ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0530.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: crushed pumice stone; sand-capping material; submarine volcano; bivalve exposure
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:03:58 CET)
Large amounts of pumice stone generated by the submarine volcanic eruption at Fukutoku Okanoba on August 13, 2021, drifted ashore, affecting ship navigation and fishery operations. Through laboratory experiments, we investigated the possibility of using pumice as a sand-capping material for eutrophic sediments. Crushed pumice as a sand cover material effectively reduced the sedimentary oxygen consumption rate. Nutrient release from sediment showed a similar trend, with ~25% and 82% reduction in NH4-N and PO4-P release rates, respectively. Furthermore, the bivalve exposure experiments using crushed pumice suspended in seawater showed no adverse effects specific to pumice and lower bivalve mortality than that using kaolin at the same concentration. This could be owing to differences in gill accumulation and blockage owing to the particle size variation of the suspended particles. These results suggest that crushed pumice is effective for sand covering and suppresses oxygen consumption and nutrient release from the sediments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0166.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: nutrient release rate; marine sediment; redeposition; incubation experiment; Osaka Bay; Nankai Trough earthquake; primary production
Online: 4 May 2023 (03:02:10 CEST)
Nutrient release from marine sediments in Osaka Bay has a significant impact on nutrient concentrations in seawater. A tsunami induced by the Nankai Trough earthquake may disturb marine sediments in the inner part of Osaka Bay. An incubation experiment to estimate the release rates of NH4-N and PO4-P was conducted to understand the present conditions and to quantify the changes caused by tsunamis. Two types of cores were created: a "control core" representing the current sediment, and a "redeposition core" representing the redeposition after the tsunami. The release rates have been decreasing since the year 2000 and have remained low. The experimental results suggest that the release rate after exposure to an aerobic environment by a tsunami may decrease to approximately 70% for NH4-N and 60% for PO4-P of the current level. In the past, the release rates were values experienced in the inner part of Osaka Bay. However, the reduction in the release rate by tsunamis may be more limiting for primary production under the current situation where the contribution of release for nutrients in seawater is significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0903.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sediment model; sulfur and iron cycles; semi-enclosed bay
Online: 12 May 2023 (08:11:39 CEST)
In eutrophic waters, such as Mikawa Bay, Japan, anoxic bottom water develops in summer. This causes sulfide release into seawater by sulfate reduction in the sediment, leading to environmental problems. The addition of iron to sediments is a method used to improve the sediment environment, which was devised from a natural phenomenon. However, this method has not yet been quantitatively evaluated. In this study, we aim to quantitatively evaluate the suppressive effect of iron on sulfide release. First, we develop a sediment model that focuses on S and Fe. We then attempted to reproduce the observations and experiments on sulfide dynamics using the model. Consequently, the proposed model was able to reproduce field sulfur and Fe dynamics in sediments. Additionally, the model described the characteristics of sulfide release considering the effects of additive iron materials. Finally, we conducted predictive calculations and quantitatively evaluated the effects of adding iron materials to the sediments in terms of sulfur and iron cycles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0519.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: dissolved sulfide; iron; hypoxia; buffering capacity; environmental restoration; coastal waters; Mikawa Bay; dead zone
Online: 30 March 2023 (02:58:33 CEST)
This study examined the spatial-temporal distribution of sulfur and iron compounds (dissolved sulfide, iron sulfide, and ionized iron) in sediments from April 2015 to March 2016 at four stations in Mikawa Bay, Japan. Seasonal changes were observed in dissolved sulfide, iron sulfide, and ionized iron in the upper part of the sediment (0–4 cm depth) at all stations. The maximum concentration in the upper part of the central bay was 2.8 mmol L-1. The maximum values of dissolved sulfide (ranging from 1.4 to 8.1 mmol L-1) at stations located in a water way varied among stations. The iron sulfide concentration in the upper part of the sediment at a station where dissolved sulfide concentration in the waterway was relatively low exceeded that at other stations in the waterway during spring to summer. Ionized iron concentration was highest at the station where the dissolved sulfide concentration was low. The study results suggest that iron plays an important role in determining the magnitude of dissolved sulfide accumulation in sediments by binding with dissolved sulfide. The results imply the possibility of mitigating the accumulation of free sulfides, which causes extreme hypoxia, by artificially adding sufficient iron to the seabed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0412.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: asari clams; upwelling of hypoxic water masses; mass mortality; hydrogen sulfide; chain of biological die-off
Online: 23 March 2023 (09:49:49 CET)
To investigate the mass mortality of asari clams triggered by upwelling-driven hypoxia, we conducted biological and oceanographic observations of the Rokujo tidal flat in Mikawa Bay, central Japan. In addition, a simple laboratory experiment was conducted using sediments on a tidal flat containing macrobenthos to examine the possibility of hydrogen sulfide formation in tidal flats. The results of field observations showed that the number and biomass of asari clams decreased from September to October in the tidal flat when hypoxia was intermittent. In particular, hypoxia persisted for approximately one week from September 21, which was associated with the calm weather and stagnation of tidal currents owing to the neap tide. The hydrogen sulfide concentration in the water directly above the sediment exceeded 30 mg L-1 after 3 days of incubation. Our results suggest that the mass mortality of asari clams may be caused by the high concentration of hydrogen sulfide produced by sulfate reduction, which is attributed to the chain of biological die-off caused by the upwelling of hypoxic water mass accompanied by meteorological events, and calm conditions such as the neap tide period.