ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0297.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: gold nanoparticle; heat shock protein 70; molecular imaging; biomarker; spectral-CT; k-edge imaging
Online: 17 April 2020 (08:42:18 CEST)
Imaging techniques such as computed tomographies (CT) play a major role in clinical imaging and diagnosis of malignant lesions. In recent years, spectral CT has emerged in the field of computed tomographies, utilizing detailed information from extracted spectral parameters of the specimen. Metal nanoparticle platforms enable effective payload delivery for this technique. Due to the possibility of surface modification, metal nanoparticles are predestined to facilitate molecular tumor targeting. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of anti-plasma membrane Heat shock protein 70 functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for tumor specific multimodal imaging. Membrane-associated Hsp70 is exclusively presented on the plasma membrane of malignant cells of multiple tumor entities, but not on corresponding normal tissue cells, predestining this target epitope for tumor-selective in vivo targeting. In vitro microscopical analysis revealed the presence of cmHsp70.1-AuNP in the cytosol of tumor cell lines, being internalized via the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. In tumor bearing mice the biodistribution as well as the intratumorally enrichment of AuNP were examined 24h after i.v. application, in vivo. In parallel to spectral CT analysis, histological analysis confirmed the presence of tumor cells. In contrast to control NP, a significant enrichment of cmHsp70.1-AuNPs has been detected selectively in tumors of different preclinical mouse models. Furthermore, the biodistribution of AuNP, following i.v. injection, was analyzed by a machine-learning approach on digitalized slides. In summary, utilizing mHsp70 on tumor cells for guidance of cmHsp70.1 antibody functionalized nanoparticles enables sufficient enrichment and uniform distribution of AuNPs in mHsp70-expressing tumor cells, adequate for various microscopical imaging techniques and spectral-CT-based tumor delineation, in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0293.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Hsp70; biomarker; glioblastoma; NK cells; clinical study
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:33:34 CET)
Despite rapid progress in the treatment of many cancers, glioblastoma remains a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify immune-related biomarkers that more effectively predict outcome of glioblastoma. Since heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and IL-2 are known to increase the expression of activatory NK cell receptors, recognizing aggressive human tumor cells that present Hsp70 on their cell surface, extracellular Hsp70 levels were determined in glioma patients together with activatory NK cell receptors. All gliomas are membrane Hsp70-positive (mHsp70+) and high grade gliomas more frequently show an overexpression of Hsp70 in the nucleus and cytosol. Significantly increased extracellular Hsp70 levels are detected predominantly in glioblastomas with large necrotic areas. Overall survival (OS) is more favorable in patients with low Hsp70 serum levels indicating that a high Hsp70 expression is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Elevated frequencies of NK cells are associated with a more favorable outcome. Of caution, a glucocorticoid therapy reduces the prevalence of NK cells. In summary, elevated frequencies of Hsp70-reactive NK cells at diagnosis and lower Hsp70 levels predict a more favorable prognosis in glioblastoma patients.