ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2; seroprevalence; antibodies; nucleocapsid antigen; antigen receptor binding domain; seropositivity; St. Petersburg; volunteers; vaccination
Online: 18 April 2022 (10:42:54 CEST)
Since the detection of the first COVID-19 patient, 2 years have passed, during which more than 287,862,000 people fell ill globally, of which about 1.9% died. Implementation of SARS-CoV-2 control programs required efforts from almost all countries. An important direction in the fight against COVID-19 was the formation of herd immunity, the main tool for managing the pandemic. Study goal: to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies (Abs) to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (Nc) and receptor binding domain (RBD) in the St. Petersburg population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods. A longitudinal cohort randomized monitoring study of Ab seroprevalence (SARS-CoV-2 Nc, RBD) was organized and conducted according to a unified methodology developed by Rospotrebnadzor with the participation of the St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute. For this purpose, a cohort of 1000 volunteers was formed who participated in all five stages of seromonitoring. The cohort was divided into 7 age groups: 1-17; 18-29; 30-39; 40-49; 50-59; 60-69; 70; and older (70+) years. Seropositivity levels (Nc, RBD) were assessed by quantitative and qualitative enzyme immunoassays. During the 2nd year of monitoring, some volunteers were vaccinated with the GamCOVIDVac (84%) or EpiVacCorona (11.6%) vaccines approved in Russia. Statistical processing was carried out using the Excel 2010 software package. Confidence intervals for shares and percentages (95% CI) were calculated using the method of A. Wald and J. Wolfowitz with adjustment (A. Agresti, B.A. Coull). The statistical significance of differences was calculated by z-test, using the appropriate online calculator (p<0.05), unless indicated. Results. There was a trend towards: an increase in Nc seropositivity in stages 1-3 of seromonitoring, with a decrease in stages 4-5 among children and adults. The share of RBD seropositive steadily increased during all 5 stages of seromonitoring. The most frequently found were low anti-RBD Abs levels (22.6-220 BAU/ml). High Ab levels were recorded statistically significantly less frequently. Asymptomatic forms were observed in 84-88% of SARS-CoV-2 seropositive volunteers. By the 5th stage of monitoring, this indicator significantly decreased to 69.8% (95% CI: 66.1-73.4). The monitoring revealed a statistically significant increase in anti-RBD Abs, alongside a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of Nc seropositive. This dynamic was especially characteristic of persons vaccinated with GamCOVIDVac. Conclusion. Prior to the use of specific vaccines, a seroprevalence of anti-Nc Abs was noted. After the introduction of the GamCOVIDVac vaccine in adults, a decrease in the level of anti-Nc Abs was noted due to an increase in the proportion of RBD seropositive persons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1536.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Republic of Belarus; population; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; seromonitoring; herd immunity; antibodies; nucleocapsid; receptor binding domain; vaccination; hybrid immunity
Online: 23 May 2023 (02:47:10 CEST)
Background. The course of the COVID-19 epidemic process depends on population immunity which prevents pathogen spread among the population. Aim: to study the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity in the Belarusian population relative to COVID-19 pandemic dynamics. Materials and methods. The work was carried out according to a methodology for assessing population immunity developed by Rospotrebnadzor (Russia) and the Belarusian Ministry of Health with the participation of the St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute (SPPI), taking into account WHO recommendations. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of Belarus and the SPPI Bioethics Committee. Participant selection was carried out by questionnaire using a cloud (internet server) service. To monitor population immunity, a cohort of 4,661 people (participating in all stages of seromonitoring) was formed from the overall volunteer group. Volunteers were randomized by age group (1-17, 18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70+ years), region, and professional group. For the detection of antibodies (Abs) to nucleocapsid (Nc) and S glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD), corresponding assay systems were used following manufacturer instructions. The study was conducted in 4 stages according to a single scheme. Results. In the 1st stage (pandemic month 15), collective immunity was due mainly to Nc+RBD+ Ab status alone. By the 2nd stage (carried out after 4 months), their share decreased 1.2-fold, while the share of volunteers who had only RBD Abs increased 1.7-fold. In the 3rd and 4th stages (carried out after 9 and 19 months), the share of persons with RBD+Nc‒ compared to the 2nd stage decreased by 3.5%; the proportion of persons with Nc+RBD‒ Abs increased by 1.5-fold. The most important factor in population immunity was vaccination of the population, the coverage of which reached 70% by the 4th stage. Among vaccines, the Sputnik V and Sputnik Light vector designs were used most often. The whole-virion, inactivated BIBP-CorV vaccine was used less often. Conclusion. The evolution of collective SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity included a set of changes in circulating Ab levels (Nc, RBD). The hybrid immunity formed helped to reduce the incidence to nearly zero.