REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0071.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Practices; traditional knowledge; agriculture; farmers; India
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:41:19 CEST)
The traditional Agriculture Knowledge is epic information, was created by the forefathers in the past civilizations. The forefathers practiced traditional agriculture information during Harappa civilizations, Vedic and Iron Age civilizations. The present Small and Marginal farmer utilizes traditional information in the crop production & management, crop protection, farm machinery & tools, soil & water management, medicinal & aromatic plants for diseases diagnosis, animal husbandry, stored grain pests’ management, weed management and value added food product and transfers in the youth. The utilizing traditional informations in the agriculture practices are collected from the different geographical states of India. The informations are practiced in the specific activities by the farmers. The farmer utilizes compositions of natural resource in the geographical states for the crop husbandry and farm linked activities. The traditional information is more practiced by the Southern and North-Eastern Geographical zone. The farmer applies specific informations in the crop production & management, crop protection, farm machinery & tools, soil & water management, medicinal & aromatic plants for diseases diagnosis, animal husbandry, stored grain pests’ management, weed management and value added food product. The farmer preserves and transfers the information in the rural community. The farmer transmits information in the present generation for creating mobilization. The traditional agriculture information transforms agriculture resources, maintains biodiversity ethics and enlightens historical and practical approaches to the present generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0089.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Availability hypothesis; Ethnobotany; Ex-situ Conservation; Kruger National Park; Sustainable Development of Traditional Knowledge; Traditional medicine
Online: 6 June 2022 (13:19:18 CEST)
In ethnobotany, the availability hypothesis predicts that plants that are abundant and easily accessible to people are more likely to be medicinal than not. By protecting species diversity away from people, protected areas (PAs) may act as a limiting factor to a sustainable development of traditional knowledge concerning medicinal uses, and in so doing, PAs provide opportunity to prioritize ex-situ conservation for species that are PAs restricted. In this scenario, ex-situ conservation becomes the only chance for people to develop traditional knowledge on plants which otherwise wouldn’t be documented as traditionally useful to people. To test these expectations, we used data collected for almost 20 years of fieldworks on plant medicinal uses and their abundance inside and outside the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We fitted four different scenarios of structural equation models (SEMs) to the data collected. We found that total plant abundance (abundance outside + inside KNP) is a significant positive predictor of medicinal status, and so is abundance outside KNP, thus supporting the availability hypothesis. However, not only abundance inside KNP is not a direct significant correlate of medicinal status, but also the relationship between both is negative. The lack of predictive power of inside-abundance is most likely because some species are exclusively found inside KNP, and local communities do not have access to them. It also shows that the positive and direct correlation of total abundance with medicinal status is driven by outside-abundance. In addition, the negative relationships between inside abundance and medicinal status implies that abundant plants inside KNP tend to be not-medicinal, further providing evidence that PAs hinder the development of medicinal knowledge. Furthermore, when inside and outside abundance were included simultaneously in a model as two distinct variables, inside abundance was never a direct significant predictor of medicinal status, but it was so, via an indirect path mediated by outside abundance. This suggests that outside abundance is the key variable driving the development of medicinal plant knowledge. Cumulatively, our findings suggest that anything that promotes the growth of PA-restricted plants beyond the natural realized niches of these plants (ex-situ conservation) such as in botanical gardens, private gardens, in agroforestry systems, etc., is to be promoted so that people-plant interactions may continue for the benefits of ethnobotanical knowledge development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0391.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; Ethnobotany; Human Health; Poverty; Traditional Knowledge; Sustainable Agriculture
Online: 20 January 2021 (11:04:41 CET)
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) envisaged under Agenda 2030 are a set of seventeen goals which envisage a holistic approach towards attaining certain targets keeping humankind and the planet at center. There are total 169 targets spread across seventeen goals covering wide ranging issues and challenges the world is facing in the twenty-first century. And they are to be achieved by 2030. Concerted efforts of all the stakeholders ranging from indigenous communities, common citizens, scientists, policy makers, world leaders are needed to achieve all the goals and targets Of the seventeen goals, at least seven goals are of interest to the ethnobotanists and are associated with traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. Therefore to achieve those set of goals, a thorough understanding is required to disentangle the intricacies involving traditional ethnobotanical knowledge, indigenous people as traditional knowledge holders and their future role. Understanding relationships between traditional ethnobotanical knowledge and indigenous communities, seeking cooperation from and establishing partnerships with them would help us design policies to achieve intended outcomes of SDGs. In this paper, particular attention is attracted towards the potential role of traditional ethnobotanical knowledge in achieving select sustainable development goals and targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0043.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: ethnobotany; traditional ecological knowledge; Waorani; indigenous communities; Ecuadorian Amazon; medicinal plants; loss of knowledge; globalization; global change; acculturation; socio-cultural changes
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:59:53 CEST)
This paper explores how the medicinal plant knowledge of the Waorani indigenous society in Ecuador varies in accordance with both socio-economic and demographic factors. Medicinal plant knowledge was compared at both individual and community levels. Fifty-nine semi-structured interviews (men n = 30, women n = 29) were performed with people between fifteen and seventy years old in five Waorani communities located within the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. Results show a positive correlation between an individual’s medicinal plant knowledge and age, a negative correlation between medicinal plant knowledge and the years of schooling, and differences among isolated and easily accessible communities. Reasons behind these findings are seen in the rapid socio-cultural changes of the Waorani society due to globalization processes. Increased accessibility to health centers, improved transportation infrastructure and changes in how knowledge is transmitted to young people all result in a loss of ethnobotanical knowledge. Policymakers need to take action in order to ensure the maintenance of ethnoecological knowledge among the Waorani.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0041.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: human ecological footprint; traditional ecological knowledge; biocultural restoration; social-ecological system; Hawaiian islands
Online: 2 August 2018 (08:55:49 CEST)
Pre-Western contact Hawaiʻi stands as a quintessential sustainability example of a large human population that practiced intensive agriculture, yet minimally displaced native habitats that comprised the foundation of its vitality. An explicit geospatial footprint of human-transformed areas across the pre-contact Hawaiian archipelago comprised less than 15% of total land area, yet provided 100% of human needs, supporting a thriving Polynesian society. A post-contact history of disruption of traditional Hawaiian land-use and its supplanting by Western land tenure and agriculture based on ranching, sugarcane, and pineapple, culminated in a landscape, in which over 50% of native habitats have been lost, while self-sufficiency has plummeted to 15% or less. Recapturing the ʻāina momona (productive lands) of ancient times can be accomplished through study of pre-contact agriculture, assessment of biological and ecological changes imposed on Hawaiian social-ecological systems, and conscious planned efforts to increase self-sufficiency and reduce importation. Impediments include the current tourism-based economy, competition from habitat-modifying introduced species, a suite of agricultural pests severely limiting traditional agriculture, and changes in climate rendering some pre-contact agricultural centers suboptimal. Modified agricultural methods will be required to counteract these limitations, and diversified agriculture to broaden the production base, without contributing to further degradation of native habitats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0414.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: ethnobotanical indices; ethnobotanical uses; native and exotic species; local community; semi-structured interviews; natural resources in mountains areas; traditional knowledge and manage-ment; ornamental plants
Online: 24 August 2022 (05:51:58 CEST)
Iturbide is located in the Northeast of Mexico, it has a rich native and exotic flora, however, there are no ethnobotanical records, therefore, it requires attention in the documentation of traditional practices and uses of its botanical resources. In 2021, twelve field trips were carried out, applying 110 semi-structured interviews. Plant samples were collected, identified and deposited in an herbarium. We used the Chi-square test to compare ethnobotanical uses with respect to others reported in Mexico. To determine the cultural importance, three ethnobotanical indices were applied (UVI, ICF and FL). We recorded 250 species with ethnobotanical uses associated with 121 genera and 83 families, including 140 native and 110 exotic species. The most common plant families were Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Fabaceae. The main uses were ornamental, medicinal and food. The species with the highest UVI values were Lepidium peruvianum, Ocimum basilicum and Rosmarinus officinale. The multifunctionality of the native and exotic flora demonstrates the extensive knowledge associated with botanical resources. Examples, the role of ornamental plants, with a direct impact on human well-being, the resilience of healers and traditional inhabitants by using different species for the treatment of various ailments. or indigenous edible plants in the daily diet.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0502.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Superstition; Scientific knowledge; Conflict; Traditional healers
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:11:54 CET)
Superstition is a belief that is not based on scientific knowledge. Traditional healers usually use superstition in their practices to manage human health problems and diseases; such practices create a conflict with the medical profession and its evidence-based practices. Medical professionals confirm that this kind of practice is not safe to human health as it is done by untrained people (e.g., tradition healers) utilizing unsterilized instruments within unhygienic environments. Most of the cases eventually develop a variety of complications, which are sometimes fatal. Female genital mutilation, uvulectomy, oral mutilation (tooth bud extraction to cure “Ibyinyo”), and eyebrow incisions are examples of the many different types of superstitious practices which occur commonly in different parts of the world. We described how these traditional practices of superstition have been and continue to be performed in various parts of the world, their complications on oral and general health, and the ways such practices hinder modern medical practices. This paper aims to increase the awareness of these superstition-driven traditional and potentially harmful practices by promoting the importance of evidence-based medical practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0242.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: diseases; ethnomedicine; Suryabinayak Municipality; traditional knowledge
Online: 10 August 2020 (08:05:53 CEST)
Ethnomedicine refers to the use of medicinal plants by a society, ethnic group or tribe for health benefits and for the prevention, treatment, and cure of different ailments. The healthy relationship between plants and humans has been continuing since the start of human civilization. The present study aims to document the medicinal information about plants used by ethnic people in different wards of Suryabinyak Municipality, Bhaktapur district, to conserve and utilize the traditional knowledge. Ethnomedicinal data were collected by a Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) method such as door to door surveys, direct observation. Individual interviews, field visits, and a questionnaire survey with the guidance of key informants. The present study has documented 107 medicinal plant species under 60 families which are used for prevention and treatment of 39 different diseases like Jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery, and cancer and 46 distinct health benefits like cough, cold, anti-bleeding, stomachache, diarrhea, fever, blood pressure, fracture, toothache, etc. Suryabinayak Municipality has a rich diversity in culture, ethnic groups, and medicinal plants, along with a wide geographic and climatic condition. However, with modernization, urbanization, deforestation, and increasing residential areas, the occurrence and use of medicinal plants have been diminished. Thus, documentation of this research is vital for further pharmaceutical research and enhancement and preservation of traditional knowledge of local people living in Suryabinayak Municipality and Nepal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0029.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Theory Of Art Keywords: functions; contexts; traditional pottery; northern; Ghana
Online: 5 March 2018 (04:00:32 CET)
The aim of this paper is to identify and document some functions and contextsof traditional pottery within northern Ghana. The descriptive approach of the qualitative research methodology was employed. Interview and observation methods were employed as the data collection methods. They were used to ascertain reasons why some potteryare engaged in certain contexts andfor certainfunctions. The data was tabulated to include the traditional name of the pot, the function and the context. The data were then analyzed and the indications were that, the potters make interesting forms of traditional pottery for different purposes; and the local name given to each pot perfectly defines their functions and contexts within northern Ghana. On the flipside of the coin, the function and context of every pot can also be dictated by its end user. Base on this, the researchers were able to discover some functions and contexts of the indigenous pottery which were put into some groups. On the first hand, the researchers classified the functions into five groups of purpose. These included: domestic purposes, religious purposes, agricultural purposes, rites of passage purposes and traditional herbal medicinal purposes. On other hand, seven groups of contexts were also discovered at the time of the study. These included: courtyards, bedrooms, bathrooms, graveyards, kitchens, shrines, and hencoops as places where these pots can be found among the people of the Northern Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0541.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Traditional practitioners; maternal health; roles; challenges; rural
Online: 31 August 2022 (08:59:55 CEST)
Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) are considered as the entry level of care in African societies and play an important role in the delivery of health services to the population. A phenomenological qualitative study was carried out among pur-posefully selected THPs in Mthatha to understand their roles and the challenges they face in providing maternal health services. The study included a focus group discussion with seven participants, which yielded three themes and seven sub-themes. The content analysis of descriptive data from the focus group discussion revealed threats posed by unregistered and counterfeit THPs to the lives of pregnant women in rural settings. THPs' wide range of services allowed pregnant women to receive prenatal, antenatal, and postnatal care in close proximity. This level of care, however, was characterized by high levels of secrecy and counterfeit practitioners who used human body parts, which jeopardized the practice and made it unpopular. Traditional health practice must be protected through registration of THPs and the establishment of functional referral pathways between THPs and conventional health services.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0020.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Ehretia laevis; Pharmacological Activities; Phytochemistry; Traditional Use
Online: 4 May 2021 (13:59:18 CEST)
Ehretia laevis Roxb. (Boraginaceae) has been extensively used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of a diverse range of ailments related to the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive system, and against several infections. This review critically assesses and documents, for the ﬁrst time, the fragmented information on E. laevis, including its botanical description, folklore uses, bioactive phytometabolites and pharmacological activities. The goal is to explore this plant therapeutically. Ethnomedicinal surveys reveal that E. laevis has been used by tribal communities in Asian countries for the treatment of various disorders. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemical investigations of E. laevis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as pentacyclic triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, fatty acids, steroids, alkaloids, aliphatic alcohols, hydrocarbons, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Fresh plant parts, crude extracts, fractions and isolated compounds have been reported to exhibit broad spectrum of therapeutic activities viz., antioxidant, antiarthritic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, wound healing and anti-infective activities. E. laevis is shown to be an excellent potential source of drugs for the mitigation of jaundice, asthma, dysentery, ulcers, diarrhea, ringworm, eczema, diabetes, fissure, syphilis, cuts and wounds, inflammation, liver problems, venereal and infectious disorders. Although few investigations authenticated its traditional uses but employed uncharacterized crude extracts of the plant, the major concerns raised are reproducibility of therapeutic efficacy and safety of plant material. The outcomes of limited pharmacological screening and reported bioactive compounds of E. laevis suggest that there is an urgent need for in-depth pharmacological investigations of the plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0243.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Traditional settlement; Vernacular architecture; Manipuri Community; Sylhet
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:13:56 CET)
This study intends to study a distinct typology of vernacular architecture built by the Manipuri communities of Bangladesh. The Manipuris are one of the ethnic diasporic communities in Bangladesh commonly known for their diverse cultural practice, including their dance form. This research aims to reveal the cultural entity of Manipuri that has been transformed into their living environment and household architecture. Architectural elements adapted by the Manipuris are assessed here as a part of cultural symbols to have a rigorous view of the philosophy of living. This study is a documentation of Manipuri habitat culture through the intervention of their living environment, which will attract any future working on this issue. This research shows that despite a rapid socio-economic change of context, the Manipuri housing practice is deeply connected to their socio-cultural and religious values. As the authors used an observational and ethnographical approach to studying vernacular architecture for this research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0043.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: traditional; local; consumer behavior; principal component analysis
Online: 8 January 2018 (04:17:29 CET)
This study assesses attitudes of young adults' (18-30 years old) consumption on local and traditional products in7 European countries. A clustered sample (n=836) from natives of Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Denmark and France was collected, by distributing questionnaires through social media and university mail services. Sample was examined by implementing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in three different samples; overall and two subgroups, Eastern and Western European countries. Six major factors revealed: consumer behavior, health issues, cost, influence from media and close environment and availability on store. As a result, young adults have a positive attitude to local and traditional food products but they express insecurity for health issues. Cost factor influences less people from Eastern European countries than those from the overall sample (3rd and 5th factor accordingly). Influence of close environment is a different factor in Eastern countries comparing to Western ones that it common with influence from media. Females and older people (25-30 years old) doubt less about TFPs, while media have high influence on consumers’ decisions. Aim of this survey is to create consumer profiles of young adults and create different promotion strategies of local and traditional products among the two groups of countries.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Governance; Livelihoods; Natural Resources; Resilience; Traditional Systems; Pastoralism
Online: 18 March 2021 (13:15:35 CET)
Kenya’s natural resource base has dwindled over years. The existence of many natural resource policies, some that are incompatible, has resulted in complex rangeland management regimes, giving rise to fragmented interventions and inadequate natural resource policies in relation to pastoralism. The majority of pastoral land resources held under a controlled access system by the national government that regulates management and utilization of resources. Pastoralists in Kenya have become among the most marginalized and disadvantaged minority groups. This is due to limited or under investment by government and other actors, and access to, or ownership of land, water and other resources, which are fundamental for pastoralism. This study examines significant obstacles for the establishment of a more inclusive ‘governance’ approach to natural resource management in northern Kenya, that characterize the customary Boran knowledge such as Deedha’s (traditional grazing unit) and formal institutions and seeks to address the tension between them through a legal framework that accommodates both. The results of the study established existence of the traditional structures and institutions in governance of natural resources within the pastoralist communities in Isiolo County. These institutions have evolved to cope with changing dynamics brought about by formalization of the natural resources governance. The resulted showed that various formal institutions from national government agencies to county government department were involved in management of the natural resources. However, the study established various operational divergence and links between informal and formal institutions involved in natural resources management. The study concluded that both informal institution such as Deedha and formal institutions constituted by national and county government did governance of natural resources among pastoralist communities in Isiolo County. The communities however have more trust in the informal structures and institutions because of their flexibility and inclusiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0132.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: rachis; traditional; post shooting approach; economic production; demand
Online: 11 April 2019 (05:41:39 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Due to huge demand and availability of Banana, innovative cost effective method is necessary to promote and smoothen the banana production among farmers commercially mitigating the demand. Method and Materials: In this study, we feed cow dung mixture along with Urea, TSP, MoP, water to the distal part of rachis after cutting down male bud as soon as the female flowers matured into fruits (T1). The effect of this method was then compared with two control groups; one with the same strategy except fertilizer applied on root following ring method (C1, Positive control) and another was male flower untouched without applying fertilizer on rachis or root (C2, Negative control). Results and Conclusion: T1 showed more than double increase in length than controls. In the same way, in case of shape (diameter), T1 (0.46 cm) showed twice as better growth in the C1 (0.22 cm) and C2 (0.18 cm). Trend analysis showed the test group T1 curve is much steeper than the control groups suggesting faster growth rate than the other two. Finally, the cost of fertilizers for T1 per plant was estimated 0.091 USD while for positive control C1 it was 2.9 USD. This study shows an approach to be effective and economic comparing to traditional method of fertilizer application, which can be adapted as a new method of banana production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0044.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: etymological values, traditional knowledge, classification, custodians, Sphenostysis stenocarpa
Online: 4 March 2019 (13:35:27 CET)
Folk nomenclature is habitually established for species that have attained high utilitarian and cultural significance by custodians of such plants worldwide. Such folk names assigned to species often carry etymological values such as therapeutic effects, morphological features, mythical connotations, and their allegorical values. This research sought to unveil the etymology in folk nomenclatures of Sphenostysis stenocarpa (Hosch ex A. Rich) Harms (African Yam Bean). Three hundred and fifty respondents were randomly selected from 13 local communities in Ebonyi State in South-eastern, Nigeria. Data were collected through oral interviews with semi-structural questionnaires, along with focused group discussions. Analysis of data was carried out using simple statistical methods involving frequencies and percentages. The results recorded ten folk nomenclatures assigned to this species in seven dialects affiliated to cultural values within these communities. Etymologically, the results also revealed that out of the ten folk names of AYB cryptic connotations, five reflected their trust in the gods that answered their prayers, two were attributed to the healing potentials inherent in this crop for medicine, three names were associated with the seeds, while one referred to feminist attachment to the crop, another to its resilience/ adaptability to climatic stress and one as a sustainer of farmers. Considering that folk nomenclature is based mainly on qualitative data and the information outside the scientific domain, they are nonetheless highly valued because they are based on long-term interactions, utilization and observations of the custodians of these natural resources. However, these data are equally vulnerable to erosion if not properly documented and conserved for posterity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0365.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Traditional; Communication; Media; Rural; Information Service Delivery; Adolescent
Online: 19 July 2018 (15:25:56 CEST)
This research work examined the various communication media used in the rural areas for the purpose of conveying messages to Adolescents in the selected communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria - Woji, Rumuigbo, Rumuola, Rumuokwuta and Elelenwo communities. The Taro Yammane Statistical formula for determination of sample size was used in drawing a sample of 363 respondents from a population of 3,630 Adolescents. The simple random sampling method was used in the distribution of the questionnaire to target respondents in the selected communities. Two hundred and eighty two (282) copies of the questionnaire were returned valid, and data from them was analysed and interpreted with the use of frequency tables and percentages. The result shows that traditional communication media is still relevant in the dissemination of information to rural dwellers in general and to Adolescents in particular. The agencies that make use of these media are; village authority, age groups, etc. The research work recommend among others that the government and rural dwellers should hold our traditional and cultural values in high esteem through the use of these media, harmonizing the use of traditional communication media and modern media for effective rural information service delivery.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: medicinal plants; traditional knowledge; Himalayas; mountain plants; ethnobotany
Online: 29 November 2016 (06:35:45 CET)
The Himalaya is well known for high diversity and ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants. However, not all areas of the Himalayas are well studied. In particular, studies on ethnobotanical uses of plants from the Eastern Himalayas are rare and lacking for many tribes. Past studies primarily focused on listing plants name and their traditional medicinal uses. However, studies on traditional ethnopharmacological practices on medicine preparation had not yet been reported in published literature from the Eastern Himalaya. In this study, we are reporting the first time ethnopharmacological used 24 medicines, their procedures of preparation and listed 53 plant species used for those medicines for Monpa tribe. Such documentations had not yet been done for other tribes in India. Our research demonstrates the urgent need to documents traditional medicine preparation procedures from the local healers before rapid cultural modernization forgets them in transforming country like India. This study should motivate national and international researchers to do more works on ethnopharmacology and bioprospecting.
Online: 24 August 2021 (14:11:16 CEST)
This paper discusses the bioethics of intellectual property (IP) and intellectual property rights (IPR) applicable to biotechnology-based IP. It outlines some of the laws that are related to IPR in Zimbabwe and globally. The paper additionally highlights gaps, opportunities and concerns with the laws. Finally, the paper highlights some initiatives already underway in Zimbabwe targeted at promoting entrepreneurship, commercialization and industrialization while proposing strategies that can be used to further promote the generation and granting of biotechnology-related IP and IPR in Zimbabwe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0524.v1
Online: 21 June 2021 (15:46:22 CEST)
The article reviews Iranian sports in three periods: prehistoric, ancient, and modern. In prehistoric times, remaining cases have shown the existence of movement activities based on recreational and religious ceremonies. In the period of ancient history, documents such as Hasanlu Golden Cup and Arjan Cup, and in the continuation of architectures leftover from different eras, refer to the prosperity of sports activities with different approaches. Among all kinds of activities, Iranian zoorkhaneh sport has a significant cultural background and effect. Modern sports entered Iran through embassies, oil contractors, Western-educated students, and military representatives in other countries (in the modern era). Iran became a member of the International Olympic Committee in 1947 and won its first Olympic medal in 1948. Entering the 21st century, the sports industry in Iran began to grow and the number of clubs, sports careers, and sports science students in universities increased significantly. The growing dimension of attention and interest in sports among Iranians shows that sports will be one of the main areas in Iran's development in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0576.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria; Traditional fermented milk; Isolation; Identification. characterization
Online: 24 March 2021 (09:58:43 CET)
Fermented milk product "Laban" in Libya is one of the most a traditional fermented milk product consumed a refreshing drink, particularly in the warm season The average values of the physicochemical including titratable acidity, pH, total solids, and fat were 0.73%, 4.16, 8.12%, and 1.54% respectively. Coliform, yeast and mold counts were 21×10⁴, 39×10⁴, and 41 ×10³ cfu/ ml., respectively. Most strains of coliform bacteria were Serratia odorifera, Escherichia coli 1, E. coli 2. and Klebsiella oxytoca. The average Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Mesophilic Lactobacillus / Leuconostoc and Thermophilic Lactobacillus counts were 99 ×10⁷, 96 ×10⁷, 93 ×10⁷ and 15 ×10⁷ cfu / ml. respectively. A total of 142 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were identified to the genus level as Lactobacillus (48.59%), Lactococcus (43.66%), Streptococcus (4.93%) and Leuconostoc (2.82%). Sugar fermentation tests revealed the most frequent Lactobacillus species found to be Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis (62.32%), followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (31.88%). Furthermore, other selected LAB isolates were identified by API 50 CH test as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactics, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris. Thus, our research documented the lactic acid bacteria strains and will provides fundamental basic and useful information for further studies of strain selection starter culture, with regard to the industrial production of fermented dairy milk products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Cortex Periplocae; traditional Chinese medicines; periplocin; phytochemistry; biological activities
Online: 8 December 2016 (10:24:43 CET)
Cortex Periplocae, as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used for autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. Due to its potential pharmaceutical values, more studies about the biological activities of Cortex Periplocae have been conducted recently. Meanwhile, the adverse reaction of Cortex Periplocae is not a negligible problem in clinic. In this article, we reviewed a series of articles and summarized the recent studies of Cortex Periplocae in the areas of phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 100 constituents have been isolated and identified from Cortex Periplocae, including steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and fatty acid compounds. The crude extracts of Cortex Periplocae and its active compounds exhibit various biological activities, such as cardiotonic effect, anticancer action, and anti-inflammatory effect. This paper aims to provide an overall review on the bioactive ingredients, pharmacological effect, and toxicity of this plant. Furthermore, this review suggests investigating and developing new clinical usages according to the above pharmacological effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr.) Choisy; Traditional medicines; Phytochemistry; Biological activity; Pharmacology
Online: 3 March 2021 (11:46:16 CET)
Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr.) Choisy is a robust woody climbing shrub of the genus Rivea which is found in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand. R. hypocrateriformis is a promising medicinal herb with enormous helpful and wellbeing advancing impacts. R. hypocrateriformis has been utilized as a customary medication for a long time to treat rheumatic pain, fever, urogenital problem, snake bite, cough, piles, malaria, and skin disease. Apart from the traditional uses its leaves and young shoots are cooked and eaten as a vegetable and for preparation of bread with millet flour. This review comprehensively summarizes the up-to-date information on the botanical characterization, distribution, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicity study of R. hypocrateriformis. Phytochemical investigation has been revealed that alkaloids, glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, xanthones, stilbenes, and other organic compounds are contained in R. hypocrateriformis. Crude extracts and isolated compounds have exhibited numerous pharmacological activities such as anovulatory effect, antifertility activity, antiarthritic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antilithiatic, antimitotic. R. hypocrateriformis is a promising restorative spice with monstrous remedial and wellbeing advancing impacts. Along these lines, further investigations on the bioactive mixtures and systems of R. hypocrateriformis are justified. Extra clinical and toxicological examinations are expected to assess its wellbeing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0272.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Apiaceae plant; Traditional use; Phytochemistry; Bolting and flowering; Controlling approach; Lignification
Online: 15 December 2022 (07:18:54 CET)
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Apiaceae plants have been widely used as traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) for the treatment of removing dampness to relieve pain, relaxing tendons, and activating blood, as well as relieving superficies and dispelling cold. Aim of the review: This review aims to summarize the traditional use, phytochemistry, and modern pharmacological use of Apiaceae medicinal plants (AMPs), highlight the effect of bolting and flowering (BF) on yield and quality, and provide a basis for controlling the BF. Materials and methods: All literatures involved in AMPs were searched using various online databases (e.g., PubMed, Web of science, Google Scholar, Springer, and CNKI). Additional information was collected from ethnobotanical literature focusing on herbs from Flora of China and local herbal classic literature. Result: A total of 228 AMPs have been recorded to be used as TCMs, with 6 medicinal parts (i.e., the whole plants, rhizomes and/or roots, stems, leaves, fruits, and seeds) categorized, 72 traditional uses (e.g., relieving pain, dispelling wind, and eliminating dampness) enriched, 62 modern pharmacological uses (e.g., anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antitumor activities) enriched, and 5 main kinds of metabolites (i.e., polysaccharides, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and terpenoids) categorized. Based on the influence level of BF on the yield and quality, 38 rhizomatous AMPs are categorized into 3 classes including: significantly affected, differently affected to some extent, and no significantly affected. Although the mechanism of BF inducing the rhizome lignification has been revealed to some extent, and several attempts have been made to control the BF, especially in Angelica sinensis, the problem of BF has not been solved in the practical production. Conclusions: So far, the traditional use of the 228 AMPs has been recorded, while the phytochemistry and modern pharmacological researches are still limited, thus, it is a treasure to find out new therapeutic agents. Since the BF regulated by internal factors and external factors have been demonstrated, and several key genes involved in BF have been identified, thus, it is available to control the BF by planting with standard techniques and innovating new cultivars using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system. This review will provide useful references for the exploration and utilization, as well as the improvement of yield and quality of AMPs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0041.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Amaryllidaceae alkaloids; Biological activities; Traditional medicines; Yellow rain lily; Zephyranthes citrine
Online: 5 May 2022 (12:41:44 CEST)
Zephyranthes citrina Baker is a bulbous herb, commonly known as yellow rain lily belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae. It is a native of tropical and subtropical America but nowadays it is cultivated as a popular ornamental herb in several parts of the world including India. This herb represents one of the richest sources of phytochemicals, especially alkaloids and possesses great potential for pharmaceutical applications. It shows remarkable antiprotozoal, antimicrobial, anti-Alzheimer, cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and dye removal activities. This review is an effort to give a detailed study of the literature on the biological activities of Zephyranthes citrina. This review concludes that Zephyranthes citrina has a great potential to treat various diseases and could be used as a source for novel healthcare products in the near future, which requires further experimentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0454.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: gastronomy; livelihood; public healthcare; traditional knowledge; wild food plants; tribal belt
Online: 19 September 2020 (10:05:21 CEST)
The tribal belt of Pakistan-the Pak-Afghan border region is famous for its unique culture, ethnography and wild food plants and traditional knowledge. People of these regions gather wild plants for number of purposes including plants or plant parts for direct use, use it in the traditional cuisines and selling in local markets. However, there is huge lack of documentation of food system particularly the Wild Food Plants (WFPs). In current study we have focused on the uses and contributions of the WFPs in the tribal traditional food system. The ethnobotanical data were gathered through questionnaire surveys with Eighty-four informants 69 men and 15 women belonging to 21 different villages. We documented Sixty-three WFP species belonging to 34 botanical families, of which 27 were used as vegetables, 24 as fruits, 6 in different kinds of chutneys (starters) formation and six as fresh food species. Fruits were the mostly used part (40%) followed by leaves (24%), aerial parts (24%), seeds (7%), stem (3%), legume (2%) and young inflorescence (1%). Use of Carthamus oxycanthus & Pinus roxburghii seeds and Marsillea quadrifolia leaves were the novel reports for the gastronomy of Pakistan. The results elucidate that WFPs have a significant contribution in the Tribal Food Systems. Tribal people use WFPs not only due to their nutritional importance but also as a cultural practice - an inseparable component of the tribal communities. This important traditional Knowledge about the consumption of WFPs has been eroding with an alarming speed among the younger generations due to introduction of fast food chains, modernization, and globalization. Therefore, appropriates strategies are imperative not only to safeguard traditional knowledge but also the cultural heritage, food security and hence public healthcare via food supplement in the region.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: traditional korean medicine; hippocampus; neuronal cell death; oxidative stress; medicinal herbs
Online: 10 November 2019 (14:53:14 CET)
Incident rates of neurodegenerative diseases have steadily increased globally, but there is no therapeutic access available. We newly prescribed medicinal herbal remedy including five different herbal plants called, Chen-Ma-Dan-Sam-Ga-Mi-Bang (CMST), purposed to prove for pharmacological properties and corresponded actions on hippocampus neuronal cell injury by hypoxia-induced mice model. Mice were adapted to normoxia or hypoxia with or without CMST for 5 days. We gathered pharmacological effects of CMST on cell injury by enhancement of dihydroethidium and 4-hydroxynonenal signals which were correlated with abnormal redox status in the protein or gene expression levels (abnormal elevations of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and deteriorations of total glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, and activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase) due to hypoxia. CMST also notably exerted to attenuates molecules for neuronal cell injury markers such as p-tau, cleaved caspase-3 due to DNA oxidations (53bp1and phosphor-histone H2AX), inflammatory cytokines, and hemeoxigenase-1. We further figured out the underlying actions of CMST by in vitro experiment through inactivation of microglial cell which can mediate neuronal cell injury. Collectively, CMST prevented from hippocampal neuronal cells via inactivation of microglial cell with normalization of redox status on hypoxia-induced hippocampus neuronal cell injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0541.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Cameroon, agency; community; cultural assets; empowerment; relational networking; infrastructure; traditional authority
Online: 27 July 2018 (14:00:24 CEST)
Utilizing relational networking and cultural assets provide an arena for village development associations (VDAs) to fill the gaps in infrastructure in resource limited communities of Cameroon’s north-western region. Through case study, this study interrogates the foundational thesis of relational networking and cultural assets deployed to deal with social development challenges. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with community participants. Purposive sampling was used, and data were analysed and critically synthesized with comparable literature. Communities increasingly shoulder their own development through a multiplicity of agency with internal and external stakeholders. The analysis captures a typology of incremental cultural assets, galvanised and re-engineered, promoting a rejuvenated community. A multi-layered approach centred on intersecting elements with unvarying input from community members are perceptible. Though the translational benefits are not clear-cut, relational networking and incremental cultural assets hold out the prospect for community transformation in infrastructure provision - supply of fresh water, equipping schools, community halls, building roads, bridges and community halls. In the process, social inequality and other barriers of disadvantage are narrowed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0198.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: local perceptions; chimpanzees; conservation; natural resources; human-chimpanzees conflict; traditional beliefs
Online: 29 December 2017 (08:00:35 CET)
The objective is to study the local perceptions on the conservation of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Réserve Naturelle Communautaire de Dindéfélo (RNCD), southeast of Senegal, to design specific actions to improve conservation management. We conducted 338 semi-structured interviews in three main villages of RNCD. Three-fourths of the population were farmers. Of those interviewed, 29% received elementary education. Two of the three villages participated in a project to plant trees as fences. On average, 66% of the respondents were animists. Of the respondents who were afraid to see a chimpanzee, 68% answered because they attack. Seventy-seven percent washed their clothes in the forest river because there was more water than in the village wells. Of the interviewees who threw the old clothes into the forest, 50% did it due to tradition. Ninety-six percent of respondents stated that chimpanzees do not feed from their crops. The main problems of the locals with the Reserve were lack of water and basic resources and not been allow to cut trees in protected areas. There were significant relationships between education (1 relationship), environmental project (4 relationships) and animism (11 relationships) with local perceptions. The 93% of the respondents who had the traditional belief that “if the old clothes were burnt, children would become sick” feel fear of chimpanzees, while those who did not have this animistic belief the 6% are afraid (χ2 = 1.57, P < 0.02). These local perceptions allow us to design specific course of action to improve chimpanzee conservation and sustainable coexistence in this complex period of the Anthropocene.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0422.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Rainforest; recovery; indicators; logging; grassland; shifting cultivation; forestry; national parks; traditional rights
Online: 20 August 2021 (19:02:09 CEST)
Recovery of forest after logging can be tested in many ways: the presence of particular species of fauna or flora, the similarity of the biodiversity of the recovering forest to that on neighbouring areas of undisturbed forest; or the characteristics of soils and streams whose conditions may have drastically changed during logging. Three cases of rainforest recovery after logging and clearance from Australia and Borneo exhibit different starting and different goals for recovery. Faunal indicators of recovery vary with size and with species dependence of the rainforest. Endemic forest species may have difficulty in recovering. Tree species richness and abundance may recover in two decades, but canopy closure takes longer. Compacted soils may retain low infiltration capacities for many decades. This diversity in recovery rates is confirmed when compared with those used elsewhere. Because the starting points for recovery vary, from damage by tropical cyclones and landslides, to clearance for shifting cultivation, pasture or agriculture, to post-logging conditions, universal indicators may be inappropriate. The desired endpoints of recovery also range from a “wilderness” state to a National Park for human enjoyment, biodiversity preservation, safeguarding rights of traditional forest-dwelling peoples, or a second round of selective logging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0363.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Traditional food crops; Climate change; Food security; Omics; Translational genomics; Gene editing
Online: 14 June 2021 (13:02:24 CEST)
The indigenous communities across the globe especially in the rural areas consume locally available plants known as Traditional Food Plants (TFPs) for their nutritional and health-related needs. Recent research shows that many of the traditional food plants are highly nutritious as they contain health beneficial metabolites, vitamins, mineral elements and other nutrients. Excessive reliance on the mainstream staple crops has its own disadvantages. TFPs are nowadays considered important crops of the future and can act as supplementary foods for the burgeoning global population. They can also act as emergency foods in times of pandemics and other situations like COVID-19. The current situation necessitates locally available alternative nutritious TFPs for sustainable food production. To increase the cultivation or improve the traits in TFPs, it is essential to understand the molecular basis of the genes that regulate some important traits such as nutritional components and resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. The integrated use of modern omics and gene editing technologies provide great opportunities to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of superior nutrient content, climate-resilient traits and adaptation to local agroclimatic zones. Recently, realising the importance and benefits of TFPs, scientists have shown interest in the prospection and sequencing of traditional food plants for their improvements, further cultivation and mainstreaming. Integrated omics such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and ionomics are successfully used in plants and have provided a comprehensive understanding of gene-protein-metabolite networks. Combined use of omics and editing tools has led to successful editing of beneficial traits in few TFPs. This suggests that there is ample scope of integrated use of modern omics and editing tools/techniques for improvement of TFPs and their use for sustainable food production. In this article, we highlight the importance, scope and progress towards improvement of TFPs for valuable traits by integrated use of omics and gene editing techniques.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: antiophidic; antivenin plants; envenomation; ethnobotany; ethnomedicine; phospholipase A2; snakebite; traditional medicine; Uganda
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:41:08 CEST)
Snakebite envenomation, cognized as a neglected tropical disease, is a dread public health concern with the most susceptible groups being herdsmen, the elderly, active farmers, hunters, fishers, firewood collectors, 10 to 14-year old working children and individuals with limited access to education and health care. Snakebites are fragmentarily documented in Uganda primarily because most occur in rural settings where traditional therapists end up being the first line defence for treatment. Ethnobotanical surveys in Uganda have unveiled that some plants are used to antagonize the activity of various snake venoms. This review was sought to compile the sporadic information on the vegetal species reported as antivenins in Uganda. Electronic data indicate that no study entirely reported on antivenin plants in Uganda. A total of 77 plant species belonging to 65 genera, distributed among 42 botanical families claimed as antiophidic in Uganda are used for treatment of snakebites. Majority of these species belong to family Fabaceae (30.9%), Euphorbiaceae (14.3%), Asteraceae (11.9%), Amaryllidaceae (9.5%) and Solanaceae (9.5%). The antiophidic species listed are shrubs (40.5%), trees (32.9%) and herbs (17.7%), usually found in the wild and uncultivated. Antivenin extracts are primarily prepared from roots and leaves, through decoctions, infusions, powders and juices and administered orally or topically. The most frequently encountered therapeutically important species are Allium cepa L., Carica papaya L., Securidaca longipedunculata Fres., Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv. and Nicotiana tabacum L. Baseline epidemiological data on snake envenomation and antivenin plants in Uganda remain incomplete due to inadequate research and diverse ethnic groups in the country. There is a dire need to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds in the claimed plants to enable their adroit utilization in handling the plague of snake envenomation. More baseline data should be collected on snake ecology and human behaviour as well as antivenin plants in Uganda. Indigenous knowledge on the use of plant preparations in traditional medicine in Uganda is humongous, but if this is not quickly researched and appropriately documented, indications as to the usefulness of this vegetal treasure house will be lost in the not so distant future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Iranian traditional medicine; alternative and complementary medicine; database; natural products; Mizaj; temperament
Online: 8 May 2019 (10:08:54 CEST)
As a holistic medical school, Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) considers the human body as a dynamic and intricate network of interconnecting processes. Currently, systems biology and more precisely systems medicine and pharmacology can be an aid in providing rationalizations for many traditional medications and treatments and elucidating a great deal of knowledge they can offer to guide future research in medicine. Therefore, re-organization and standardization of traditional medicine data are requested more than ever before. To address this issue, we have constructed UNaProd, a Universal Natural Product database for materia medica of ITM. Primarily based on Makhzan al-Advieh, which is the most recent encyclopedia of materia medica in ITM with the largest number of monographs, this database was created using both text mining methods and manual editing. UNaProd is currently hosting to 2696 monographs from herbal to animal to mineral compounds in 16 diverse attributes such as origin and scientific name. In the current version, UNaProd is hyperlinked to IrGO and CMAUP databases for Mizaj and molecular features respectively and it is freely available at http://jafarilab.com/unaprod/.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0418.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: traditional market; state promoted market; coordination problems; market devise; market flexibility; adaptation
Online: 18 October 2018 (11:28:00 CEST)
The penetration of modern supermarkets is believed to be the cause of the declining role of traditional markets and street vendors in Indonesia. But the competition between state-promoted markets and traditional markets is rarely discussed. This investigation focuses on traditional markets as social institutions, which continuously have developed a variety of strategies in order to remain competitive in the midst of intense rivalry. Firstly, we will outline a theoretical understanding of the traditional markets positioning along the concepts of flexibility and market devices. Secondly, we empirically reflect the strategies of four traditional vegetable markets in the District of Malang, East Java Province, as case studies. We show that the traditional markets build flexibility without governmental support by: (1) specifying commodities, (2) segmenting customers, (3) managing the load time, (4) modifying transportation to operate more efficiently, and (5) minimizing transaction costs by leveraging social capital. We argue that traditional vegetable markets institutionally reduce the potential of transaction costs to be competitive and avoid problems of coordination by building social capital through networks. All in all, market institutions supported by market devices are flexibly capable of adapting to the pressures of both selfishness among actors and competition with other markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0419.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Corporate board characteristics; environmental disclosure; Traditional and integrated frameworks; South Africa; Nigeria
Online: 23 August 2018 (15:51:10 CEST)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the influence of corporate board characteristics on the extent of environmental disclosure quantity of listed firms in two leading emerging economies in Africa, South Africa (integrated reporting framework) and Nigeria (traditional reporting framework). Methods: The sample was comprised of 303 firms including environmentally sensitive companies purposively selected for content analysis study in South Africa (213) and Nigeria (90). We used both descriptive, multivariate and regression models to comparatively analyze the differences about corporate board characteristics as determinants of the extent of their environmental disclosure quantity. Results: The results reveal a more significant positive association between board characteristics and environmental disclosure in South Africa and less relevant association in Nigeria. Also, the results support that board independence arrangement may serve as bonding mechanisms in weak reporting environments, suggesting a substitutive relationship between board independence and the regulatory framework. Quiet revealing a board with environmental committee show a higher tendency to be ecologic transparent in both countries. However, in a traditional reporting framework, the environmental committee is not enough; its effect was insignificant and highly significant in the integrated reporting framework. Further revealed is the significant positive effect of industry membership influence on environmental disclosure. In all estimated models of South Africa sample show that 45% of environmentally sensitive industries significantly influence environmental disclosure, while 51% is environmentally polluting industries in Nigeria show less concern on environmental disclosure. Interestingly, Audit firm size (Big4) positively and statistically significantly associated with overall environmental reporting in both countries. The results are consistent with stakeholder theory, agency theory, institutional and legitimacy theory suggesting that a strong board size, independent members of the board with auditing experience, the active environmental committee in conjunction with solid audit reputation may reduce information asymmetry. Our findings will be helpful for policymakers and other regulators who are interested in environmental impact reporting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease; network medicine; inflammation; network and system pharmacology; traditional Chinese medicine
Online: 18 April 2018 (07:41:00 CEST)
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition that currently has no known cure. The principles of the expanding field of network medicine (NM) have recently been applied to AD research. The main principle of NM proposes that diseases are much more complicated than one mutation in one gene, and incorporate different genes, connections between genes, and pathways that may include multiple diseases to create full scale disease networks. AD research findings as a result of the application of NM principles have suggested that functional network connectivity, myelination, myeloid cells, and genes and pathways may play an integral role in AD progression, and may be integral to the search for a cure. Different aspects of the AD pathology could be potential targets for drug therapy to slow down or stop the disease from advancing, but more research is needed to reach definitive conclusions. Additionally, the holistic approaches of network pharmacology in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research may be viable options for the AD treatment, and may lead to an effective cure for AD in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0102.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Zingiber; ginger; essential oil; rhizome; herbal remedies; traditional healing systems; food preservatives
Online: 16 November 2017 (04:38:52 CET)
Plants of the genus Zingiber (Family Zingiberaceae) are widely used throughout the world as food and medicinal plants. They represent very popular herbal remedies in various traditional healing systems; in particular, rhizome of Zingiber spp. plants has a long history of ethnobotanical uses because of a plethora of curative properties. Antimicrobial activity of rhizome essential oil has been extensively confirmed in vitro and attributed to its chemical components, mainly consisting in monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as α-zingiberene, ar-curcumene, β-bisabolene and β-sesquiphellandrene. In addition, gingerols have been identified as the major active components in the fresh rhizome, whereas shogaols, dehydrated gingerol derivatives, are the predominant pungent constituents in dried rhizome. Zingiber spp. may thus represent a promising and innovative source of natural alternatives to chemical food preservatives. This approach would meet the increasing concern of consumers aware of the potential health risks associated with the conventional antimicrobial agents in food. This narrative review aims providing a literature overview on Zingiber spp. plants, their cultivation, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and biological activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0117.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Anticandidosic activity; Candida albicans; Quercus suber L.; Methanolic extracts; Traditional pharmacopoeia; Acute Toxicity
Online: 7 September 2021 (10:32:31 CEST)
The cork oak (Quercus suber L.), endemic essence of the Mediterranean Basin, is commonly used in traditional pharmacopoeia. The main objective of this work is to enhance the valorization of this plant species through the study of the anticandidosic activity of cork oak bark methalonic extracts in order to develop an efficient natural formulation for Candidiasis treatment.The anticandidosic activity of methanolic extracts of Q. suber bark stemming from decoction, maceration and Soxhlet methods of extraction in was tested on five different Candida albicans strains. Our results showed that all the tested extracts displayed an inhibitive activity, which varies according to the obtained extract and the tested strain. The best anticandidosic potential was observed with extracts obtained with Soxhlet method. The study of the acute toxicity showed that the lethal dose is 1150 mg/kg in mice, which remained moderately toxic according to Hodge and Sterner classification scale. Thus, this extract can be used in phytotherapy without danger in doses that are below 300 mg/kg of corporal weight. Based on these results, we can conclude that Cork oak bark extracts can be used to treat Candida albicans infections.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0090.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Orphan crops; polyunsaturated fatty acids; α-linolenic acid; food security; traditional crops; oilseeds
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:53:18 CEST)
Plukenetia volubilis is an underutilized oilseed crop native to the Amazon basin, where it has been utilised by humans since Incan times. The large seeds contain approx. 45–50 % lipid, of which approx. 35.2–50.8 % is α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ω-3) and approx. 33.4–41.0 % is linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6, ω-6), the two essential fatty acids required by humans. The seeds also contain 22–30 % protein and have antioxidant properties. Due to its excellent nutritional composition and good agronomic properties, it has attracted increasing attention in recent years, and cultivation is expanding. When considering current global challenges, a reformation of our food systems is imperative in order to ensure food security, mitigation of climate change, and alleviation of malnutrition. For this purpose, underutilized crops may be essential tools, which can provide agricultural hardiness and reduced need for external inputs, climate resilience, diet diversification, and improved income opportunities for smallholders. Plukenetia volubilis is a promising up and coming crop in this regard and has considerable potential for further domestication; it has an exceptional oil composition, good sensory acceptability, is well suited for cultivation, and has numerous potential applications in, e.g. gastronomy, medicine, and cosmetics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0175.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Gut microbiome; Western and indigenous/traditional cultures; gut health; disease; lifestyle; novel microbials
Online: 6 April 2021 (12:40:04 CEST)
The mammalian gut ecosystem plays critical roles in multiple functions related to health and homeostasis. In many cases, disturbances in the gut ecosystem are associated with a large number of metabolic and chronic diseases and disorders such as diabetes, cancer, and obesity. A diverse community of microorganisms ranging from viruses to bacteria comprise the gut microbiota, which is often considered as an organ in itself. Recent studies have profiled the influence of lifestyles and dietary behavior by comparing the gut microbiome of populations with different cultural underpinnings. In this review, we provide an overview of the studies which report the influence on the gut microbial composition of dietary and lifestyle patterns in different contexts such as western industrialized countries and indigenous cultures (corresponding to different lifestyle gradients such as hunter-gatherers and pastoralists) and how this association may influence health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0390.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Oroxylum indicum; Oroxyquinone; Traditional medicine; Bioassay Guided Fractionation; caspase-independent apoptosis; anti-metastatic
Online: 17 February 2021 (12:55:57 CET)
Leaf crude extract (aqueous) of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz induces genomic DNA fragmentation, comet formation, and inhibition of cell proliferation in prostate cancer cell line, PC3 as assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis, comet assay, and MTT assay respectively. The bioactive compound was purified through bioassay-guided fractionation using preparative HPLC and MTT as-say. The brown and water-soluble compound was characterized using 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, and the compound was iden-tified as a glycosylated hydroquinone derivative, 2-[p-(2-Carboxyhydrazino)phenoxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahy-dro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol (molecular formula, C13H18N2O8; molecular mass = 330). The identified phytocompound has not been reported earlier elsewhere. Therefore, the common name of the novel anticancer phytocompound isolated from oroxylum indicum in this current study is named as oroxyquinone. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of oroxyquinone on PC3 cells was 19.44 µg/ml (95% CI = 17.97 to 21.04). Oroxyquinone induced cell cycle arrest at S phases and inhibition of cell migration on PC3 as assessed by flow cytome-try and wound healing assay respectively. On investigating the molecular mechanism of inducing apoptosis, the results indicated that the oroxyquinone induced apoptosis through the p38 pathway and cell cycle arrest, however, not through caspase-3 and PARP pathways. The present study identifies a novel an-ticancer molecule and provides scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic potency of OI for ethnomedicinal uses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0024.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Iranian traditional medicine; Persian medicine; ontology; knowledge-base; Mizaj; temperament; new drug discovery
Online: 3 November 2019 (17:07:50 CET)
Background: Iranian traditional medicine is a holistic school of medicine with a long prolific history. It describes numerous concepts and the relationships between them. However, no unified terminology has been proposed for the concepts of this medicine up to the present time. Considering the extensive use of concepts in the numerous textbooks written by the scholars over centuries, comprehending the totality of the terminology is obviously a very challenging task. To resolve this issue and overcome the obstacles, and code the concepts in a reusable manner, constructing an ontology of the concepts of Iranian traditional medicine seems a necessity.Methods: Makhzan al-Advieh, an encyclopedia of materia medica compiled by Mohammad Hossein Aghili Khorasani, was selected as the resource to create an ontology of Mizaj. The steps followed to accomplish this task included (1) compiling the list of classes for Mizaj; (2) arranging the classes in taxonomy; (3) determining object properties and their cardinalities; (4) specifying annotation properties including codes, labels, synonyms, and definitions for each concept; (5) reviewing the fields pertaining to Mizaj of all monographs in Makhzan al-Advieh. The ontology was created using Protégé with adherence to the principles of ontology development provided by the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) foundry. Results: Mizaj ontology was constructed with a final inclusion of 105 classes, three object properties, and 1078 axioms in the Iranian Traditional Medicine General Ontology database, IrGO, freely available at http://jafarilab.com/irgo/. An indented tree view and an interactive graph view using WebVOWL were used to visualize the ontology. All classes were linked to their instances in the UNaProd database to create a knowledge-base of Mizaj. Conclusion: We constructed an ontology-based knowledge base of ITM concepts of Mizaj in the domain of materia medica to help offer a shared and common understanding of this concept, enable reuse of the knowledge, and make the assumptions explicit. Extending IrGO will bridge the gap between traditional and conventional schools of medicine and help guide future research on new treatment options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Keywords: excessive fertilization; agro environment; rental land; traditional way; younger farmers; environmental consciousness
Online: 13 November 2017 (16:14:39 CET)
Abstract: The study focuses on how socio-economic and demographic indicators affect fertilization sustainability (excessive amount of fertilization). Principally we aim to examine the significance magnitude of the effects of three socio-demographic variables such as traditional way of fertilization, rental land farming, and farmers’ younger age on over-fertilization in Bangladesh and other developing countries. In 1960s, Bangladesh state authority launched a campaign ‘Grow more Food’ to feed huge numbers of population and thus the farmers are provided chemical fertilizers and pesticides at a subsidized low price. Farmers began to use huge amount of fertilizers for gaining high yields and continued it to present causing environmental woes a lot. We interview (face-to-face, focus group discussion, and phone interview) 210 Bangladesh farmers in 2016 by semi-structured questionnaire. Data has been analyzed using General Linear Model (GLM) in Univariate Analysis of Variance. The study found the effect of traditional way of fertilization on excessive amount of fertilization is strongly significant at 1% level. Apart from, rental land farming and farmers’ younger age have a significant influence on over- fertilization; though their significance level (5% and 10% respectively) is quasi-strong. Policy makers can be able to formulate fertilizer policy on the basis of these findings.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: ethnoveterinary medicines; Kinnaur; traditional knowledge; livestock; Sanctuary; shepherds; mountain people; aboriginal; tribal; herbalism; ritualism
Online: 29 January 2020 (03:57:56 CET)
The Himalayas are known for high floristic diversity and rich ethnobotanical practices. However, not all parts of the Himalayan regions are thoroughly studied. The present study aims to document the ethnoveterinary medicines used by migratory shepherds in Trans-Himalayan Rakchham-Chitkul Wildlife Sanctuary,Baspa (Sangla) valley of the Kinnaur district in Himachal Pradesh. The shepherds are very close to nature as they spend most of their time in forests with their livestock. Shepherding depends more on traditional healthcare practices based on local medicinal plants. In this study, we are reporting for the first time commonly used ethnoveterinary medicines in Rakchham and Chitkul Wildlife Sanctuary and their application, procedures of preparation, as well as listing 51 plant species. Such documentations are done first time in the Himachal Pradesh region of India as per our information. Our research emphasizes the urgent need to document traditional medicine preparation procedures from migratory shepherds. The required information on various ethnoveterinary medicines used by migratory shepherds was collected through personal field visits, participatory observations, interview and using a pretested questionnaire. It was observed that in all 51 species of ethnoveterinary were used by shepherds in Trans-Himalayan Rakchham-Chitkul Wildlife Sanctuary in Baspa (Sangla) valley of Kinnaur district. The results of this survey show that shepherds in tribal areas are highly dependent on ethnoveterinary remedies for their livestock which evolved over generations of practices for healthcare. There is an urgent need to document this vast knowledge of migratory shepherds concerning the use of ethnoveterinary remedies for animal health care in the regions of the Himalayas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: land expropriation; intra-racial tension; social cohesion; political and traditional elitism; marginalised landless majority
Online: 11 December 2019 (11:38:36 CET)
Section 25(2) of the Constitution of South Africa protects property rights and the White Paper on Land Reform demonstrate tolerance and wisdom in the application of land reform policies. The central argument to this research was whether amendment of Section 25 (2) of the constitution to allow expropriation of land without compensation redresses redistribution of land for social cohesion and political stability. The researcher argues that, currently, Section 25 of the constitution provides for expropriation without compensation but at the same time protects property rights reducing the pace of redistribution. Hence, an amendment of section 25 (2) may remove the property right clause and accelerate expropriation without compensation. But whether the removal of the property right clause and acceleration of the process of expropriation without compensation will result to equitable and fair distribution of land to the majority of landless South Africans is not certain. The study concludes that, amendment of Section 25(2) is a justifiable process and priorities must be given to equity in redistribution to the majority landless at the margins of communities and not elites. If the amendment of Section 25 (2) cannot guarantee equity in redistribution for all ill respective of race, social cohesion, political stability and economic growth, intra-racial tensions may emerge. Such tensions may further compound the land question and affects investors’ confidence in South Africa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0012.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Jivanti; Leptadenia reticulata; traditional medicine; herb; therapy; rasayana; galactagogue; pharmacology; biological activities; medicinal plant
Online: 1 May 2017 (10:25:26 CEST)
Leptadenia reticulata (Ritz.) Wight (Asclepiadaceae), a traditional medicinal plant species, is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating, and lactogenic properties. This plant is one of the major ingredients in many commercial herbal formulations, including Speman, Envirocare, Calshakti, Antisept, and Chyawanprash. The therapeutic potential of this herb is because of the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, ferulic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, hentriacontanol, a triterpene alcohol simiarenol, apigenin, reticulin, deniculatin, and leptaculatin. However, most biological studies on L. reticulata are restricted to crude extracts, and many biologically active compounds are yet to be identified in order to claim the traditional uses of L. reticulata into evidence-based uses. At present, L. reticulata is a threatened endangered plant because of overexploitation, unscientific harvesting, and habitat loss. The increased demand from pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and veterinary industries has prompted its large-scale propagation. However, its commercial cultivation is hampered because of the non-availability of genuine planting material and the lack of knowledge on its agronomical practices. In this regard, micropropagation technique will be useful to obtain true-to-type L. reticulata planting materials from an elite germplasm to meet the current demand. Adopting other biotechnological approaches such as synthetic seed technology, cryopreservation, cell culture, and genetic transformation can warrant conservation as well as increased metabolite production from L. reticulata. The present review summarizes scientific information on the botanical, agronomical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and biotechnological aspects of L. reticulata. This comprehensive information will certainly allow better utilization of this industrially important herb towards the discovery of lead drug molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0103.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Monochoria angustifolia; Monochoria hastata; Flavonoid; Antioxidant mechanism; Natural populations; Phytochemical profile; Traditional herbal medicine; Phytopharmaceutical
Online: 12 April 2022 (04:08:17 CEST)
Plants of the genus Monochoria have long been utilized in food, cosmetics, and traditional herbal treatment. Thailand has the highest species diversity of this genus and a new member, Monochoria angustifolia (G. X. Wang) Boonkerd & Tungmunnithum has been recently described. This plant is called “Siam Violet Pearl” as a common name or “ไข่มุกสีม่วงแห่งสยาม” as its vernacular name in the same meaning in Thai language. Despite their importance, few researches on Monochoria species have been conducted. This study, thus, provided the results to fill in this gap by: i) determining flavonoids phytochemical profiles of 25 natural populations of M. angustifolia covering the whole floristic regions in Thailand, and ii) determining antioxidant activity using various antioxidant assays to investigate the probable mechanism. The results revealed that M. angustifolia presented a higher flavonoid content than the outgroup, M. hastata. Our results also revealed that flavonoids might be used to investigate Monochoria evolutionary connections and for botanical authentication. The various antioxidant assays revealed that M. angustifolia extracts preferentially act through a hydrogen atom transfer antioxidant mechanism. Pearson correlation analysis indicated significant correlations emphasizing that the antioxidant capacity is most probably the result of a complex phytochemical combinations rather than of a single molecule. Altogether, these results showed that this new species provide an attractive alternative starting material with phytochemical variety and antioxidant potential for the phytopharmaceutical industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma; traditional Chinese medicine; Chinese herbal products; complementary and alternative medicine; Gan-Lu-Yin
Online: 26 September 2018 (05:09:08 CEST)
In most countries, the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is no more than 1 per 100,000 for both men and women; however, it is much higher for men and women in Taiwan. The use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of NPC and its treatment-related side effects has been increasing. The National Health Insurance (NHI) covers 99.6% of Taiwan’s residents. In the present population-based cohort study, we aimed to investigate the pattern of utilization of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) for NPC from 2001 through 2011 in Taiwan. We identified a total of 30294 patients with newly diagnosed NPC from the Registry for Catastrophic Illnesses Patient Database (RCIPD). Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for CHP utilization. From 2001 through 2011, 17816 patients aged ≥20 years were newly diagnosed with NPC. Of these, 4749 patients used TCM outpatient services for NPC treatment. TCM users were more likely to be women, young, residents of Central Taiwan, and white-collar workers. The most commonly prescribed formula CHP was Gan-Lu-Yin, followed by Xin-Yi-Qing Fei-Tang and Shan-Shen-Mai-Men-Dong-Tang. The most commonly prescribed single CHP was Hedyotis diffusa, followed by Radix Scrophulariae and Radix Ophiopogonis. These findings provide information regarding personalized therapies for NPC and can promote further clinical experiments and pharmacological research on CHPs for NPC treatment in Taiwan. Further well-designed randomized controlled studies and basic mechanistic studies should assess the safety and effectiveness of CHPs for NPC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0381.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: fermented sausage; Ventricina del Vastese; traditional production; coagulase negative staphylo-cocci; hazardous genetic traits; antibiotic resistance
Online: 21 November 2022 (07:31:16 CET)
Ventricina del Vastese is a traditional dry fermented sausage from Central Italy not yet charac-terized for occurrence, identity and safety of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), a bacterial group technologically important for this kind of products. Therefore, in this study, 98 CNS isolates from four manufacturers were differentiated by Repetitive element palindromic PCR (Rep-PCR) and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These were examined for genes encoding biogenic amine (BA) production, resistance to aminoglycosides, β-lactams and tetracyclines and staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Staphylococcus succinus (55%) predominated, followed by S. xylosus (30%), S. epidermidis (7.4%), S. equorum (3.1%), S. saprophyticus (3.1%) and S. warneri (1%). One S. succinus subsp. casei isolate was slightly β-hemolytic. SEs and the histidine decarboxylase gene hdcA were not detected, while the tyrosine decarboxylase gene tdcA was detected in four S. xylosus isolates. A blaZ beta-lactamase gene and tetracycline resistance genes tetK (six isolates) and tetA (one isolate also bearing tetK) were found, respectively. However, fewer hazardous and AR traits compared to CNS examined in other studies were found, as a probable consequence of using meat from animals reared in conditions that allow to minimize pathogen circulation and antibiotic use. Therefore, appropriate production conditions can reduce these threats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: information technologies (I.T); sign language; hearing impairment; traditional games; primary school teaching; inclusive education; physical education
Online: 2 November 2021 (11:54:47 CET)
This article propose a didactic, through games, tool based on information and communication technologies, in order to eliminate possible communication barriers and to promote the inclusion of students with hearing impairment in Physical Education classes. To this end, a dossier of traditional games has been developed. These are structured in turn into objectives, materials, organisation, graphic description and a QR code for each game. These codes are linked to different videos hosted on the YouTube platform, in which the explanation of the games, mentioned above, can be visualised graphically using sign language. The whole creative process is described in the article, as well as possible pedagogical applications of the use of the tools created for this purpose in other educational contexts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0776.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Saponins; anticancer activities; traditional plants; mechanism of action; cell cycle arrest; apoptosis; chemopreventive; future cancer research
Online: 29 April 2021 (14:08:23 CEST)
Abstract Traditional plants are known to contain a wide array of secondary metabolites with important biological activity, including anticancer activity. One of such metabolites is saponin; a steroidal or triterpenoid glycoside that is distinguished by its soap forming nature. Different saponins have been characterized and purified so far, and are gaining attention in cancer chemotherapy. Saponins possess incredible structural diversity which has been linked to their activity. They have been implicated in cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Several studies have reported the role of saponins in cancer and their mechanism of actions including cell cycle arrest, antioxidant, cellular invasion inhibition, induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Despite the extensive research and significant anticancer effect of saponins there are no known FDA approved saponin based anticancer drugs due to a number of limitations including toxicities and drug likeness properties. Recent studies have explored options such as structural optimization, combination therapy and drug delivery systems to design saponins with increased efficacy and decreased toxicities. This review discussed the current knowledge on different saponins, their anticancer activity, mechanism of action as well as the current promising research on saponins within the last two decades and recommendations for future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0443.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Climate change; Nationalism; Anthropocene; Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK); Geoethics; Sustainable communities; Subsistence societies; Indigenous peoples; Anthropocene
Online: 17 March 2021 (14:33:37 CET)
This article argues that we need to look at living examples provided by non-state communities in various regions of the world that are, perhaps unwittingly, contributing to the maintenance of the Earth's optimal thermal balance. These fully sustainable communities have been living outside the mainstream for centuries, even millennia, providing examples in the global struggle against the degradation of social–ecological systems. They have all, to varying degrees, embraced simple forms of living that make them ‘exemplary ethical communities’ (EECs) – human communities with a track record of sustainability related to forms of traditional knowledge and the capacity to survive outside the capitalist market and nation-state system. The article proceeds in three steps: First, it condenses a large body of research on the limits of the existing nation-state system and its accompanying ideology, nationalism, identifying this institutional–ideological complex as the major obstacle to tackling climate change. Second, alternative social formations that could offer viable micro-level and micro-scale alternatives are suggested. These are unlikely to identify with existing nation-states as they often form distinct types of social communities. Taking examples from hunter-gatherer societies and simple-living religious groups, it is shown how the protection and maintenance of these EECs could become the keystone in the struggle for survival of humankind and other forms of life. Finally, further investigation is called for, into how researchers can come forward with more examples of actually existing communities that might provide pathways to sustainability and resistance to the looming global environmental catastrophe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0132.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: arylamine N-acetyltransferases; cancer; tuberculosis; drug discovery; traditional Chinese medicine; virtual screening; molecular dynamics simulation; MM-PBSA
Online: 30 June 2017 (11:36:22 CEST)
Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are cytosolic enzymes, highly polymorphic, present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These enzymes play an important role in the detoxification and activation of xenobiotics as well as in the synthesis of endogenous compounds. Specific NATs have been pointed out in the literature as possible therapeutic targets. In particular, the human NAT1, for the treatment of certain cancers, and the NAT from M. tuberculosis (TBNAT), for the treatment of tuberculosis. This paper describes an in silico approach to prospect and select potentially inhibitors of NAT1 and TBNAT from the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) using free available tools. A library with ligands from TCM was previously screened in order to select only compounds with optimal pharmacological properties. The affinity of the selected ligands with respect to NAT enzymes was then evaluated by virtual screening (VS). Subsequently, the complexes with the best ligands were submitted to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations aiming to obtain better quality information on affinity and selectivity. The results for one specific ligand, ZINC14690579, indicated its potential for affinity and selectivity. ZINC14690579 structure may represent the discovery of a new scaffold for future development of NAT inhibitors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: scope creep; software engineering; software project management; work breakdown structure; agile method; traditional methodology; functional point analysis; stakeholders
Online: 5 December 2019 (04:20:06 CET)
Scope, time, and cost permanently effects each other and most of Information Technology projects fails due to these three factors. Scope shifting mostly occur due to time and cost. At project start, lack of understanding of project and product scope is focal involvement that leads to unsuccessful projects. Complete software scope definition determines quality of project. Defining the customer requirement and the definite scope of project has key role for implementation of project management. The complications originates when systems are developed from impractical expectations and misunderstanding requirements. These problems are cause of many changes, occurs in system development and leads to poor scope management. Scope creep is one of the momentous prompting parameter on the success of project. The failure in manage scope creep leads for 80 percent of software projects failure. However, using agile approach the impact of scope creep on projects become insignificant. A correctly distinct scope tends us to develop a quality product, within identified plans and decided cost to the stake-holders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Convention on Biological Diversity; Nagoya Protocol; ABS access and benefit sharing; Brazil ABS law; genetic resources; associated traditional knowledge.
Online: 7 December 2022 (01:52:23 CET)
This study presents a detailed assessment on the impact of the Brazilian legal framework related to the access and benefit sharing provisions of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. The research is based on a comprehensive dataset that was systematically collected over several years, directly from the official government bodies responsible for its implementation. The aim of the study is to contribute to a fact-based discussion on the effectiveness of national ABS laws, focusing on the Brazilian legal framework, first established in the year 2000 and revised in 2015, as a case example. This study balances the costs and benefits of the Brazilian ABS system and assesses the regulatory challenges it poses to individuals, companies, and institutions that perform research, share knowledge, develop, manufacture or market products derived from Brazilian biodiversity. The study indicates that, after over 22 years of operation, the regulatory challenges are still real and relevant, and that the significant volume of data collected from users on access, prior commercialization and shipment of genetic materials abroad was never systematically assessed by the agencies in charge. Besides, it shows that the costs incurred by the government in managing the policy itself have been higher than the economic benefits it has made possible, and that the institutional mechanisms in place since 2015 have not been able to allocate the monetary benefits contributed by users to the National Benefit Sharing Fund to any projects aimed at developing sustainable uses or preserving Brazilian biodiversity.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: lying posture tracking; traditional machine learning; ensemble classification; deep neural network models; long short-term memory sequence classification model
Online: 19 October 2020 (10:57:42 CEST)
Automated lying-posture tracking is important in preventing bed-related disorders such as pressure injuries, sleep apnea, and lower-back pain. Prior research studied in-bed lying posture tracking using sensors of different modalities (e.g., accelerometer and pressure sensors). However, there remain significant gaps in research about how to design efficient in-bed lying posture tracking systems. These gaps can be articulated through several research questions as follows. First, can we design a single-sensor, pervasive, and inexpensive system that can accurately detect lying postures? Second, what computational models are most effective in the accurate detection of lying postures? Finally, what physical configuration of the sensor system is most effective for lying posture tracking? To answer these important research questions, in this article, we propose a comprehensive approach to design a sensor system that uses a single accelerometer along with machine learning algorithms for in-bed lying posture classification. We design two categories of machine learning algorithms based on deep learning and traditional classification with handcrafted features to detect lying postures. We also investigate what wearing sites are most effective in accurate detection of lying postures. We extensively evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms on nine different body locations and four human lying postures using two datasets. Our results show that a system with a single accelerometer can be used with either deep learning or traditional classifiers to accurately detect lying postures. The best models in our approach achieve an F-Score that ranges from 95.2% to 97.8% with a coefficient of variation from 0.03 to 0.05. The results also identify the thighs and chest as the most salient body sites for lying posture tracking. Our findings in this article suggest that because accelerometers are ubiquitous and inexpensive sensors, they can be a viable source of information for pervasive monitoring of in-bed postures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Modern Technology; Traditional Technology; Technology Renascence; E-Banking; Ecommerce; Education; Energy; Economy and Other E-Technologies; Artificial Intelligence; Business Intelligence
Online: 17 July 2020 (16:14:26 CEST)
Abstract: The human race has always innovated, and in a relatively short time went from building fires and making stone-tipped arrows to creating smartphone apps and autonomous robots. Today, technological progress will undoubtedly continue to change the way we work, live, and survive in the coming decades. Since the beginning of the new millennium, the world has witnessed the emergence of social media, smartphones, self-driving cars, and autonomous flying vehicles. There have also been huge leaps in energy storage, artificial intelligence, and medical science. We are facing immense challenges in global warming and food security, among many other issues. While human innovation has contributed to many of the problems we are facing, it is also human innovation and ingenuity that can help humanity deal with these issues “New directions in science are launched by new tools much more often than by new concepts. The effect of a concept-driven revolution is to explain old things in new ways. The effect of a tool-driven revolution is to discover new things that have to be explained”. (F. Dyson, 1997 In this article, we review the impact of technology as evolving at beginning of 21st Century on future prospect of Energy demand either renewable or non-renewable form, Economy, to Ecommerce, Education and any other E-related of Modern Technology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: castor bean; cancer therapy; immunotoxins; plant toxins; ribosome-inactivating proteins; ricin; rRNA N-glycosylase activity; traditional medicine; folk medicine; bioterrorism.
Online: 28 May 2019 (11:54:43 CEST)
The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) has been known since time immemorial in traditional medicine in the pharmacopeia of Mediterranean and eastern ancient cultures. Moreover, it is still used in folk medicine worldwide. Castor bean has been mainly recommended as anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, anti-bacterial, laxative, abortifacient, for wounds, ulcers, and many other indications. Many cases of human intoxication occurred accidentally or voluntarily with the ingestion of castor seeds or derivatives. Ricinus toxicity depends on several molecules, among them the most important is ricin, a protein belonging to the family of ribosome-inactivating proteins. Ricin is the most studied of this category of proteins and it is also known to the general public, having been used for biocrimes in several cases. Here, the main steps of ricin research are reported with particular regards to its enzymatic activity, structure and cytotoxicity. Moreover, we discuss ricin toxicity for animals and humans, as well as the relation amongst bioterrorism and ricin and its impact on environmental toxicity. Ricin has also been of great utility to develop a number of immunotoxins specific for the elimination of unwanted cells, mainly cancer cells; some of these immunotoxins gave promising results also in clinical trials.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: education; skills development; online distance learning; credentials; open badges; blockchain; sustainable livelihoods; sustainable mountain development; traditional knowledge; culture; Kyrgyzstan; Central Asia
Online: 27 March 2020 (03:07:11 CET)
Mountain and pastoralist societies around the world have for centuries sustained their livelihoods and cultures by accumulating specialist knowledge about their local and regional socio-ecological environments. Developing traditional knowledge and customary practices takes time, sometimes spanning across generations. As macro-level changes to social and natural environment are now taking place, such as globalization and climate change, local communities could potentially also benefit from complementary, suitably adapted educational opportunities for sustainable development. However, access to education has often required moving to urban centres, which can weaken community structures and cohesion, and could also foster increased dependence on external specialists, providers or decision-makers. Careful introduction of emerging Educational Technologies could alleviate and possibly reverse such trends as mobile Internet access spreads to remote areas. This paper examines the role of education in sustainable development and specifically explores the potential for two educational innovations, open badges and blockchain, to provide a new construct for transformation in sustainable development amongst mountain and pastoralist societies. These technologies could not only facilitate education through online distance learning, but also allow geographically remote populations to highlight the value of their traditional knowledge and to engage more comprehensively in their changing worlds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0378.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: therapeutic landscapes; therapeutic environments; Indigenous knowledge; Mātauranga Māori; Rongoā Māori; traditional healing; health and well-being; cultural landscapes; cultural geography; landscape architecture
Online: 23 December 2021 (10:12:15 CET)
Although research has long established that the interaction with the natural environment is associated with better overall health and well-being outcomes, the Western model mainly focuses on treating the symptoms. In Aotearoa-New Zealand, the Indigenous Māori have long demonstrated significantly more negative health outcomes than non-Māori. Little research has examined the causes compared to Western populations or the role of the natural environment in health outcomes for Māori. An exploration of rongoā Māori (traditional healing system) was conducted to ascertain the importance of landscape in the process of healing. Eight rongoā healers or practitioners took part in semi-structured narrative interviews from June to November 2020. Transcribed interviews were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis and Kaupapa Māori techniques. The findings show how rongoā is underpinned by a complex set of cultural values and beliefs, drawing from the connection to wairua (spirit), tinana (body), tikanga and whakaora (customs and healing), rākau (plants), whenua (landscape) and whānau (family). Incorporating such constructs into the landscape can foster our understanding of health and well-being and its implications for conceptualising therapeutic environments and a culturally appropriate model of care for Māori and non-Māori communities.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0760.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Complementary and alternative medicine; Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM); Thermodynamic mechanism; Entropic systems biology; Self-organized criticality (SOC); Self-organization triggering factor (SOTF); Wuxing (five phases), Qi, Meridians (Jingluo); Acupuncture points; Chinese herbs; Aquamoleculomics; Modernization of TCM
Online: 28 April 2021 (17:12:29 CEST)
As a complementary and alternative medicine in the western countries for decades, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for more than 2000 years in China. Because of the characteristics of the philosophical style and the unknown mechanism of action, TCM sometimes has been biasedly described as "fraught with pseudoscience". From the scientific basis of the systems biology, here we promoted a novel medical model called the entropic systems medicine which could be applied to scientize TCM in future. In entropic systems medicine, TCM and Western modern biomedicine target the different variables of the entropic system. For instance, while Western modern biomedicine directly targets the phenotypes and its SOCs of macrostates, TCM differently targets the microstates, entropy and entropic force to generate SOTFs gradually causing the differentiated syndromes to be slowly rearranged. The prerequisites to modernize TCM are the entropic systems biology having been well established so that the variables could be precisely monitored and mathematically calculated.