ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0002.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Agricultural ExternalitiesPublic GoodsSustainable Agricultural Development Multifunctional Agriculture
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:31:26 CET)
The agriculture and rural areas perform a new function which requires the delivery of public goods to the society. In turn, a comprehensive identification and analysis of agricultural externalities (external economies) involves a need for developing a dedicated valuation methodology. This paper presents the assumptions of the public goods theory and puts them in the context of agriculture. The study focuses on analyzing the valuation methods for external economies, and proposes a methodology for the valuation of some illustrative positive externalities of agricultural production and of natural environment resources regarded as public goods (the agri-tourist value of a farm and the value of a natural waterhole).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: family farming; agroecology; rural settlements; circle of sustainability; agricultural ecology; Paulo Freire; participant research; land reform; generating themes
Online: 9 May 2019 (13:05:59 CEST)
In the Brazilian Amazon, rural settlements are increasingly isolated by large-scale production farms, jeopardizing their sustainability and the good living of family farmers. Works were carried out in settlements to measure sustainability. However, the majority does not consider the participation and the collectively of those involved. In this way, we propose to evaluate, in a collective and participatory way, the sustainability and good living of the SDP São Paulo Rural Settlement, of the northern Amazon of Mato Grosso. We used the didactic-pedagogical method Circle of Sustainability, developed from five points: 1st - circle of investigation of generating themes; 2nd - circle of the history of the subject world; 3rd - circle of diagnosis of rural settlements; 4th - circle of exchange of knowledge; and 5th - circle of sustainable perceptions and narratives. The historical, socioeconomic and cultural characterization of the settlement allowed us to understand how sustainability and good living are being built in the settlement history process. Sustainability and good living are dialectical processes, are under construction, in movement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0535.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: agricultural land; remote sensing; agricultural fire; fire predicting model
Online: 23 July 2020 (08:00:53 CEST)
Agricultural land fires have been linked to various and adverse impacts on ecosystems, food security and the agriculture sector. Understanding the patterns and drivers of agricultural land fires is essential for effective agricultural land fire management. The key objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the temporal and spatial patterns of agricultural land fires using satellite remote sensed data, (2) assess a range of environmental conditions that could drive the occurrence of agricultural land fires, (3) determine the best model for predicting agricultural land fires and (4) determine the relative contribution of each environmental condition variable on the best predictive model. We used both univariate and multivariate regressions for the fire prediction capability of four independent environmental conditions (fuel, weather, topographic and anthropogenic). Analysis of historical satellite data revealed that agricultural land fires were more frequent than forested land fires. Our analyses also revealed that fuel condition was the most important variable for predicting agricultural land fires followed by weather, topographic and anthropogenic conditions. This study provides a novel multivariate model for predicting agricultural land fires that harbors the potential to improve agricultural land fire management and reduce fire risk within the agricultural sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0287.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: foodshed archipelago; proximity food supply chains; spatial signature; city-region; food self-sufficiency; regional food security; agricultural diversification; food planning; regional food system; food policy
Online: 17 December 2021 (11:37:50 CET)
: Foodshed approaches allow the assessment of the theoretical food self-sufficiency capacity of a specific region based on biophysical conditions. Recent analyses show that the focus needs to be shifted from foodshed size portrayed as an isotropic circle to a commodity-group-specific spatial configuration of the foodshed that takes into account the socio-economic and biophysical conditions essential to the development of local food supply chains. We focus on a specific animal product (beef) and use an innovative modeling approach based on spatial analysis to detect the areas of the foodshed dedicated to beef feeding (forage, pasture, and grassland), considering the foodshed as a complex of complementary areas called an archipelago. We use available statistical data including a census to address the city-region of Avignon (France) covering a 100 km radius. Our results show that the factors driving the use of short supply chains for beef feeding areas are the foodshed archipelago’s number of patches, the connectivity between them, and the rugosity of the boundaries. In addition, our beef self-sufficiency assessment results differ depending on geographical context. For instance, being located within the perimeters of a nature park seems to help orient beef production towards short supply chains. We discuss possible leverage for public action to reconnect beef production areas to consumption areas (the city) via short supply chains (e.g. green, home-grown school food programs) so as to increase local food security through increased local food self-sufficiency.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: foodshed; archipelago; city-region; food modelling; food self-sufficiency; self-reliance; food security; agricultural diversification; food planning; regional food system
Online: 11 December 2020 (11:36:05 CET)
Regionalization of food systems for shortening supply chains and developing local agriculture to feed city-regions presents particular challenges for food planning and policy. Existing foodshed approaches enable to assess the theoretical capacity of food self-sufficiency of a specific region, but they struggle to consider the diversity of existing crops in a way that could be usable for informing decisions and support urban food strategies. Most studies are based on the definition of the area required to meet local consumption, obtaining a map represented as an isotropic circle around the city, without considering the site-specific pedoclimatic, geographical and socio-economic conditions, which are essential for the development of local food supply chains. In this study we propose a first stage to fill this gap by combining the Metropolitan Foodshed and Self-sufficiency Scenario (MFSS) model, which already considers regional yields and specific land use covers, with spatially explicit data on cropping pattern, soil and topography. We use European-wide available data and apply the methodology in the city-region of Avignon (France), initially considering a foodshed with a radius of 30 Km. Our results show that even though a theoretical high potential self-sufficiency could be achieved for the whole food commodities consumed (>80%), when considering the specific pedological conditions of the area, this could be suitable only for domestic plant-based products, whereas for animal products an expansion of the initial foodshed to a radius of 100Km was required to provide >70% of self-sufficiency. We conclude that it is necessary to shift the analysis from the size assessment to the commodity-group specific spatial configuration of the foodshed based on biophysical and socio-economic features, and discuss avenues for further researches enabling to develop a foodshed assessment as a complex of complementary pieces: the foodshed archipelago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0063.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Bioeconomy, bibliographic databases, value chains agricultural, production.
Online: 2 August 2021 (23:07:58 CEST)
This work analyzes the visibility and scientific impact of publications related to agricultural value chains. The incidence of bibliometric indicators allows for the interpretation of bibliographic information generated worldwide. Objective: The objective of this research is to analyze the published literature and bibliometric indicators on agricultural value chains. The Web of Science database was used to extract value chains data. The study analyzed articles published between 2010 and 2020. The keywords used are "agricultural value chains'' and articles from journals or studies related to the subject were selected for bibliometric analysis and methodological review. In the search for the keyword, a total of 4208 results were extracted, of which 1,669 records were considered for analysis. The bibliometric analysis of the data reveals that Wageningen University (55) has the highest number of publications, followed by Chinese Acad Sci (26). The author Klerkx L (9) has the highest number of records, followed by Hellin J (7). With respect to the countries with the greatest contributions on the subject are: the People's Republic of China, Germany, Italy, France and the United States. The study contributes to the analysis of bibliometrics and provides a methodological review of published journal articles on agricultural value chains. This bibliographic study presents the history of research development in agricultural value chains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0259.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Biogas; Agricultural Wastes; Maize Silage; Gas Production
Online: 23 July 2019 (11:40:15 CEST)
The aim of the study was to examine the biogas and methane yield of maize silage, a wastes in agricultural point of view and compare it to the biogas productivity of commonly used mixture of maize silage and mixed fodder with water. The experimental study was carried out into 2 parts. Firstly, the batch experiment was conducted in Mesophilic conditions (35°C), at five different hydraulic retention times (HRT): 6 DAT, 11 DAT 20 DAT 29 DAT and 41 DAT. The results revealed that maize silage was generated the highest biogas yield of 537 mL /241 mL at the HRT of 6days /41 days. Mixed fodder produced the highest biogas yield of 421 mL at the HRT of 6th days and the lowest one was 252 mL at the HRT of 20th days. Finally, the methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide of biogas produced from maize silage and mixed fodder were analyzed using a gas chromatography. The results shown that biogas from maize silage precedes the gas less than the mixed fodder. In the field level experiment proved that from mixed fodder produced gas which would be enough for 7 member’s family used 3 months for the purpose of their cooking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0092.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: agricultural diversification; risk management; regret; portfolio; scenario
Online: 10 January 2019 (04:42:17 CET)
Diversification is an important strategy for managing risk in agricultural systems. Risk analysis can help to support farmers’ diversification strategies, but existing analytical methods are complicated and little used. The minimum regret model helps to fill this gap. It provides a simple, transparent calculation procedure that can be executed with existing spreadsheet software. Regret is an important heuristic in the behavioural sciences and regret-based models are used in finance. The article presents the model with a numerical example. It also presents a framework to compare minimum regret portfolios with two limit cases (maximum utility and minimax regret). A case study illustrates the use of the model and the comparative framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0044.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Agricultural information, smart-mobile, stakeholder farmers, Sudan
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:12:49 CEST)
The access to agricultural information in Sudan continues to be challenging to farmers due to use of inadequate sources and traditional extension approaches. The rapid growth of smart-mobile phones usage in developing countries resulted in several advantages compared to other alternatives in term of costs, geographic coverage and ease of use. This research was conducted in North Kordofan Sate to explore the role of smart-mobile phone in accessing agricultural information. Primary data were obtained by structured questionnaires and focus group discussion through participatory rural appraisal and observation while secondary data were collected from scientific journals, books and authenticated web sources. A number of 230 respondents (10% from total farmers) were interviewed and five focus group discussions were done. Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) version 22 was used to analyze the data with aid of descriptive statistics and Chi-squire Test. The result indicated that most of the respondents fall in age group between 21-40 years, and they depend on farm activity. There was 90% of farmers processed mobile phone since more than three years ago, 90.8%continuedto use smart mobile phone to access agricultural information and showed positive contribution towards income generation. The results also revealed that there was positive perception towards using mobile phones which showed more efficient in use than radio and TVs. The results showed great advantages of using smart mobile phone where 75.2 % of respondents preferred to get agricultural information, logistics and other needs through successful communication in the mid of agricultural season. Results of Chi-squire test showed significant differences between the parameters tested. The study recommended that farmers should be connected with mobile phones to admit ease communication with agricultural extension offices and quick access to their needs and logistics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0062.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: agricultural productivity; agrometeorology; climate change; crop yield
Online: 12 December 2016 (09:59:28 CET)
In Bangladesh, climate change is a major concern because of its geophysical location and climate dependent agriculture. As sessile organisms, crops plants have to face difficulties often in this environmentally vulnerable country. Therefore, this study examines the seasonal trend of two climatic parameters viz. temperature (maximum and minimum) and rainfall over a period of 1983 to 2013. Besides, this study provides insight into the relationship between climatic parameters and crop yield of two major crops viz. rice and wheat during 1997-2013. To assess the relationship of climatic parameters with time and yield using Pearson correlation analysis, time series data used at an aggregate level. SPSS software utilized for this analysis. The cropping seasons such as rice growing seasons Aus (summer rice), Aman (autumn rice) and Boro (winter rice) exhibited a significant increase in maximum and minimum temperature. Rainfall found to have a decreasing trend for all the seasons. This study also revealed that the climatic parameters had significant effects on rice yield, but these results varied among three rice crops. Maximum temperature had positive effects on all rice yields, especially on Aus and Aman. Minimum temperature had a negative effect on Aman rice yield but a positive effect on Aus rice yield. Wheat yield negatively associated with temperature. Rainfall exhibited negative relation with both rice and wheat yield.
PROJECT REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0026.v1
Online: 7 September 2016 (11:32:32 CEST)
This research project was funded by the Masterplan for Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia's Economic Development (MP3EI). The objective of this study was to examine the role of indigenous people of Marind in the agricultural development of rice cultivation in Merauke. A survey was conducted in three villages in Merauke using stratified random sampling. The finding suggest that indigenous people of Marind have a crucial role in the agricultural development of rice cultivation in Papua.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0288.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Agricultural technology; Adoption; Multinomial Logit; Poverty; Rural Amhara
Online: 10 June 2021 (11:14:06 CEST)
The adoption of agricultural technology is an important path for raising agricultural productivity, and thereby for reducing food insecurity and poverty. Despite the efforts to promote adoption in most of the rural areas of Ethiopian farmers, the adoption rate has always been very low. So, it is essential to understand the barriers to adoption. As a result, this study examined the determinants of adoption of multiple agricultural technologies in rural Amhara region of Ethiopia. The study is based on Ethiopian socio-economic survey of 2015/16. A sample of 656 farm households was considered. The paper used multinomial logit model to assess the factors affecting adoption. The result shows that farmers with more educational level, family size, off-farm participation, livestock, extension contact, credit access, advisory service, and farmers closer to plot, all-weather road, zonal town, and farmers with lower remittance income are more likely to adopt new or improved agricultural technology. Therefore, the study recommends the need of policies and interventions on adoption of agricultural technology should pay attention and move along with those variables significantly influencing adoption of agricultural technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0271.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: agricultural expansion; marketing; land-grabs; value-chains; Zambia
Online: 9 June 2021 (21:53:53 CEST)
The post-2007 crisis-induced an agricultural expansion across Africa, but local level production and marketing experiences remain understudied. This study assesses the dynamics of agricultural expansion and small-scale farmers’ experiences in rural Zambia. Using a mixed research design, data were drawn from surveys, multi-level interviews, group discussions policy reviews and observations. Results show an agriculture expansion among small-scale farmers is underway due to favourable climatic conditions, land, and water availability, enabled by state subsidies, and an emerging market in commercial and supermarket outlets. However, farmers encounter production and marketing challenges related to poor tenure security, late delivery of inputs, and low financing. They face low and fluctuating prices, poor infrastructure, including low levels of mechanisation necessary to expand the production. Overall, despite an agricultural and land-use expansion taking shape, actual benefits for real transformation are largely missing – and currently over their heads. An argument is made that whilst policy actors continue to impress farmers to organise themselves to maximise benefits of an agricultural expansion, actual processes on how farmers can achieve this are missing in policy and practice. This necessitates a focus on multi-level processes aimed at addressing production, storage and marketing dynamics within a progressive coordination arrangement that centralizes small producers. Until that is addressed, the prospects for local development and poverty reduction for small-scale farmers under an agricultural expansion will be slender but continue to centrally reside in the state efforts to create enabling local and community environment that addresses real challenges. Overall, this study helps to extend the debate on diverse processes shaping rural transformation in Zambia and across sub-Saharan Africa, including the role and importance of agricultural expansion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0628.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Food production; machine learning; agricultural production; prediction model
Online: 23 April 2021 (10:20:09 CEST)
Advancing models for accurate estimation of food production is essential for policymaking and managing national plans of action for food security. This research proposes two machine learning models for the prediction of food production. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) methods are used to advance the prediction models. In the present study, two variables of livestock production and agricultural production were considered as the source of food production. Three variables were used to evaluate livestock production, namely livestock yield, live animals, and animal slaughtered, and two variables were used to assess agricultural production, namely agricultural production yields and losses. Iran was selected as the case study of the current study. Therefore, time-series data related to livestock and agricultural productions in Iran from 1961 to 2017 have been collected from the FAOSTAT database. First, 70% of this data was used to train ANFIS and MLP, and the remaining 30% of the data was used to test the models. The results disclosed that the ANFIS model with Generalized bell-shaped (Gbell) built-in membership functions has the lowest error level in predicting food production. The findings of this study provide a suitable tool for policymakers who can use this model and predict the future of food production to provide a proper plan for the future of food security and food supply for the next generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0088.v1
Subject: Keywords: avgricultural value chain; agricultural marketing; economic development; productivity
Online: 5 January 2021 (12:08:16 CET)
Over time, the agricultural sector's contribution to the nation's Gross Domestic Product and revenue is declining exponentially; the decline may be attributed to varying problems affecting the agricultural value chain resulting in low productivity. The agricultural value chain comprises a series of activities and value addition processes required to transform raw materials into useable products to maximize the final consumers' utility.1 The agricultural value chain's marketing activities have been skewed with challenges, thus affecting agricultural productivity and agricultural sector contribution to the economy. The paper critically examines and discuss the impact of agricultural marketing to economic development, a historical review of agricultural marketing in Nigeria, challenges undermining the impact of agricultural marketing, measures to reposition agricultural marketing potential to build back better, policy recommendations to reposition the future of Nigeria's agricultural productivity. The paper aims to promote concerted efforts through knowledge dissemination to build back better through market research and facilitation and boost economic prosperity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0510.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Brexit; land use change; Wales; agricultural policies; forestry
Online: 19 November 2020 (12:24:39 CET)
Changes in agricultural policy may have rapid impact even on landscapes which have taken millennia to form. Here we explore the potential of UK leaving the EU as a catalyst for profound changes in pastoral landscapes in Wales. Impending change of the trading regime governing agricultural produce, concurrent to public pressure to use agricultural subsidies for environmental goals, may lead to unforeseen consequences for Welsh natural environment. We employ a combination of change demand modelling and ‘story and simulation approach’ to predict the effect of five hypothetical scenarios on land use and land use change in Wales by 2030. We show that the most extreme trade scenario would result in a near-uniform distribution of broadleaf woodland across most of Wales. Abandonment of marginal and low productivity grazing would likely give way to afforestation, initiating a return to forested landscapes not seen in Wales for several thousands of years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0517.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: agricultural productivity; cropping patterns; Kenya; multi-data analysis
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:44:04 CET)
The proportion of area under various crops at a given point in time, known as a cropping pattern, plays an essential role in determining the level of agricultural production. In this study, cropping patterns of three sub-counties in Murang’a County, a typical African smallholder farming area in Kenya, were mapped. Specifically, we compared the performance of eight classification scenarios for mapping cropping patterns; namely using (i) only Sentinel-2 reflectance bands (S2), (ii) S2 and S2 derived vegetation indices (VIs); (iii) S2 and S2 vegetation phenology (VP); (iv) S2 and Sentinel-1 radar backscatter data (S1); (v) S2, VIs, and S1; (vi) S2, VP, and S1; (vii) S2, VIs and VP, and (viii) S2, VIs, VP and S1. Reference data of the dominant cropping patterns and non-croplands were collected. The guided regularized random forest (GRRF) algorithm was used to select the optimum variables and to perform the respective classification for each scenario. The most accurate result of the overall accuracy of 93.16% was attained from the scenario (viii) S2, VIs, VP, and S1. The McNemar’s test of significance did not show significant differences (p≤0.05) among the tested scenarios. Our study demonstrated the strength of GRRF and the synergetic advantage of S2 and S1 derivatives to map cropping patterns in a heterogeneous landscape where high resolution imagery are inaccessible. Our cropping pattern mapping approach can be used in other sites of relatively similar agro-ecological conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0050.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: potato cultivation soil suitability; agricultural landscape categorisation; GIS
Online: 5 February 2020 (02:52:46 CET)
Growing potato demands considerable external inputs of pesticides due to its susceptibility to various pests and pathogens. Here we present an attempt to differentiate the Slovak rural landscape with respect to the possibility of effective potato cultivation and to characterise soil parameters of current potato cultivation areas with the aim to increase the sustainability of the potato production. The selection was based on soil climatic, production and economic parameters. By using the GIS tools and existing databases on soil characteristics in Slovakia, maps of soil suitability categories for potato cultivation were generated. In Slovakia, it was found that 12.3% of farmland is very suitable for potato cultivation and that as much as 43.1% is not suitable. Later the specified categories were characterised in detail and specified with respect to geographic, soil, climatic, production and economic parameters. Currently, most potato crops are cultivated on Eutric Cambisols (27%), Chernozems (20%) and Mollic Fluvisols (18%). Loamy soils (65%), soils without gravel (62%), deep soils (74%) and soil situated on plains (55%) are dominant in these regions. We suggest that potato cultivation should be concentrated on the most suitable areas, thereby increasing the economic profitability, improving the ecological stability of the country and supporting the sustainability of the agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0259.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Green pesticides; Agricultural subsidies; Product certification; Laboratory experiment
Online: 27 February 2019 (15:08:30 CET)
This paper studies the impact of agricultural subsidies and product certification on the use rate of green pesticides based on experimental economics. We found that agricultural subsidies effectively increased the utilization rate of green pesticides. If the agricultural subsidies raised from 20% to 100%, the green pesticides’ using rate increased by 438.51%. We also found that product certification increased the utilization rate of green pesticides by 376.16%%.The increase of agricultural subsidies is more effective than the product certification. Under a higher proportion of agricultural subsidies, farmers’ behavior will maintain “status bias”. Therefore, there are three suggestions proposed. Firstly, because of high price of green pesticides and lower production, the subsidies for agricultural materials should raise greatly to effectively improve the utilization rate of green pesticides. It is recommended that green pesticide provided free of charge in some wealthy areas. Secondly, both subsidies and product certification can improve the use rate of green pesticides. However, since the effect of agricultural subsidies is better than product certification, and farmers may have status bias. Therefore, it is recommended to give priority to the substantial increase on the proportion of agricultural subsidies, and then to product certification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0625.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: precision agriculture; agricultural extension; profitability; production quality; systematic review
Online: 25 June 2021 (15:52:08 CEST)
Precision agriculture (PA) is a holistic, sustainable, innovative systems approach that assists farmers in production management. Adopting PA could improve sustainable food security and community economic sustainability. Developing an understanding of PA adoption attributes is needed to assist extension practitioners to promote adoption and better understand the innovation adoption phenomena. A systematic review of literature was conducted to investigate PA adoption. Thirty-three publications were examined, and four themes were found among the reviewed publications. The results were interpreted using Rogers’ diffusion of innovations framework to address the research objectives. Of the reviewed literature, we found relative advantage and compatibility were two dominant attributes to strengthen the adoption of PA, and the complexity attribute was rarely used to promote the adoption of PA. This study shows that change agents do not fully use five attributes of innovation when they promote PA technology to stakeholders to adopt. Thus, we recommend studies from the agricultural extension specialists’ perspectives in the future may determine contributions to motivate farmers’ adoption of PA, in particular related to complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0475.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Urban agri-food; GECOAGRI-LANDITALY methodology; European agricultural systems
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:42:52 CET)
: For decades the city has created food models by requiring the countryside to meet the growing demand with increasingly more homologated crop reconversions and increasingly vast and competitive farms. The current acceleration of the land concentration process and the dramatic experience of the COVID 19 pandemic have, however, forced us to redefine the city-country relationship, which has been called into question for some years now in various FAO and EU documents. Based on the GECOAGRI-LANDITALY survey itinerary, a proven tool for reading local peculiarities, the AAs show how easy it is to recognize which farmlands can best fulfil the role of guaranteeing food safety and protecting the quality and typicality of traditional foods. The final proposal is to start a new agri-food policy that no longer starts from the demand formulated by the city but, reversing the direction of the old relationship, it starts from the availability of products offered by the countryside to re-educate consumption and promote the sustainability of agricultural practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0448.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Cellulose; agricultural waste; bioadsorbent; rare earth; terbium adsorption-desorption
Online: 22 October 2020 (09:00:24 CEST)
Preparation of a low-cost cellulose-based bioadsorbent from the cellulosic material extracted from the rose stems (CRS) was carried out; rose stems were considered agricultural wastes. After the required pretreatment of this waste, and its further treatment with an acidic mixture of acetic and nitric acids, the CRS product was yielded. The resulting bioadsorbent was characterized by several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, which revealed diffraction maxima related to cellulose structure, whose calculated crystallinity index (CrI) was 75 %. In addition, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) showed signs of acetylation of the sample, also, the thermal properties of the solid was evaluated through Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed cellulose fibers before and after the adsorption process, some particles with not regular shapes were also observed. The CRS bioadsorbent was used in the effective adsorption of valuable Tb(III) from aqueous solution. The adsorption data resulted in a better fit to the Freundlich isotherm, and pseudo-second-order kinetic models; however, chemisorption had not been ruled out. Finally, desorption experiments revealed a recovery of terbium ions with an efficiency of 97 % from terbium-loaded bioadsorbent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0218.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: agricultural commodity futures; price discovery; market reflexivity; Hawkes process
Online: 13 May 2020 (03:35:53 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to analyze market reflexivity in agricultural futures contracts with different maturities. To this end, we apply a four-dimensional Hawkes model to storable and non-storable agricultural commodities. We find market reflexivity for both storable and non-storable commodities. Reflexivity accounts for about 50 to 70 percent of the total trading activity. Differences between nearby and deferred contracts are less pronounced for non-storable than for storable commodities. We conclude that the co-existence of exogenous and endogenous price dynamics does not change qualitative characteristics of the price discovery process that have been observed earlier without consideration of market reflexivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020026
Online: 10 April 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Aflatoxin contaminated maize is of public health concern in Kenya. Training farmers on good agricultural practice (GAP) has been touted as a mitigative measure. Little is known of the effect of such training on aflatoxin levels in maize grown in Kenya. This study evaluated what effect training farmers on GAP has on aflatoxin levels in maize grown in in maize grown in Kaptumo, Kilibwoni, and Kipkaren divisions in Nandi County. Ninety farmers were recruited for the study and interviewed on GAP. Maize samples were additionally collected from the participating farmers and analyzed for aflatoxins using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). All farmers prepared the land before planting, did correct spacing between the planted crops, carried out weeding, cleaned their stores before use, checked the condition of the maize after harvesting, sorted maize after shelling, and knew aflatoxins. A majority of the farmers (90%) used fertilizers, dried maize after harvesting, knew that aflatoxins were harmful to humans, and used clean transport in transporting the harvested maize. About 98% of farmers did stooking after harvesting and 97% used wooden pallets in the maize stores. The percentage of farmers who practiced early planting, top dressing, crop rotation, raising stores above the ground, applying insecticide after shelling and feeding damaged/rotten seeds to their animals was 84–96%, 62–80%, 67–85%, 86–98%, 63–81%, and 7–21% respectively. About 18/90 (20%) of all farmers reported that they had a relative who had died from liver cancer and the mean aflatoxin levels in season 1 were significantly different from season 2 (1.92 ± 1.07 ppb; 1.30 ± 1.50 ppb). Our findings suggest that although training farmers to adopt good agricultural practices was observed to be efficient in mitigating the problem of aflatoxins, the receptiveness of farmers to different aspects of the training may have differed. Therefore, in designing an optimized regional aflatoxin contamination strategy, local applicability should be considered.
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: agricultural activities; central region; forest cover depletion; LULC; urbanization
Online: 18 February 2020 (10:54:53 CET)
Cameroon territory is experiencing significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes since its independence in 1960. But the main relevant impacts are recorded since 1990 due to intensification of agricultural activities and urbanization. LULC effects and dynamics vary from one region to another according to the type of vegetation cover and activities. Using remote sensing, GIS and subsidiary data, this paper attempted to model the land use and land cover (LULC) change in the Centre Region of Cameroon that host Yaoundé metropolis. The rapid expansion of the city of Yaoundé drives to the land conversion with farmland intensification and forest depletion accelerating the rate at which land use and land cover (LULC) transformations take place. This study aims at assessing the impacts of both agriculture and urbanization on the LULC change in the Centre Region of Cameroon. A detailed LULC map from MAPBOX high resolution images and three LULC maps were produced from Landsat TM-OLI images (1984-2015). A maximum likelihood classification techniques using ERDAS Imagine, showed forest decline with a total loss of 54% in thirty years. Also, Landsat and MAPBOX images to which we added 1951 aerial photograph and SPOT 6 (2006) were used to analyse urban growth in the city of Yaoundé. The results show a remarkable urban spatial spread of the metropolis between 1951 and 2015, with a peak in 2000. Images processing enabled us to analyse the long term dynamics of LULC change since the 1950s in this Region using ArcGIS & QGIS software’s. Based on this dynamic, a LULC projection map was produced using Markov model on IDRISI Selva, demonstrating the decrease of the dense forest (45% in 2015 to 0.25% in 2050). It was estimated that by 2050, the entire dense forest can be depleted if nothing is done, while only 12.67% of the secondary forest would remain in the Region. Such a projected map is very useful to decision makers for council development and urban planning. This effective forest depletion ties with the hypothesis that urbanization of Yaoundé and its secondary surrounding satellite cities (within a radius of 30-100km) is a veritable driving force of deforestation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0013.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: Heavy metal; Agricultural waste; Low-cost adsorbent; Wastewater; Toxicity
Online: 1 February 2019 (10:33:23 CET)
The beginning of industrialization human being has observed a variety of environmental troubles in the world. This industrialization has not only brought growth and affluence but ultimately troubled the ecosystem. One of the crashes is visible, in form of water contamination. Here the current study heavy metal contamination of water body has been discussed. Effluents from a great number of industries viz., tannery, textile, pigment & dyes, paint, wood processing, petroleum refining, electroplating, leather etc., have a major amount of heavy metals in their wastewater. The conventional technique of handling heavy metal pollution includes chemical oxidation, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, membrane separation, electrodialysis etc. These processes are expensive, energy intensive and frequently related with generation of poisonous by-product. Therefore, the adsorption has been examined as a cost-efficient technique of elimination of heavy metals from wastewater. In the current study different low-cost adsorbent has been a review as an abatement of heavy metal contamination from wastewater. These adsorbent comprise materials of natural origin like peat moss, zeolites, clay, and chitin are found to be an effective agent for removal of deadly heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Hg, Cr etc. Separately from these, a variety of agricultural wastes like rice husk, waste tea, neem bark, black gram; Turkish coffee, walnut shell etc. were also known as a powerful adsorbent for heavy metal removal. at the side of that low-cost industrial byproduct like fly ash, lignin, iron (III) hydroxide and red mud, coffee husks, Areca waste, tea factory waste, sugar beet pulp, battery industry waste, blast furnace sludge, waste slurry, sea nodule remains and grape stalk wastes have been discovered for their technical possibility to eliminate toxic heavy metals from impure water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: agricultural land conversion; land economic value; urbanization; land rent
Online: 12 October 2018 (05:18:09 CEST)
Agricultural land conversion (ALC) is an incentive–driven process. In this paper we further investigate the inter–relationship between land economic value (LEV) and ALC. To achieve this goal, we calculated LEV for agricultural and non-agricultural (housing) uses in two areas in East Java, Indonesia. The first area represents suburban agriculture, facing rapid urbanization and experiencing high rate of ALC. The second area represents rural agriculture with zero ALC. Furthermore, we identified factors affecting LEV in both areas for both uses. The resut of this study show that agricultural land yielded higher economic benefit in rural area. Conversely, comparing to agricultural land, housing creates 7 times higher value in urban area. Moreover, agricultural land shown to create higher profit after converted. Ironically, the similar comparison doesn’t exists in rural area. Agricultural land only yielded 19% more value, indicate that agricultural land can be easily converted. It is also proven by the growing number of new urban core in the periphery area. There are several factors affecting land economic value, for agricultural use, soil fertility, accessibility, and cropping pattern are important variables. While accessibility and location in urban area increases land value for housing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0538.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: governance; agricultural value chain; links; captive chain; hierarchy chain
Online: 31 August 2018 (04:35:41 CEST)
The objective of this study is to determine the type of governance of the four main agricultural value chains in Tamaulipas, northeast of Mexico. For the preparation of this research used a qualitative design, using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to a sample of representatives of the four selected chains. The results showed that in all the studied networks, control and coordination capacity is limited by the influence that has a link on the rest of the chain. In all cases, was that the industrial link is who leads the chains and exert control over the rest of the links. The results showed that, when the industrial link is located close geographically to the rest of the links (chains of rice and sugar cane), the chains showed a hierarchical type, where the industrial exercised dominion over the rest of the links and captures most of the income. On the other hand, in chains where control is exercised by links that are outside the territory (chains of soybeans and sorghum), they function as captive chains, putting the rest of the chain to its influence and control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0444.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Tonle Sap; meteorological drought; agricultural drought; drought index; drought duration
Online: 28 January 2022 (18:04:28 CET)
Rice production in the Tonle Sap basin is one of the main drivers for economic and social development in Cambodia. The Tonle Sap basin has experienced many different forms of disasters while more attention has been drawn to drought disaster. The objective of this study is to assess the impacts of drought on agriculture and food security through a case study of the Baribo basin, a sub-basin of Tonle Sap basin, Cambodia. Ground observations and satellite-based products were used for drought assessment from 1985 to 2008 which was the period with relatively good data quality. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standard Vegetation Index (SVI) were selected for meteorological and agricultural droughts assessment, correspondingly. Both SPI and SVI consistently suggested that drought is a major natural hazard causing food insecurity in the target basin. The highest drought intensity (DI) and severity (DS) occurred between 1993-1994 and the longest drought duration (DD) occurred between 2002 and 2006. The most severe damage to rice production was in 2004, affecting about 46% of the total cultivated area. The analysis showed that drought duration had a strong relationship with the affected area growing rice as well as food insecurity in the Tonle Sap basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0411.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Fresh Agricultural Produce Supply Chain; Coordination; Discount Contract; Quantity Loss
Online: 24 December 2021 (15:56:11 CET)
This paper explores the coordination of the agricultural cooperative to supermarket or E-commerce sup-ply chain, under the condition of quantity loss with a mixed decay function of exponential and logistical distribution. The nature of this process is analyzed, and the corresponding demand and supply functions with single- and multi-stage discount strategies are constructed respectively to create a working model. The optimal discount ratios for supermarkets and agricultural cooperatives in decentralized and central-ized decision-making modes coupled with single- and multi-stage discounts are calculated respectively. Finally, a universal optimal strategy is designed, which can be applied to various quantity decay scenarios and makes the discount strategy more generalized. The results show that discounts can coordinate supply chains more effectively; not only is fresh agricultural produce sold before it starts to rot, but the benefit conflicts arising from both supermarkets vs. cooperatives and traditional vs. E-commerce channels are equilibrated. Further, multi-stage discounts are more effective than single-stage ones, but optimal discount ratios rely on the initial quantity of fresh agricultural produce in the supply chain; its market share in the traditional distribution channel; the potential market size; retail price; the price sensitivity coefficient of the channel; the cross-elasticity coefficient of prices between different channels; and the properties of the quantity loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0369.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Macrocyclic lactones; agricultural crops; food; sample preparation; UHPLC-MS/MS
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:50:47 CEST)
Soybean, maize and bean are crops of great economic importance, but in the last years suffered with infestations of the caterpillar Helicoverpa armigera, being the main problem the resistance of this pest to most pesticides. Avermectin emamectin benzoate was recently released to control this pest. Other avermectins, like abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin and ivermectin are used in large scale because they potent acaricidal, anthelmintic, and insecticidal activities. Thus, a simple and fast method for the determination of avermectins in these crops based on a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction procedure and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis was developed and validated. For extraction, water followed by acetonitrile:isopropanol and a partition step with salts was stablished. With the clean-up step using activated EMR-Lipid, limits of detection of 1.2 μg kg-1 for abamectin, doramectin, emamectin benzoate and ivermectin, and of 2.4 μg kg-1 for eprinomectin were achieved. Accuracy and precision evaluated at low levels presented satisfactory results. The method was successfully applied in commercial samples and is a good alternative for routine analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Farm fragmentation; Land fragmentation; cattle farming; agricultural productivity; Northern Ireland
Online: 9 October 2021 (13:47:08 CEST)
Farm fragmentation is the occurrence of numerous and often discontinuous land parcels associated with a single farm. Farm fragmentation is considered to be a defining feature of Northern Ireland’s (NI) agricultural landscape, influencing agricultural efficiency, productivity, and the spread of livestock diseases. Despite this, the full extent of farm fragmentation in cattle farms is not well understood, and little is known of how farm fragmentation either influences, or is influenced by, different animal production types. This study describes and quantifies farm fragmentation metrics for cattle enterprises in NI, presented separately for dairy and non-dairy production types. We find that 35% of farms consist of five or more fragments, with larger farms associated with greater levels of farm fragmentation, fragment dispersal and contact with contiguous farms. Moreover, this was particularly evident in dairy farms, which were over twice the size of farms associated with non-dairy production types, with twice as many individual land parcels and twice as many fragments. We hypothesise that the difference in farm fragmentation and farm size between dairy and non-dairy production types is associated with the recent expansion of dairy farms after the abolition of the milk quota system in 2015, which may have driven the expansion of dairy farms via the acquisition of land. The high levels of land fragmentation, fragment dispersal and contiguous contact observed in NI cattle farms may also have important implications for agricultural productivity and epidemiology alike. Whilst highly connected pastures could facilitate the dissemination of disease, highly fragmented and parcellised land could also hamper productivity via diseconomies of scale, such as preventing the increase of herd sizes or additionally, adding to farm costs by increasing the complexity of herd management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0319.v1
Online: 16 August 2021 (10:56:10 CEST)
Climate risk is one of the confronting factors in Indian agriculture. To overcome this distrust, a large number of sensors can be installed in the fields,The extensive IoT platform can process the data sent by these sensors.The Data stream can be processed in real-timeusing Fuzzylogic, to offer smart solution. Network coding can enhance throughput and security. Thus reducing human interaction and improve efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: IoT; Smart Farming; sensor data; agricultural; Fuzzy logic; Network coding
Online: 11 August 2021 (14:09:12 CEST)
Climate risk is one of the confronting factors in Indian agriculture. To overcome this distrust, a large number of sensors can be installed in the fields,The extensive IoT platform can process the data sent by these sensors.The Data stream can be processed in real-timeusing Fuzzylogic, to offer smart solution. Network coding can enhance throughput and security. Thus reducing human interaction and improve efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fresh agricultural products; harvest schedule; stochastic programming; sample-average approximation
Online: 2 July 2021 (15:44:52 CEST)
This study focuses on the decisions of picking, inventory, ripening, delivering, and selling mangoes in a harvesting season. Demand, supply, and prices are uncertain, and their probability density functions are fitted based on actual trading data collected from the largest spot market in Taiwan. A stochastic programming model is formulated to minimize the expected cost under the considerations of labor, storage space, shelf life, and transportation restrictions. We implement the sample-average approximation to obtain a high-quality solution of the stochastic program. The analysis compares deterministic and stochastic solutions to assess the uncertain effect on the harvest decisions. Finally, the optimal harvest schedule of each mango type is suggested based on the stochastic program solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: tomato harvesting; gripper; continuum robot; tomato detection; design; agricultural robot
Online: 18 December 2019 (04:34:30 CET)
Designing and development of agricultural robot is always a challenging issue, because of robot intends to work an unstructured environment and at the same time, it should be safe for the surrounded plants. Therefore, traditional robots cannot meet the high demands of modern challenges, such as working in confined and unstructured workspaces. Based on current issues, we developed a new tomato harvesting wire-driven discrete continuum robot arm with a flexible backbone structure for working in confined and extremely constrained spaces. Moreover, we optimized a tomato detaching process by using newly designed gripper with passive stem cutting function. Moreover, by designing the robot we also developed ripe tomato recognition by using machine learning. This paper explains the proposed continuum robot structure, gripper design, and development of tomato recognition system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0291.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Pakistan; bajra; barley; jowar; crops production; agricultural gross domestic product
Online: 24 May 2019 (09:02:30 CEST)
This paper investigates and explores the minor crops production in Pakistan and its association with the agricultural gross domestic product. The agriculture sector of Pakistan has a rich contribution to the economic growth and development. Like major crops; minor crops also have a vital role to boost up the agriculture sector. Time span data was used in this study and it was collected from the Economy Survey of Pakistan annual reports. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method was used to analyze the data and results were interpreted by employing the Johansen co-integration test. Study results reveal that bajra, barely and jowar has a significant impact on the agricultural gross domestic product, while the total cropped area has a negative impact on AGDP. On the basis of the study results, we recommend the policy implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0164.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Agricultural impacts, climate change impacts, integrated assessment model, CGE model
Online: 10 September 2018 (10:04:25 CEST)
Changes in agricultural yields due to climate change will affect land use, agricultural production volume, and food prices as well as macroeconomic indicators, such as GDP which is important as it enables one to compare the climate change impacts across multiple sectors. This study considered five key uncertainty factors and estimated macroeconomic impacts due to crop yield changes using a novel integrated assessment framework. The five factors are 1) land-use change (or yield aggregation method based on spatially-explicit information), 2) the amplitude of the CO2 fertilization effect, 3) the use of different climate models, 4) socioeconomic assumptions and 5) the level of mitigation stringency. We found that their global impacts on the macroeconomic indicator value were 0.02 - 0.06% of GDP in 2100. However, the impacts on the agricultural sector varied greatly by socioeconomic assumption. The relative contributions of these factors to the total uncertainty in the projected macroeconomic indicator value were greater in a pessimistic world scenario characterized by a large population increase and low income (0.6%) than in an optimistic scenario (0.00%).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: ecosystem services; agricultural systems; mapping; values; cross-scale; participatory; local
Online: 3 July 2018 (08:16:24 CEST)
Given the cross-scale interactions of agricultural ecosystems, it is important to collect ecosystem service data at the multiple spatial scales they operate at. Mapping of ecosystem services helps to assess their spatial and temporal distribution and is a popular communication tool of their availability and value. For example, maps can be used to quantify distance between areas of available ecosystem services and their beneficiaries and how services fluctuate with changes in land use patterns over time, allowing identification of synergies and trade-offs. However, a lack of local context and too large a resolution can reduce the utility of these maps, whilst masking heterogeneities in access due to equity dynamics. This review identifies and summarizes eight main methods of ESS mapping found in the literature—remote sensing, biophysical modelling, agent based modelling, economic valuation, expert opinion, user preference, participatory mapping, and photo-elicitation. We consider what spatial scales these methods are utilized at and the transferability of data created by each method. The analysis concludes with a methodological framework for mapping ecosystem services, intended to help researchers identify appropriate methods for a multi-scale research design. The framework is exemplified with an overview of a research project in Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0419.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Agricultural mechanization; Planting industry; Net carbon sink; Green total factor productivity
Online: 28 December 2021 (11:05:03 CET)
Agricultural mechanization is an important factor to improve the green total factor productivity of planting industry, which is the key way to realize the sustainable development and high-quality development of agriculture. Based on the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2019, this paper uses the stochastic frontier analysis method of output oriented distance function to measure the green total factor productivity of China’s planting industry based on net carbon sink, and empirically studies the impact of agricultural mechanization on the green total factor productivity in China’s planting industry. The empirical analysis finds that mechanization can significantly promote the planting green total factor productivity, and this basic conclusion is still robust after using instrumental variables, sub sample regression. Further research found that the path of mechanization on planting green total factor productivity is mainly reflected in technology progress and spatial spillover. The mechanism of operation scale expansion, factor allocation optimization and technical efficiency change is not significant. Given these findings, the paper adds considerable value to the empirical literature and also provides various policy- and practical implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0210.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Policy Assessment; Green Deal; EU Common Agricultural Policy; Scaled Indicators; Greening
Online: 13 December 2021 (15:55:03 CET)
Every intervention of planning, implementation, and monitoring of agricultural and agri-environmental policies requires assessment tools that should have the characteristics of relevance, completeness, interpretability, data quality, efficiency, and overlapping. Despite the extensive selection of bibliographies and numerous projects designed to develop agri-environmental indicators necessary for assessing the sustainability of new policies, it is difficult to have an integrated and updated set of indicators available, which can be an effective and practical application tool to assists policymakers, researchers, and actors in policy design, monitoring and impact assessment. Particularly, such need is pressing to face the new environmental challenges imposed by the upcoming European Union Green Deal on the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) post 2023. This study, therefore, aims to fill this gap by proposing a selection methodology and different pools of agri-environmental indicators differentiated based on a scale approach (crop-farm-district-region). Furthermore, we have attempted to validate our approach by quantifying selected indicators for a specific evaluation necessity, represented in this case by an assessment of environmental impact of land use change induced by CAP greening requirements in the Northern Italy context. Results of this validation show original crops’ impacts comparison, but also highlight great knowledge gaps in the available literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Agricultural Tractor; Diesel Emission; Air Pollutants; Emission Inventory; Geographic Information System
Online: 1 December 2021 (10:36:45 CET)
Due to the shortage of agricultural labor forces and rapid aging of farmers, the utilization of tractors is becoming popular and essential in Korea. Tractors can be classified into two types, a walking tractor called as a power tiller and a riding tractor. In this study, agricultural tractors including walking and riding types were categorized into 4 levels by rated output power. And diesel emission inventory of tractors was established and analyzed using 2011 and 2019 survey data in Korea. Emission inventory including CO, NOx, SOx, TSP(PM10), PM2.5, VOCs and NH3 were established using Tier 3 methodology. The total amount of emission using agricultural tractors was decreased about 13% from 2011 to 2019. The number of walking tractors were decreased by about 19% in 8 years, on the other hand that of riding tractors were increased by about 12%. However, the emission reduction is about 48% for walking tractors and the emission increment is about 5% for riding tractors. Thus, the total emission from agricultural tractors was decreased by about 16% in those periods. It is due to the decrease of 21% and 15% in the hours of use of walking and riding tractors, respectively, in 2019. Walking tractors mainly emit air pollutants from spraying and transporting. Riding tractors mainly 61% of total air pollutants emits from soil preparation and transporting operations. Geographic information system (GIS) was used to spatially assign air pollutants variables into 17 provinces and metropolitan cities in Korea. High emission generating regions and changes of emissions during 8 years were clearly seen in GIS analysis. High air pollutant emitting regions are mainly located in the western and southern regions of Korea, which have plenty of arable areas compared to other regions in Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0266.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Mycotoxins; Agricultural Practices; Mycotoxigenic Fungi; Fusarium; Oats; Cereals; Statistical Analysis; Agronomic
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:18:56 CEST)
Seven agronomic factors (crop season, farming system, harvest date, moisture, county, oat variety, and previous crop) were recorded for 202 oat crops grown across Ireland, and samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS for four major Fusarium mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin. Type A trichothecenes were present in 62% of crops, with 7.4% exceeding European regulatory limits. DON (6.4%) and ZEN (9.9%) occurrences were rela-tively infrequent, though one and three samples were measured over their set limits respectively. Overall, the type of farming system and the previous crop were the main factors identified to significantly influence mycotoxin prevalence or concentration. Particularly, adherence to an organic farming system and growing oats after a previous crop of grass were found to decrease contamination by type A trichothecenes. These are important findings and may provide valuable insights for many other types of cereals crops as Europe moves towards a much greater organic based food system.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: organic rice; agricultural research; participation; public funding; scientists; monitoring and evaluation
Online: 18 March 2021 (15:57:32 CET)
This paper reports on the conception and implementation of a participatory approach within an agricultural research project aimed at fostering the transition towards organic in the Italian rice district. We investigate the relationships among scientists and stakeholders, exploring researchers’ attitudes, barriers, and potential in relation to participatory research. We use participant observation, in-depth interviews, and systematic cataloguing of communication documents, from the beginning to two years into project implementation, for a total period of three years. The results of the analysis show that, despite a high level of authoritative commitment to participation, scientists reveal a scarcity of knowledge and skills, and poor attitudes that come from a negative perception of participatory research. They engage in various forms of collaboration with stakeholders, as long as decision-making remains essentially in their hands. With the deep analysis of a case study, the paper contributes to the ongoing discussion on the quality of participatory agricultural research, in particular presenting evidence on the key role of researchers and their attitudes. The paper also contributes to the development of a culture of learning by doing, through honest monitoring and evaluation, and the capacity to learn from failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0345.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: food safety; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; ACEII; agricultural security; national security
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:57:36 CEST)
Coronavirus is now a significant human pathogen with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. Until now there has been no data to support a threat to agricultural industries. Using a comparative genomic protein analysis, this study examined the angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACEII) gene of 17 animal species with an emphasis on agriculture. To determine viral vulnerability the 20 known SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD)/ACEII receptor interaction sites were compared to determine their potential susceptibility to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. With the known bat host’s (XP_032963186) number of binding sites as a threshold, we note that ALL animal species examined in this study contained significant numbers (≥10) of SARS-CoV-2 binding sites and could be at risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The data from this study suggest SARS-CoV-2 imposes a grave threat to the safety and security of the agricultural industry. Urgent studies are needed to determine if infected animals can transmit SARS-CoV-2 before and/or after processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0210.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: coordinated development degree; agricultural water resources; socio-economy development; Shanxi Province
Online: 20 August 2019 (10:20:33 CEST)
Conflict between agricultural water resources and socio-economy development is a global problem. Accurate evaluation of coordinated development of agricultural water resources and socio-economy and risk mitigation is necessary for sustainable development. An evaluation method, including selection of criteria, data collection, determination of weight, evaluation of coordinated development, prediction of parameters, and judgment of coordinated development state, has been proposed to study coordinated development degree. To deal with uncertainties, Monte Carlo method and fuzzy set method were used. The method is demonstrated to solve a real-world evaluation problem in Shanxi Province in the middle of China. Results show that coordinated development degrees were (0.7, 0.8) for most of the cities of Shanxi in 2015, indicating that coordinate development state was intermediate coordinate. To achieve balanced development, more attention should be put on socio-economic development in Taiyuan and Yanquan, and agricultural water resources utilization in Jinzhong, Yuncheng and Xinzhou. The average coordinated development degree is 0.758, and coordinate development state was intermediate coordinate from 2006 to 2015. Coordinated development degree has a trend of decreasing markedly, coordinate development state will be barely coordinated, and agricultural water resources utilization lags behind socio-economic development in 2020. The study demonstrates the practicability of the improved method, by evaluating coordinated development degree under uncertainty and forecasting future risks, which will conduce to promote sustainable development of agricultural water resources and socio-economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0161.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Agricultural productivity; Cambodia; Rice production; Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA); Technical Efficiency
Online: 29 September 2017 (18:21:43 CEST)
Rice is the most important food crop in Cambodia and its production is the most organized food production system in the country. The main objective of this study is to measure technical efficiency (TE) of Cambodian rice production and also trying to identify core influencing factors of rice TE at both national and household level, for explaining the possibilities of increasing productivity and profitability of rice, by using translog production function through Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model. Four-years dataset (2012-2015) generated from the government documents was utilized for the national analysis, while at household-level, the primary three-years data (2013-2015) collected from 301 rice farmers in three selected districts of Battambang province by structured questionnaires was applied. The results indicate that level of rice output varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total actual harvested area, and technically fertilizers application within provinces, while level of household rice output varied according to the differences in efficiency of production processes, techniques, total annual harvested land, and technically application of fertilizers and pesticides of farmers. The overall mean TE was estimated at 78.4% (national-level) and 34% (household-level), indicates that rice output has the potential of being increased further by 21.6% (national production) and 66% (household) at the same level of inputs and technology if farmers had been technically efficient. The TE also recorded -7% decreasing rate at the national-level and -14.3% at household-level due to highly affected of natural disasters and various environmental and social factors during the study periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0005.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: local agricultural marketplace; cereal commodity trade; quantity measurement costs; measurement reliability; Ethiopia
Online: 1 February 2019 (09:12:29 CET)
The issue of measurement reliability is certainly undervalued in the local agricultural marketplace organization. Besides, there was nothing identified concerning the extent of cereal commodity trade measurement cost. Hence, this paper aimed to estimate the magnitude of cereals trade quantity measurement cost caused by instrument error and unreliability; mainly by targeting the local marketplace in Ethiopia. The survey was conducted in six different districts’ marketplaces (n = 602) of Oromia region by employing administered structured questionnaires and site mass measurement calibration. The gathered data were analyzed using independent samples t-test, one sample t-test, and analysis of variance. According to the findings, the actual value measurement means of the quantity of most local units of the farmers were greater than small traders. The independent t-test result indicated that the average values of the quantity of the majority of units of measurement between farmers and small traders were varied significantly. Estimated measuring instruments’ error and unreliability associated average measurement cost of one-day market transaction over total cereals marketed amount were higher comparatively for a sack, bowl, and glass units. This study demonstrates that homogeneity in measurement, policy, and institutions that aid cereals trade would have an indispensable role to reduce measurement costs and ensure equitable exchange.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0176.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: agricultural stakeholders; extension; multivariate analysis; socio-ecological systems; mental models; sustainable agriculture
Online: 9 October 2018 (06:03:38 CEST)
The sustainability of agriculture depends as much on the natural resources required for production as it does on the stakeholders that manage those resources. It is thus essential to understand the variables that influence the decision-making process of agricultural stakeholders to design educational programs, interventions, and policies geared towards their specific needs, a required step to enhance agricultural sustainability. We examined the perceptions, experiences, and priorities that influence management decisions of five major groups of agricultural stakeholders (conventional small grain producers, organic small grain producers, organic vegetable producers, extension agents and agro-industry crop consultants, and researchers) across the Montana, United States. Results revealed that while stakeholder groups have distinct perceptions, experiences, and priorities, there were similarities across groups. Specifically, organic vegetable and organic small grain producers showed similar responses that were, in turn, divergent of conventional producers, researchers, and crop consultants. Conventional small grain producers and researchers showed overlapping response patterns while crop consultants formed an isolated group. Our results reinforce the need for agricultural education and programs that address unique and shared experiences, priorities, and concerns of multiple stakeholder groups. This study endorses the call for a paradigm shift from the traditional top-down agricultural extension model to one that accounts for participants’ socio-ecological contexts to facilitate the adoption of sustainable agricultural systems that support environmental and human wellbeing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0388.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: agricultural pesticides; residential proximity; adverse birth outcomes; preterm birth; low birthweight; pregnancy
Online: 25 June 2018 (12:44:14 CEST)
Findings from studies of prenatal exposure to pesticides and adverse birth outcomes have been equivocal so far. We examined prenatal exposure to agricultural pesticides in relation to preterm birth and term low birthweight, respectively, in children born between 1998 and 2010 randomly selected from California birth records. We estimated residential exposures to agriculturally applied pesticides within 2 km of residential addresses at birth by pregnancy trimester for 17 individual pesticides and 3 chemical classes (organophosphates, pyrethroids, and carbamates). Among maternal addresses located within 2 km of any agricultural pesticide application, we identified 24,693 preterm and 220,297 term births, and 4,412 term low birthweight and 194,732 term normal birthweight infants. First or second trimester exposures to individual pesticides (e.g., glyphosates, paraquat, imidacloprid) or exposures to 2+ pesticides in the three chemical classes were associated with small increases (3-7%) in risk for preterm birth; associations were stronger for female offspring. We did not find associations between term low birthweight and exposures to pesticides other than for myclobutanil (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04-1.20) and possibly pyrethroids as a class. Our improved exposure assessment revealed that first and second trimester exposures to pesticides were associated with preterm delivery but few affected term low birthweight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0121.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: REBF; protection levels; agricultural economic loss; Baoji section of the Weihe River
Online: 18 December 2017 (11:36:05 CET)
Many agricultural water uses crowd the river ecology of the river water, thus leading to irreversible habitat damage. This paper presents an agricultural economic loss calculation model that is based on river ecological basic flow (REBF) protection by introducing a typical crop water requirement coefficient. First, the water balance equation is used according to a set of REBF protection values to compute the agricultural water shortage that results in the REBF. Second, the agricultural water shortage that results in REBF protection and a typical crop water requirement coefficient are used to determine the food production generated by REBF protection. Finally, the loss of food production and the food market prices are used to determine the agricultural economic loss caused by the different protection levels of REBF. A case study of the Weihe River in China is conducted. The calculation model is used to compute the agricultural economic loss on the basis of REBF protection in the Baoji section of the Weihe River, and the change law of the agricultural economic loss that results in different levels of the REBF is discussed. In addition, changes in the canal water use coefficient and the crop structure that affect agricultural economic loss are analyzed. Results show that the spatial and temporal variations in the runoff affect the changes in time and space of the agricultural economic loss. The higher the REBF protection level, the higher the agricultural economic loss. In addition, agricultural economic loss can provide a quantitative basis for reasonable REBF protection. The size of agricultural economic loss helps the government sector in decision-making on REBF protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0063.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: socio-economic determinants; agricultural technologies; climate-smart; integrated pest management technologies (CS-IPM)
Online: 6 May 2022 (08:41:24 CEST)
Following the development and dissemination of new climate-smart agricultural technologies to farmers globally, there has been an increase in the number of socio-economic studies on the adoption of climate-smart integrated pests’ management (CS-IPM) technologies over the years. In this study, we review empirical evidence on adoption determinants of CS-IPM technologies and identify possible science-policy interfaces. Generally, our review shows that socioeconomic and institutional factors are influential in shaping CS-IPM adoption decisions of farmers. More specifically, income was found to positively influence the adoption of CS-IPM technologies while land size owned influences CS-IPM adoption negatively. Registered land tenure (registered secure rights) positively influences CS-IPM technologies’ adoption, implying that efficient land markets that enable competitive and fair distribution and access to land, more so by the vulnerable but efficient smallholder producers do indeed increase the adoption of CS-IPMs technologies. Social capital, achieved via farmers’ organizations is also central in fostering CS-IPM technologies’ adoption, just as markets reforms that minimize market failures regarding access to credit, labor, and agricultural information, which could indirectly hinder farmers’ use of CS-IPM practices. Functional extension systems that improve farmers’ awareness of CS-IPM do also improve CS-IPM technologies’ adoption. However, the adoption of CS-IPM technologies in Ghana and Benin is slow-paced because of factors like lack of access to farm inputs that facilitate uptake of these technologies, lack of credit facilities, and limited extension services among others. Interestingly, our review confirms that CS-IPM technologies do indeed reduce and minimize the intensity of pesticide usage and foster ecosystem (environmental and human) health. Therefore, this review unearths strategic determinants of CS-IPM adoption and makes fundamental guidance around climate-smart innovations transfer and environmental policies that should be prioritized to curb environmental pollution and ensure agricultural ecosystems’ sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0409.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Air Pollutant Emissions; Rice Cultivation; Agricultural Machinery; Tier 1 Methodology; Geographic Information System
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:22:08 CEST)
In Korea, rice is a major staple grain and is mainly cultivated using various agricultural machinery. Air pollutants emitted from agricultural machinery have their origins mainly from the exhaustion of internal combustion engines. In this study, emission characteristics of five main air pollutants by European Environment Agency's Tier 1 method for rice cultivation was analyzed. Diesel is a main fuel for agricultural machinery and gasoline is generally used only for rice transplanters as a fuel in Korea. Tractors consume 46% of total fuel consumption and 56% of diesel fuel consumption. Gasoline used for rice transplanters accounts for 17% of total fuel consumption each year. Tractors and rice transplanters are emitting 82% of all total pollutants. From 2011 to 2019, the total amount of air pollutant emissions was decrease by 15%. That accounted for the reduction of rice cultivation fields in those periods. Rice transplanting operation was in charge of 42% of total emissions. Then, harrowing, harvesting, tilling, leveling, and pest control operations generated 10%, 10%, 8%, 8% and 7% of total emissions, respectively. The contribution of each air pollutant held 54% of CO, 39% of NOx, 5% of NMVOC, and 2% of TSP from the total emission inventory. The three major regions emitting air pollutants from mechanized agricultural practices were Jeollanam-do, Chungcheongnam-do, and Jeollabuk-do, which consume 55% of total fuel usage in rice farming. The total amount of air pollutant emissions from rice cultivation practices in 2019 was calculated as 8,448 Mg in Korea.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0318.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: agricultural industry; antibacterial; antimicrobial; green synthesis; gold; nano-biotechnology; nanoparticles; silver; sustainable development
Online: 15 July 2020 (06:13:43 CEST)
Currently, metal nanoparticles have varied uses for different medical, pharmaceutical, and agricultural applications. Nano-biotechnology combined with green chemistry has great potential for the development of novel and necessary products that benefit human activities, while encourages the reduction of hazardous reagents for nanoparticle production. Green chemistry has an important role due to its contribution to unconventional synthesis methods of gold and silver nanoparticles from plant extracts, which have exhibited antimicrobial potential among other outstanding properties. Biodiversity-rich countries need to collect and convert knowledge from biological resources into processes, compounds, methods, and tools, which need to be achieved along with sustainable use and exploitation of biological diversity. Therefore, this review focuses on the importance of metal nanoparticles, the use of plant extract for their synthesis as well as other available methods, and the relevant antimicrobial activity that can be exploited in a sustainable model of agricultural management through a modern nanotechnological approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0511.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Bio-economy; Agricultural by-product; Horizontal coordination; Contract mechanism; Choice model; Waste valorization
Online: 22 October 2018 (16:11:55 CEST)
Efficient use of agricultural wastes and by-products, basically transforming waste materials into value added products, is considered as pivotal for an effective bioeconomy strategy for the rural development. To this scope, citrus waste management represents a major issue for citrus processors but, at the same time, it embodies a potentially unexploited resource for the rural sustainable development. This study focuses on analyzing the current management of citrus waste in South Italy and identifying the determinants and barriers that may affect an entrepreneur’s choice on the destination of citrus waste. Citrus processors’ preferences about the contract characteristics needed to take part in a co-investment scheme have been investigated. Both analyses are preliminary steps to design an innovative and sustainable citrus by-product supply chain. Results show that the distance between the citrus processors and the citrus by-products plant is one of the main criteria for choosing alternative valorization pathways. Moreover, the required guaranteed capital, the short duration of the contract, and low risk are contract scheme characteristics that improve entrepreneurs’ willingness to co-invest in the development of a citrus waste multifunctional plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: solid waste management; environmental pollution; agricultural waste; cassava waste; biogas generation; sustainable technology
Online: 5 September 2018 (05:32:59 CEST)
Agricultural product like cassava produces huge amounts of waste when processed to consumable goods. The waste generated is generally considered to contribute largely to environmental pollution. This study therefore investigates the waste management practice that is adopted by cassava processors in Ogun State, Nigeria. Five (5) Local Government Areas (LGAs) dominant in processing cassava were selected for the study on the basis of spatial location distribution; landmass and population. The survey involved the use of structured questionnaires administered to cassava processors of the selected LGAs. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software application and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results of the analysis show that majority (70%) of the cassava processors are females. Cassava peel constitutes 10% of the waste produced, of which 91% are heaped at refuse dump in most communities. Results also reveal that 86.3% of cassava residues are used for animal feeds. Other findings show that the peels when dried are used as bio-fuel for cooking and there is a significant potential for biogas production. From the data captured from respondent during the study, most processors are willing to pay for an improved waste management system. The study therefore suggests proper waste management of cassava waste to minimize environmental pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0200.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Agricultural Transport Costs; New Economic Geography; Spatial Spillovers; Agglomeration Effects; Origin-Destination Flow Models
Online: 13 December 2021 (12:38:33 CET)
The role of agricultural transport costs in core-periphery structures has habitually been ignored in New Economic Geography (NEG) models. This is due to the convention of treating the agricultural good as the numéraire, thus implying that agricultural transportation costs are assumed to be zero in these models. For more than three decades, this has been the standard setting in spatial equilibrium analysis. The paper examines the effects of agricultural transport costs on the spatial organisation of regional structures in Peru. In doing so, the Krugman’s formulation of iceberg transport costs is modified to introduce the agricultural transport costs into the dynamic of the NEG models. We use exploratory spatial flow data analysis methods and non-spatial and spatial origin-destination flow models to explore how the regional spatial structure change when real transportation data for agricultural goods is included into the iceberg transport costs formulation. We show that agricultural transport costs generate flows that are systematically associated with flows to or from nearby regions generating thus the emergence of spatial spillovers across Peruvian regions. The results of the paper support the contention that NEG models have overshadowed the role of agricultural transport costs in determining the spatial configuration of economic activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0431.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: agricultural eco-efficiency; DEA-SBM model; spatio-temporal evolution pattern; improvement potential; Jiangsu Province
Online: 16 April 2021 (10:34:15 CEST)
Achieving eco-efficiency in agriculture production at low environmental costs is key to sustainable agriculture. Using the DEA-SBM model, this study evaluated the agricultural eco-efficiency of the 77 counties and districts in China’s Jiangsu province from 1999 to 2018 and analyzed its spatio-temporal evolution pattern and influencing factors. The mains conclusions were as follows: (1) The overall agricultural eco-efficiency and its decomposition terms, pure technology efficiency and scale efficiency, exhibited a fluctuating downward trend. The regional inequality in agricultural eco-efficiency had been widening and exhibited a strong positive spatial association. (2) The agricultural eco-efficiency in Jiangsu province presented a “high south and low north” spatial pattern. High-level agricultural eco-efficiency areas were in the Taihu Plain in Sunan, while low-level agricultural eco-efficiency zones are distributed across Subei City. The High-High-type spatial association pattern is concentrated in the Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou region, while the Low-Low areas are mainly in the coastal regions of Subei and Suzhong. (3) The spatial pattern of PTE and SE generally exhibited a “high south and low north” distribution. Areas with positive growth in agricultural eco-efficiency, PTE, and SE, were situated in Xuzhou, Nanjing city, and the bordering regions between Yangzhou and Huai’an, and Changzhou and Wuxi. (4) The excessive redundant use and application of pesticides, chemical fertilizer, agricultural diesel, labor, land, and agricultural carbon emission have been the primary factor affecting Jiangsu's agricultural eco-efficiency. Irrigation had also signficantly impacted agricultural eco-efficiency, while mechanical power and agricultural film had minimal effect. The majority of counties and districts in Subei, Suzhong, and Ningzhen Yang Hilly region have issues regarding their excessive usage of chemical fertilizer, pesticide, chemical fertilizer, agricultural diesel, labor, and land. The findings of this study can contribute towards a better understanding of agricultural eco-efficiency and spatial association effect and can help policymakers increase agricultural eco-efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0034.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: systematic literature review; agricultural sustainability assessment; circular economy; lice cycle methodologies; agri-food sustainability
Online: 1 February 2021 (13:48:13 CET)
This study aims at providing a systematic and critical review on the state-of-the-art of life cycle applications from the circular economy point of view. In particular, the main objective is to un-derstand how researchers adapt life cycle approaches for the measurement of the empirical cir-cular pathways of agri-food systems along the overall lifespan. To perform the literature review, PRISMA protocol was considered to conduct a review by qualitative synthesis. Specifically, an evaluation matrix has been set up to gather and synthesize research evidence, by classifying pa-pers according to several integrated criteria. The literature search was carried out employing scientiﬁc databases. Findings evidence that the most common circularity topics are about closed-loop production systems, i.e. nutrient recovery for agricultural purposes, production of renewable energy, valorization of residues and wastes as fertilizers, food waste, and agro-wastes recycling for agriculture. To evaluate the benefits/impacts of CE strategies, Life Cycle Assess-ment (LCA) proved to be the most common methodology applied by authors, as it can help to meet the main CE requirements slowing and closing resource loops.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: volunteered geographic information; agricultural intensification; sustainability; smart farming; citizen science; SDGs; decision support tool
Online: 24 August 2020 (02:56:48 CEST)
Traditional agricultural extension services rely on extension workers, especially in countries with large agricultural areas. In order to increase adoption of sustainable agriculture, the recommendations given by such services must be adapted to local conditions and be provided in a timely manner. The AgroTutor mobile application was built to provide highly specific and timely agricultural recommendations to farmers across Mexico and complement the work of extension agents. At the same time, AgroTutor provides direct contributions to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, either by advancing their implementation or providing local data systems to measure and monitor specific indicators such as the proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture. The application is freely available and allows farmers to geo-locate and register plots and the crops grown there, using the phone’s in-built GPS, or alternatively, on top of very high-resolution imagery. Once a crop and some basic data such as planting date and cultivar type have been registered, the app provides targeted information such as weather, potential and historical yield, financial benchmarking information, data-driven recommendations as well as commodity price forecasts. Farmers are also encouraged to contribute in-situ information, e.g., soils, management, and yield data. The information can then be used by crop models, which, in turn, would send tailored results back to the farmers. Initial feedback from farmers and extension agents has already improved some of the app’s characteristics. More enhancements are planned for inclusion in the future to increase the app’s function as a decision support tool.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0193.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: agricultural machinery; load sensing; independent metering; digital flow control; displacement control; constant pressure systems.
Online: 9 October 2018 (15:56:08 CEST)
A fluid power industry powering the agricultural machinery faces big challenges nowadays. An issue of energy saving has become important due to increasing fuel costs and more stringent emissions regulations impacting vehicle development. A recent study conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy shows that the efficiency of fluid power averages 21 percent. This offers a huge opportunity to improve the current state-of-the-art of fluid power machines, in particular to improve the energy consumption of current applications and create innovative solutions. To increase energy efficiency of fluid power systems reduction of throttling losses and potential energy recovery strategies are needed. Aim of this work is to present classification of current energy saving architectures and aid the development of new techniques for mobile fluid power machines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0046.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: agricultural productivity; Battambang; Cambodia; rice production; stochastic frontier production function (SFA model); technical efficiency
Online: 8 November 2016 (08:51:50 CET)
The aims of this study are to measure the technical efficiency (TE) of Cambodian household’s rice production and trying to determine its main influencing factors using the stochastic frontier production function. The study utilized primary data collected from 301 rice farmers in three selected districts of Battambang by structured questionnaires. The empirical results indicated the level of household rice output varied according to differences in the efficiency of production processes. The mean TE is 0.34 which means that famers produce 34% of rice at best practice at the current level of production inputs and technology, indicates that rice output has the potential of being increased further by 66% at the same level of inputs if farmers had been technically efficient. Furthermore, between 2013-2015 TE of household’s rice production recorded -14.3% decline rate due to highly affected of drought during dry season of 2015. Moreover, evidence reveals that land, fertilizer, and pesticide are the major influencing input factors of household’s rice production, while disaster, education of household head, family size and other crops’ cultivated area are core influencing factors decreasing TE. Conversely, the main influencing factors increasing TE are irrigated area, number of plot area and sex of household head.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0135.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: technical efficiency; stochastic frontier production function (SFA model); rice production; Battambang; Cambodia; agricultural productivity
Online: 31 October 2016 (03:31:11 CET)
The aims of this study are to measure the technical efficiency (TE) of Cambodian household’s rice production and trying to determine its main influencing factors using the stochastic frontier production function. The study utilized primary data collected from 301 rice farmers in three selected districts of Battambang by structured questionnaires. The empirical results indicated the level of household rice output varied according to differences in the efficiency of the production processes. The mean TE is 0.34 which means that famers produce 34% of rice at best practice at the current level of production inputs and technology, indicates that rice output has the potential of being increased further by 66% at the same level of inputs if farmers had been technically efficient. Furthermore, between 2013-2015, TE of household’s rice production recorded -14.3% decline rate due to highly affected of drought during dry season of 2015. Moreover, evidence reveals that land, fertilizer, and pesticide are the major influencing input factors of household’s rice production, while disaster, education of household head, family size and other crops’ cultivated area are core influencing factors decreasing TE. Conversely, the main influencing factors increasing TE are irrigated area, number of plot area and sex of household head.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0243.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: digital farming; remote sensing; land management; multispectral image processing; land cover mapping; agricultural field boundary
Online: 14 December 2021 (15:01:03 CET)
This paper considered the issue of agricultural fields boundary recognition in satellite images. A novel algorithm based on the aggregated history of vegetation index data obtained via open satellite data, Sentinel-2, was proposed. The proposed algorithm included several basic steps, namely the detection of parcel regions on aggregated index data; the calculation of aggregated edge maps; the segmentation of parcel regions using the edges obtained; the computation of connected components and their contour extraction. In this paper, we showed that the use of aggregated vegetation index data and boundary maps allow for much more accurate agricultural field segmentation compared to the instant vegetation index approach. The quality of segmentation within regions of Russia and the Ukraine was estimated. The dataset that was used and Python implementation of the proposed algorithm were provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: agricultural wastewater treatment; hazardous waste management; gas-liquid interface; gaseous emissions; animal production; occupational safety
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:16:36 CEST)
The risk of inhalation exposure to elevated concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) during the agitation of stored swine manure is high. Once or twice a year, farmers agitate manure before pump-out and application to fields. Agitation of the swine manure causes the short-term releases of highly toxic levels of H2S and NH3. In our previous pilot-scale studies, the biochar powder had shown significant mitigation of H2S and NH3 emissions when surficially applied to manure immediately before agitation. However, fine biochar powder application poses hazards by itself and may not be practical to apply on a farm scale, especially when livestock and workers are present. We hypothesized that applying pelletized biochar to manure surface is just as effective as applying powder to protect farmers and animals from excessive exposure to H2S and NH3. This work reports on the lab-scale proof-of-the-concept trials with biochar pellets on the lab-scale. The objective was to compare the biochar pellets and biochar powder on their effectiveness of mitigation on H2S and NH3 gases during 3-hour long swine manure agitation. Three scenarios were compared in (n=3) trials (i) control, (ii) 12.5 mm thick surficial application to manure surface of biochar powder, and (iii) an equivalent (by mass) dose of pelletized biochar applied to manure surface. The biochar powder was bound with 35% (wt) water into ~5 × 10 mm (dia × length) pellets. Biochar powder was significantly (p<0.05) more effective than the biochar pellets. Still, pellets reduced total H2S and NH3 emissions by ~72% and ~68%, respectively (p=0.001), compared with ~99% by powder (p=0.001). The maximum H2S & NH3 concentrations were reduced from 48.1±4.8 ppm & 1,810±850 ppm to 20.8±2.95 ppm & 775±182 ppm by pellets, and to 22.1±16.9 ppm & 40.3±57 ppm by powder, respectively. These reductions are equivalent to reducing the maximum concentrations of H2S and NH3 during the 3-h manure agitation by 57% and 57% (pellets) and 54% and 98% (powder), respectively. Treated manure properties hinted at improved nitrogen retention, yet not significant due to high variability. We recommend scaling-up and trials on the farm-scales using biochar pellets to assess the feasibility of application to large manure surfaces and techno-economic evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0049.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: mental accounting; agricultural water fee; behavioral economics; decision making; information processing; representativeness; negative psychological externalities
Online: 25 August 2016 (10:12:08 CEST)
To better understand farmers’ refusal and corresponding negative emotions to pay agricultural water fee under current policy in rural China, this paper applies mental accounting, a behavioral economics framework, to explore how the governmental policies of reform of rural taxes and fees, direct agricultural subsidy programs and agricultural water fee individually influence farmers’ decisions in paying agricultural water fee. Using fieldwork data from 577 farmers and 20 water managers in Sichuan, we explore farmers’ information processing regarding paying agricultural water fee via three sequential mental accounting processes, with the associated underlying principles and measures behind each process. We find that the information processing in three mental accounting scenarios related to the agricultural water fee elucidates farmers’ observed behaviors in rural China. Generally, in the three mental accounting scenarios, two conditional intuitive expectations and nine conditional intuitive preferences are formed, however, the conditions of those expectations or preferences cannot be matched with the facts due to the reform of rural taxes and fees, the direct agricultural subsidy programs and the internal attributes of agricultural water fee, which interpret those negative behaviors in rural China. Additionally, this paper offers a view into how previous policies create negative psychological externalities (such as farmers’ psychological dependence on the government) through mental accounting to negatively influence agents’ subsequent decision making; it highlights the significance of underlying mental factors and information processing of negative behaviors in policymaking for managing or conserving common pool resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0375.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: cold chain logistics of agricultural products; demand forecast; principal component analysis, multiple linear regression, neural network.
Online: 19 January 2021 (11:50:09 CET)
Cold chain logistics of Agricultural Products demand forecasting can provide the scientific basis for the country to formulate logistics strategy, which further promotes the development of social economy and the improvement of living standards in China. In this paper, a new mathematical combined model is proposed to Agricultural Products Demand. Shandong, one of a China’s province, serves as the main producer and distributor of agricultural products. Based on the index system created from multiple related factors influencing cold chain logistics demand of agricultural products in Shandong, this paper employs principal component analysis to reduce the dimension of various indexes and predicts principal components with time series. Thereafter, multiple linear regression model and neural network model were constructed to forecast the cold chain logistics demand of agricultural products in Shandong, and their combined forecast models were compared. What's more, the paper provides insight for reference and decision-making concerning the development of cold chain logistics industry of agricultural products in Shandong province.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: agricultural soils; carbon dioxide (CO2), energy; forests; methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nutrient leaching; peat; traffic
Online: 6 November 2020 (17:19:26 CET)
rdinary people and political leaders must know the sources of greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on global climate change before they have ability to make decisions to reduce emissions and increase sinks of these gases. These people must, however, understand where greenhouse gas emissions are formed and how reductions can be made: they must understand where carbon dioxide sinks are and how to preserve or increase these sinks. North Savo is the example used in this work to describe the present emissions and sinks. There are proposals on what should and could be done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions caused by traffic, heating, forests and agriculture. There are possibilities of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in traffic and heating in spite of the fact that the province has a low population density with long distances between homes and workplaces and schools, and a cold climate. We believe that research will also find solutions for reducing greenhouse gases and protecting waters, which are used for recreational purposes and for raw water of drinking water in many places. Luckily forests cover large areas of North Savo and their growth is an important carbon dioxide sink. In addition, forest soils serve as a valuable storage of carbon. Besides carbon dioxide emissions, emissions of nitrous oxide and methane must also be considered since they are more potent greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide and land use can thus influence these gas emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0127.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: frequency-domain; ground penetrating radar; electromagnetic induction; penetration depth; inversion; non-destructive techniques; agricultural drainage systems
Online: 10 June 2020 (05:39:04 CEST)
Subsurface drainage systems remove excess water from the soil profile thereby improving crop yields in poorly drained farmland. Knowledge of the position of the buried drain lines is important: 1) to improve understanding of leaching and offsite release of nutrients and pesticides, and 2) for the installation of a new set of drain lines between the old ones for enhanced soil water removal efficiency. Traditional methods of drainage mapping involve the use of tile probes and trenching equipment. While these can be effective, they are also time-consuming, labor-intensive, and invasive, thereby entailing an inherent risk of damaging the drainpipes. Non-invasive geophysical soil sensors provide a potential alternative solution. Previous research has focused on the use of time-domain ground penetrating radar (GPR), with variable success depending on local soil and hydrological conditions and the central frequency of the specific equipment employed. The objectives of this study were 1) to test the use of a stepped-frequency continuous wave (SFCW) 3D-GPR (GeoScope Mk IV 3D-Radar with DXG1820 antenna array) for subsurface drainage mapping, and 2) to evaluate the performance of a 3D-GPR with the use of a single-frequency multi-receiver electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor (DUALEM) in-combination. The 3D-GPR system offers more flexibility for application to different (sub)surface conditions due to the coverage of wide frequency bandwidth. The EMI sensor simultaneously provides information about the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) for different soil volumes, corresponding to different depths. This sensor combination was evaluated on twelve different study sites with various soil types with textures ranging from sand to clay till. While the 3-D GPR showed a high success rate in finding the drainpipes at five sites (sandy, sandy loam, loamy sand, and organic topsoils), the results at the other seven sites were less successful due to limited penetration depth (PD) of the 3D-GPR signal. The results suggest that the electrical conductivity estimates produced by the inversion of ECa data measured by the DUALEM sensor could be a useful proxy to explain the success achieved by the 3D-GPR in finding the drain lines. The high attenuation of electromagnetic waves in highly conductive media limiting the PD of the 3D-GPR can explain the findings obtained in this research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0104.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biochar; hydrogen sulfide; ammonia; livestock manure; agricultural safety; deep pit storage; waste management; air pollution; odor
Online: 7 June 2020 (15:54:48 CEST)
Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are always a concern in the livestock industries, especially when farmers try to clear their manure storage pits. Agitation of manure can cause dangerously high concentrations of harmful agents such as H2S and NH3 to be emitted into the air. Biochar has the ability to sorb these gases. We hypothesized that applying biochar on top of manure can create an effective barrier to protect farmers and animals from exposure to NH3 and H2S. In this study, two kinds of biochar were tested, highly alkaline, and porous (HAP, pH 9.2) biochar made from corn stover and red oak biochar (RO, pH 7.5). Two scenarios of (6 mm) 0.25” and (12 mm) 0.5” thick layers of biochar treatments were topically applied to the manure and tested on a pilot-scale setup, simulating a deep pit storage. Each setup experienced 3-min of agitation using a transfer pump, and measurements of the concentrations of NH3 and H2S were taken in real-time and measured until the concentration stabilized after the sharp increase in concentration due to agitation. The results were compared with the control in the following 3 situations: 1. The maximum (peak) flux 2. Total emission from the start of agitation until the concentration stabilized, and 3. The total emission during the 3 min of agitation. For NH3, 0.5” HAP biochar treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced maximum flux by 63.3%, overall total emission by 70%, and total emissions during the 3-min agitation by 85.2%; 0.25” HAP biochar treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced maximum flux by 75.7%, overall, total emission by 74.5%, and total emissions during the 3-min agitation by 77.8%. 0.5” RO biochar treatment significantly reduced max by 8.8%, overall total emission by 52.9%, and total emission during 3-min agitation by 56.8%; 0.25” RO biochar treatment significantly reduced max by 61.3%, overall total emission by 86.1%, and total emission during 3-min agitation by 62.7%. For H2S, 0.5” HAP biochar treatment reduced the max by 42.5% (p=0.125), overall total emission by 17.9% (p=0.290), and significantly reduced the total emission during 3-min agitation by 70.4%; 0.25” HAP treatment reduced max by 60.6% (p=0.058), and significantly reduced overall and 3-min agitation’s total emission by 64.4% and 66.6%, respectively. 0.5” RO biochar treatment reduce the max flux by 23.6% (p=0.145), and significantly reduced overall and 3-min total emission by 39.3% and 62.4%, respectively; 0.25” RO treatment significantly reduced the max flux by 63%, overall total emission by 84.7%, and total emission during 3-min agitation by 67.4%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0429.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: biomass, bio-energy, bio-chemicals, advanced technologies, agricultural production, trade, land use, economic modelling, MAGNET model
Online: 23 July 2018 (15:08:09 CEST)
As the EU is moving towards a low carbon economy and seeks to further develop its renewable energy policy, this paper quantitatively investigates the impact of plausible energy market reforms from the perspective of bio-renewables. Employing a state-of-the-art biobased variant of a computable general equilibrium model, this study assesses the perceived medium-term benefits, risks and trade-offs which arise from an advanced biofuels plan, two exploratory scenarios of a more 'sustainable' conventional biofuels plan and a 'no-mandate' scenario. Consistent with more recent studies, none of the scenarios considered present significant challenges to EU food-security or agricultural land usage. An illustrative advanced biofuels plan simulation requires non-trivial public support to implement whilst a degree of competition for biomass with (high-value) advanced biomass material industries is observed. On the other hand, it significantly alleviates land use pressures, whilst lignocellulose biomass prices are not expected to increase to unsustainable levels. Clearly, these observations are subject to assumptions on technological change, sustainable biomass limits, expected trends in fossil fuel prices and EU access to third-country trade. With these same caveats in mind, the switch to increased bioethanol production does not result in significant market tensions in biomass markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0044.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: climate change; natural disasters; agricultural production; food aid; official development assistance; conflict; poverty; cereal production; humanitarian aid
Online: 5 January 2022 (13:24:15 CET)
This study analyzed the impact of climate-related natural disasters (droughts, floods, storms/rainstorms) on economic and social variables. As the Africa-specific empirical literature is limited, this study used panel data from 1961–2011 on Africa. The study used a panel data regression model analysis. The results showed that climate change-related natural disasters affected Africa’s economic growth, agriculture, and poverty and caused armed conflicts. Among the disasters, droughts are the main cause of negative impact, severely affecting crops such as maize and coffee and resulting in increased urban poverty and armed conflicts. In contrast, international aid has a positive effect but the impact is insignificant compared to the negative consequences of climate-related natural disasters. Cereal food assistance has a negative crowding-out effect on cereal production. International donors should review their interventions to support Africa’s adaptative capacity to disasters. Government efficiency has reduced the number of deaths, and this is an area that supports Africa’s adaptative efforts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0366.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa L.; agricultural wastes; anthocyanins; ruminant nutrition; milk and meat production; fat milk and meat quality
Online: 17 May 2021 (07:52:05 CEST)
The objective was to analyze the effects of adding anthocyanin delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in animal diets. Scientific articles published before 2021 in clinics, pharmacology, nutrition, and animal production were included. The grains/concentrate, metabolic exigency, and caloric stress contribute to increasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS); the excess of ROS unbalance the oxidants and antioxidants. Cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and anthelmintic activities. In the rumen, anthocyanin might show interactions and/or synergisms with substrates, microorganisms, and enzymes which could reduce the fiber degradability, but increase the potential methane (CH4) emissions; since anthocyanin interferes in the biohydrogenation of fats, they increase the fat milk and meat quality. Anthocyanins reduce plasma oxidation and deposit in tissues, increasing the milk and meat antioxidant activities. Cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside act as inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACEi) and rennin expression which may improve milk yield (there is not enough evidence in ruminants, though). Polyphenols affect the reproductive potential. Sub products of HS contain as many amounts of polyphenols as calyces, and their inclusion in diets would positively affect the average daily gain and fat meat quality. Including HS in ruminant diets can improve the meat and milk quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: land use and cover; land surface temperature; built-up land; agricultural land; gradient analysis; Nuwara Eliya; Sri Lanka
Online: 26 August 2019 (05:07:33 CEST)
Although urbanization has contributed to improving living conditions, it has had negative impacts on the natural environment in the urbanized areas. Urbanization has changed the urban landscape and resulted in increasing land surface temperature (LST). Thus, studies related to LST in various urban environments have become a popular research topic. However, few LST studies focusing on the mountain landscapes (i.e. hill stations) have been carried out. The primary objective of this study is to investigate changes in the landscape and their impacts on LST intensity (LSTI) in the tropical mountain city of Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka. The study utilized annual median temperatures extracted from Landsat data collected from 1996 to 2017 based on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) interface. The fractions of built-up (BL), forest (FL), and agricultural (AL) land were calculated using land use and cover maps based on the urban-rural zone (URZ) analysis. The urban-rural margin was demarcated based on the fraction of BL (<10%) and LSTI was measured using the mean LST difference in the urban-rural zone. In addition, the mixture of land use types was calculated using the AL/FL and BL/FL fraction ratios, and grid-based density analysis. The result shows that the BL in all URZ rapidly developed, while AL decreased during the period 1996 to 2017. There was minimal change in the forest area of the Nuwara Eliya owing to the government forest preservation policies. The fraction of the BL increased from 32.4% in 1996 to 58.7% in 2017 in the city center zone (URZ1) resulting in increased mean LST by 4.7 °C. Furthermore, the increase of the BL/FL fraction ratio and the decrease of the AL/FL fraction ratio were positively correlated with the mean LST. Grid-based analysis showed an increasing positive relationship between mean LST and density of BL. This indicated that BL density has been a crucial element in increasing LST in the study area. The results of this study will be a useful indicator to introduce improved landscape and urban planning in the future to minimize the negative impact of LST on urban sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0511.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.; essential oils; microencapsulated products; antibacterial activity; agricultural pathogens; foodborne pathogens; gram-positive bacteria; gram-negative bacteria
Online: 30 August 2022 (07:02:54 CEST)
Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. is a powerful medicinal plant that has been used as traditional medicine to cure respiratory problems, pain, and inflammation in China, Indonesia, Thailand and other Asian countries by using the crude extracts. The objective of this research is to identify phytochemical composition of Z. cassumunar Roxb. and to analyze antibacterial activity of crude extract, purified compounds, and their microencapsulated products of Rhizome Z. cassumunar Roxb. Identification of phytochemical composition in crude extract of rhizome Z. cassumunar Roxb. was achieved by chromatography-mass spectrophotometer. The major phytochemical composition in crude extract of Z. cassumunar Roxb. is essential oils, including terpinen4-ol (37.7%), β-pinene (20.8%), and (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-1-ene (13.3%). Crude extract of Z. cassumunar Roxb. was purified with silica gel flash column chromatography, resulting two purified compounds. The antibacterial activity of crude extract, purified compounds, and their microencapsulated products of Rhizome Z. cassumunar Roxb. were evaluated against agricultural and foodborne pathogens by using disc agar diffusion and broth microdilution techniques. All of the samples studied (crude extracts, purified compounds, and microencapsulated of Z. cassumunar Roxb.) were effective against all the bacteria. Based on the results of the disc-diffusion assay suggested that amongst the samples studied, purified compounds (compound 1 and 2) and microencapsulated purified compounds (compound 1 and 2) exhibited more effective against all the bacteria compared to the crude extracts. Antibacterial activity of the rhizome of Z. cassumunar Roxb. was contributed mainly by the essential oils components as the active compounds. Gram-negative bacteria (X. oryzae, X. translucens, Pseudomonas spp, E. coli, and S. typhimurium) appeared to the most resistant to the crude extracts, purified compounds, and microencapsulated of Z. cassumunar Roxb. compared to the gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, B. cereus, and L. monocytogenes). Microencapsulated of the tested samples (crude extract, purified compound 1, and purified compound 2) of the rhizome Z. cassumunar Roxb. exhibited high antibacterial activity with no significantly different with the tested samples without microencapsulation. These results suggest potential antibacterial properties of Z. cassumunar Roxb., which useful for agricultural plant health, food preservation, natural therapies, and pharmaceuticals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: environmental conservation agriculture; Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems; climate change mitigation; Tokimai brand; Sado island; Japan; biodiversity conservation; sustainable agriculture
Online: 8 June 2022 (10:33:39 CEST)
Sado Island in Niigata prefecture, Japan is one of the first Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) among developed countries and has since been involved in environmental conservation agriculture (ECA). While ECA is still in its early stage in Japan, it has proven to be effective in mitigating climate change in the agricultural sector; hence, this study analyzed the factors which could contribute to the ECA continuation among Sado Island farmers. The data revealed the prevalence of farmers’ cognitive dissonance between ECA and its mitigating effects on climate change. Exploratory factor analysis and ordinal regression confirmed the importance of perceived GIAHS involvement in the continuation of ECA. In addition, other identified factors affecting ECA continuation fall either on a macro-level (i.e., farmers’ awareness of their role in improving their environment) or micro-level (i.e., farmers’ differing farm optimizations). These perspectives highlighted the altruistic nature of the Sado Island ECA farmers by valuing the improvement of their local and global environment as their main reason to continue ECA, whereas their various farm management optimizations support this observed farmer altruism by providing avenues to increase yield with only a moderate paddy land area. This study thereby highlights the need to continuously develop sustainable strategies to maintain and improve a positive farmer mindset towards ECA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0201.v1
Subject: Keywords: agricultural production; environmental parameters; mushroom growth pre-diction; machine learning; artificial neural networks (ANN); food produc-tion; food security; multi-layered perceptron (MLP); radial basis function (RBF)
Online: 20 August 2019 (06:20:32 CEST)
Recent advancements of computer and electronic systems have motivated the extensive use of intelligent systems for automation of agricultural industries. In this study, the temperature variation of the mushroom growing room is modeled through using a multi-layered perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function networks. Modeling has been done based on the independent parameters including ambient temperature, water temperature, fresh air and circulation air dampers, and water tap. According to the obtained results from the networks, the best network for MLP is found to be the second repetition with 12 neurons in the hidden layer and 20 neurons in the hidden layer for radial basis function networks. The obtained results from comparative parameters for two networks showed the highest correlation coefficient (0.966), the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) (0.787) and the lowest mean absolute error (MAE) (0.02746) for radial basis function. Therefore, the neural networks with radial basis function was selected as the optimal predictor for the behavior of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0520.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: malodor analysis; agricultural odor; turbulent dispersion; GC-Olfactometry; GC-O; solid-phase microextraction; SPME; multidimensional gas chromatography; MDGC; process odor; dispersion modeling; transient odor events; rolling unmasking effect; odor-cued grab sampling
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:49:16 CEST)
Downwind odor characteristics can be very different depending upon the size of the upwind point-source, interim topography, and wind conditions. At one extreme, the downwind odor plume from a relatively large, confined animal feeding operation (CAFO), located on a flat open plain and under stable, near-straight-line wind conditions can be rather broad, sustained and predictable relative to a fixed receptor site downwind. In contrast, the plume from a small point-source (e.g., a roof vent stack) located on irregular topography and under rapidly shifting wind conditions can be intermittent and fleeting. These transient odor events can be surprisingly intense and offensive, in spite of their fleeting occurrence and perception. This work reports on efforts to optimize an environmental odor sampling strategy, which is optimized for the challenges of (1) sampling of such transient odor 'spikes' and (2) the prioritization of odors/odorants from multiple, closely co-located point-sources, under such transient event conditions. Protocol refinement has emerged by way of 2 environmental odor assessment projects which have been undertaken on behalf of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. The challenge of transient odor events has been mitigated utilizing rapid, odor cued whole-air grab capture sampling into metalized-FEP gas sampling bags, followed by immediate adsorption transfer onto SPME fibers or sorbent tubes for stabilization during the shipment and storage interval between collection and final analysis. Initial results demonstrated approximately 11 fold increases in target odorant yields for 900 mL sorbent tube transfers from 2-3 second 'burst' odor event bag-captures, as compared to equivalent direct collections at the same downwind receptor location but during perceived (stable) odor 'lull' periods. Results-to-date targeting refinement and field trials of this integrated environmental odor assessment strategy are presented. Preliminary application targeting general odor sampling and point-source differentiation utilizing tracer gases is also presented.