ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0605.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: parameter-free spectral clustering; Lagrangian Coherent Structures; clusters; geophysical flows; unsupervised machine learning
Online: 24 November 2020 (09:25:02 CET)
In Lagrangian dynamics, the detection of coherent clusters can help understand the organization of transport by identifying regions with coherent trajectory patterns. Many clustering algorithms, however, rely on user-input parameters, requiring a priori knowledge about the flow and making the outcome subjective. Building on the conventional spectral clustering method of Hadjighasem et al (2016), a new parameter-free spectral clustering approach is developed that automatically identifies parameters and does not require any user-input choices. A noise-based metric for quantifying the coherence of the resulting coherent clusters is also introduced. The parameter-free spectral clustering is applied to two benchmark analytical flows, the Bickley Jet and the asymmetric Duffing oscillator, and to a realistic, numerically-generated oceanic coastal flow. In the latter case, the identified model-based clusters are tested using observed trajectories of real drifters. In all examples, our approach succeeded in performing the partition of the domain into coherent clusters with minimal inter-cluster similarity and maximum intra-cluster similarity. For the coastal flow, the resulting coherent clusters are qualitatively similar over the same phase of the tide on different days and even different years, whereas coherent clusters for the opposite tidal phase are qualitatively different.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0085.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: H9N2; avian influenza viruses; zoonotic; pandemic potential; poultry
Online: 11 June 2019 (07:44:44 CEST)
H9N2 avian influenza viruses have become globally widespread in poultry over the last two decades and represent a genuine threat both to the global poultry industry but also humans through their high rates of zoonotic infection and pandemic potential. H9N2 viruses are generally hyperendemic in effected countries and have been found in poultry in many new regions in recent years. In this review we examine the current global spread of H9N2 avian influenza viruses as well as their host range, tropism, transmission routes and the risk posed by these viruses to human health.