REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: CHP; Cascade utilization of energy; Energy level
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:23:52 CEST)
The combined heat and power system is based on the principle of "cascade utilization of thermal energy" for system integration and optimization. The rational utilization of energy, as well as the rational arrangement of energy flow and the process optimization combination of the overall system are taken into account in order to achieve multifunctional goals in the field of thermal engineering. The present paper presents a detailed assessment of combined heat and power systems from above standpoints. This article is divided into two parts “CHP based on thermo-dynamic cycles” and “CHP based on non-thermodynamic cycles”. Each part is then classified based on power subsystem energy consumption efficiency (high or low), including Rankine cycle, ORC, Stirling cycle, gas turbine, reciprocating engine, PVT and fuel cell. The present paper also helps identify the research gaps in this area and provides direction on future studies on combined heat and power systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0177.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: quasi-stationary wave; stratosphere; mesosphere; westward phase tilt; geopotential height; ozone; annual and semi-annual oscillation
Online: 14 February 2022 (14:05:03 CET)
The purpose of this work is to study quasi-stationary wave structure in the mid-latitude stratosphere and mesosphere (40–50°N) and its role in the formation of the annual ozone cycle. Geopotential height and ozone from Aura MLS data are used and winter climatology for January–February 2011–2020 is considered. More closely examined is the 10-degree longitude segment centered on Longfengshan Brewer station, China, and located in the region of the Aleutian Low influence associated with the quasi-stationary zonal maximum of total ozone. Annual and semi-annual oscillations in ozone were compared using units of ozone volume mixing ratio and concentration, as well as changes in ozone peak altitude and in time series of ozone at individual pressure levels between 316 hPa (9 km) and 0.001 hPa (96 km). The ozone maximum in the vertical profile is higher in volume mixing ratio (VMR) values than in concentration by about 15 km (5 km) in the stratosphere (mesosphere), in consistency with some previous studies. We found that the properties of the annual cycle are better resolved in the altitude range of the main ozone maximum: middle–upper stratosphere in VMR and lower stratosphere in concentration. Both approaches reveal SAO/AO-related changes in the of ozone peak altitudes in a range of 4–6 km during the year. In the lower-stratospheric ozone of the Longfengshan domain, an earlier development of the annual cycle takes place with a maximum in February and a minimum in August compared to spring and autumn, respectively, in zonal means. This is presumably due to the higher rate of dynamical ozone accumulation in the region of the quasi-stationary zonal ozone maximum. The “no-annual-cycle” transition layers are found in the stratosphere and mesosphere. These layers with undisturbed ozone volume mixing ratio throughout the year are of interest for more detailed future study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0561.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: zonal planetary wave; polar vortex; mesosphere; stratosphere; major sudden stratospheric warming
Online: 26 July 2021 (10:14:10 CEST)
Planetary waves in the mesosphere are studied using observational data and models to establish their origin, as there are indications of their generation independently of waves in the stratosphere. The quantitative relationships between zonal wave numbers m = 1 (wave 1) and m = 2 (wave 2) were studied with a focus on the mid-latitude mesosphere at 50N latitude. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements were used to estimate wave amplitudes in geopotential height during the 2020–2021 winter major sudden stratospheric warming. The moving correlation between the wave amplitudes shows that, in comparison with the anticorrelation in the stratosphere, wave 2 positively correlates with wave 1 and propagates ahead of it in the mesosphere. A positive correlation r = 0.5–0.6, statistically significant at the 95% confidence level, is observed at 1–5-day time lag and in the 75–91 km altitude range, which is the upper mesosphere–mesopause region. Wavelet analysis shows a clear 8-day period in waves 1 and 2 in the mesosphere at 0.01 hPa (80 km), while in the stratosphere–lower mesosphere the period is twice as long at 16-days; this is statistically significant only in wave 2. Possible sources of mesospheric planetary waves are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0381.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Rossby wave; quasi-stationary wave; stratosphere; Arctic; ozone
Online: 29 March 2022 (11:26:45 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to study Rossby wave parameters in total ozone over Arctic in 2000–2021. We consider the averages in the January–March period, when stratospheric trace gases (including ozone) in sudden stratospheric warming events are strongly disturbed by planetary waves. To characterize the wave parameters, we analyzed ozone data at the latitudes of 50° N (the sub-vortex area), 60° N (the polar vortex edge) and 70° N (inner region of the polar vortex). Total ozone column (TOC) measurements during 22-year time interval were used from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) / Earth Probe and Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI) / Aura satellite observations. The total ozone zonal distribution and variations in the parameters of the Fourier spectral components with zonal wave numbers m = 1–5 are presented. Daily and interannual variations in TOC, amplitudes and phases of spectral wave components, and linear trends of the quasi-stationary wave 1 (QSW1) amplitudes are discussed. The positive TOC peaks inside the vortex in 2010 and 2018 alternate with negative ones in 2011 and 2020. The latter TOC anomalies correspond to severe depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Arctic in the strong vortex conditions due to anomalously low activity of planetary waves. Variations in TOC in sub-vortex region exhibit the statistically significant negative trend –4.8±5.4 DU decade–1 in QSW1 amplitude, while the trend is statistically insignificant at the vortex edge region due to increased TOC variability. Processes associated with polar vortex dynamics are discussed, including quasi-stationary vortex asymmetry and quasi-circumpolar migration of the wave-1 phase at the vortex edge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0264.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: stratopause; mesosphere; sudden stratospheric warming; polar vortex; zonal wind; quasi-biennial oscillation; planetary wave; stratosphere
Online: 22 February 2022 (04:07:39 CET)
The aim of this work is to study the zonally asymmetric stratopause that occurred in the Arctic winter of 2019/2020, when the polar vortex was particularly strong and there was no sudden stratospheric warming. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder temperature data were used to analyze the evolution of the stratopause with a particular focus on its zonally asymmetric wave 1 pattern. There was a rapid descent of the stratopause height below 50 km in the anticyclone region in mid-December 2019. The descended stratopause persisted until mid-January 2020 and was accompanied by a slow descent of the higher stratopause in the vortex region. The results show that the stratopause in this event was inclined and lowered from the mesosphere in the polar vortex to the stratosphere in the anticyclone. It was found that the vertical amplification of wave 1 between 50 km and 60 km closely coincides in time with the rapid stratopause descent in the anticyclone. Overall, the behavior contrasts with the situation during sudden stratospheric warmings when the stratopause reforms at higher altitudes following wave amplification events. We link the mechanism responsible for coupling between the vertical wave 1 amplification and this form of zonally asymmetric stratopause descent to the unusual disruption of the quasi-biennial oscillation that occurred in late 2019.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0156.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: 2019-nCoV; Chest CT; Epidemic; Diagnosis
Online: 12 February 2020 (09:14:56 CET)
An outbreak of novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV) that began in Wuhan, China, is rapidly spreading to all over China, and gradually to multiple countries. Regarding to put the epidemic prevention and spread under the control, early identification and diagnosis play a critical role. Patients with initially no or mild symptoms of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (2019-nCoV), namely “stealth” infection, often lack of typical clinical evidence to establish the diagnosis. Based on the clinical analysis of 4 cases in stealth infection, the results of this study highlight that early diagnosis requires a combination of epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, early chest CT examination, and 2019-nCoV RNA test (nucleic acid test), with particular emphasis on definite epidemiological history and early chest CT findings when positive nucleic acid tests lag behind.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0093.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: planetary wave; mesosphere; stratosphere; major sudden stratospheric warming; mi-crowave radiometer; carbon monoxide; wavelet power spectra
Online: 2 February 2021 (16:15:53 CET)
The planetary wave activity in the stratosphere–mesosphere during the Arctic major Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) in February 2018 is discussed on the basis of the microwave radiometer (MWR) measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) above Kharkiv, Ukraine (50.0° N, 36.3° E) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of CO, temperature and geopotential heights. From the MLS data, eastward and westward migrations of wave 1/wave 2 spectral components were differentiated, to which less attention was paid in previous studies. Abrupt changes in zonal wave spectra occur with the zonal wind reversal near 10 February 2018. Eastward wave 1 and wave 2, observed before the SSW onset, disappear during the SSW event, when westward wave 1 becomes dominant. Wavelet power spectra of mesospheric CO variations show statistically significant periods in a band of 20–30 days using both MWR and MLS data. Approximately 10-day periods appear only after the SSW onset. Since the propagation of upward planetary waves is limited in the easterly zonal flow in the stratosphere after the zonal wind reversal during SSW, forced planetary waves in the mid-latitude mesosphere may exist due to the instability of the zonal flow.