ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0417.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Safety Performance; Safety Culture; Resilience Culture; Paramedic; Training Institute; IPMA; PLS-SEM.
Online: 20 August 2021 (13:44:19 CEST)
An increasing number of studies have shown that safety culture factors have a substantial influence on safety performance in a variety of industrial sectors. These factors' impact on safety performance is unclear, especially at the public service and statutory authorities. On the other hand, the understanding of indicators for safety performance in every working sector in Malaysia is on the continuing progress. Hence, this study's contribution is to explore the influence of safety culture factors (i.e., management commitment and supervision in safety, safety system) and safety competence on safety performance in government paramedic training institutes. IPMA (importance-performance map analysis) is a technique used in Smart PLS to determine the significance and performance of each of these factors. The study was conducted via an online survey and involved 258 safety and health committee members in Ministry of Health paramedic training institute. As a matter of relevance, the IPMA's empirical data study revealed that management commitment and supervision in safety were the predominant factors in determining safety performance. Meanwhile, for performance, the findings showed that worker involvement, safety system, and safety competence perform well in determining the safety performance.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: training loads; monitoring; illness; fatigue; training intensity distribution; threshold training; polarized training;
Online: 18 March 2019 (09:22:29 CET)
Despite the continued growth of the sport, particularly among recreational athletes, very little is known about how triathletes prepare for an event. The aim of this study was to identify the training characteristics of recreational-level triathletes and assess how their preparation for a triathlon influences their health and fatigue. During the 6 weeks prior to an Olympic distance triathlon, and the 2 weeks after the event, ten (5 males, 5 females) recreational athletes completed a daily training log to provide information on every training session. In addition, participants answered the Daily Analysis of Life Demands Questionnaire (DALDA), the Training Distress Scale (TDS), and the Alberta Swim Health Questionnaire weekly. Training loads were calculated using session-based rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and training impulse (TRIMP). Every week of training was compared to week 1 to determine how athletes’ training and health changed throughout the study. In the 6 weeks leading up to the event, training loads, total minutes trained, and time spent in each training zone did not differ significantly. Significant reductions in training duration (Z=2.39, p=0.017, ES = 0.90), training strain (Z=2.59, p=0.009, 0.98), and number of sessions (Z=2.49, p=0.012, ES = 0.94) were seen on week 6. Training intensity distribution favored a threshold approach with athletes spending 56% of their training time at zone 1, 40% at zone 2, and 4% at zone 3. No significant changes were seen in the DALDA or TDS questionnaires. The results show that while the training intensity distribution of recreational-level triathletes does not follow a polarized model, these athletes were able to maintain their health while preparing for an Olympic distance triathlon.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: exercise intensity; training impulse; training strain; exercise volume
Online: 10 November 2021 (14:30:55 CET)
The International System of Units (SI) was adopted in 1960 as a universal measuring system to be used for all areas of science. Sports Science papers have shown lots of inaccurate and inappropriate terms for quantification of athletes’ performance and the psychobiological responses to exercise (e.g., internal load). In biomechanics, external and internal loads are forces acting externally and internally, inducing stress and strain in the biological tissues. Therefore, the current review present simple proposals to correct the inappropriate terms: 1) do not use the term external load when referring to the assessment of exercise time, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, torque, work, power, impulse, etc.; 2) do not use the term internal load when referring to the assessment of psychobiological stress markers (i.e., session rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, blood lactate, oxygen consumption, etc.); 3) do not use the term impulse when expressing other calculus than integrating force with respect to time, and neither strain, when expressing other phenomena than the body deformation. Instead, the term exercise intensity is universal and can be used to describe all forms of exercise. Finally, duration should precisely be described according to physical quantities (e.g., time, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, force, torque, work, power, impulse, etc.) and the units accomplish by use of the SI. These simple quantifications can be performed for the exercises, sessions, microcycles, mesocycles and macrocycles of the athletes. Such standardization will provide a consistent and clear communication among sports scientists and all areas of science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0349.v1
Online: 14 June 2021 (10:36:45 CEST)
Resistance training increases myofiber hypertrophy, but the morphological adaptations that occur within myofibers remain largely unresolved. Fifteen males with minimal training experience (24±4 years, 17.9±1.4 kg/m2 lean body mass index) performed 10 weeks of conventional, full-body resistance training (2x weekly). Body composition, the radiological density of the vastus lateralis muscle using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained one week prior to and 72 hours following the last training bout. Fiber typing and the quantification of myofibril and mitochondrial areas per fiber were performed using histology/immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques. Relative myosin heavy chain and actin protein abundances per wet muscle weight as well as citrate synthase (CS) activity assays were also obtained on tissue lysates. Training increased whole-body lean mass, mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area, various strength metrics, and mean and type II fiber cross sectional areas (fCSA) (p<0.05). Myofibril areas in type I or II fibers were not altered with training, suggesting a proportional expansion with fCSA increases. Relative myosin heavy chain and actin protein abundances also did not change with training. IHC indicated training increased mitochondrial areas in both fiber types (p=0.018). However, CS activity levels remained unaltered with training. Interestingly, although pQCT-derived muscle density increased with training (p=0.036), suggestive of myofibril packing, a positive association existed between training-induced changes in this metric and changes in type I+II myofibril areas (r=0.600, p=0.018). Shorter-term resistance training seemingly involves a proportional expansion of myofibrils and an accelerated expansion of mitochondria in type I and II fibers. Additionally, histological and biochemical techniques should be viewed independently from one another given the lack of agreement between the variables assessed herein. Finally, the pQCT may be a viable tool to non-invasively track morphological changes in muscle tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0153.v1
Online: 5 April 2021 (16:28:18 CEST)
Objective: This paper aims to test the effect employee job training has on employee career development in the company.Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a quantitative approach with the process of finding the knowledge by using data in the form of numbers as a tool that can be generalized to prove hypotheses. The population in this study was 135 employees by sampling 100 employees using sampling method probability by using random sampling type samples to use slovin formula. Analysis techniques use multiple linear regressions.Findings: The results showed that job training influences the career development of employees in companies with a significant rate of 0.00 less than α=0.05.Practical Implications: The results of the study are recommended for company employees to conduct job training as a tool to improve career development.Originality: Previous research has been conducted to test job training on employee career development in large companies; the findings conclude that employee job training affects employee career development. This research researchers try to research medium-scale companies down.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0512.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Endurance training; angiogenesis; cardiac tissue
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:49:50 CET)
Exercise can ameliorate cardiovascular dysfunctions in diabetes condition, but its precise molecular mechanisms have not been entirely understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of endurance training on expression of angiogenesis-related genes in cardiac tissue of diabetic rats. Thirty adults male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (N=10) including diabetic training (DT), sedentary diabetes (SD), and sedentary healthy (SH) in which diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg). Endurance training (ET) with moderate-intensity was performed on a motorized treadmill for six weeks. Training duration and treadmill speed were increased during five weeks, but they were kept constant at the final week and slope was zero at all stages. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR) analysis was used to measure the expression of myocyte enhancer factor-2C (MEF2C), histone deacetylase-4 (HDAC4) and Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in cardiac tissues of the rats. Our results demonstrated that six weeks of ET increased gene expression of MEF2C significantly (P<0.05), and caused a significant reduction in HDAC4 and CaMKII gene expression in the DT rats compared to the SD rats (P<0.05). We concluded that moderate-intensity ET could play a critical role in ameliorating cardiovascular dysfunction in a diabetes condition by regulating the expression of some angiogenesis-related genes in cardiac tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Training; competence; incentives; management; performance.
Online: 8 August 2018 (10:55:28 CEST)
Background.Nurse gives professional nursing service to patients according to competence owned. Based on these services in the end of every year, nurses are given incentives for medical services as financial incentive. Purpose. To analyze the impact of competence training and incentives medical services’ distribution upon the achievement of nurse’s performances in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Matterial and method. Observational survey research with cross sectional design. Population. Nurses in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Technique. Total sampling technique with number of samples 183 respondents. Inclusive criteria of samples are willing to be interviewed, nurse’s status, permanent offices without limitation from particular working unit or poly in hospital. Independent variable: (1) competence training; (2) Incentives for medical services. Dependent variable; Nurse’s performance achievement. Variables are measured by using Lickert scale. Information are recorded through questionnaire. Analyzes using linier regression. Result. There are impacts of competence training (α=.000;ß=.489)and distribution of incentives for medical services(α=.012; ß=.152)upon nurse’s performances achievement in General Hospital of Prof.W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Conclusion.The training of nursing service status that could increase competences among nurses with affair incentives for medical services’ distribution simultaneously end up in the increasing of nurse’s performances achievement in a hospital
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0017.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: High-intensity interval training; Continuous aerobic training; Systolic blood pressure; Diastolic blood pressure; Pre-hypertension
Online: 13 July 2022 (09:21:03 CEST)
The likelihood of pre-hypertensive young adults developing hypertension has been steadily increasing over the past few years. Despite the fact that aerobic exercise training (AET) has demonstrated positive results in lowering high blood pressure, the efficacy of different types of AET among pre-hypertensive young adults has not been well-established. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT) on blood pressure (BP) of physically inactive pre-hypertensive young adults. 32 adults (age 20.0±1.1 years and BMI 21.5±1.8) were randomly assigned into 3 groups: HIIT, CMT and control (CON). HIIT and CMT groups participated in 5 weeks of AET; while the CON group followed a DASH diet plan only. The HIIT protocol consisted of 1:4 minute work to rest ratio of participants 80%-85% heart rate reserve (HR-reserve) and 40%-60% HR-reserve respectively for 20-minutes, CMT group exercised at 40%-60% of HR-reserve continuously for 20-minutes. In both HIIT and CMT groups, systolic blood pressure (SBP) (3.8±2.8 mmHg, P=0.002 VS 1.6±1.5 mmHg, P=0.011) was significantly reduced. While, significant reductions in the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (2.9±2.2 mmHg, P=0.002) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (3.1±1.6mmHg, P<0.0005) were noted only in the HIIT group. No significant differences in SBP (-0.4±3.7 mmHg, P=0.718), DBP (0.4±3.4 mmHg, P=0.714), or MAP (0.1±2.5mmHg, P= 0.892) were observed in the CON group. Both HIIT and CMT decreased the BP in physically inactive pre-hypertensive young adults; however, HIIT yielded more beneficial results in terms of reducing the SPB, DBP and MAP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: coordination abilities; training; handball; physical activity
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:42:11 CET)
According to the reviewed literature, the selection system in the handball game is quite complex and requires new approaches from specialists, based on the current requirements of this game. It was found that a main selection criterion in the game of handball is the coordination abilities because the handball game is mainly based on coordination. In this paper is related the importance of coordinative abilities development in the handball game for young children (10-12 years old) selection process meet in Romania. The results are obtained from a sociological questionnaire, where 109 specialists in the handball game are interrogated, 38 of them being handball coaches, and 71 being teachers of physical education and sports with abilities in handball game. The answers delivered depend on each specialist experience, the knowledge possessed and the difficulties encountered over the years. As a general overview, in the opinion of the surveyed specialists, the selection process in the handball game for Romania does not live up to their expectations, and the development level of coordination abilities meet in 10-12 years children is medium to weak. A total of 51.9% from the respondents stressed the importance of developing coordination abilities to optimize the selection process of children for handball game, opening a new approach in the modern training methods for performance achievement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: core training; exercises; flexibility; fitness; periodization
Online: 28 October 2021 (09:44:29 CEST)
This conceptual review aimed to investigate whether "functional training" (FT) programs are different from traditional strength, power, flexibility, and endurance training programs. A search for the twenty most recent papers published involving FT was performed in the PubMed/Medline database. Definition, concepts, benefits, and the exercises employed in FT programs were analyzed. The main results were: 1) there is no agreement about a universal definition for FT; 2) FT programs aim at developing the same benefits already induced by traditional strength, power, flexibility, and endurance training programs; 3) exercises employed are also the same. The inability to define FT makes differentiation difficult. Physical training programs can be easily described and classified as strength, power, flexibility, endurance, and the specific exercises employed (e.g., traditional resistance training, ballistic exercises, plyometrics and Olympic-style weightlifting, continuous and high-intensity interval training). This proper description and classification may improve communication in sports science and improve interdisciplinary integration. Aiming to avoid confusion and misconceptions, and based on the current evidence, we recommend that the terms FT, high-intensity FT, and functional fitness training no longer describe any physical training program.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: training loads; monitoring; illness; recovery; triathlon
Online: 12 April 2021 (14:08:27 CEST)
Little is known about how recreational triathletes prepare for an Olympic distance event. The aim of this study was to identify the training characteristics of recreational-level triathletes within the competition period and assess how their preparation for a triathlon influences their health and their levels of fatigue. During the 6 weeks prior to an Olympic distance triathlon, and the 2 weeks after, 9 recreational athletes (5 males, 4 females) completed a daily training log. Participants answered the Daily Analysis of Life Demands Questionnaire (DALDA), the Training Distress Scale (TDS), and the Alberta Swim Fatigue and Health Questionnaire weekly. The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q) was completed at the beginning of the study, on the day before the competition, and at the end of week 8. Training loads were calculated using session-based rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). The data from every week of training was compared to week 1 to determine how athletes’ training and health changed throughout the study. No changes in training loads, duration, or training intensity distribution were seen in the weeks leading up to the competition. Training duration was significantly reduced in week 6 (p=0.041, d = 1.58, 95% CI = 6.9, 421.9), while the number of sessions was reduced in week 6 (Z=2.32, p=0.02, ES = 0.88) and week 7 (Z = 2.31, p=0.02, ES = 0.87). Training was characterized by large weekly variations in training loads and a high training intensity. No significant changes were seen in the DALDA, TDS, or REST-Q questionnaire scores throughout the 8 weeks. Despite large spikes in training load and a high overall training intensity, these recreational-level triathletes were able to maintain their health in the 6 weeks of training prior an Olympic distance triathlon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0448.v1
Online: 22 February 2021 (08:30:59 CET)
The purpose of this evaluation is to determine the effect of intensive, interactive training on hospital workers’ preparedness for special pathogen cases by utilizing the Frontline Facility Special Pathogens Training Course created by New York
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0106.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Machine Learning; Training Data; alawa; AI
Online: 7 May 2020 (06:20:09 CEST)
Accurate lithium battery diagnosis and prognosis is critical to increase penetration of electric vehicles and grid-tied storage systems. They are both complex due to the intricate, nonlinear, and path-dependent nature of battery degradation. Data-driven models are anticipated to play a significant role in the behavioral prediction of dynamical systems such as batteries. However, they are often limited by the amount of training data available. In this work, we generated the first big data comprehensive synthetic datasets to train diagnosis and prognosis algorithms. The proof-of-concept datasets are over three orders of magnitude larger than what is currently available in the literature. With benchmark datasets, results from different studies could be easily equated, and the performance of different algorithms can be compared, enhanced, and analyzed extensively. This will expend critical capabilities of current AI algorithms, tools, and techniques to predict scientific data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0743.v1
Online: 31 October 2018 (09:01:43 CET)
Purposely slow velocity resistance exercise (i.e., 10 s concentric and eccentric phases) is a popular training method, but limits the loads that can be lifted (e.g., <50% 1 RM). This study compared the biomechanical properties of purposely slow velocity (SLOW) and traditional resistance exercise (TRAD) that uses maximal lifting velocities. Healthy resistance-trained men (n=5) performed two testing sessions (barbell squat and bench press) in random-order; a SLOW session (1 set x 10 repetitions at 28% 1 RM, 10 s concentric & eccentric), and a TRAD session (3 x 10 at 70% 1 RM, controlled eccentric and maximal concentric). A force plate and linear position transducer were used to collect kinetic and kinematic data for every repetition of both protocols (α = 0.05). For both exercises, both concentric and eccentric mean force (N) and power (W) for each repetition was greater for TRAD. When the entire training session (squat + bench press) was examined, SLOW exhibited greater time under tension, while TRAD produced greater work (J) and impulse (N·s). Contrary to suggestions in both the lay and scientific literature, purposely slow resistance exercise produced less force, power, and work than traditional velocity resistance exercise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: rowing; feedback training; movement analysis; surface EMG
Online: 9 January 2023 (13:19:12 CET)
The rowing technique is a key factor in the overall rowing performance. Nowadays the athletes’ performance is so advanced that even small differences in technique can have an impact on sport competitions. To further improve the athletes’ performance, individualized rowing is necessary. This can be achieved by intelligent measurement technology that provides direct feedback. To address this issue, we developed a novel wireless rowing measurement system (WiRMS) that acquires rowing movement and measures muscle activity using electromyography (EMG). Our measurement system is able to measure several parameters simultaneously: the rowing forces, the pressure distribution on the scull, the oar angles, the seat displacement and the boat acceleration. WiRMS was evaluated in a proof-of-concept study with seven experienced athletes performing a training on water. Evaluation results showed that WiRMS is able to assess the rower’s performance by recording the rower’s movement and force applied to the scull. We found significant correlations (p<0.001) between stroke rate and drive-to-recovery ratio. By incorporating EMG data, a precise temporal assignment of the activated muscles and their contribution to the rowing motion was possible. Furthermore, we were able to show that the rower applies the force to the scull mainly with the index and middle fingers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0380.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Exercise training; arrhythmias; Drosophila; apolipoprotein B; aging
Online: 29 March 2022 (10:07:13 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) places a heavy burden on older patients and the global healthcare system. A large body of evidence suggests that exercise training is essential in preventing and treating cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we used the Drosophila melanogaster animal model to study the effects of early-life exercise training (ELET) on the aging heart and lifespan. We found in flies that age-induced arrhythmias are conserved across different genetic backgrounds. The fat body is the primary source of circulating lipoproteins in flies. Inhibition of fat body apoLpp (the flies apoB homolog) demonstrated that low expression of apoLpp reduced the development of arrhythmias in aged flies but did not affect average lifespan. At the same time, ELET can also reduce the expression of apoLpp mRNA in aged flies and have a protective effect on the heart, which is similar to the inhibition of apoLpp mRNA. Although treatment of apoLppRNAi and ELET alone had no significant effect on lifespan, the combination of apoLppRNAi and ELET extended the average lifespan of flies. Therefore, we conclude that apoLppRNAi and ELET are sufficient to resist age-induced arrhythmias, which may be related to the decreased expression of apoLpp mRNA, and that apoLppRNAi and ELET have a combined effect on prolonging the average lifespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Functional fitness training; athletic performance; exercise testing
Online: 1 June 2021 (12:32:59 CEST)
This study analyzed the relationship between anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength, power and local muscle endurance with performance in the CrossFit® Open 2020. For this, 17 volunteers (6 women) (29.0 ± 7.2 years; 70.5 ± 9.8 kg) completed, on separate weeks, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), maximal oxygen consumption (2km row test), muscle strength (1RM back and front squat, isometric peak torque), and muscle power (1RM snatch and clean & jerk), and muscle endurance (Tibana test), which were compared with performance during the CrossFit® Open 2020. Multiple linear regression showed that for the CrossFit Open 2020.1 and 2020.2 workouts, the score in the Tibana test was the only variable that explained the outcomes (Beta = -0.78, p < 0.01 for 2020.1 workout and Beta = 0.82, p < 0.01 for 2020.2 workout). Performance in the CrossFit Open 2020.3 and 2020.4 workouts were explained through the relative strength (Beta = 0.58, p = 0.02 for 2020.3 workout and Beta = 0.50, p = 0.04 for 2020.4 workout). Lastly, Tibana test had the greatest influence on CrossFit Open 2020.5 workout (Beta = -0.75, p < 0.01). A local muscle endurance and muscle strength may be used to predict CrossFit® open workout performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Ultrasound; phantom; rectus femoris muscle; echogenicity; training
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:50:45 CEST)
Ultrasound has become widely used as a mean to measure the rectus femoris muscle in the acute and chronic phase of critical illness. Despite its noninvasiveness and accessibility, its accuracy highly depends on the skills of the technician. However, few ultrasound phantoms for the confirmation of its accuracy or to improve technical skills exist. In this study, we created a novel phantom model and used it for investigating the accuracy of measurements and for training. Study 1 investigated how various conditions affect ultrasound measurements such as thickness, cross-sectional area, and echogenicity. Study 2 investigated if the phantom can be used for training of various health care providers in vitro and vivo. Study 1 showed that thickness, cross-sectional area, and echogenicity were affected by probe compression strength, probe angle, phantom compression, and varying equipment. Study 2 in vitro showed that using the phantom for training improved the accuracy of the measurements taken within phantom, and Study 2 in vivo showed the phantom training had a short-term effect on improving the measurement accuracy in a human volunteer. The new ultrasound phantom model revealed that various conditions affected ultrasound measurements, and phantom training improved the measurement accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0225.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Repeated Sprint Training; Speed Performance; Physiology; Sports
Online: 9 December 2020 (12:20:00 CET)
Background: Interventions with the performance of sessions with sprints in different intensity manipulations, can be a great alternative to improve physical performance. Objective: To verify the influence of different break times between sprints on the performance of amateur futsal athletes Methods: 10 individuals, men, amateur futsal athletes (Age: 21.5 ± 1.6; Weight: 72.4 ± 6.88; Height: 1.72 ± 0.05; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.2; Fat%: 13.7 ± 3.3, VO2peak: 49.1 ± 10.5) participated in the study. For the intervention, individuals were randomly selected to perform sessions with sprints (10 sets 20 meters) with different pause times, being 15 (S15), 30 (S30) and 60 (S60) seconds. For performance analysis, the speed (km / h) applied to each sprint was used, monitored by a device with a photocell (CEFISE Biotecnologia Esportiva®, Nova Odessa, São Paulo) and the statistical treatment of all data was through the software Statistica 7.0 (Statsoft ™, Tulsa, OK, USA) using a significance level of p≤0.05. Results: There was an interaction between speed and interval time (p = 0.000). For condition S15, a greater reduction in performance was observed (p≤0.05), while for S30 and S60, no significant reduction in performance was observed (p> 0.05). The data for the area under the curve showed a significant difference (p = 0.000), where the interval of 60 seconds (S60) was longer compared to the values of 30 (S30) (p = 0.000) and 15 seconds (S15) (p = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences between the 30 and 15 second data (p = 0.248). Conclusion: Shorter time (15 seconds) of interval between repeated sprints can significantly affect performance when compared to longer breaks (30 and 60 seconds). But, all the conditions tested here, can be positive for the improvement of the performance, mainly in sports that demand fast and efficient motor actions, as for example, futsal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: software training; simulation workflows; SimPhoNy; Simphony-Remote
Online: 2 December 2020 (15:27:18 CET)
Hands-on type training of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is characterized by assisted application and combination of multiple simulation software tools and data. In this paper, we present recent experiences in establishing a cloud-based infrastructure to enable remote use of dedicated commercial and open access simulation tools during an interactive on-line training event. In the first part, we summarize the hardware and software requirements and illustrate how these have been met using cloud hardware services, a simulation platform environment, a suitable communication channel, common workspaces and more. The second part of the article focuses (i) on the requirements for suitable on-line hands-on training material and (ii) on details of some of the approaches taken. Eventually, the practical experiences made during three consecutive on-line training courses held in September 2020 with 35 nominal participants each, are discussed in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0080.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: high-intensity functional training; work capacity; performance
Online: 12 March 2018 (05:33:23 CET)
High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) is a novel exercise intervention that may test body systems in a balanced and integrated fashion by challenging individuals’ abilities to complete mechanical work. However, research has not previously determined if physical work capacity is unique to traditional physiologic measures of fitness. Twenty-five healthy men and women completed a six-week HIFT intervention with physical work capacity and various physiologic measures of fitness assessed pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, these physiologic measures of fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity) were significantly associated with physical work capacity and this relationship was even stronger at post-intervention assessment. Further, there were significant improvements across these physiologic measures in response to the delivered intervention. However, the change in these physiologic measures failed to predict the change in physical work capacity induced via HIFT. These findings point to the potential utility of HIFT as a unique challenge to individuals’ physiology beyond traditional resistance or aerobic training. Elucidating the translational impact of increasing work capacity via HIFT may be of great interest to health and fitness practitioners ranging from strength/conditioning coaches to physical therapists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0007.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: high variability phonetic training (HVPT), categorical perception (CP), cochlear implant (CI), lexical tone, Mandarin-speaking kindergarteners, training-induced gains
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:41:59 CET)
Objectives: Although pitch reception poses a great challenge for individuals with cochlear implants (CIs), formal auditory training (e.g., high variability phonetic training, HVPT) has been shown to provide direct benefits in pitch-related perceptual performances such as lexical tone recognition for CI users. As lexical tones in spoken language are expressed with a multitude of distinct spectral, temporal, and intensity cues, it is important to determine the sources of training benefits for CI users. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a rigorous fine-scale evaluation with the categorical perception (CP) paradigm to control the acoustic parameters and test the efficacy and sustainability of HVPT for Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI recipients. The main hypothesis was that HVPT-induced perceptual learning would greatly enhance CI users’ ability to extract the primary pitch contours from spoken words for lexical tone identification and discrimination. Furthermore, individual differences in immediate and long-term gains from training would likely be attributable to baseline performance and duration of CI use. Design: Twenty-eight prelingually deaf Mandarin-speaking kindergarteners with CIs were tested. Half of them received five sessions of HVPT within a period of three weeks. The other half served as control who did not receive the formal training. Two classical CP tasks on a tonal continuum from Mandarin Tone 1 (high-flat in pitch) to Tone 2 (mid-rising in pitch) with fixed acoustic features of duration and intensity were administered before (pretest), immediately after (posttest), and 10 weeks post training termination (follow-up test). Participants were instructed to either label a speech stimulus along the continuum (i.e., identification task) or determine whether a pair of stimuli separated by zero or two steps from the continuum was the same or different (i.e., discrimination task). Identification function measures (i.e., boundary position and boundary width) and discrimination function scores (i.e., between-category score, within-category score, and peakedness score) were assessed for each child participant across the three test sessions.Results: Linear mixed-effects (LME) models showed significant training-induced enhancement in lexical tone categorization with significantly narrower boundary width and better between-category discrimination in the immediate posttest over pretest for the trainees. Furthermore, training-induced gains were reliably retained in the follow-up test 10 weeks after training. By contrast, no significant changes were found in the control group across sessions. Regression analysis confirmed that baseline performance (i.e., boundary width in the pretest session) and duration of CI use were significant predictors for the magnitude of training-induced benefits. Conclusions: The stringent CP tests with synthesized stimuli that excluded acoustic cues other than the pitch contour and were never used in training showed strong evidence for the efficacy of HVPT in yielding immediate and sustained improvement in lexical tone categorization for Mandarin-speaking children with CIs. The training results and individual differences have remarkable implications for developing personalized computer-based short-term HVPT protocols that may have sustainable long-term benefits for aural rehabilitation in this clinical population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: online physical training; attitudes: influencing factors; interview method.
Online: 21 November 2022 (01:18:01 CET)
In the context of the new crown epidemic, remote physical training will already be in order under the guidance of the Ministry of Education. There is a global focus on current lifestyle behaviors and the future health and well-being of youth. Youth physical activity, aerobic activity and muscle fitness levels are declining. Research on the effects of youth physical training and group attitudes is still in its infancy. This study conducted in-depth interviews with online physical training students, parents, teachers involved in the construction of online physical training, and sports practitioners through interview methods, documentation, and mathematical statistics. The results of the interviews were qualitatively coded using NVivo to summarize the attitudes of different subjects toward physical fitness training and the influencing factors, (1) students were basically satisfied with the teaching effect of online physical fitness training (2) parents thought the teaching effect of online physical fitness training was average (3) physical education teachers thought the effect of online physical fitness training was average (4) physical education practitioners thought the effect of online teaching was poor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: public institutions; transformations; professional training; pandemic; reform; model
Online: 1 July 2022 (15:57:13 CEST)
This article analyzes the perspectives of professional training of the public administration staff, from the viewpoint of the sustainability criteria, starting from the experiences of the online courses run in the last two years. In order to understand the nature, type and magnitude of the changes caused by the Covid-19 pandemic in the field of professional training for public administration, we performed a survey among public institution employees, by applying a questionnaire. The instrument included qualitative elements, to allow the framing of statistical results. The article is grounded on the hypothesis that the professional training activities in the last two years were organized preponderantly online and it aims to analyze the sustainability of the new teaching systems/methods. The limitations of the study are given by the fact that each administrative system has structure particularities and its own legal framework regarding the professional training of public administration staff, what makes that the model proposed cannot be applied in all countries. The study provides a model of online professional training for public administration staff, sustainable, based on the experience accumulated in the last two years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0175.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: survey; emergency medical services; training; stroke; prehospital care
Online: 16 June 2022 (10:58:04 CEST)
Background: Emergency medical services (EMS) are the first health care contact for the majority of stroke patients. However, there is a lack of data on the current paramedics’ hospital-directed feedback and training needs across different health care settings. We aimed to evaluate paramedics’ prehospital stroke care knowledge, training needs, and current status of feedback on suspected stroke patients. Methods: We surveyed paramedics from the Vilnius region from September to November 2019, and compared the answers between the city and the district agencies. The questionnaire content included questions on paramedics’ demographic characteristics, prehospital stroke care self-assessment, knowledge on stroke mimics, stroke training needs, and the importance of hospital-directed feedback on suspected stroke patients. Results: A total number of 161 paramedics were surveyed, with more district paramedics rating their prehospital stroke care knowledge as inadequate (44.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 32.8–57.6) vs 28.1% (95% CI 20.1–27.8), p = 0.028). In addition, more district paramedics indicated a need for additional stroke training (83.1% (95% CI 71.5–90.5) vs 69.8% (60.0–78.1), p = 0.043). However, respondents reported being the most confident while dealing with stroke (71.3%, 95% CI 63.8–77.7) compared to other time-critical conditions (p < 0.001). Vertigo (60.8%, 95% CI 53.0–68.0), brain tumours (56.3%, 95% CI 48.5–63.8), and seizures (54.4%, 95% CI 46.7–62.0) were indicated as the most common stroke mimics. Only 6.2% (95% CI 3.4–11.1) of respondents received formal feedback on the outcome of suspected stroke patients brought to the emergency department. Conclusion: A high proportion of paramedics self-perceive having inadequate stroke knowledge and an urgent need for further stroke training. The EMS staff indicate receiving an insufficient amount of feedback on suspected stroke patients, even though the usefulness is perceived to be paramount.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0300.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: nursing home; advanced fire prevention; emergency response training
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:43:18 CEST)
Background: In long-term care facilities, there are many residents who do not have the ability to seek shelter by themselves in the case of an emergency. Thus, it is extremely important that the staff of nursing homes are equipped with correct disaster prevention concepts, emergency survival responses, and hazard mitigation measures. Purpose: Discuss the intervention effectiveness of different fire prevention and emergency response trainings at nursing homes and the relationship and predictivity of awareness to self-efficacy. Method: Recruit staff from two nursing homes through purposive sampling, using a two-team pre-and post-test design to collect results from 41 individuals in the experiment group and 40 individuals in the control group. The research tool is the “Nursing Home Fire Prevention and Emergency Response Awareness and Self-Efficacy Scale,” to compare the effectiveness of advanced and general fire safety trainings. Result: After receiving improved advanced fire safety training, the total score and the result of the experiment group on fire prevention and emergency response awareness and self-efficacy had both performed better than the control group who received general fire safety training (p < .001); fire prevention and emergency response awareness has significant and positive correlation with self-efficacy (r=.601, p < .001), and awareness is a significant predictor variable to self-efficacy (p < .001). Conclusion/Practical Application: This study finds that the key to improving learning effectiveness includes adding fire science concept chapter when creating fire safety training material in order to strengthen basic awareness; fire safety training should comprehensively introduce all related duty responsibilities of staff fire defense formation, in turn enabling mutual responsive support for the needs of the site; also, to become familiarized with the knowledge requires appropriate frequency of training and enhancing the staff’s awareness to fire prevention and emergency response, which is the most important key of learning effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0364.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: Working memory training; intervention; developmental language disorder; children
Online: 28 March 2022 (13:43:53 CEST)
Recent research has suggested that working memory training interventions may benefit children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). The current study investigated a short and engaging adaptive working memory intervention that targeted executive skills and aimed to improve both language comprehension and working memory abilities in children with DLD. Forty-seven 6- to 10-year-old children with DLD were randomly allocated to an executive working memory training intervention (n=24) or an active control group (n=23). A pre-test/intervention/post-test/9-month-follow-up design was used. Outcome measures included assessments of language (to evaluate far transfer of the training) and working memory (to evaluate near transfer of the training). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for pre-intervention performance and age found group to be a significant predictor of sentence comprehension and of performance on six untrained working memory measures at post-intervention and 9-month follow-up. Children in the intervention group showed significantly higher language comprehension and working memory scores at both time points than children in the active control group. The intervention programme showed potential to improve working memory and language comprehension in children with DLD and demonstrated several advantages: it involved short sessions over a short period; caused little disruption in the school day; and was enjoyed by children.
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:37:59 CET)
Objective: To study the changes in urine metabolism in female water polo players before and after high-intensity training by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to explore the biometabolic characteristics of urine after training and competition. Methods: Twelve young female water polo players (except goalkeepers) from Shanxi Province were selected. A 4-week formal training was started after one week of acclimatization according to experimental requirements. Urine samples (5 ml) were collected before formal training, early morning after 4 weeks of training, and immediately after 4 weeks of training matches, and labeled as T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The samples were tested by LC-MS after pre-treatment. XCMS, SIMCA-P 14.1, and SPSS16.0 were used to process the data and identify differential metabolites. Results: On comparing the immediate post-competition period with the pre-training period (T3 vs T1), 24 differential metabolites involved in 16 metabolic pathways were identified, among which niacin and niacinamide metabolism and purine metabolism were potential post-competition urinary metabolic pathways in the untrained state of the athletes. On comparing the immediate post-competition period with the post-training period (T3 vs T2), 10 metabolites involved in 3 metabolic pathways were identified, among which niacin and niacinamide metabolism was a potential target urinary metabolic pathway for the athletes after training. Niacinamide, 1-methylnicotinamide, 2-pyridone, L-Gln, AMP, and Hx were involved in two metabolic pathways before and after the training. Conclusion: Differential changes in urine after water polo games are due changes in the metabolic pathways of niacin and niacinamide.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0618.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Interpolation; Hydraulic Conductivity; Multi-Point Geostatistics; Training Image
Online: 26 February 2021 (12:47:53 CET)
Hydraulic conductivity is the key and one of the most uncertain parameters in groundwater modeling. The grid based numerical simulation require spatial distribution of sampled hydraulic conductivity at un-sampled locations in the study area. This spatial interpolation has been routinely performed using variogram based models (two-point geostatistics methods). These traditional techniques fail to capture the complex geological structures, provides smoothing effects and ignore the higher order moments of subsurface heterogeneities. In this work, a multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) method is applied to interpolate hydraulic conductivity data which will be further used in WASH123D numerical groundwater simulation model for regional smart groundwater management. To do this, MPS need ‘training images (TIs) as a key input. TI is a conceptual model of subsurface geological heterogeneity which was developed by using concept of ages, topographic slope as an index criteria and knowledge of geologist. After considerations of full physics of study area, an example shows the advantages of using multiple-point geostatistics compared with the traditional two-point geostatistics methods (such as Kriging) for the interpolation of hydraulic conductivity data in a complex geological formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: CrossFit; high-intensity functional training; Extreme conditioning programs
Online: 24 May 2019 (11:36:10 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to assess if self-regulation of intensity based on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a reliable method to control the intensity of metabolic conditioning of functional-fitness session. In addition, the relationship between RPE and changes in heart rate and lactate responses was also analyzed. Eight male participants (age 28.1 ± 5.4 years; body mass 77.2 ± 4.4kg; VO2max: 52.6 ± 4.6 mL·(kg·min)−1) completed three randomly sessions (5 to 7 days apart) under different conditions: (1) all-out (ALL); (2) self-regulation of intensity based on a RPE of 6 (hard) on the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE6); and (3) a control session. Rate of perceived exertion, LAC and HR response were measured pre, during and immediately after the sessions. The RPE and LAC during the ALL-OUT sessions were higher (p ≤ 0.05) than the RPE6 and control sessions for all the analyzed time points during the sessions. Regarding HR, the 22 min area under the curve of HR during ALL-OUT and RPE6 sessions were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than the control session. The average number of repetitions was lower (p ≤ 0.05) for the RPE6 session (190.5 ± 12.5 repetitions) when compared to the ALL session (214.4 ± 18.6 repetitions). There was a significant correlation between RPE and LAC (p = 0.001; r = 0.76; very large) and number of repetitions during the session (p = 0.026; r = 0.55; large). No correlation was observed between RPE and HR (p = 0.147; r = 0.380). These results indicate that self-regulation of intensity of effort based on RPE may be a useful tool to control exercise intensity during a metabolic conditioning session of functional-fitness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: resistance training; strength test; muscle strength; older women
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:58:41 CET)
Background: The maximal one-repetition test (1-RM) is widely used in scientific research; however, there are conflict results regarding its reproducibility in elderly population. The present study aimed to analyze the reproducibility the test both before and after a 12 week training period by using the bench press and leg press 45° 1-RM tests in the elderly taking into consideration the training experience and strength level of the women. Methods: Elderly women (n = 376; age, 68.5 ± 14.1 years; height, 162.7 ± 5.5 cm; body mass, 71.2 ± 16.0 kg) who underwent ≥3 months of resistance training performed an initial week of familiarization and a second week of testing and retest, with a 48–72 hour interval. Results: The results showed maximal and relative load strength of 39.3 kg and 0.59 kg/body mass for lower limbs and 20.9 kg and 0.31 kg/body mass for upper limbs. The Kappa indices were 0.93 and 0.95, and the intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.99 and 0.99 for the lower and upper limbs, respectively. Conclusion: Therefore, the present study confirms that the 1-RM test has high reliability and reproducibility in the elderly, for both upper and lower limbs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: public health; epidemiology; SARS-CoV-2; employment; education; training
Online: 2 August 2022 (04:33:55 CEST)
Although previous studies have focused on the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on various professional groups (particularly in the health and nursing care sector), this study aims to close a research gap by assessing perspectives of students and young professionals in epidemiology and public health in Germany in terms of shifts in workload, work content, and related challenges caused by the pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between mid-February and mid-March 2022. Quantitative data were analyzed via standardized mean differences. Qualitative data based on answers to open-ended questions were analyzed via a qualitative content analysis. Overall, 172 individuals participated in this survey. Results indicate that students felt burdened the most by lack of exchange with other students and lecturers. Study participants employed in public health experienced changes in their employment, because they had changes in their work content- and administration-wise, which was accompanied with a high burden due to the workload. Multiple demands that can have an impact on both acquired skills and mental health during the professional qualification phase were mentioned by the participants. Therefore, more in-depth analyses are needed for investigating the impact the pandemic will have on the (future) public health workforce in the long run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0337.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD); MABC-2; Motor skills training
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:23:34 CEST)
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a motor skills training program in children with DCD considering their gender. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) classified the children and assessed skill changes over time. The study was implemented at four kindergartens in the Khorezm region of Uzbekistan. In the study, all children had DCD (5.17 ± 0.70 years; 10 girls), and all indicators on MABC-2 were less than 16 percent. Participants were divided into an experimental group (n=17) receiving ten weeks of motor skills training program for 45 min twice per week, the control group (n=7) proceeded with exercises of everyday living. All children in the experimental group had a significant increase in total percentile rank of MABC-2 and concerning each domain (manual dexterity; throwing and catching; balance). In the control group, a significant decrease in the total percentile rank of MABC-2 and each domain of MABC-2 was observed. The effectiveness of the intervention program was similar across both genders. The study supports that a period of 10 weeks of a motor skills training program can increase the quality of children's motor coordination and represent a valuable procedure for physical education specialists to enhance motor skills for children with DCD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Augmented reality (AR); Virtual reality (VR); Simulation; Training; Navigation
Online: 4 October 2021 (11:04:55 CEST)
Background Augmented reality (AR) in surgery can offer an enhanced view of reality through the superimposition of computer-generated digital images on the real environment. It allows surgeons to integrate image visualisation, improving operative efficiency, surgical outcomes, surgical training and patient education. This review aims to evaluate the current status of augmented reality in surgery, surgical training and potential future applications. Methods We performed a non-systematic review of available literature from January 2005 to August 2021 by searching PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library using a combination of terms “augmented reality”, “virtual reality”, “surgery”, “simulation” and “training”. Articles considered for this review were identified by relevant search criteria including title, keywords, abstract, and full-text. Conclusions AR technologies present an exciting new trend with multiple potential applications in surgery. Intraoperative AR systems have shown promise in specialties involving fine movement of organs during surgical procedures, including Neurosurgery, Ears, Nose and Throat and Orthopaedic Surgery. AR has also exhibited the potential to enhance surgical training and improve knowledge acquisition; it can foster international collaborations via telesurgery and telepresence. In the near future, AR will likely work in symbiosis with surgeons, serving as a complex computer-human coalition which can improve patient outcomes, patient education and surgical training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Functions; Knowledge Organization Systems; Mathematics Education; Teacher Training; TPACK
Online: 14 June 2021 (14:51:38 CEST)
The objective of this work is to present the results of an investigation on the technological, pedagogical and content knowledge evidenced by mathematics teachers in the second-level of initial training (preservice) at the Universidad Nacional, from the TPACK model perspective, on the subject of functions. The research has a qualitative approach with an interpretive hermeneutical stance. A sample of 27 teachers in training who were enrolled in courses related to the three base domains of the TPACK model (pedagogical, technological and content of quadratic function) during the first semester (I cycle) of 2020 was used. A theoretical inquiry was carried out that allowed the creation of an instrument that made possible the description of the participants’ knowledge based on this model focused on the topic of quadratic function. The results show that participants possess instrumental dominance over the basic forms of knowledge underlying the model. It is concluded that, although participants have already experimented in courses related to these forms of knowledge, there is insufficient evidence to ascertain that their current knowledge would allow them to integrate technologies as a didactic resource within the teaching of the subject of quadratic function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0733.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: conditioning; high-intensity functional training; methods; performance; physical fitness
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:36:00 CEST)
The purpose of the present study was to compare heart rate (HR), blood lactate and training load between different CrossFit® workouts, with equalized total volume in men and women. The study included 23 individuals (13 men and 10 women) experienced in CrossFit® training, who performed two workouts with different training types (as many reps as possible - AMRAP and for time) but equalized volume. Measurements of lactate, HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were performed. The results showed that there was no HR interaction between workout time and sex (p = 0.822; η2 = 0.006] and between workout type and sex (p = 0.064, η2 = 0.803). HR significantly differed during each workout type (p <0.001, η2 = 0.621), but not between the two workout types (p = 0.552, η2 = 0.017). Lactate showed no difference between the workout types (p = 0.474, η2 = 0.768), although the training load was higher (p = 0.033, η2 = 0.199) in women when they performed AMRAP. Altogether, HR was not significantly different between training types or sex, while RPE, lactate and training load showed small differences depending on the group (women or men) or workout type (AMRAP or 'for time').
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: communication; patient safety; obstetrics; midwifery; intervention; training; interprofessional; learning
Online: 24 December 2020 (07:59:04 CET)
(1) Background: Obstetric work requires good communication, which can be trained in interventions targeting health care providers and pregnant women/ patients. This systematic review aims to aggregate the current state of research on communication interventions in obstetrics. (2) Methods: Using the PICOS scheme, studies published in peer-reviewed journals in English or German between 2000 and 2020 were searched. Out of 7,018 results, 71 studies were included in this synthesis and evaluated using the Oxford Level of Evidence Scale. (3) Results: 63 studies, including a communication component, revealed a positive effect on different proximal outcomes (i.e., communication skills). Three studies evaluating the effect of communication training on distal performance indicators (i.e., patient safety) proved to be beneficial to some extent. Most studies included different groups at the same time; those addressing health care providers were more common than those with students (61 vs. 12). Expectant mothers were targeted only in 9 studies. Overall, the evidence level of studies was low (only 11 RCTs), with 24 studies evidence level of I-II, 35 of III, and 10 of IV. (4) Conclusions: Communication training should be applied more often to improve communication of staff, students, and pregnant women, and thereby improve patient safety.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: clinical trials; investigator qualification; good clinical practice; investigator training
Online: 8 October 2019 (05:18:34 CEST)
The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) Investigator Qualification Project addresses the need for a more efficient and effective means of identifying qualified clinical investigators and delegates. Selection of investigators and delegates who are qualified by training and experience to conduct clinical trials is essential to safeguarding protections for study participants and ensuring data quality and integrity. Sponsors generally document investigator qualification through training on the principles of good clinical practice (GCP), as defined by the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), adopted by regulatory authorities in the US, Japan and the European Union. Although these GCP principles provide an important foundation for promoting the conduct of quality clinical trials, the industry standard “one-size-fits-all” GCP training may not fully prepare investigators and delegates for conducting quality clinical trials. Routine GCP training alone may not be sufficient to prepare an inexperienced member of a site team, while repeating such training is unlikely to enhance the qualifications of an experienced researcher. The CTTI project team used findings from qualitative research activities, as well as input from an expert meeting with multiple stakeholders, to identify gaps and redundancies in the current training of investigators and their delegates and recommend practical, action-based solutions. CTTI provides recommendations on how to implement a more efficient and effective means of qualification for investigators and delegates, determine whether a site team is a good fit for a particular protocol, and improve the quality of clinical trial conduct.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0759.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pharmacy law, education, training, vaccines, community pharmacy, ambulatory care
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:01:34 CET)
Pharmacists and pharmacies are highly visible and accessible to the public and have long been regarded as a source for immunization services in the United States. As international travel continues to increase and grow in popularity in this country, there is a pressing need for expanded access to preventative health services including routine and travel vaccinations and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment of conditions that may be acquired overseas. In the United States, the scope of pharmacy practice continues to expand and incorporate these preventable health services to varying degrees on a state-by-state level. As a result, pharmacists can help to increase access to and awareness of the need for these services to insure that patients remain healthy while traveling abroad and that they do not acquire a travel-related disease while on their trip. For those pharmacists interested in starting a travel health service, considerations should be undertaken that ensures that they have the necessary training, education, and skill set in order to provide this specialty level of care and that their practice setting is optimally designed to facilitate this service. Outcomes from studies that have evaluated pharmacy-based travel health services are positive, which further supports the role of the pharmacist in this setting. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to highlight United States pharmacy laws and regulations, pharmacist training, travel clinic considerations, and patient care outcomes from pharmacy-based travel health services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0494.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: unsupervised training; features learning; deep learning; time series forecasting
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:24:43 CEST)
A continuous Deep Belief Network (cDBN) with two hidden layers is proposed in this paper, focusing on the problem of weak feature learning ability when dealing with continuous data. In cDBN, the input data is trained in an unsupervised way by using continuous version of transfer functions, the contrastive divergence is designed in hidden layer training process to raise convergence speed, an improved dropout strategy is then implemented in unsupervised training to realize features learning by de-cooperating between the units, and then the network is fine-tuned using back propagation algorithm. Besides, hyper-parameters are analysed through stability analysis to assure the network can find the optimal. Finally, the experiments on Lorenz chaos series, CATS benchmark and other real world like CO2 and waste water parameters forecasting show that cDBN has the advantage of higher accuracy, simpler structure and faster convergence speed than other methods.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Aged; Geriatrics; Successful Ageing; Care Quality; Health Systems; Training
Online: 8 October 2018 (12:34:05 CEST)
Malaysia became the centre of international attention when it democratically removed a semi-authoritarian government of 62 years during its 14th general election this year. This electoral success has provided geriatric medicine in Malaysia with the unexpected ageing icon in the oldest prime minister in the world. Political change has led to a wave of optimism for the expansion of geriatric services in Malaysia, which has met with numerous challenges in the last two decades. The number of geriatrics specialists and services had already begun expanding under the previous government. However, existing geriatricians will need to reassess the landscape of delivery and access of care in our rapidly growing ageing population and develop new strategies to truly expand their services. In addition to unrelenting efforts in the recruitment and training of future geriatricians, the steady expansion of the geriatric workforce should take into account the inclusion of geriatric medicine in the undergraduate training curricula of all healthcare professionals. Expansion of geriatric services will also be a cost-effective strategy to reduce the growing national healthcare budget incurred by the growing needs of an ageing population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0436.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Expanded Public Works Programme; EPWP; SMMEs; Training; and Support
Online: 21 September 2018 (10:44:18 CEST)
Small business sector around the world is regarded as a catalyst of employment for the largest number of people. To reduce massive unemployment and inequality in the country, the Government of South Africa introduced various initiatives to stimulate and support small businesses, the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) is one of such initiatives. The enterprise development approach, is one of the delivery mechanisms of the EPWP, which seeks to transfer income to poor households in the short to medium-term. This study critically assess the impact and effectiveness of training and support interventions provided to small businesses through the EPWP. The study employs a quantitative research method and due to the size, availability and ease of access to the participants, the entire population of twenty (20) small businesses supported by the EPWP in Pretoria Region was sampled. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted. The study demonstrates that the training intervention provided through the EPWP is making positive impact and achieving its intended goals of enhancing business management skills to participants. It also reveals an interesting outcome that the majority of the participants are women. The study also identified some weaknesses in the programme which leads to the recommendation that long-term support mechanisms are essential to ensure sustainability of emerging enterprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0128.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: research-based training; methodological characteristics; development of research skills.
Online: 26 September 2017 (08:10:13 CEST)
The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of using of teaching elements of research-based training at the Institute of Human Sciences of Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Based on the focus group methodology, the authors identify the key methodological characteristics of research-based training, which have been put into basis of analysis of educational programs for the purpose of determining the application of tasks that contribute to the development of research skills of students. The study used a method of focus group. Its purpose was to obtain the necessary information from the participants to describe the methodological basis and justification of methods, forms, indicators, etc. of research-based training system among people who are competent, have experience in this field. After that, the method of "theoretical sampling" was used, which enabled to formulate generalized characteristics according to the results of focus groups. The practical value of the study is determination of the methodological characteristics of research-based training which is the basis for the application of tasks by university teachers that promote the development of research competence of students. The research is one of the first attempts to determine the methodological characteristics of research-based training in Ukraine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Teacher training; moral education; values system; higher education; SARS-CoV2
Online: 1 April 2022 (11:29:54 CEST)
To determine the ethical-attitudinal profile of university students in the education career during the pandemic with a tendency towards a new normality. University students of the education career were surveyed online, in an ethical key (axiological attitude, moral attitude and attitude towards new normality). The research was descriptive of univariate hypothesis, with non-probabilistic snowball sampling, reaching a sample of 480 participants. The Ethical-Attitudinal Profile Scale (EPEA) was designed, whose reliability was 0.93 in Lawshe's formula and 0.89 in Cronbach's Alpha. In the axiological attitude, values were obtained more frequently: respect with 79%, sincerity with 73%, prudence with 72%. In the moral attitude, a polar result is contrasted between laxity (67%) and kindness (45%); while, in the attitude towards new normality, there was no spike in frequencies, being distributed more homogeneously between indicators, with a low resilience index. There is an adequate evaluative profile of the university students of the education career despite the context of the pandemic and the trend towards a new normality; having a moral attitude of laxity inferred by the circumstances of uncertainty that are experienced in adverse contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Functional Fitness; High intensity Functional training; Periodization; Overreaching; Muscle recovery.
Online: 6 September 2021 (07:19:09 CEST)
The study describes the acute and delayed time course of recovery following the CrossFit® Benchmark Workout Karen. Eight trained men (28.4±6.4 years; 1RM back squat 139.1±26.0 kg) undertook the Karen protocol. The protocol consists of 150 Wall Balls, aiming to hit a target 3 meters high. Countermovement jump height (CMJ), creatine kinase (CK), and perceived recovery status scale (PRS) (general, lower and upper limbs) were assessed pre, post-0h, 24h, 48h and 72h after the session. The CK concentration 24h after was higher than pre-exercise (338.4 U/L vs. 143.3 U/L; effect size: 0.74; p≤0.05). At 48h and 72h following exercise, CK concentration had returned to baseline levels. The PRS general and of the lower limbs were lower in the 24-hours post-exercise compared to pre-exercise (PRS general: 4.7 ±1.5 and 7.9 ±1.7 mmol/L; and PRS of the lower limbs: 4.0 ±2.5 and 7.9 ±0.8, respectively). The PRS general, lower, and upper limbs were reduced at 48-post exercise compared to 72-hours post-exercise scores. Our findings provide insights into the fatigue profile and recovery in acute CrossFit® and can be useful to coaches effectively design the daily session.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0699.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: adaptive computing; dynamic deep neural structure; adpative convolution; dynamic training
Online: 30 July 2021 (12:25:45 CEST)
The colossal depths of the deep neural network sometimes suffer from ineffective backpropagation of the gradients through all its depths. Whereas, The strong performance of shallower multilayer neural structures prove their ability to increase the gradient signals in the early stages of training which easily gets backpropagated for global loss corrections. Shallow neural structures are always a good starting point for encouraging the sturdy feature characteristics of the input. In this research, a shallow, deep neural structure called PrimeNet is proposed. PrimeNet is aimed to dynamically identify and encourage the quality visual indicators from the input to be used by the subsequent deep network layers and increase the gradient signals in the lower stages of the training pipeline. In addition to this, the layerwise training is performed with the help of locally generated errors which means the gradient is not backpropagated to previous layers, and the hidden layer weights are updated during the forward pass, making this structure a backpropagation free variant. PrimeNet has obtained state-of-the-art results on various image datasets, attaining the dual objective of (1) compact dynamic deep neural structure, which (2) eliminates the problem of backwards-locking. The PrimeNet unit is proposed as an alternative to traditional convolution and dense blocks for faster and memory-efficient training, outperforming previously reported results aimed at adaptive methods for parallel and multilayer deep neural systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0722.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dementia; multicomponent training; long-term care home; social ethical approach
Online: 31 May 2021 (09:45:37 CEST)
Multicomponent training is recommended for people with dementia living in long-term care homes. Nevertheless, evidence is limited and people with severe dementia are often excluded from trials. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate (1) the feasibility and (2) the requirements regarding a multicomponent training for people with moderate to severe dementia. The study was conducted as an uncontrolled single arm pilot study with a mixed methods approach. 15 nursing home residents with a mean age of 82 years (range: 75-90 years; female: 64%) with moderate to severe dementia received 16 weeks of multicomponent training. Feasibility and requirements of the training were assessed by a standardized observation protocol. Eleven participants regularly attended the intervention. The highest active participation was observed during gait exercises (64%), the lowest during strength exercises (33%). It was supportive if exercises were task-specific or related to everyday life. This study confirms that a multicomponent training for the target group is (1) feasible and well accepted. To enhance active participation (2) individual instructions and the implementation of exercises related to everyday life is required. The effectiveness of the adapted training should be tested in future randomized controlled trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0776.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: virtual reality; VR; hockey training; motor reaction; response time; sport
Online: 31 March 2021 (15:16:38 CEST)
The efficiency of performance in various sports has the development of certain specific skills at its core. In ice hockey, both the technical aspects (techniques, stance) and the cognitive ones (keeping attention on the puck, game strategy, etc.) are highly important. This study is aimed at the identification of specific features that determine the performance efficiency of professional hockey players. We used virtual reality (VR) to study the differences between professional ice hockey players and novices in terms of motor responses to the puck’s presentation on different levels of difficulty. The study involved 22 participants, 13 of them being professional ice hockey players (Mage=20±2.9; mean age of training experience М=14.18±3.8) and 9 being not experienced participants (Mage=20±1.4). The study showed that the stick response time of professional hockey players is significantly higher (0.98 ms vs 1.5 ms, p≤0.05) in more difficult situations close to a real game. Moreover, professionals proved to have more stable movement patterns of the knee and hip joints. They also make fewer head movements as a response to stimuli during all runs (0.66 vs 1.25, p≤0.05). Therefore, the results indicate specific spatial-temporal, technical and tactical, and energetic determinants, that ensure higher performance efficiency in hockey players
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0440.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: warm up; muscle force; performance; resistance training; thermal imaging; physiology
Online: 19 February 2021 (14:15:20 CET)
(1) Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different types of warm-ups on the strength and skin temperature of Paralympic powerlifting athletes; (2) Methods: The participants were 15 male Paralympic powerlifting athletes. It was analyzed the effects of three different types of warm-up (without warm-up (WW), traditional warm-up (TW), or stretching warm-up (SW)) on static and dynamic strength tests as well as in the skin temperature, which was monitored by thermal imaging; (3) Results: show no differences in the dynamic and static indicators of the force in relation to the different types of warm-up. No significant differences were found in relation to the Peak Torque (p = 0.055, F=4.560, η2p= 0.246 medium effect), and 1-Repetition Maximum (p = 0.139, F=3.191, η2p = 0.186, medium effect) between the different types of warm-up. In the thermographic analysis, there was a significant difference only in the Pectoral muscle clavicular portion between the TW (33.04 ± 0.71ºC) and the WW (32.51 ± 0.74ºC) (p = 0.038). The TW method also presented slightly higher values than the SW and WW in the Pectoral Muscles Sternal portion and in the Deltoid anterior portion, but with p-value > 0.05; (4) Conclusions: that the types of warm-up studied do not seem to interfere with the performance of Paralympic Powerlifting athletes. However, the thermal images showed that traditional warm-up best meets the objectives expected for this preparation phase.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0468.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorders; Early Intervention; Parent mediated intervention; Parental Training
Online: 18 November 2020 (11:04:07 CET)
The aim of this article is to analyze the evidence against the effectiveness of intervention programs based on the participation of parents of children with autism. To obtain the data, a systematic search was carried out in four databases (ProQuest-PsychArticles, ProQuest-ERIC, ProQuest-PubMed, and Scopus). These documents were refined under the inclusion/exclusion criteria and a total of 51 empirical studies were selected. They were classified, first, according to the function of the intervention objective and, later, by the methodology applied (19 studies based on comprehensive interventions, 11 focused on the nuclear symptoms of ASD, 12 focused on the promotion of positive parenting and 9 interactions focused on children play). Once all the documents have been analyzed, the evidence indicates scientific efficacy in most studies, mainly in those based on child development and the application of behavioral analysis principles. Also, the positive influence of parent participation in such programs was demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0209.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: good clinical practice; clinical trials; quality; investigator training; clinical investigator
Online: 19 January 2020 (04:46:48 CET)
Background: Good clinical practice (GCP) training is the industry standard for ensuring the quality conduct of registrational clinical trials. However, concerns have been raised about whether the current structure and delivery of GCP training sufficiently prepares clinical investigators and their delegates to conduct clinical trials. Methods: We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 13 clinical investigators and 10 research sponsors to 1) examine characteristics of the quality conduct of sponsored clinical trials, including critical tasks and concerns perceived as essential for trial quality, 2) identify key knowledge and skills required to perform critical tasks, and 3) identify gaps and redundancies in GCP training and areas of improvement to ensure the quality conduct of clinical trials. We used applied thematic analysis to analyze the data. Results: The top three tasks identified as critical for the quality conduct of clinical trials were obtaining informed consent, ensuring protocol compliance, and protecting participants’ health and safety. Respondents acknowledged that GCP principles address each of these critical tasks; however, they described many challenges and burdens of GCP training, including high training frequency and repetitive content. Respondents suggested moving beyond GCP training as a mere check-box activity by making it more effective, engaging, and interactive. They also emphasized that applying GCP principles in a real-world, skills-based environment would increase the relevance of GCP training to investigators and their delegates. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that although investigators and sponsors recognize that GCP training addresses critical tasks necessary to the quality conduct of clinical trials, they articulated the need for significant improvement in the design, content, and presentation of GCP training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0029.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: pedestrian detection; Unified Deep Net; two-stream nets; network training
Online: 4 January 2020 (06:08:39 CET)
Pedestrian detection is the core of driver assistance system, which collects the road conditions through the radars or cameras on the vehicle, judges whether there is a pedestrian in front of the vehicle, supports decisions such as raising the alarm, automatically slowing down or emergency stopping to keep pedestrians safe, and improves the security when the vehicle is moving. Suffered from weather, lighting, clothing, large pose variations and occlusion, the current pedestrian detection still has a certain distance from the practical applications. In recent years, deep networks have shown excellent performance for image detection, recognition and classification. Some researchers employed deep network for pedestrian detection and achieve great progress, but deep networks need huge computational resources which make it difficult to put into practical applications. In real scenarios of autonomous vehicle, the computation ability is limited. Thus, the shallow networks such as UDN (Unified Deep Networks) is a better choice since it performs well on consuming less computation resources. Base on UDN, this paper proposes a new deep network model named as two-stream UDN, which augments another branch for solving traditional UDN’s indistinction of the difference between trees / telegraph poles and pedestrians. The new branch accepts the upper third part of the pedestrian image as input, and the partial image has less deformation, stable features and more distinguished characters from other objects. For the proposed two-stream UDN, multi-input features including HOG feature, Sobel feature, color feature and foreground regions extracted by GrabCut segmentation algorithms are fed. Compared with the original input of UDN, the multi-input features are more conducive for pedestrian detection since the fused HOG features and significant objects are more significant for pedestrian detection. Two-stream UDN is trained through two steps: First, the two sub-networks are trained until converge; then we fuse results of the two subnets as the final result and feed it back to the two subnets to fine tune network parameters synchronously. To improve the performance, Softplus is adopted as activation function to obtain faster training speed, and positive samples are mirrored and rotated with small angle to make positive and negative samples more balanced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0290.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: sustainable development agenda; higher education; employability competencies; entrepreneurial skills training
Online: 22 December 2019 (02:05:11 CET)
The objective of this paper is to analyze students’ assessments of the attainment of skills acquired by university graduates enrolled in a Training Programme (TP) to develop entrepreneurial skills and transversal employability competencies. Both of which are vital for the success of today's societies and play an important role in the sustainable development agenda. The TP was a twelve-week programme with six modules combining entrepreneurship training and traditional teaching methods. There were nine editions and 148 students worked in teams preparing business plans to present to consultants and potential investors. The Focal Group method was used to identify competencies and a survey was designed to identify the level to which skills were attained. The results suggest that the students attained both types of skills, acquiring a higher level of proficiency in entrepreneurial skills and those transversal competencies most connected to entrepreneurship. Additionally, different levels of attainment of entrepreneurial skills were found in different groups. We provide new evidence that TPs, as compulsory subjects in the core curriculum of degree programmes, will help accomplish both objectives: the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills and generic university educational competencies. The overall outcome of this research highlights the value added by the TPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0220.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: younger schoolchildren; anxiety; psychocorrection; sociopsychological training; biological feedback; art-therapy
Online: 19 November 2019 (03:28:45 CET)
The purpose of our study is to determine the effectiveness of various types of psychocorrection measures: social and psychological training, a method of biological feedback and Sandplay for the indicators of childhood anxiety among younger schoolchildren. The study was conducted in the school of Magadan, North East of Russia (9-10 year old students, n = 43). We used a standardized method of Multidimensional Assessment of Child Anxiety which included 10 scales. The correction methods were used: socio-psychological training (SPT), biofeedback method (BFB), individual and group Sandplay. Students of group I (n = 12) participated only in the SPT. Students of group II (n = 11) participated in the SPT and underwent a course of training in self-regulation using the BFB method. In correction work with the students of group III (n = 20), the SPT, BFB, individual and group Sandplay were used. In group I, after the correction activities, a significant decrease in anxiety was observed in 3 of 10 scales (2, 6, 7; (p <0.05). In group II it was seen in 5 scales (1, 3, 6, 7, 8; p <0.05). In group III, a significant improvements took place in 7 scales (1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10; p <0.01–p <0.05). The present study has shown the different efficacy of applying the remedial techniques separately and in combination. The use of methods in the complex enhances the impact on the types of the child anxiety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: School coexistence; cyberbullying; education; family; victims; prevention; management; training; perceptions
Online: 2 November 2018 (13:12:16 CET)
The present work analyzes university students' perceptions on cyberbullying. More specifically, the main objective was to understand the level of concern displayed by young students in teacher training programs regarding cyberbullying; our analysis includes their degree of self-confidence and their commitment when faced with this problem, their self-reported training on the subject, and the measures they consider adequate to approach it in the educational context. Using a survey research design, 408 students from Early Childhood Education, Primary Education Degrees, and the Master’s Degree in Secondary Education, and Vocational Training from national public universities participated. The results shed light upon the coexistence of three differentiated profiles of teachers in training when faced with cyberbullying. However, although there is clear evidence of the high level of concern regarding this problem in every case, they placed more importance on raising awareness of the issue with families, prevention, management and training as basic pillars for re-directing the worrisome reality experienced in educational centers. The need to include these contents in the initial training of future education professionals, for overcoming cyberbullying, and the importance of collaborative work between parents and educators are the conclusions of this research study that are in agreement with other studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0503.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: HMB; Branched-chain amino acid; Strength training; Sports nutrition; Inflammation.
Online: 29 August 2018 (14:12:18 CEST)
β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a bioactive metabolite formed from breakdown of the branched-chain amino acid leucine. Given the popularity of HMB supplements among different athletes, specifically, those who engage in regular resistance training, this review was performed to summarize current literature on some aspects of HMB supplementation that have received less attention. Because of the small number of published studies, it has not been possible to conclude the exact effects of HMB on cardiovascular parameters, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Thus, the interpretation of outcomes should be taken cautiously. However, the data presented here suggest that acute HMB supplementation may attenuate pro-inflammatory response following an intense resistance exercise in athletes. Also, the available findings collectively indicate that chronic HMB consumption in conjunction with resistance training has no more adaptive advantages associated with decreasing cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress markers. Taken together, there is clearly a need for further well-designed, longer duration studies to support these findings and determine whether HMB supplementation affects the adaptations induced by resistance training associated with body’s inflammatory condition, antioxidative defense system, and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0270.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: chemical engineering; journal publications; lexical choices; collocations; impact factor; training
Online: 30 March 2018 (11:25:20 CEST)
The combination of increased pressures for high-volume, high-impact publications in English language with the high rejection rates of submitted manuscripts for publications presents an often unsurpassable obstacle for (early career) researchers. At the same, the register requirements of peer-reviewed journals -that can contribute to whether a paper is accepted for publication- has received little attention. This paper redresses this gap, by investigating the linguistic choices in 60 published manuscripts in four journals, with impact factor (IF) above 2; all 4 journals, publish original research papers in the field of chemical engineering science and specifically focus on wastewater treatment. Our survey shows that chemical engineering research publications tend to comply to a set of unwritten requirements: multidisciplinarity, brevity, co-authorship, focus on the description of practical results (rather than methods), and awareness of non-specialised audiences. It is found that less discipline-specific vocabulary was used in higher IF journals and this is interpreted within the current context of manuscript publication and consumption. Also, a complex relationship between the advertised scope of each journal and the actual published papers exists, indicating that guide for authors and aims and objective published by the journal's editorial office should be critically evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0079.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: fire detection; upwelling radiation; diurnal variation; training data; geostationary sensors
Online: 15 December 2016 (09:22:10 CET)
Fire detection from satellite sensors relies on an accurate estimation of the unperturbed state of a target pixel, from which an anomaly can be isolated. Methods for estimating the radiation budget of a pixel without fire depend upon training data derived from the location's recent history of brightness temperature variation over the diurnal cycle, which can be vulnerable to cloud contamination and the effects of weather. This study proposes a new method that utilises the common solar budget found at a given latitude in conjunction with an area's local solar time to aggregate a broad-area training dataset, which can be used to model the expected diurnal temperature cycle of a location. This training data is then used in a temperature fitting process with the measured brightness temperatures in a pixel, and compared to pixel-derived training data and contextual methods of background temperature determination. Results of this study show similar accuracy between clear-sky medium wave infrared upwelling radiation and the diurnal temperature cycle estimation compared to previous methods, with demonstrable improvements in processing time and training data availability. This method can be used in conjunction with brightness temperature thresholds to provide a baseline for upwelling radiation, from which positive thermal anomalies such as fire can be isolated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0687.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: automatic speech recognition (ASR); automatic assessment tools; foreign language pronunciation; pronunciation training; computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT); automatic pronunciation assessment; learning environments; minimal pairs
Online: 29 June 2021 (07:31:41 CEST)
General–purpose automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems have improved their quality and are being used for pronunciation assessment. However, the assessment of isolated short utterances, as words in minimal pairs for segmental approaches, remains an important challenge, even more for non-native speakers. In this work, we compare the performance of our own tailored ASR system (kASR) with the one of Google ASR (gASR) for the assessment of Spanish minimal pair words produced by 33 native Japanese speakers in a computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) scenario. Participants of a pre/post-test training experiment spanning four weeks were split into three groups: experimental, in-classroom, and placebo. Experimental group used the CAPT tool described in the paper, which we specially designed for autonomous pronunciation training. Statistically significant improvement for experimental and in-classroom groups is revealed, and moderate correlation values between gASR and kASR results were obtained, beside strong correlations between the post-test scores of both ASR systems with the CAPT application scores found at the final stages of application use. These results suggest that both ASR alternatives are valid for assessing minimal pairs in CAPT tools, in the current configuration. Discussion on possible ways to improve our system and possibilities for future research are included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0459.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: public accountant; accounting training; accounting software; abilities; Learning and knowledge technologies.
Online: 26 December 2022 (01:46:21 CET)
this article presents the results of implementing existing software tools in the accounting field. The teaching processes regarding the use of Learning and Knowledge Technologies (TAC) in the university environment, and very specifically, in what has to do with the pedagogical integration of the same in the curriculum is deficient and disjointed with the current technological development. Thus, in the different curricula of professional programs of Public Accounting and related, the courses related to computer automation processes are oriented only towards the management of computer science and accounting software and the great diversity of existing applications that would undoubtedly directly benefit the student to know the potential of these in their future accounting practice is not taken into account. Strengthen the various skills of a Public Accountant in training through Learning and Knowledge Technologies (TAC), under the hypothesis of developing skills in the accounting field through TACs. The research was developed using a quantitative approach, an empirical-analytical method, with a type of descriptive research under an experimental design based on G1 x O1 and G2–O2, three phases were defined. In the first phase, the characterization of the existing software tools in the accounting field was carried out. In the second phase, their relevance was determined. In the third phase, performance was evaluated and then classified in a repository. The data obtained were analyzed with parametric analysis techniques through which it was found that the difference in quantitative results in the academic process between the experimental and control groups was statistically significant, which concluded the success of the experimental treatment. The use of CT scans in the classroom by the experimental group resulted in an improvement in their academic performance compared to the control group, strengthening their self-learning processes and facilitating the development of cognitive functions and skills necessary in the exercise of their accounting profession. This research supports and strengthens the work skills developed in the classroom for public accounting students. The tools TAC is developed from the request made by the radiometry laboratory as a first phase and a second phase is necessary for validation with experts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0408.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Duckweed; Machine learning; Image analysis; Machine training; Aquatic plants; Lemnaceae; Lemna
Online: 29 June 2022 (14:56:08 CEST)
Numerous new technologies have been implemented in image analysis methods that help researchers withdraw scientific conclusions from biological phenomena. Plants of the family Lemnaceae (duckweeds) are the smallest flowering plants in the world, and biometric measurements of single plants and their growth rate are highly challenging. Although the use of software for digital image analysis has changed the way scientists extract phenomenological data (also for studies on duckweeds), the procedure is often not wholly automated and sometimes relies on the intervention of a human operator. Such a constraint can limit the objectivity of the measurements and generally slows down the time required to produce scientific data. Here is the need to implement image analysis software with artificial intelligence that can substitute the human operator. In this paper, we present a new method to study the growth rates of the plants of the Lemnaceae family based on the application of machine learning procedures to digital image analysis. The method is compared to existing analogical and computer-operated procedures. Results showed that our method drastically reduces the time consumption of the human operator while retaining a high correlation in the growth rates measured with other procedures As expected, machine learning methods applied to digital image analysis can overtake the constraints of measuring growth rates of very small plants and might help duckweeds gain worldwide attention thanks to their great nutritional qualities and biological plasticity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: robot-assisted gait training; rehabilitation; stroke; cardiorespiratory fitness; robotics; disability; locomotion
Online: 23 March 2022 (08:40:16 CET)
Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) is a promising treatment for stroke rehabilitation. Although the coordination between the upper and lower limbs is important for locomotor training, commercially available robotics for gait training mainly focus on the restoration of lower limb function. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and usability of complex upper and lower limb RAGT in stroke patients using the GTR-A®, end effector-type robotic device. Patients with subacute stroke (N=9) received 30-minute RAGT thrice a week for two weeks (six sessions). Functionally, the hand grip strength (HGS), Functional Ambulatory Categories, modified Barthel Index, muscle strength test sum score, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, and Short Physical Performance Battery were used. The heart rate and a structured questionnaire were used to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and the usability of RAGT. Among the nine patients, all functional parameters between the baseline and post-training were significantly improved after RAGT, except for HGS and the muscle strength test. The questionnaire’s mean scores for each domain were as follows: safety 4.40±0.35, effects 4.23±0.31, efficiency 4.22±0.77, and satisfaction 4.41±0.25. The GTR-A® is a feasible and safe robotic device for patients with gait impairment after stroke. It showed functional improvement with endurance training effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0471.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: aerobic threshold; anaerobic threshold; exercise prescription; threshold detection; threshold-based training
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:01:01 CET)
The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the Tyme Wear smart shirt is as reliable and valid in detecting personalized ventilatory thresholds when compared to the Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400. In this validation study, 19 subjects were recruited to conduct two graded exercise test (GXT) trials. Each GXT trial was separated by seven to ten days of rest. During the GXT, gas exchange and heart rate data were collected by the TrueOne 2400 (TRUE) in addition to the ventilation data collected by the Tyme Wear smart shirt (S-PRED). Gas exchange data from TRUE was used to detect VT1 and VT2. TRUE and S-PRED VT1 and VT2 were compared to determine the reliability and validity of the smart shirt. Of the 19 subjects, data from 15 subjects were used during analysis. S-PRED exhibited excellent (ICC > 0.90) reliability for detection of VT1 and VT2 utilizing time point and workload and moderate (0.90 > ICC > 0.75 ) reliability utilizing heart rate. TRUE exhibited excellent reliability for detection of VT1 and VT2 utilizing time point, workload, and heart rate. When compared to TRUE, S-PRED appears to underestimate the VT1 workload (p > 0.05) across both trials and heart rate (p < 0.05) for trial 1. However, S-PRED appears to underestimate VT2 workload (p < 0.05) and heart rate (p < 0.05) across both trials. The result from this study suggests that the Tyme Wear smart shirt is less valid but is comparable in reliability when compared to the gold standard. Moreover, despite the underestimation of S-PRED VT1 and VT2, the S-PRED detected personalized ventilatory thresholds will provide an adequate training workload for most individuals. In conclusion, the Tyme Wear smart shirt provides easily accessible testing to establish threshold-guided training zones but does not devalue the long-standing laboratory equivalent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0090.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Airflow restriction, Physical exercise, Respiratory Muscle Training, Endurance performance, VEGF, EPO
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:04:27 CEST)
Introduction: The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) has been introduced as a novel tool to allow for respiratory muscle training and altitude exposure during exercise that can improve performance and hematological markers in elite and well-trained athletes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of wearing ETM while training on erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), peak oxygen consumption (VO2max), lactate, and 1000-m kayaking performance in elite Kayaking girls. Methods: Thirty elite Kayaking girls (14 to 18-year-old) were equally and randomly assigned into mask, no mask, and control groups. The mask and no-mask groups completed 8 weeks of repeated sprint training, while the control group performed their routine kayaking training programs. Pre- and post-training tests included EPO, VEGF, VO2max, lactate, and 1000-m kayaking performance. Results: 1000-m time trial significantly decreased for mask (p < 0.001) and control (p = 0.035) groups, and was significantly lower in mask group than control (p = 0.014) and no mask (p = 0.009) groups. EPO did not show any significant changes for all groups. VEGF was increased significantly for mask (p = 0.04) and no mask (p = 0.014) groups. Lactate was decreased significantly for mask group (p = 0.025). VO2max increased significantly for no mask group (p = 0.021). Conclusion: Wearing the ETM while participating in 8 weeks of repeated sprint training might improve specific blood markers and endurance performance, especially anaerobic pathways. Performing repeated sprint training while wearing ETM has the potential to enhance performance in Kayak racing.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: evaluation; proximal outcomes; distal outcomes; process research; training process; postgraduate program
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:45:14 CEST)
This contribution illustrates the training evaluation system developed within the Master’s Program in Family and Community Mediation at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Milan. This is an interim evaluation, which focuses on the training process and which considers fundamental the collaboration with the subjects of the training. The peculiarity of this work concerns the possibility of inserting research within the training process, following a logic of mutual enrichment both in terms of content and learning. The contribution illustrates in detail the outcome and the process evaluation system, defining the perspective, the objectives, and the methodology of implementation. In particular, the outcome evaluation focuses on the distal and proximal outcomes of the training, while the process analysis focuses on the dynamics within the group of participants. Although further evaluations involving different training groups and other training processes are needed, this training evaluation system allows to shed light on both the topic and the context in which training is delivered. The integration between different points of view and several levels of analysis allows the researchers to deepen the individual path of each participant as well as to have feedbacks on the progress of the training group as a whole.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0761.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Peripheral Artery Disease; Exercise Intolerance; Exercise Limitations; Intermittent Claudication; Exercise Training
Online: 28 April 2021 (17:16:32 CEST)
Intermittent claudication (IC) is the most common symptom of peripheral artery disease (PAD). IC affects the quality of life and results in marked exercise intolerance and limitation to daily activities with increased risk of cardiovascular complications. Exercise training is the first line of conservative management in PAD. However, patients with IC Patient cannot tolerate exercise because of leg discomfort induced by physical effort. This review will address alternative rehabilitation strategies to reduce exercise limitations and improve exercise tolerance in patients with IC.
Subject: Keywords: Smallholder farmer; Vocational training; Income; Endogenous transformation regression model; Moderating effect
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:20:07 CEST)
This article explores the impact of farmers’ vocational training on their income. Survey data concerning agricultural product quality and agricultural product sales were collected by the research team in Yantai City, China. An endogenous transformation regression model (ESR) was then used to analyze the impact of training on farmers’ family income, and the income mechanism was further tested. The results from the empirical analysis suggest that (1) Participating in training can significantly increase farmers’ income; (2) Farmers who pay more attention to the quality of their agricultural products during the production process are more likely to see their incomes increase after participating in the training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: fitness assessment; sport-specific; athlete classification; high-intensity functional training; sex differences
Online: 22 December 2022 (06:34:53 CET)
To create normative scores for all CrossFit® Open (CFO) workouts and compare male and female performances, official scores were collected from the official competition leaderboard for all competitors of the 2011-2022 CFO competitions. Percentiles were calculated in athletes (18 – 54 years) who completed all workouts within a single year ‘as prescribed’ and met minimum scoring thresholds. Independent t-tests revealed significant (p < 0.05) sex differences for 56 of 60 workouts. In workouts scored by repetitions completed, men completed more repetitions in 18 workouts by small-to-large differences (d = 0.22-0.81), whereas women completed more repetitions in 6 workouts by small-to-medium differences (d = 0.36-0.77). When workouts were scored by time-to-completion, men were faster in 10 workouts by small-to-large differences (d = 0.23-1.12), while women were faster in three workouts by small differences (d = 0.46). In three workouts scored by load lifted, men lifted more weight by large differences (d = 2.00-2.98). All other differences were either trivial or not significant. Despite adjusted programming for men and women, the persistence of performances differences across all CFO workouts suggest resultant challenges are not the same. These normative values may be useful to training and research in male and female CrossFit® athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0139.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: sparse training; neural networks; link prediction; network automata; Cannistraci-Hebb; epitopological learning
Online: 8 July 2022 (10:40:18 CEST)
Sparse training (ST) aims to improve deep learning by replacing fully connected artificial neural networks (ANNs) with sparse ones. ST is promising but at an early stage, therefore it might benefit to borrow brain-inspired learning paradigms such as epitopological learning (EL) from complex network intelligence theory. EL is a field of network science that studies how to implement learning on networks by changing the shape of their connectivity structure (epitopological plasticity). EL was conceived together with the Cannistraci-Hebb (CH) learning theory according to which: the sparse local-community organization of many complex networks (such as the brain ones) is coupled to a dynamic local Hebbian learning process and contains already in its mere structure enough information to partially predict how the connectivity will evolve during learning. One way to implement EL is via link prediction: predicting the existence likelihood of each nonobserved link in a network. CH theory inspired a network automata rule for link prediction called CH3-L3 that was recently proven to be very effective for general purpose link prediction. Here, starting from CH3-L3 we propose a CH training (CHT) approach to implement epitopological sparse deep learning in ANNs. CHT consists of three parts: kick start pruning, to hint the link predictors; epitopological prediction, to shape the ANN topology; and weight refinement, to tune the synaptic weights values. Experiments on MNIST and CIFAR10 datasets compare the efficiency of CHT and other ST-based algorithms in speeding up the ANN training across epochs. While SET leverages random evolution and RigL adopts gradient information, CHT is the first algorithm in ST that learns to shape sparsity by using the sparse topological organization of the ANN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Multiple sclerosis; Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite Score; Multi-Function Swing Suspension Training
Online: 27 May 2022 (08:59:47 CEST)
Background: Physical activity has been considered as a promising approach to slow down the disease process in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. While the functional impairments of MS have been studied in detail, but there is limited evidence of the efficacy of exercise interventions on the Multiple Sclerosis functional composite (MSFC) score in these patients. The study aim was to in-vestigate the improvement in MSFC score by multi-function swing suspension training (MFSST) in the women with MS. Methods: The patients were divided into the intervention and control groups. A total of 47 MS patients completed the MSFC components at baseline and after the intervention. Z scores were created for each test based on control means. Results: The MSFC components showed a significant increment in comparison with the baseline levels in the four, six, and eight weeks following the first exercise session (all p<0.05). These dif-ferences in the control group were not significant. The improvement in the MSFC score and the component Z-scores in the intervention groups was found from the fourth week onwards. Conclusions: The study findings highlight that MFSST can be used as an effective treatment method in MS patients due to its positive effects on physical parameters, such as muscles strength, functional impairments, and cognitive problems.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Microscopy Image Segmentation; Deep Learning; Data Augmentation; Synthetic Training Data; Parametric Models
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:07:00 CET)
The analysis of microscopy images has always been an important yet time consuming process in in materials science. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been very successfully used for a number of tasks, such as image segmentation. However, training a CNN requires a large amount of hand annotated data, which can be a problem for material science data. We present a procedure to generate synthetic data based on ad-hoc parametric data modelling for enhancing generalization of trained neural network models. Especially for situations where it is not possible to gather a lot of data, such an approach is beneficial and may enable to train a neural network reasonably. Furthermore, we show that targeted data generation by adaptively sampling the parameter space of the generative models gives superior results compared to generating random data points.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0120.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: teachers’ training; teachers’ competences; intercultural dialogue; education for sustainable development; professional development.
Online: 6 October 2020 (10:58:25 CEST)
The present research is embedded in the professional development and research line and in the needs of secondary education and first-year university teachers. We focussed on evidencing the importance of teachers’ professional training to include some specific adaptation and skills in intercultural dialogue and understanding -often called Intercultural Competence- because of its direct impact on the sustainable development of human beings, groups, and ecosystems. We investigated the role played by each of the main competencies linked to the following intercultural dimensions: Professional Identity, Ethics and Axiology, Methodology, and Inclusive Education. We used an integrated methodology and a cross-study of data, performed after the obtention of a three-cornered evaluation of results collected in focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires. We were able to show the impact of intercultural dialogue and understanding in the education for a sustainable development pattern. This is fundamental to set up a new ecology of forms, knowledge, attitudes, and educational meanings, further used to update teachers and students’ training in sustainable ecology and cultural diversity. Progress made in these complementary competencies -Professional Identity, Ethics and Axiology, Methodology- were appraised by teachers participating in the present study; the latter showing an increased interest and demand for the intercultural competence, after increasing their proficiency in the other complementary competencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0740.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: balance training; real-time visual feedback; smart wearable devices; center of pressure
Online: 30 September 2020 (11:00:33 CEST)
This study aims to explore the effect of real-time visual feedback (VF) information of the pres-sure of center (COP) provided by intelligent insoles on balance training in a one leg stance (OLS) and tandem stance (TS) posture. Thirty healthy female college students were randomly assigned to the visual feedback balance training group (VFT), non-visual feedback balance training group (NVFT), and control group (CG). The balance training includes: OLS, tandem Stance (dominant leg behind, TSDL), tandem stance (non-dominant leg behind, TSNDL). The training lasted 4 weeks, the training lasts 30 minutes at an interval of 1 days. There was a sig-nificant difference in the interaction effect between Groups*Times of the COP parameters (p<0.05) for OLS. There was no significant difference in the interaction effect between Groups*Times of the COP parameters (p>0.05) for TS. The main effect of the COP parameters was a significant difference in Times (p<0.05). The COP displacement, velocity, radius, and area in VFT significantly decreased after training (p < 0.05). Therefore, the visual feedback technology of intelligent auxiliary equipment during balance training can enhance the benefit of training. The use of smart wearable devices in OLS balance training may improve the visual and physical balance integration ability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0308.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Tomato; genetic breeding value; training population; genotyping; marker effect; phenotyping; selection schemes
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:08:23 CEST)
Genomic selection (GS) is a predictive approach that was build up to increase the rate of genetic gain per unit of time in breeding programs. It has emerged as a valuable method for improving complex traits that are controlled by many genes with small effect. GS enables the prediction of breeding value of candidate genotypes for selection. In this work we address important issues related to GS and its implementation in tomato breeding context. Genomic constrains and critical parameters affecting the accuracy of prediction in such crop such as phenotyping, genotyping training population composition and size and statistical method should be carefully evaluated. Comparison of GS approaches for facilitating the selection of tomato superior genotypes during breeding program are also discussed. GS applied to tomato breeding has already shown to be feasible. We illustrated how GS can improve the rate of gain in elite lines selection, descendent and in backcross schemes. The GS schemes begin to be delineated and computer science can provide support for future selection strategies. A new breeding framework is beginning to emerge for optimizing tomato improvement procedures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cutaneous lymphoma in elderly; skin tumors; T-cell lymphomas; sport activity training
Online: 30 December 2019 (05:43:39 CET)
PcALCL mainly concerns elderly patients. It is a large CD30+ T-cell neoplasm composed of large cells with anaplastic, pleomorphic or immunoblastic morphology, with exclusively cutaneous onset and localization. The clinical course of pcALCL is predominantly indolent. Most elderly patients with lymphoma tend to have a sedentary lifestyle, which has a negative effect on their quality of life (QoL) and on their survival. Several studies indicate that exercise has a positive impact on QoL because it reduces peak oxygen consumption, improves physical capacity, increases self-esteem, reduces accumulated stress and promotes relaxation. Therefore, particularly in indolent lymphomas, it is necessary to indicate a program of physical activity to be practiced systematically. The complete surgical excision and local radiotherapy are the first line gold standard in pcALCL with solitary lesion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Career choice predictors, Affective and Cognitive Domains, Science teacher training, International teaching.
Online: 21 June 2019 (11:28:25 CEST)
Attitudes and behaviours towards the natural environment have been extensively studied in certain cultural settings during the last 40 years. In education, the teacher's ability to grasp the fundamentals of an academic subject may define his or her own attitudes towards that discipline; certainly the reverse is also valid. The correlations between affective and cognitive domains appear to play a significant role in teaching-learning dynamics. In this study we seek to assess whether the affective posture towards school sciences of a cohort of teachers in rural communities shows an association with their cognitive competence in the disciplines. The results of this study provide evidence that there is a statistically significant correlation between the cognitive and affective domains for in-service teachers. The affective domain, therefore, could serve as a predictor for cognitive competency and self-efficacy expectancies with respect to both content and career fulfilment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Clinical Skills; Clinical Training; Competency; Cross-sectional Studies; Dental Education; Dentistry; Self-perception.
Online: 4 January 2023 (08:48:49 CET)
The transition from undergraduate dental student to the actual practicing dentist is a crucial phase and ensuring the preparedness of graduates for the complexity and demands of contempo-rary dental practice is a challenging task. This study aimed to evaluate the self-perceived prepar-edness of undergraduate dental students and house officers in the dental colleges of Pakistan. Cross-sectional national study was planned to collect the information from dental students and new graduates in Pakistan. The pre-validated Dental Undergraduates Preparedness Assessment Scale (DU-PAS) was used. Purposive sampling technique was utilized to recruit house officers and undergraduate dental students from 27 dental schools in Pakistan. The data analysis was car-ried out using the R statistical environment for Windows (R Core Team, 2015). The total of 862 responses with 642 females and 219 males were analyzed in the study. Overall, clinical skills score was 30.56+9.08 and score for soft skills was 30.54+10.6. The mean age of the participants was 23.42+1.28. Deficiencies were reported in various soft skills and clinical skills attributes.The results highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of dental students and new graduates in Pakistani den-tal institutions. The findings may be used to further develop and strengthen teaching and training of dental students in Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: damage detection; linear regression; random forest; artificial neural network; training parameters; natural frequency
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:26:27 CET)
Damage detection based on modal parameter changes becomes popular in the last decades. Nowadays are available robust and reliable mathematical relations to predict the natural frequency changes if damage parameters are known. Using these relations, it is possible to create databases containing a large variety of damage scenarios. Damage can be thus assessed by applying an inverse method. The problem is the complexity of the database, especially for structures with more cracks. In this paper, we propose two machine learning methods, namely the random forest (RF) and the artificial neural network (ANN) as search tools. The databases we developed contain damage scenarios for a prismatic cantilever beam with one crack and ideal and non-ideal boundary conditions. The crack assessment is made in two steps. First, a coarse damage location is found from the networks trained for scenarios comprising the whole beam. Afterward, the assessment is made involving a particular network trained for the segment of the beam on which the crack is previously found. Using the two machine learning methods, we succeed to estimate the crack location and severity with high accuracy for both simulation and laboratory experiments. Regarding the location of the crack, which is the main goal of the practitioners, the errors are less than 0.6%. Based on these achievements, we concluded that the damage assessment we propose, in conjunction with the machine learning methods, is robust and reliable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0005.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: motivational mechanism; labor interests; personnel selection; adaptation and training; the structure of interests
Online: 2 December 2019 (04:46:36 CET)
The issue of actualization of labor interests as a motivational driver and one of the sources of labor productivity is little-studied in applied and organizational psychology. The study given in the paper fills some “blanks” of this problem. The leading approach to research is the motivational system proposed on the basis of theoretical analysis and the developed psychological model of labor interests. Using the methods of a special survey, questioning and interview guides, the analysis and comparative assessment of the labor interests of 50 candidates for the service manager position (entertainment and restaurant industry field) was conducted; as well as of 45 employees in this industry aged 18 to 25. The main results of the paper show the connection of labor interests with the company's personnel management system, namely with the processes of selection, adaptation, and training. It was revealed that the candidates selected for the service manager position were of primary group interest and financial incentive was secondary. At the same time, financial incentive contributed to the successful passage of the adaptation period. Occupational interests of employees depended on their education and job specifics. Career interests were influenced by the time spent with the company. The recommendations necessary for employers to create the conditions corresponding to the leading labor interests of employees were substantiated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0280.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: animal welfare; animal training; applied animal behavior; behavior analysis; behavioral engineering; environmental enrichment; zoos
Online: 15 November 2022 (07:20:08 CET)
The field of applied behavior analysis has been directly involved in both research and applications of behavioral principles to improve the lives of captive zoo animals. Thirty years ago, Forthman and Ogden (1992) wrote one of the first papers documenting some of these efforts. Since that time, considerable work has been done using behavioral principles and procedures to guide zoo welfare efforts. The current paper re-examines and updates Forthman and Ogden’s original points, with attention to the five categories they detailed: (1) promotion of species-typical behavior, (2) reintroduction and repatriation of endangered species, (3) animal handling, (4) pest control, and (5) animal performances. In addition, we outline three current and future directions for behavior analytic endeavors: (i) experimental analyses of behavior and the zoo, (ii) applied behavior analysis and the zoo, and (iii) within-subject methodology and the zoo. The goal is to provide a framework that can guide future behavioral research in zoos, as well as create applications based on these empirical evaluations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: obesity; high-intensity interval training; heart rate variability; inflammatory markers; insulin resistance; autonomic function
Online: 2 March 2022 (02:44:02 CET)
Obesity is linked to an inflammatory process, with adipocyte release triggering insulin resistance (IR) and autonomic imbalance. A cardiovagal trainning protocol has shown favorable results in autonomic balance and decrease of inflammatory markers. The aim of this study was to analyze the autonomic behavior related to inflammatory and metabolic parameters in obese people after a cardiovagal exercise protocol. Twenty people with obesity, were distributed by their HOMA-IR value: obese without IR (n/IR) (n=8) and obese with IR (y/IR) (n=12). The cardiovagal training program was carried out in both groups for 8 weeks at a frequency of 5 times per week. A blood sample was obtained to determine insulin, leptin, TNF alpha and IL6 levels, in addition to determining the HOMA-IR index and autonomic function was measured by heart rate variability. Changes were recorded in the OB-IR group, a decrease in inflammatory markers, glycemia and a reduction of sympathetic activity after the cardiovagal training intervention. In addition, significant differences between the y/IR and n/IR groups were shown in insulin, leptin, TNFa and IL6 values. It can be concluded that after 4 weeks of intervention with a cardiovagal trainning protocol, parasympathetic modulation increased and inflammatory markers decreased in obese subjects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0276.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: entrepreneurial university; entrepreneurship; faculties of education; self-perception; triple helix; third mission; teacher training.
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:03:53 CEST)
Universities have increasingly incorporated a third mission into their strategic planning. In addition to teaching and research, they have emphasised the training of entrepreneurs. However, there is still a lot of work to be done, as this process is facing resistance. The Entrepreneurial University covers all disciplines, including faculties of education. However, it has been shown that entrepreneurship tends to be more related to the faculties of economics and engineering, with a lesser presence in the faculties of education for various reasons: they consider entrepreneurship to be alien to their teaching role, there is a lack of entrepreneurial culture, and the objective of the Entrepreneurial University is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyse the level of entrepreneurship in Spanish faculties and schools of education. Forty deans and heads of education faculties in Spain took part in the survey. The results indicated a sufficient level of entrepreneurship; the dimensions related to active methodologies, and mission and strategy were the most developed, whereas entrepreneurship funding and entrepreneurship training for faculty employees were the least developed areas. Some deans noted that entrepreneurship was alien to their professional performance, although courses and good practices for the development of entrepreneurial initiative are gradually being implemented.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep Learning; Reducing Training Annotations per Image; Object Detection; Object Counting; Asymmetric Loss Function
Online: 15 January 2021 (15:44:51 CET)
Annotating training data is a time consuming and labor intensive process in deep learning, especially for images with many objects present. In this paper, we propose a method to allow deep networks to be trained on data with reduced numbers of annotations (per image) in heatmap regression tasks (e.g. object detection and counting), by applying an asymmetric loss function. In a real scenario, this reduction of annotations can be imposed by the researchers (e.g. ask the annotators to label only 50% of what they see in each image), or can potentially counteract unintentionally missing labels from the annotators. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, we conduct experiments in two domains, crowd counting and wheat spikelet detection, using different deep network architecture. We drop various percentages of instance annotations per image in training. Results show that an asymmetric loss function is effective across different models and datasets, even in very extreme cases with limited annotations provided (e.g. 90% of the original annotations reduced). Whilst tuning of the key parameters are required, we find that setting conservative parameter values can help more realistic situations, where only small amounts of data have been missed by annotators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0426.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Rubus; cultural practice; leaf removal; flowers; fruit; floricane; trellis; cane training; pruning; management strategy
Online: 18 September 2020 (10:02:57 CEST)
Primocane-fruiting (PF) blackberries are adaptable to different production systems. To increase yields in PF blackberries, their primocanes are typically tipped or topped in summer to encourage branch formation from axillary buds below the cut. In this study, we determined in PF ‘Prime-Ark Traveler’ whether early emerging primocanes were more productive than those that emerged later in the season and the effect of primocane bending and defoliation on flowering. The primocanes that emerged in April produced 64% more flower shoots than those that emerged after May. Also, these findings indicate the alternative primocane management practices of selecting the early emerging primocanes and bending to orient primocanes horizontally and leaf removal increase budbreak and flower shoot emergence. The present work contributes toward a better understanding of primocane emergence time and orientation-flowering relations and how they mediate crop performance in PF blackberry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0645.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Speech Emotion Recognition; Emotion AI; Self-Supervised Learning; Transfer Learning; Low Resource Training; wav2vec
Online: 28 August 2020 (15:05:37 CEST)
We propose a novel transfer learning method for speech emotion recognition allowing us to obtain promising results when only few training data is available. With as low as 125 examples per emotion class, we were able to reach a higher accuracy than a strong baseline trained on 8 times more data. Our method leverages knowledge contained in pre-trained speech representations extracted from models trained on a more general self-supervised task which doesn’t require human annotations, such as the wav2vec model. We provide detailed insights on the benefits of our approach by varying the training data size, which can help labeling teams to work more efficiently. We compare performance with other popular methods on the IEMOCAP dataset, a well-benchmarked dataset among the Speech Emotion Recognition (SER) research community. Furthermore, we demonstrate that results can be greatly improved by combining acoustic and linguistic knowledge from transfer learning. We align acoustic pre-trained representations with semantic representations from the BERT model through an attention-based recurrent neural network. Performance improves significantly when combining both modalities and scales with the amount of data. When trained on the full IEMOCAP dataset, we reach a new state-of-the-art of 73.9% unweighted accuracy (UA).
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Remote Sensing, Satellites, NOAA, CoastWatch, Oceanography, Training, Education, Operational Oceanography, ERDDAP, Value Added Provider
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:28:01 CEST)
Data from environmental satellites are underutilized in many branches of operational oceanography. Several challenges exist for potential users of satellite data that may impede or preclude employing satellite products in their work. Users outside of the satellite community often encounter difficulty in discovering the types of satellite measurements that are available, and determining which satellite products are best for operational activities. In addition, the large choice of satellite data providers, each with their own data access protocols and formats, can make data access confusing and inefficient. NOAA’s CoastWatch Program is designed to be a Value Added Provider, whose mission is to help make satellite data easier for users to access. With this objective the West Coast Node of CoastWatch developed the NOAA Ocean Satellite Course, which introduces scientists and resource managers to ocean satellite products, and provides them tools to facilitate data access when using ArcGIS or R software. These tools leverage upon the data services provided by ERDDAP, a data distribution system designed to make data access easier for both humans and machines. The course has been offered annually since 2006, and over 350 participants have taken it. Results of post-course surveys are analyzed to measure course effectiveness. Lessons learned from conducting these courses are summarized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: complementary and alternative medicine; integrative medicine; knowledge; training and education; psychology; mental health; qualitative
Online: 26 June 2019 (05:31:14 CEST)
Background and objectives: The inadequate knowledge of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among health professionals may put their clients in risky situation because they then would find information about CAM from unreliable sources. Clinical psychologists (CPs), as health professionals, have also the opportunity to provide psychoeducation on the latest CAM scientific research to their clients. The current study aimed to explore knowledge and educational needs of CAM among CPs in Indonesia because previous studies on exploring CAM knowledge and educational needs of CAM were primarily conducted in Western countries. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 43 CPs in public health centers (PHCs) in Indonesia. Most interviews were held at the PHCs where participants worked and interviews lasted for 55 minutes, on average. The interview recordings were transcribed and were analyzed using deductive thematic analysis. Results: Five main themes emerged within participants’ responses regarding CAM knowledge and educational needs. First (CAM understanding), participants’ responses ranged from those with little or no prior knowledge of CAM treatments and uses, to those with much greater familiarity. Second (source of knowledge), participants’ access ranged widely in terms of references, from popular to scientific literature. Third (why is it important?), participants identified CAM essentially as part of Indonesian culture and it was therefore crucial to have this cultural knowledge. Fourth (the challenges and what is needed?), the challenges for improving participants’ knowledge came from personal and institutional levels. Fifth (what and how to learn?), participants advised that only CAM treatments that fit in brief psychotherapy sessions should be introduced in professional training. Conclusions: This qualitative study discovered that CAM was neither well-known nor understood widely. Participants advised that professional associations and health institutions should work together in enhancing knowledge of CAM and incorporating CAM education into psychology education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0271.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: fungicides; insecticides; occupational health; personal protective equipment; poisoning; safety measures; training; integrated pest management
Online: 12 November 2018 (09:16:16 CET)
Misuse and poor handling of chemical pesticides in agriculture is hazardous to the health of farmers, consumers and the environment. We studied the pest and disease management practices and the type of pesticides used in four root, tuber and banana (RTB) crops in Burundi and Rwanda through in-depth interviews with a total of 811 smallholder farmers. No chemical pesticides were used in banana in either Rwanda and Burundi, whereas the use of insecticides and fungicides in potato is quite frequent. Nearly all insecticides and about one third of the fungicides used are moderately hazardous. Personal protective equipment is used by less than a half of the interviewed farmers in both countries. Reported cases of death due to self- or accidental poisoning among humans and domestic animals in the previous 12 months were substantial in both countries. Training of farmers and agrochemical retailers in safe use of pesticide and handling, and use of integrated pest management approaches to reduce pest and disease damage is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0379.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: surgical simulator training; individual performance trend; speed-accuracy function; automatic detection; performance feed-back
Online: 17 October 2018 (08:40:08 CEST)
Simulator training for image-guided surgical interventions may benefit from artificial intelligence systems that control the evolution of task skills in terms of time and precision of a trainee's performance on the basis of fully automatic feed-back systems. At the earliest stages of training, novice trainees frequently focus on getting faster at the task, and may thereby compromise the optimal evolution of the precision of their performance. For automatically guiding them towards attaining an optimal speed-accuracy trade-off, an effective control system for the reinforcement/correction of strategies must be able to exploit the right individual performance criteria in the right way, reliably detect individual performance trends at any given moment in time, and alert the trainee, as early as necessary, when to slow down and focus on precision, or when to focus on getting faster. This article addresses several aspects of this challenge for speed-accuracy controlled simulator training before any training on specific surgical tasks or clinical models should be envisaged. Analyses of individual learning curves from the simulator training sessions of novices and benchmark performance data of one expert surgeon, who had no specific training in the simulator task, validate the suggested approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0122.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: explainable artificial intelligence; hyperspectral image; thermal IR training; zero-shot learning; plant stress; early diagnosis
Online: 6 January 2023 (09:56:11 CET)
The work is devoted to the search for effective solutions to the applied problem of early diagnostics of plant stress in the conditions of smart farming and based on modern explicable artificial intelligence (XAI). The study mostly oriented on the theory and practice of XAI, focused on the use of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) and Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) sensor data at the input of a neural network. The first our goal is to build an XAI neural network, explainable due to its structure, the input of which is a datascientist oriented HSI 'explanator', and the output is a biologist oriented TIR 'explanator'. In the middle is SLP-regressor which solves the universal problem of training HSI pixels to temperatures of plants, needed for early plant stress diagnostic. The result can be considered as prototype of a special XAI explanator which is assigned to transform explanator specialized on area 1 onto explanator specialized on area 2. Using this HSI-TIR explanator we ensured the follows: extend HSI data by TIR attribute; providing TIR data for early diagnostic of plant stress; reducing dimensionality HSI needed for TIR training 25 times (from 204 to 8) preserving the same accuracy of temperature prediction (RMSE=0.2-0.3C). This reducing was achieved without using PCA methods. The constructed model is computationally efficient in training: the average training time is significantly less then 1 min (Intel Core i3-8130U, 2.2 GHz, 4 cores, 4 GB). One of the 8 channels, 820 nm, is the leader in correlation with TIR, what allows building local linear temperature prediction functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0240.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: body expression; self-concept; pre-service training; physical activity; physical education; COVID-19 pandemic; emotions
Online: 14 November 2022 (06:23:17 CET)
Body Expression (BE) has been defined in the past decades as a discipline within Physical Education (PE) with very particular characteristics and a strong emotional component. In this study, a programme of this discipline was applied to university Physical Activity and Sports Sciences (PASS) students from six consecutive academic years: three prior to and three during the pandemic. A pre-post design was used to determine how the BE programme affected the university students' self-concept (SC). To do so, a questionnaire with a multidimensional approach to this construct was administered, whose dimensions were closely related to the BE programme's characteristics. The results revealed significant improvements in the final SC, compared to the initial SC. Men reported lower SC values than women before the programme implementation, but higher at the end. Therefore, the change was larger in men, so the programme may have had an equalising effect between groups. It was also verified that the pandemic had particularly affected women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0507.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: sleep education; insomnia; training; circadian rhythms; behavioral sleep medicine, psychotherapy; dissemination; implementation science; mental health
Online: 30 August 2022 (05:07:56 CEST)
Despite the strong links between sleep, circadian rhythms, and mental health, sleep education has been neglected in mental healthcare provider training programs. The current pilot study examined the potential efficacy and acceptability of a sleep education workshop for trainee psychologists, called the Sleep Psychology Workshop. Eleven students completing their Master of Psychology degrees (90% female, 24.4 ± 1.6 years old) attended the Sleep Psychology Workshop as part of their Health Psychology course, delivered as three, two-hour lectures (total six hours). Trainees’ sleep psychology knowledge quiz scores (% correct) demonstrated significant improvement from pre- (M = 60%, SD = .09) to post-workshop (M = 79%, SD = .08), t (6) = -5.18, p = .002. Trainees also reported increased self-efficacy to use common sleep-related assessment instruments and empirically supported interventions to manage sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances, along with increased confidence to manage insomnia disorder in clinical practice (all p<.02). Trainees also endorsed the workshop as an acceptable sleep education program for trainee psychologists via a post-workshop feedback survey, focus group, and six-month follow-up survey. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence for the Sleep Psychology Workshop as an effective and acceptable sleep education program for trainee psychologists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0348.v1
Subject: Keywords: self-reproducing systems; life; adaptation reactions; activation; training; stress; health; memory; catabolic phase; anabolic phase
Online: 24 February 2020 (07:04:51 CET)
In the author's opinion, many global problems that face humanity - in the fields of education, medicine, management etc can be tackled more effectively if the cyclic nature of self-reproducing systems – including living beings – is taken into account. Summarizing the main physiological findings of the last decades on "adaptation reactions", one can very roughly say that the way of action which is effective in the sense of productive activity of people happens at the same time to be healthy, and it gives the participants of the process the feeling of happiness. The present paper represents a very short overview of the contemporary concepts of the adaptation reactions based on the fundamental understanding of their cyclic nature due to general properties of self-reproducing systems. One interesting feature of self-reproduction cycles is its first "phase of orientation" which was not discussed in detail in the past but plays a key role in the whole cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0208.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: surgical robotics; wearable force-sensor systems; grip-force profiling; surgical expertise; robot-assisted surgery training
Online: 18 September 2019 (13:07:40 CEST)
STRAS (Single access Transluminal Robotic Assistant for Surgeons) is a flexible robotic system based on the Anubis® platform of Karl Storz for application to intra-luminal surgical procedures. It consists of three cable-driven systems, one endoscope serving as guide and two inserted instruments. The flexible and bendable instruments have three degrees of freedom and can be teleoperated by a single user via two specially designed master interfaces. In this research, a pair of specific sensor gloves, which ergonomically fit to the master handles of the system was designed and the forces applied by one expert and one novice user during system-specific task execution in a simulator task (4-step-pick-and-drop) were compared. The results show that user expertise is not only reflected by shorter task execution times but also, more importantly, by specific differences in handgrip force profiles for specific sensor locations on anatomically relevant parts of the fingers and hand controlling the surgical instruments of the robotic master/slave system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0151.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: shelter medicine; animal sheltering; shelter surgery; veterinary medical education; veterinary student training; population medicine; biosecurity
Online: 24 October 2017 (03:47:43 CEST)
While referral-level medicine is important in the veterinary curriculum, students also need a solid base knowledge of clinically relevant routine surgery and diagnostic skills. Veterinary hospitals must maintain a steady caseload that provides wellness cases and commonly encountered conditions. Shelter Medicine programs can create the opportunities to meet these challenges. Students can gain quantifiable surgical experience in spay/neuter with measured growth in surgical efficiency and competency while providing needed community service for animal shelters. Students can directly interact with shelter animals by performing examinations, diagnostic testing, and development of treatment protocols and recommendations for commonly encountered problems. Furthermore, students can obtain a working knowledge of biosecurity on a population level to minimize risk of infectious diseases spreading to healthy populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0036.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: two-factor authentication; online training; biological and behavioral features; mimic control method with sound intensity
Online: 6 June 2017 (09:04:47 CEST)
This study examines the evolution of the two-factor authentication method and its adaptability to the online education system. Two-factor authentication is a security measure used especially in areas where information such as banking is valuable. Parallel to technological developments, it has developed as much as daily. It aims to take security one step forward because it is composed of two phases. Today, banking, IOT devices, public transport tickets and many other areas are used. Two-factor authentication methods against security attacks in the field of information are also being updated. In recent years, new technologies such as biometric (iris pattern, retinal pattern, etc.) or behavioral biometry (location tracking, walking information, touch speed etc.) were studied. Instead of physically studying somewhere like going to a course in modern society, online trainings become more advantageous. Most of these online trainings are given certificates such as participation certificate, success certificate, etc. The main problem here is whether the person who is being certified is true. In the study conducted in line with these details, there is a proposal for the application of the Mimic Control Method with Sound Intensity (MCMSI) method for on-line training by examining the two-factor authentication techniques up to the day.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0492.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Virtual Reality; Training; Autism; Social Skills; Social Cognition; Executive Functions; Accepta-bility; Usability; User Experience; Prompts
Online: 27 January 2023 (06:34:43 CET)
Poor social skills in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with reduced independence in daily life. Current interventions for improving the social skills of individuals with ASD fail to represent the complexity of real-life social settings and situations. Virtual reality (VR) may facilitate social skills training in social environments and situations proximal to real life, however, more research is needed for elucidating aspects such as the acceptability, usability, and user experience of VR systems in ASD. Twenty-five participants with ASD attended a neuropsychological evaluation and three sessions of VR social skills training, incorporating 5 social scenarios with three difficulty levels for each. Participants reported high acceptability, system usability, and user experience. Significant correlations were observed between performance in social scenarios, self-reports, and executive functions. Working memory and planning ability were significant predictors of functionality level in ASD and the VR system’s perceived usability respectively. Yet, performance in social scenarios was the best predictor of usability, acceptability, and functionality level in ASD. Planning ability substantially predicted performance in social scenarios, postulating an implication in social skills. Immersive VR social skills training appears effective in individuals with ASD, yet an error-less approach, which is adaptive to the individual’s needs, should be preferred.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0367.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: young people experiencing homelessness; disadvantaged youth; engagement; community-based research; positive youth development; mental skills training
Online: 22 August 2022 (03:25:19 CEST)
Underpinned by the new world Kirkpatrick model and in the context of a community-based, sport psychology program (My Strengths Training for Life™) for young people experiencing homelessness, this process evaluation investigated: (1) young peoples’ reactions (program and facilitator evaluation, enjoyment, attendance, and engagement) to and learning (mental skills and transfer intention), (2) the relationship between reaction and learning variables, and (3) the mediators underpinning this relationship. 301 young people living in a West Midlands housing service completed questionnaires on demographics, reaction and learning variables. Higher levels of program engagement were positively associated with more favorable reactions to the program. Enjoyment positively predicted learning outcomes, which was mediated by transfer intention. Recommendations are made for: (1) a balance between rigor and flexibility for evaluation methods with disadvantaged youth, (2) including engagement as well as attendance for indicators of meaningful program participation, (3) measuring program experiences (e.g., enjoyment) to understand program effectiveness, and (4) providing opportunities for skill transfer during and after program participation. Findings have implications for researchers, program commissioners, and policy makers working designing and evaluating programs in community-based settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Multi-function swing suspension training; Upper extremity function; Lower extremity function; Quality of life; Multiple sclerosis
Online: 1 July 2022 (07:59:06 CEST)
Background: Upper extremities’ function impairments (UEFI) and gait impairment are frequently reported even in the early stages of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) disease. These motor deficits can negatively affect the quality of life (QOL) in MS patient. Exercise has been repeatedly introduced as a beneficial adjuvant therapy for MS, attenuating a wide range of physical and psychological symptoms without any side effects or increased risks of relapse or exacerbation in disease symptoms.Aim: This paper investigates the effect of multi-function swing suspension training (MFSST) program on upper and lower extremities’ function (ULEF), and QOL in MS women according to expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score.Design: Experimental method with a pre-test and post-test design with control group. Setting: The department of Sports Injuries and Corrective Exercise at the Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman.Population: Forty-seven MS women.Methods: Eligible subjects who matched the selection criteria were randomly assigned into three groups as follow: i. Intervention group A (EDSS of 2 – 4), ii. Intervention group B (EDSS of 4.5 – 6.5), and iii. Control group (EDSS of 2 – 6.5). The intervention groups have been trained by the SET program for a duration of 8 weeks. At baseline and after the intervention, the upper extremities’ function (UEF) and the lower extremities’ function (LEF) were assessed by 9-hole peg test (9HPT) and the timed 25-foot walk (T25FW) test, respectively. Moreover, participants’ QOL was measured using the Short Form questionnaire (SF-36).Results: A significant difference was found between the pre-test and post-test variables of walking speed and upper extremity endurance in intervention groups, and between the intervention groups and control group (P < 0.05). Compared to control group, both intervention groups showed improvements in all subscales of QOL, except emotional role limitation score.Conclusions: In summary, these results show that the present protocol of MFSST could be effective in improving ULEF and QOL in MS patients, showing the improvements after 4th week. Moreover, this protocol was more useful for patients with an EDSS score of more than 4.5. Therefore, it seems that exercise therapy should be considered as a beneficial clinical intervention approach to improve ULEF and QOL in MS patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0316.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Bone fracture; Median sternotomy; Ossification; Rehabilitation; Functional mobility; Assistive device; Feedback training; Sternal precautions; Instrumented walker
Online: 21 October 2021 (22:50:25 CEST)
Patients often need the use of their arms to assist with functional activities, but after bone disruption, pushing is frequently limited to <10 lb (4.5 kg). No method exists to measure arm weight bearing objectively in clinical settings. This project aimed to design, construct, and test a walker for patients who need to limit arm force to prevent excessive bone stress during post-fracture (iatrogenic or traumatic) ossification. First, a qualitative study was conducted to obtain critiques of a Clinical Force Measuring (CFM) walker prototype from rehabilitation professionals. Key statements and phrases were coded that allowed “themes” to emerge from transcribed interviews, which guided device revisions. Next, a second CFM Walker prototype was designed based on the qualitative data and device criteria/constraints and finally tested. The result was fabrication of a new lightweight, streamlined, and cost-effective prototype walker with a simple visual display and auditory cue with upper limit alarms. Key features included attachments for medical equipment and thin film force-sensing resistors integrated into the walker handles that progressively activated 3 LEDs and a buzzer when force exceeded programmed thresholds. The innovative CFM Walker will help patients with restricted arm froce, especially elderly adults, recover safer and faster in the future.