REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: microelectrodes; brain implants; brain-computer interface; DBS; ECoG
Online: 13 March 2023 (15:37:35 CET)
Intracortical microelectrodes that can be implanted have the ability to capture fast-changing neuron action potentials in the living brain. Despite this potential, many obstacles must still be overcome for reliable, long-term, high-quality recordings and accurate analysis of brain activity. These challenges include improving recording quality, enhancing recording stability, increasing recording capacity, and adding multi-functional features. One potential approach to enhance implantable microelectrodes involves the advancement of materials, refinement of implantation methodologies, and augmentation of the number of sites for recording. However, these challenges are still being actively researched, and advancements in microelectrode technology are underway. The difficulties with implantable microelectrodes are evaluated, and solutions are presented from different perspectives. The latest advancements in microelectrode technology are reviewed and condensed, and future possibilities are explored.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0088.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: IoT; geriatric healthcare; IoMT; biomedical devices; telemedicine; remote monitoring; aging population
Online: 6 March 2023 (04:20:47 CET)
This paper is a review of the current state of IoT-based technologies in the healthcare field for the elderly population. The increasing population of elderly people has led to a greater demand for healthcare services to meet their unique needs. IoT-based technologies have emerged as a promising solution to address this demand. The paper analyses the current trends, challenges, and future opportunities for research in this area. It highlights how IoT-based technologies can be utilized to improve healthcare for older adults, from remote monitoring and telemedicine to fall detection and medication management. The paper also acknowledges that there are still challenges to be addressed, such as data privacy and security, but the potential benefits for older adults outweigh the challenges. The paper also examines the impact of the industrial revolution on the aging population and the corresponding increase in demand for geriatric healthcare. In summary, this paper delves into the current status of IoT-based technologies in geriatric healthcare and its future prospects, with a focus on addressing the needs of the aging population and improving their quality of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Micro-credentials; Higher Education; Online Learning; E-learning; MOOCs; Digital Learning Ecosystems
Online: 2 March 2023 (12:40:42 CET)
This review paper delves into using micro-credentials in higher education ecosystems as a digital enablers. Micro-credentials, which are digital credentials that attest to a learner’s mastery of a specific skill or knowledge area, are becoming more popular in higher education. The paper examines the successful implementation of micro-credential frameworks in higher education, using case studies to demonstrate the advantages of micro-credentials. The review emphasizes the agility and flexibility of microcredentials, which enable learners to acquire new skills quickly and respond to changes in the job market. In addition, the paper discusses the digital nature of micro-credentials and how they allow institutionsto provide targeted, skills-based training that isrelevant to employers. It also explores how micro-credentials are delivered through online platforms, making them convenient and easily accessible for learners. The review underscores the significance of digital infrastructure, connectivity, and public utility for promoting micro-credentials. The paper argues that micro-credentials function as a digital enabler for higher edu- cation ecosystems, allowing learners to acquire targeted training and enabling institutions to expand their offerings and reach more students. The paper concludes by highlighting the potential for micro-credentials to help bridge the skills gap and equip learners with the skills necessary to succeed in today’s digital economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0224.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Metaverse; AR; VR; Digital ownership; Blockchain; NFT.
Online: 14 February 2023 (02:59:00 CET)
The concept of a metaverse, a shared virtual space that brings together the physical and digital worlds, has been a topic of interest for decades. With recent advancements in technology, particularly in virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and blockchain, the metaverse has become a rapidly evolving and promising ecosystem. This paper provides a review of the metaverse, exploring its history, evolution, and current state of development. The paper delves into the different types of the metaverse, including fully immersive VR metaverses, hybrid metaverses that blend the physical and virtual worlds, and decentralized metaverses that are powered by blockchain. Additionally, the paper examines the impact of web 3.0 on the metaverse, as well as the various technologies used to create and sustain the metaverse, including VR, AR, and blockchain. Furthermore, the paper explores the concept of digital ownership and the potential for marketing and commerce within the metaverse. This paper serves as a review of the metaverse and its various components, providing insights into its history, development, and prospects, and is intended to provide a foundation for further research into this exciting and rapidly evolving ecosystem.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Neuromodulation; Brain Stimulation; Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation; Neurodevelopment Disorder; ADHD; ADD
Online: 10 April 2023 (10:39:24 CEST)
ADHD, a neurodevelopmental condition, is distinguished by a triad of symptoms including inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It is frequently accompanied by comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, and learning disabilities. As a result, clinicians often face challenges in accurately diagnosing ADHD and differentiating it from other conditions. As a prospective remedy for ADHD, scientists have investigated Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive technique of stimulating the brain. It involves applying low-intensity electrical currents to specific regions of the brain to modulate neural activity. This review paper aims to provide an overview of the comorbidities associated with ADHD and the differential diagnosis of the condition. It also explores the potential of tDCS as a treatment option for ADHD, including its mechanisms of action and efficacy in improving ADHD symptoms. The comorbidities discussed in this review include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and substance use disorders. These comorbidities are frequently seen in individuals with ADHD and can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The paper also highlights the importance of considering comorbidities when assessing ADHD, as well as the potential impact of these conditions on treatment outcomes. The differential diagnosis section of the paper explores conditions that can present with symptoms similar to ADHD, such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and learning disabilities. It emphasizes the need for a thorough assessment and differential diagnosis to identify ADHD and differentiate it from other conditions accurately. The final section of the paper discusses the potential of tDCS as a treatment option for ADHD. It examines the mechanisms of action of tDCS and its efficacy in improving ADHD symptoms, including attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It also explores the potential for tDCS to improve comorbid conditions associated with ADHD. Overall, this review provides a comprehensive overview of comorbidities and differential diagnoses in ADHD and the potential of tDCS as a treatment option. The paper highlights the importance of a thorough assessment and personalized treatment plan for individuals with ADHD, particularly those with comorbidities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0164.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Synesthesia; Auditory Tactile Synesthesia; Dopamine; Creativity; Savant; Autism; tDCs
Online: 10 April 2023 (10:11:22 CEST)
This review paper explores auditory tactile (AT) synesthesia, a rare neurological condition where sounds evoke tactile sensations. The paper provides a historical overview of the condition and discusses its epidemiology, with a prevalence of less than 1% of the general population. The neurological basis of AT synesthesia is explored, including the role of cross-modal processing and hyperconnectivity within the brain. The paper also describes the phenomenology of the condition, including the range of tactile sensations that can be experienced in response to different sounds. The occurrence of AT synesthesia in the present-day world is discussed, including its relationship to music and art. Various hypotheses surrounding the development and maintenance of AT synesthesia are reviewed, focusing on genetic and environmental factors. The implications for clinical practice are explored, including potential benefits for individuals with sensory processing disorders. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of future directions for research in this field, including the need to explore further the underlying neural mechanisms of AT synesthesia and potential therapeutic interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0086.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Quinoxaline Analogs, Synthesis, Thymidine phosphorylase inhibition, Molecular docking
Online: 9 January 2019 (13:23:49 CET)
We have synthesized quinoxaline analogs (1-25), characterized by 1HNMR and HREI-MS and evaluated for thymidine phosphorylase inhibition. Among the series, nineteen analogs showed better inhibition when compared with the standard inhibitor 7-Deazaxanthine (IC50 = 38.68 ± 4.42 µM). The most potent analog among the series is analog 25 with IC50 value 3.20 ± 0.10 µM. Sixteen analogs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21and 24 showed outstanding inhibition which is many folds better than the standard 7-Deazaxanthine. Two analogs 8 and 9 showed moderate inhibition. A structure- activity relationship has been established mainly based upon the substitution pattern on the phenyl ring. The binding interactions of the active compounds were confirmed through molecular docking studies.