrapolated buoy U10. The buoy measurements with large air-sea temperature differences need to be excluded in the Cal/Val of remotely sensed U10.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0017.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: atmospheric motion vectors; AMVs; intercomparison; himawari; CPTEC/INPE; EUMETSAT; JMA; KMA; NOAA; NWCSAF
Online: 2 August 2019 (05:44:19 CEST)
Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) calculated by six different institutions (Brazil Center for Weather Prediction and Climate Studies/CPTEC/INPE, European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites/EUMETSAT, Japan Meteorological Agency/JMA, Korea Meteorological Administration/KMA, Unites States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/NOAA and the Satellite Application Facility on Support to Nowcasting/NWCSAF) with JMA’s Himawari-8 satellite data and other common input data are here compared. The comparison is based on two different AMV input datasets, calculated with two different image triplets for 21 July 2016, and the use of a prescribed and a specific configuration. The main results of the study are summarized as follows: (1) the differences in the AMV datasets depend very much on the “AMV height assignment” used and much less on the use of a prescribed or specific configuration; (2) the use of the “Common Quality Indicator (CQI)” has a quantified skill in filtering collocated AMVs for an improved statistical agreement between centers; (3) JMA AMV algorithm has the best overall performance considering all validation metrics, most likely due to its height assignment: “optimal estimation using observed radiance and NWP wind vertical profile”.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: porosity; atmospheric plasma spraying; chromium oxide; porosity measurement; multi-layer coatings; nano-coatings
Online: 13 June 2019 (07:49:09 CEST)
Porosity in plasma sprayed coatings is vital for most engineering applications. It is either advantageous or disadvantageous depending on the functionality of the coating and the immediate working environment. Consequently, the formation mechanisms and development of porosity has been extensively explored to find out modes of controlling porosity in plasma sprayed coatings. In this work, a comprehensive review of porosity on plasma sprayed coatings is established. The formation and development of porosity on plasma sprayed coatings are governed by set spraying parameters. Optimized set spraying parameters have been used to achieve the most favorable coatings with minimum defects. Even with the optimized set spraying parameters, defects like porosity still occur. Here, we discuss other ways that can be used to control porosity in plasma sprayed coating with emphasis to atmospheric plasma sprayed chromium oxide coatings. Techniques like multi-layer coatings, nano-structured coatings, doping with rare earth elements, laser surface re-melting and a combination of the above methods have been suggested in adjusting porosity. The influences of porosity on properties of plasma sprayed coatings and the measurement methods of porosity have also been reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0097.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: acoustic emission; atmospheric corrosion; aluminum; aircraft structure; pitting corrosion; hydrogen bubbles; structural health monitoring
Online: 4 August 2022 (03:55:40 CEST)
Atmospheric corrosion of aluminum aircraft structures occurs due to numerous reasons. A typical phenomenon leading to corrosion is the deliquescence of contaminants such as salts due to changes in relative humidity (RH) caused by aircraft operation at different altitudes and climate zones. Currently, corrosion of aircrafts is controlled by scheduled inspections. In contrast, the present contribution aims for a continuous monitoring approach by using the acoustic emission (AE) method to detect and further evaluate atmospheric corrosion. The AE method is frequently used for corrosion detection at typically immersion-like conditions or for corrosion types where stress-induced cracking is involved. However, it has not yet been demonstrated for atmospheric corrosion at unloaded aluminum structures. To address this question, the present investigation uses small droplets of a corrosive sodium chloride (NaCl) solution to induce atmospheric corrosion on aluminum alloy AA2024-T351. Operating conditions of an aircraft are simulated by a controlled variation in RH. In addition, videos of the corrosion site are recorded to visually observe the corrosion process. Pitting corrosion is generated and clearly measurable AE signals are detected. An automatic video processing algorithm looking for sudden changes on the corrosion site mainly detects hydrogen bubbles formed when aluminum reacts with aqueous solutions. A clear correlation between the observed pitting corrosion, the AE and the hydrogen bubble activity and the RH, i.e., the electrolyte present at the aluminum surface, is found. Thus, the findings demonstrate the applicability of the AE method for monitoring atmospheric corrosion of aluminum aircraft structures by today’s measurement equipment. Numerous potential effects that can cause measurable AE signals are investigated and discussed. Among these, bubble activity is clearly considered to be the most emissive one.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0081.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: electric streamer discharges; streamer theory; streamer parameters; plasma instabilities; partially-ionized plasmas; atmospheric electricity
Online: 3 November 2021 (13:59:43 CET)
Electric streamer discharges (streamers) in air are a very important stage of lightning, taking place before formation of the leader discharge, and with which an electric discharge starts from conducting objects which enhance the background elecric field, such as airplanes. Despite years of research, it is still not well understood what mechanism determines the values of streamer parameters, such as its radius and propagation velocity. The Streamer Parameter Model (SPM) is aimed to understand this mechanism, as well as to provide a way to efficiently calculate streamer parameters. Previously, we demonstrated that SPM results compared well with a limited set of experimental data. In this Brief Report, we compare SPM predictions to the published hydrodynamic simulation (HDS) results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0037.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Rainfall; Trends analysis; Mann-Kendall test; CHIRPS; Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric model (RCA4); Uganda.
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:43:03 CET)
The lack of reliable rainfall projection records remains a major challenge to Uganda. In the advent of extreme wetness or drought events, reliable rainfall estimates for local planning and adaptation are essential. The present study used two main datasets to conduct a historical analysis from 1981 to 2019, coupled with future projections under representative concentration pathway (RCP 8.5) for the period 2020-2050. Historical analysis revealed bimodal annual rainfall pattern for March-May (MAM) and September-November (SON) gradients representing heavier to lighter rainfall events respectively over the study area. Investigation of recent trends in rainfall patterns revealed an upward trend from 2010 onwards in annual and seasonal rainfall. Moreover, results for future projections show wet conditions are projected to occur over the study area between the months of April/May and October. Contrarily, March is likely to experience a reduction in wet conditions. Mann-Kendall test employed to make future projections of rainfall depicted decreasing patterns during MAM season whilst increasing tendencies with strong shift was highlighted for SON season over the study region. Meanwhile, annual projections indicate huge variations with linear trends showing a marginal increase as compared to historical trends. Findings would serve as baseline print to propel further studies that could delve into impact analysis of drought extreme events which pose significant threats to the agricultural sector which is heavily reliant on rainfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0242.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs); Trajectories; EUMETSAT; NWCSAF; AEMET; MSG; Himawari; GOES-N; GOES-R.
Online: 22 July 2019 (10:47:35 CEST)
The “NWCSAF High Resolution Winds (NWC/GEO-HRW)” software is developed by the EUMETSAT’s “Satellite Application Facility on support to Nowcasting and very short range forecasting (NWCSAF)”, inside its stand-alone software package for calculation of meteorological products with geostationary satellite data (NWC/GEO). The whole NWC/GEO software package can be obtained after registration at the NWCSAF Helpdesk, www.nwcsaf.org. It is easy to get, install and use. The code is easy to read and fully documented. And in the NWCSAF Helpdesk, users find support and help for its use. “NWCSAF High Resolution Winds” provides a detailed calculation of Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) and Trajectories, locally and in near real time, using as input NWP model data and geostationary satellite image data. The latest version of the software, v2018, is able to process MSG, Himawari-8/9, GOES-N and GOES-R satellite series images, so that AMVs and Trajectories can be calculated all throughout the planet Earth with the same algorithm and quality. In the “2014 and 2018 AMV Intercomparison Studies”, “NWCSAF High Resolution Winds” has shown to be one of the two best AMV algorithms for both MSG and Himawari-8/9 satellites. And the “Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS)” has recognized in its “2012 Meeting Report”: 1. “NWCSAF High Resolution Winds” fulfills the requirements to be a portable stand-alone AMV calculation software due to its easy installation and usability. 2. It has been successfully adapted by some CGMS members and serves as an important tool for development. It is modular, well documented, and well suited as stand-alone AMV software. 3. Although alternatives exist as portable stand-alone AMV calculation software, they are not as advanced in terms of documentation and do not have an existing Helpdesk. Considering this, a full description and validation of the “NWCSAF/High Resolution Winds” is shown here for the first time in a peer-reviewed paper. The procedure to obtain the software for operational meteorology and research is also explained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0684.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Thermal updraft velocity; Thermal convection; Soaring; Atmospheric Boundary Layer; Soaring birds; Sailplane; Aviation safety.
Online: 29 October 2018 (13:10:05 CET)
A forecasting scheme of the thermal updraft velocity based on a theoretical model and data collected from flights records at gliding competitions, is presented. The forecasting scheme was based on the hypothesis that there is linear relationship between the overheat function at ground surface and the temperature difference between soil and air. The proportionality factor of this relationship was determined experimentally using observations recorded during gliding flights. The results showed that based on this simple scheme forecasting thermal convection is possible at any geographical location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0304.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: monsoon, maritime continent, ocean-atmospheric phenomena, Southeast Asia, biomass burning, sea surface temperature, rainfall.
Online: 19 June 2018 (15:31:51 CEST)
Maritime Continent (MC) positions in between Asian and Australian summer monsoons zone. Its complex topography and shallow seas around it is a major challenge for the climate researchers to model and understand it. Monsoon in this area is affected by inter-scale ocean-atmospheric interactions like El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and Madden-Julian Oscillation. Monsoon rainfall in MC (especially in Indonesia and Malaysia) profoundly exhibits its variability dependency on ocean-atmospheric phenomena in this region. This monsoon shift often introduces to dreadful events like biomass burning (BB) in Southeast Asia (SEA) which sometimes leads to severe trans-boundary haze pollution. In this study, the episode of BB in 2015 of SEA is highlighted and discussed. Observational satellite datasets are tested by performing simulations with numerical weather prediction (NWP) model using WRF-ARW (Advanced research WRF). Observed and model datasets are compared to study the sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation (rainfall) anomalies influenced by ENSO, IOD and MJO. Correlations have been recognised which explains the delayed rainfall of regular monsoon in MC due to the influence of ENSO, IOD and MJO during 2015 BB episode, eventually leading to intensification of fire and severe haze.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Advanced turbulence statistics, piezo-electric flow sensor, atmospheric boundary layer16 stability, laminar-turbulent transition
Online: 6 June 2018 (17:49:05 CEST)
To gain insight into the differences between onshore and offshore atmospheric turbulence, 2 pressure fluctuations were measured for offshore wind under different environmental conditions. 3 A durable piezo-electric sensor was used to sample turbulent pressure data at 50 kHz. Offshore 4 measurements were performed at 100 m height on Germany’s FINO3 offshore platform in the 5 German Bight together with additional meteorological data provided by Deutscher Wetterdienst 6 (DWD). The statistical evaluation revealed that the stability state in the atmospheric boundary has a 7 large impact on turbulent fluctuations. Therefore, we used higher statistical properties (described 8 by so-called shape factors) to the stability state. Data was classified to be either within the unstable, 9 neutral or stable stratification. We found that in case of stable stratification, the shape factor is 10 mostly close to zero, indicating that a thermally stable environment produces closer-to Gaussian 11 distributions. Non-Gaussian distributions were found in unstable and neutral boundary layer states 12 and an occurrence probability was estimated. Possible impact on laminar-turbulent transition on the 13 blade is discussed with application of so-called laminar aerofoils on wind turbine blades. Use of a 14 cut-off frequency to separate load and aerodynamic turbulence is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0075.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: extreme weather events; heat waves; sun-earth relationships; sun and weather; space weather and extreme atmospheric events; global atmospheric anomalies; SEP events and weather; SEP and NAO; gulf stream and heat waves
Online: 6 March 2019 (11:01:50 CET)
In the past two decades the world experienced an exceptional number of unprecedented extreme weather events, some causing major human suffering and economic damage, such as the March 2012 heat event, which was called “Meteorological March Madness.” From the beginning of space era a correlation of solar ﬂares with pressure changes in atmosphere within 2–3 days or even less was reported. In this study we wanted to test the possible relation of highly warm weather events in North-East America with Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. For this reason we compared ground temperatures TM in Madison, Wisconsin, with energetic particle fluxes P measured by the EPAM instrument onboard the ACE spacecraft. In particular, we elaborated case events and the results of a statistical study of the SEP events related with the largest (Dst ≤ −150nT) Coronal Mass Ejection (CME)-induced geomagnetic storms, between with the years 1997–2015. The most striking result of our statistical analysis is a very significant positive correlation between the highest temperature increase. ΔTM and the time duration of the temperature increase ΔTM (r = 0.8, p <0.001) at “winter times” ( r = 0.5, p , 0.01 for the whole sample of 26 SEP examined events). The time response of TM to P was found to be in general short (a few days), but in the case of March 2015, during a gradual P8 increase, a cross-correlation test indicated highest c.c. within 1 day (p < 0.05). The March 2012 “meteorological anomaly” was elaborated in the case of South-East Europe, where, beside a period of strong winds and rainfall (6-13.3.2012), intense precipitation in North-East Greece (Alexandroupoli) were found to be correlated with distinct high energy flux enhancements. A rough theoretical interpretation is discussed for the space—atmospheric extreme weather relationship we found. However, much work should be done to achieve early warning of space weather dependent extreme meteorological events. Such future advances in understanding the relationships between space weather and extreme atmospheric events would improve atmospheric models and help people’s safety, health and life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0463.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: atmospheric correction; cloud mask; water vapor content; spectral radiance; surface spectral albedo; aerosol optical thickness
Online: 22 February 2021 (12:01:13 CET)
In this work, we propose simple and robust technique for the retrieval of underlying surface spectral albedo using spaceborne observations. It can be used to process both multispectral moderate resolution satellite data and also multi - zone high spatial resolution data. The technique can work automatically for different types of land surfaces without using huge databases accumulated in advance. The new cloud discrimination and retrieval of the water vapor content in atmosphere procedures are presented. The key point of the proposed atmospheric correction technique is the suggested single-wavelength method for determining the atmospheric aerosol optical thickness without reference to a specific type of underlying surface spectrum. The retrievals of spectral albedo for various land surfaces with developed technique, performed using computer simulation and experimental data, have demonstrated a high retrieval accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0391.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: snow characteristics; optical remote sensing; snow albedo; PROMICE; Sentinel 3; OLCI; atmospheric correction; Arctic aerosol
Online: 30 November 2019 (11:23:46 CET)
We present a simplified atmospheric correction algorithm for the snow/ice albedo retrieval using single view satellite measurements. The validation of the technique is performed using Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on board Copernicus Sentinel - 3 satellite and ground spectral or broadband albedo measurements from locations on the Greenland ice sheet and in the French Alps. Through comparison with independent ground observations, the technique is shown to perform accurately in a range of conditions from a 2100 m elevation mid-latitude location in the French Alps to a network of 15 locations across a 2390 m elevation range in seven regions across the Greenland ice sheet. Retrieved broadband albedo is accurate within 5% over a wide (0.5) broadband albedo range of the (N = 4,155) Greenland observations and with no apparent bias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0029.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: pulsed electrolyte cathode atmospheric pressure discharge (pulsed-ECAD); plasma temperatures; temperature characteristics; electron number density
Online: 3 April 2018 (03:58:35 CEST)
A novel plasma source of pulsed electrolyte cathode atmospheric pressure discharge (pulsed-ECAD) driven by an alternating current (AC) power supply coupled with a high voltage diode was generated, and the discharge was generated in the open-to-air atmosphere between a metal electrode and a small-sized flowing liquid cathode. The spatial distribution of plasma temperatures (excitation, vibrational and rotational) of the pulsed-ECAD were investigated. The electron excitation temperature of H Texc(H), vibrational temperature of N2 Tvib(N2), and rotational temperature of OH Trot(OH) were measured as 4900±36-6800±108 K, 4600±86-5800±100 K and 1050±20-1140±10 K, respectively. Meanwhile, the temperature characteristics of dc solution cathode glow discharge (dc-SCGD) were also studied for comparison with pulsed-ECAD. The effects of operating parameters, including discharge voltage and discharge frequency, on the plasma temperatures were investigated. The electron number density determined in the discharge system and dc-SCGD were within the range (3.8–18.9) ×1014 cm-3 and 2.6×1014-17.2×1014 cm-3, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0172.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: CO2 residence-time; CO2 lifetime; carbon cycle; CO2 atmospheric flux; anthropogenic emissions; global warming; climate change
Online: 12 May 2022 (14:24:08 CEST)
Whereas many carbon cycle models track CO2 perturbations relative to a pre-industrial equilibrium, this paper uses absolute quantities to describe atmospheric CO2 sinks, source and flow rates. This method, when combined with the notion of source and sink resistance, and a finite biospheric reservoir, accurately describes 14C levels between 1820 and 2020 using only five external parameters. The inputs are:- global records of fossil-fuel emissions, records of CO2 mixing-ratio and listings of atmospheric atomic weapons tests. Over the same period 13C flows are also accurately described given a ð13C value for fossil fuel and a ð13C value for the initial background. This top-down approach differs from complex climate models since it circumvents the necessity to catalogue individual processes. The paper proceeds to use the method to examine the anthropogenic fossil-fuel emissions contributions during the period 1750 to 2020, deducing that around 24% remains in the atmosphere, while 76% has been absorbed in the land, terrestrial biosphere and surface ocean. During the same period 13% of the total CO2 atmospheric concentration is due to fossil fuels. However, regarding the increase, fossil fuels contributed to 38% of the rise during this period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0107.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: atmospheric aerosol; chemical composition; secondary aerosol; source apportionment; ultrafine particles; oxidative potential; exposure; toxicology; forecasting; micrometeorology
Online: 12 April 2022 (09:54:57 CEST)
The RHAPS project was launched in 2019 with the major objective to identify specific properties of the fine atmospheric aerosol from combustion sources that are responsible for toxicological effects and can be used as new metrics for health-related outdoor pollution studies. In this paper, we present the overall methodology of RHAPS, and introduce the phenomenology and the first data observed. A comprehensive physico-chemical aerosol characterization has been achieved by means of high-time resolution measurements (e.g. number size distributions, refractory chemical components, elemental composition,) and low-time resolution analyses (e.g. oxidative potential, toxicological assays, chemical composition,…). Preliminary results show a high complexity in the relations observed, the link between air quality and toxicological endpoints being not obvious. We explore data from different points of view: source apportionment of PM1 and the role of source emissions on aerosol toxicity, the oxidative potential as a predictive variable for PM1 toxicity with focus on the secondary organic aerosol possessing redox-active capacity, exposure-response relationships for PM1, and air quality models to forecast PM1 toxicity. We provide a synthesis of results with the outlook to companion papers where data are analyzed in more detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0432.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: NDVI; climatic factors; mountain grassland; time-lag effects; trends; Landsat; MODIS; BRDF; topographic and atmospheric corrections; Armenia
Online: 25 August 2022 (10:07:23 CEST)
Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of links between satellite-measured vegetation vigor and climate variables in Armenian mountain grassland ecosystems in years 1984–2018. NDVI is derived from MODIS and Landsat data, temperature and precipitation data are from meteorological stations. Two study sites were selected, representing arid and semi-arid grassland vegetation types, respectively. Various trend estimators including Mann-Kendall (MK) and derivatives were combined for vegetation change analysis at different time scales. Results suggest that temperature and precipitation had negative and positive impacts on vegetation growth, respectively, in both areas. NDVI-to-precipitation correlation was significant but with an apparent time-lag effect that was further investigated. No significant general changes were observed in vegetation along the observed period. Further comparisons between results from corrected and uncorrected data led us to conclude that MODIS and Landsat data with BRDF, topographic and atmospheric corrections applied are best suited for analyzing relationships between NDVI and climatic factors for the 2000-2018 period in grassland at a very local scale, but in the absence of correction tools and information, uncorrected data can still provide meaningful results. Future refinements will include removal of anthropogenic impact, and deeper investigation of time-lag effects of climatic factors on vegetation dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0183.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: tin oxide; thin films; atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition transport properties; magnetoresistance; impedance spectroscopy; charge carrier mobility
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:55:21 CEST)
Transparent conducting oxides (TCO) with high electrical conductivity and at the same time high transparency in the visible spectrum are an important class of materials widely used in many devices requiring a transparent contact such as light-emitting diodes, solar cells and display screens. Since the improvement of electrical conductivity usually leads to degradation of optical transparency, a fine-tuning sample preparation process and a better understanding of the correlation between structural and transport properties is necessary for optimizing the properties of TCO for use in such devices. Here we report a structural and magnetotransport study of tin oxide (SnO2), a well-known and commonly used TCO, prepared by a simple and relatively cheap Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition (APCVD) method in the form of thin films deposited on soda-lime glass substrates. The thin films were deposited at two different temperatures (which were previously found to be close to optimum for our setup), 590 °C and 610 °C, and with (doped) or without (undoped) the addition of fluorine dopants. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) revealed the presence of inhomogeneity in the samples, on a bigger scale in form of grains (80–200 nm), and on a smaller scale in form of crystallites (10–25 nm). Charge carrier density and mobility extracted from DC resistivity and Hall effect measurements were in the ranges 1–3 × 1020 cm−3 and 10–20 cm2/Vs, which are typical values for SnO2 films, and show a negligible temperature dependence from room temperature down to -269 °C. Such behaviour is ascribed to grain boundary scattering, with the interior of the grains degenerately doped (i.e., the Fermi level is situated well above the conduction band minimum) and with negligible electrostatic barriers at the grain boundaries (due to high dopant concentration). The observed difference for factor 2 in mobility among the thin-film SnO2 samples most likely arises due to the difference in the preferred orientation of crystallites (texture coefficient).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0080.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: 3D-Winds, atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs), MISR, GOES-R, planetary boundary layer (PBL), stereo imaging, parallax, CubeSats
Online: 4 October 2018 (14:53:55 CEST)
Global wind observations are fundamental for studying weather and climate dynamics. Most wind measurements come from atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) by tracking the displacement of cloud or water vapor features. These AMVs generally rely on thermal infrared (IR) techniques for their height assignments, which are subject to large uncertainties in the presence of weak or reversed vertical temperature gradients around the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and with tropopause folding. Stereo imaging can overcome the height assignment problem using geometric parallax for feature height determination. In this study we develop a stereo 3D-Wind algorithm to simultaneously retrieve AMV and height from geostationary (GEO) and low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite imagery and apply it to collocated Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) imagery. The new algorithm improves AMV and height relative to products from GOES or MISR alone, with an estimated accuracy of <0.5 m/s in AMV and <200 m in height with 2.2 km sampling. The algorithm can be generalized to other LEO-GEO or GEO-GEO combinations for greater spatiotemporal coverage. The technique demonstrated with MISR and GOES has important implications for future high-quality AMV observations, for which a low-cost constellation of CubeSats can play a vital role.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0629.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: hydro-meteorological factors; large-scale atmospheric circulation systems; South Asia monsoon; streamflows; source region of the Yangtze River
Online: 26 October 2018 (11:52:13 CEST)
Studying hydro-meteorological factors variations and its links to large-scale atmospheric circulation systems can facilitate the understanding of the hydrological processes and sustainable water resources management in the source region of the Yangtze River (SRYR). Currently, researches mostly focused on the temporal and spatial variation characteristics in hydro-meteorological factors; however, researches on the hydro-meteorological variations and its links to large-scale atmospheric circulation systems in the SRYR are scarce. Based on long-term hydro-meteorological and reanalysis data, this research investigated multiscale variations of hydro-meteorological factors and its links to large-scale atmospheric circulation characteristic indices during 1957~2012 in the SRYR. The results showed that the amounts of streamflows and precipitation in the SRYR declined during the 1990s. Since the 2000s, the amounts of streamflows and precipitation had increased significantly climate in the SRYR. The change trends of precipitation and streamflows in the SRYR are synergetic at annual and seasonal scales, and have three significant periods, namely 3~5 years, 15–20 years and 30–40 years. The South Asia monsoon (SAM) plays a relatively more important role in the hydro-meteorological factors changes in the SRYR. The relative contributions of SAM to streamflows and precipitation changes were 83.6% and 78%, respectively. During the driest (wettest) year, the SAM is relatively weak (strong), and brings less (more) southwest airflow into the SRYR, less (more) precipitation and streamflows will be generated in the SRYR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0178.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: FY-3C/MWHTS; linear regression correction; neural networks correction; one-dimensional variational algorithm; atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles
Online: 19 August 2016 (09:22:31 CEST)
The Microwave Humidity and Temperature sounder (MWHTS) on board the Fengyun (FY)-3C satellite measure the outgoing radiance form the Earth surface and atmospheric constituents. MWHTS makes measurements in the isolated oxygen absorption line near 118 GHz and the vicinity of strong water vapor line around 183 GHz, can provide fine vertical distribution structure of both atmospheric humidity and temperature. However, in order to obtain the accurate soundings of humidity and temperature by the physical retrieval method, bias between the observed radiance and those simulated by radiative transfer model from the background or first guess profiles must be correct. In this study, two bias correction methods are developed through the correlation analysis between MWHTS measurements and air mass identified by the first guess profiles of the physical inversion, one is the linear regression correction (LRC) and the other is neural networks correction (NNC), representing the linear and nonlinear nature between MWHTS measurements and air mass, respectively. Both correction methods have been applied to MWHTS observed brightness temperatures over the geographic area (180° W-180° E, 60° S-60° N). The corrected results are evaluated by the probability density function of the difference between corrected observations and simulated values and the root mean square error (RMSE) with respect to simulated observations. The numerical results show that the NNC method perform better, especially in MWHTS channels 1 and 7-9 whose peak weight function heights are close to the surface. In order to assess the effects of bias correction methods proposed in this study on the retrieval accuracy, a one-dimensional variational system was built and applied to the MWHTS uncorrected and corrected brightness temperatures to estimated atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, The retrieval results show that the NNC has better performance which is to be expected. An indication of the stability and robustness of NNC method is given which suggests that the NNC method has promising application perspectives in the physical retrieval.
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: atmospheric plasma spray (APS) process; particle size; thermal insulation; thermal barrier coating (TBC); thermal diffusivity; coating microstructure; coating porosity
Online: 3 July 2019 (14:49:12 CEST)
In the present work, three different atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) alumina coatings were fabricated using three fused and crushed alumina powders of different particle size fine, medium and coarse. The influence of the particle size on thermal properties and micro-structural features of the produced coating were investigated by thermal insulation test and detailed image analysis technique, respectively. The analyzed micro-structural features include the total porosity, pore size (fine, medium, and large) and cracks. All types of cracks were considered in calculations as voids and were evaluated according to their sizes as pores. All spray parameters except the particle size were fixed throughout the spraying process. The results revealed that the fine starting powder has produced the densest coating with the lowest total porosity and that the total porosity increases with an increasing particle size. This was expected as powders of smaller particle size will reach a higher in-flight temperature and velocity than powders of bigger particle sizes as long as the same spray parameters are applied. However, a detailed image analysis investigation on the three produced coatings showed that the fraction of fine pores and cracks versus the total porosity is substantially higher in coatings produced by using fine starting powders than those produced using medium and coarse powders. In this work, a connection between the thermal insulation and the porosity fraction, which includes fine pores and cracks, was revealed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0273.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: optical communications; optical spatial modulation; free-space optical communication; multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems; pulse position modulation; atmospheric turbulence
Online: 12 November 2018 (09:26:34 CET)
In this paper, spatial pulse position modulation (SPPM) is used as a case study to investigate the performance of the optical spatial modulation (SM) technique in outdoor atmospheric turbulence (AT). A closed-form expression for the upper bound on the asymptotic symbol error rate (SER) of SPPM in AT is derived and validated by closely-matching simulation results. The error performance is evaluated in weak to strong AT conditions. As the AT strength increases from the weak to strong, the channel fading coefficients become more dispersed and differentiable. Thus, a better error performance is observed under moderate-to-strong AT compared to weak AT. The performance in weak AT can be improved by applying unequal power allocation to make FSO links more distinguishable at the receiver. Receive diversity is considered to mitigate irradiance fluctuation and improve the robustness of the system to turbulence-induced channel fading. The diversity order is computed as half of the number of detectors. Performance comparisons, in terms of energy and spectral efficiencies, are drawn between the SPPM scheme and conventional MIMO schemes such as repetition coding and spatial multiplexing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Atmospheric path-radiance; change analysis; detail injection modeling; haze; data fusion; normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI); pan-sharpening; radiative transfer; vegetation.
Online: 9 May 2018 (15:11:25 CEST)
Whenever vegetated areas are monitored over time, phenological changes in land cover should be decoupled from changes in acquisition conditions, like atmospheric components, sun and satellite heights, and imaging instrument. This especially holds when the multispectral (MS) bands are sharpened for spatial resolution enhancement by means of a panchromatic (Pan) image of higher resolution, a process referred to as pansharpening. In this paper, we provide evidence that pansharpening of visible/near-infrared (VNIR) bands takes advantage from a correction of the path radiance term introduced by the atmosphere, during the fusion process. This holds whenever the fusion mechanism emulates the radiative transfer model ruling the acquisition of the Earth’s surface from space, that is, for methods exploiting a multiplicative, or contrast-based, injection model of spatial details extracted from the panchromatic (Pan) image into the interpolated multispectral (MS) bands. The path radiance should be estimated and subtracted from each band before the product by Pan is accomplished. Both empirical and model-based estimation techniques of MS path radiances are compared within the framework of optimized algorithms. Simulations carried out on two GeoEye-1 observations of the same agricultural landscape at different dates highlight that the de-hazing of MS before fusion is beneficial for an accurate detection of seasonal changes in the scene, as measured by the normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI).
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Climate and Weather; Climate Model; Heat Transport; Radiation Balance; Atmospheric circulation; sea surface temperature; Planetary boundary layer; El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:38:23 CEST)
The study of long-term average weather patterns is known as climatology. It is a distinct field of study from meteorology and can be broken down into several subdivision. In order to predict the future, the knowledge of climatology is essential. In other words, with the help of climatology, we can figure out how likely it is that snow and hail will fall to the ground, and how much solar thermal radiation can reach a certain location etc. Climatology often focuses on how the climate has changed over time and how it has affected people and events. Both meteorology and climatology fall under the general term "meteorology", in particular, they are subdivision of research in the same field. In case of predicting the weather, meteorologists use variables such as humidity, air pressure, and temperature. This article's primary objective is to familiarize engineers with the fundamentals of climate and its processes so that they can effectively apply this knowledge to comprehend the climatic impact on water resources systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0535.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: ozone; greater metropolitan region of Sydney; source contribution; source attribution; air quality model; Cubic Conformal Atmospheric Model (CCAM); Chemical Transport Model (CTM)
Online: 27 September 2018 (06:17:54 CEST)
Ozone and fine particles (PM2.5) are the two main air pollutants of concern in the New South Wales Greater Metropolitan Region (NSW GMR) region due to their contribution to poor air quality days in the region. This paper focuses on source contributions to ambient ozone concentrations for different parts of the NSW GMR, based on source emissions across the greater Sydney region. The observation-based Integrated Empirical Rate Model (IER) was applied to delineate the different regions within the GMR based on the photochemical smog profile of each region. Ozone source contribution is then modelled using the CCAM-CTM (Cubic Conformal Atmospheric Model-Chemical Transport Model) modelling system and the latest air emission inventory for the greater Sydney region. Source contributions to ozone varied between regions, and also varied depending on the air quality metric applied (e.g., average or maximum ozone). Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were found to contribute significantly to median and maximum ozone concentration in North West Sydney during summer. After commercial domestic, power station was found to be the next largest anthropogenic source of maximum ozone concentrations in North West Sydney. However, in South West Sydney, beside commercial and domestic sources, on-road vehicles were predicted to be the most significant contributor to maximum ozone levels, followed by biogenic sources and power stations. The results provide information which policy makers can devise various options to control ozone levels in different parts of the NSW Greater Metropolitan Region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0098.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: atmospheric aerosol; municipal and traffic emissions; natural sources; enrichment factor; coal and gasoline combustion; 24-h concentrations; diurnal variability; PX-375; XRF analysis
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:17:30 CEST)
The paper presents data from a monthly campaign for the elemental composition of PM10 in a specific receptor Kotórz Mały (Opole Voivodeship) located in the vicinity of a moderately inhabited rural area, measured in one-hour samples with the use of the PX-375 analyzer by the Horiba company. The hourly variability of SO2, NO, NO2, CO, O3 concentrations as well as the variability of meteorological parameters were also determined. On average, during the entire measurement period, the elements related to PM10 can be arranged in the following order: As<V<Ni<Pb<Cr<Mn<Cu<Ti<Zn<K<Fe<Ca<Al<Si<S. Trace elements, including toxic elements, such as As, V, Ni, Pb, Cr, Mn, were present in low concentrations, not exceeding 10 ng/m3 (average daily value). These elements had fairly even concentrations, daily and hourly. The concentrations of the main elements in the PM10 in the receptor are subject to strong hourly changes related not only to changes in the structure of the sources identified in the statistical analysis but mainly to wind speed and direction changes (soil and sand particles pick-up and inflow of pollutants from coal combustion). It has been shown that the transport emission in the receptor can have an intense effect on PM10 in the afternoon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0629.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: 3D-winds; atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs); GOES-R; ABI; Himawari; AHI; planetary boundary layer (PBL); stereo imaging; parallax; Image Navigation and Registration (INR)
Online: 3 November 2020 (14:46:46 CET)
Height assignment is an important problem for satellite measurements of Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) that are interpreted as winds by forecast and assimilation systems. Stereo methods assign heights to AMVs from the parallax observed between observations from different vantage points in orbit while tracking cloud or moisture features. In this paper, we fully develop the stereo method to jointly retrieve wind vectors with their geometric heights from geostationary satellite pairs. Synchronization of observations between observing systems is not required. NASA and NOAA stereo-winds codes have implemented this method and we have processed large datasets from GOES-16, -17, and Himawari-8. Our retrievals are validated against rawinsonde observations and demonstrate the potential to improve forecast skill. Stereo winds also offer an important mitigation for the loop heat pipe anomaly on GOES-17 during times when warm focal plane temperatures cause infra-red channels that are needed for operational height assignments to fail. We also examine several application areas, including deep convection in tropical cyclones, planetary boundary layer dynamics, and fire smoke plumes, where stereo methods provide insights into atmospheric processes. The stereo method is broadly applicable across the geostationary ring where systems offering similar Image Navigation and Registration (INR) performance as GOES-R are deployed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0052.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: weather-related SARS-CoV-2 virulence; specific enthalpy of atmospheric moist air; temperature and humidity effects on COVID-19 outbreak; correlating equation; COVID-19 spread prediction risk scale
Online: 5 October 2020 (08:10:08 CEST)
Following the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several studies have examined the possibility of correlating the virulence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, to the climatic conditions of the involved sites; however, inconclusive results have been generally obtained. Although either air temperature or humidity cannot be independently correlated with virus viability, a strong relationship between SARS-CoV-2 virulence and the specific enthalpy of moist air appears to exist, as confirmed by extensive data analysis. Given this framework, the present study involves a detailed investigation based on the first 20–30 days of the epidemic before public health interventions in 30 selected Italian provinces with rather different climates, here assumed as being representative of what happened in the country from North to South, of the relationship between COVID-19 distributions and the climatic conditions recorded at each site before the pandemic outbreak. Accordingly, a correlating equation between the incidence rate of the pandemic and the average specific enthalpy of atmospheric air was developed, and an enthalpy-based seasonal virulence risk scale was proposed as a tool to predict the potential danger of COVID-19 spread due to the persistence of weather conditions favorable to SARS-CoV-2 viability. For practical applications, a conclusive risk chart expressed in terms of coupled temperatures and relative humidity (RH) values was provided, showing that safer conditions occur in case of higher RH at the highest temperatures, and of lower RH at the lowest temperatures. The proposed risk scale was in agreement with the available infectivity data in the literature for a number of cities around the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0248.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Posidonia oceanica (PO); LAI & density; PO health & Pergent model; sea truth sampling; Earth Observation; HR satellite multispectral/hyperspectral sensors; atmospheric correction; coastal monitoring; mapping shallow waters habitat seabed; Calibration/validation & training/test; Classification & regression Machine Learning; Model Performance & thematic Accuracy; Sentinel 2 MSI multispectral & PRISMA hyperspectral; ISWEC(Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter)
Online: 18 October 2021 (14:41:35 CEST)
The Mediterranean basin is a hot spot of climate change where the Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile (PO) and other seagrass are under stress due to its effect on marine habitats and the rising influence of anthropogenic activities (tourism, fishery). The PO and seabed ecosystems, in the coastal environments of Pantelleria and Lampedusa, suffer additional growing impacts from tourism in synergy with specific stress factors due to increasing vessel traffic for supplying potable water, fossil fuels for electrical power generation. Earth Observation (EO) data, provided by high resolution (HR) multi/hyperspectral operative satellite sensors of the last generation (i.e. Sentinel 2 MSI and PRISMA) have been successfully tested, using innovative calibration and sea truth collecting methods, for monitoring and mapping of PO meadows under stress, in the coastal waters of these islands, located in the Sicily Channel, to better support the sustainable management of these vulnerable ecosystems. The area of interest in Pantelleria was where the first prototype of the Italian Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter (ISWEC) for renewable energy production was installed in 2015, and sea truth campaigns on the PO meadows were conducted. The PO of Lampedusa coastal areas, impacted by ship traffic linked to the previous factors and tropicalization effects of Italy southernmost climate change transitional zone, was mapped through a multi/hyper spectral EO-based approach, using training/testing data provided by side scan sonar data, previously acquired. Some advanced machine learning algorithms (MLA) were successfully evaluated with different supervised regression/classification models to map seabed and PO meadow classes and related Leaf Area Index (LAI) distributions in the areas of interest, using multi/hyperspectral data atmospherically corrected via different advanced approaches.