ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Smartphone Addiction; Middle School Students; Smartphone Usage Types; Depression; Parenting Attitude
Online: 6 September 2020 (16:27:01 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smartphone addiction of middle school students and smartphone usage types, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude. This study was also performed with the aim of verifying the relationships among depression, ADHD, perceived stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude, which are predictors of smartphone addiction. The subjects of this study were 487 local middle school students (234 males and 253 females). The measurement instruments used were the smartphone addiction scale, depression scale (PHQ-9), ADHD scale (K-ARS), perceived stress scale (PSS), interpersonal problem scale (KIIP-SC), and the parenting attitude scale. This study identified the relationships between the variables with correlation analysis and examined the predictors of smartphone addiction with hierarchical multiple regression analysis. According to the study results, the factors that influenced smartphone addiction were gender, stress, and interpersonal problems. In addition, when the confounding variables of smartphone addiction were controlled to examine the effects of smartphone usage types on smartphone addiction, social media use and music/videos were found to have a positively significant effect on smartphone addiction while study had a negatively significant effect. The order of the usage types with the highest influence on smartphone addiction was enjoying music/videos, social media use, and study. This suggests that selective intervention depending on the main smartphone usage type can be effective.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0397.v1
Online: 31 December 2019 (02:16:57 CET)
This study aims to assess using a smartphone app (DecibelX), as a noise measuring alternative to the more costly traditional use of measuring noise levels with a Sound Level Meter (SLM). The study compares the accuracy of the app to readings taken with a SLM and dosimeter, and also evaluates the app’s performance for pure tone and narrow band noise. And a usability study identifies strengths and weaknesses related to usability of the app.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: TrueDepth; CBCT; Orthodontics; Face scan; Smartphone; Facial diagnostics; Smartphone-based sensors; Facially driven orthodontics
Online: 15 September 2022 (05:45:29 CEST)
The current paradigm shift in orthodontic treatment planning is based on facially driven diagnostics. This requires an affordable, convenient, and non-invasive solution for face scanning. Therefore, utilization of smartphones` TrueDepth sensors is very tempting. TrueDepth refers to front-facing cameras with a dot projector in Apple devices that provide real-time depth data in addition to visual information. There are several applications that tout themselves as accurate solutions for 3D scanning of the face in dentistry. Their clinical accuracy has been uncertain. This study focuses on evaluating the accuracy of the Bellus3D Dental Pro app, which uses Apple's TrueDepth sensor. The app reconstructs a virtual, high-resolution version of the face, which is available for download as a 3D object. In this paper, sixty TrueDepth scans of the face were compared to sixty corresponding facial surfaces segmented from CBCT. Difference maps were created for each pair and evaluated in specific facial regions. The results confirmed statistically significant differences in some facial regions in amplitudes greater than 3 mm, suggesting that current technology has limited applicability for clinical use. The clinical utilization of facial scanning for orthodontic evaluation, which does not require accuracy in the lip region below 3 mm, can be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0271.v1
Online: 16 April 2020 (12:38:42 CEST)
Nowadays smartphone utilization for disease diagnosis and remote health care applications has become promising due to their ubiquity. Here, a novel convolutional neural network method for detecting keratoconus that is wholly implemented on a smartphone is proposed. The proposed method provides accurate detection of over 72.9% for all stages of keratoconus. Preliminary results indicate 90%, 83%, 64% and 52% detection rate for severe, advanced, moderate and mild stages of disease, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0384.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Deep Learning; Smartphone Image; Acne Grading; Acne Object DetectionDeep Learning, Smartphone Image, Acne Grading, Acne Object Detection
Online: 28 June 2022 (10:05:25 CEST)
Skin image analysis using artificial intelligence (AI) has recently attracted significant research interest, particularly for analyzing skin images captured by mobile devices. Acne is one of the most common skin conditions with profound effects in severe cases. In this study, we developed an AI system called AcneDet for automatic acne object detection and acne severity grading using facial images captured by smartphones. AcneDet includes two models for conducting two tasks: (1) a Faster R-CNN-based deep learning model for the detection of acne lesion objects of four types including blackheads/whiteheads, papules/pustules, nodules/cysts, and acne scars; and (2) a LightGBM machine learning model for grading acne severity using the Investigator’s Global Assessment (IGA) scale. The output of the Faster R-CNN model, i.e., the counts of each acne type, were used as input for the LightGBM model for acne severity grading. A dataset consisting of 1,572 labeled facial images captured by both iOS and Android smartphones was used for training. The results show that the Faster R-CNN model achieves a mAP of 0.54 for acne object detection. The mean accuracy of acne severity grading by the LightGBM model is 0.85. With this study, we hope to contribute to the development of artificial intelligent systems that are able to help acne patients understand more about their conditions and support doctors in acne diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Localization; Navigation; Smartphone; GNSS; 3D Building Models
Online: 4 August 2022 (08:56:12 CEST)
Smart health applications have received significant attention in recent years. Novel applications hold significant promise to overcome many of the inconveniences faced by persons with disabilities throughout daily living. For people with blindness and low vision (BLV), environmental perception is compromised, creating myriad difficulties. Precise localization is still a gap in the field and is critical to safe navigation. Conventional GNSS positioning cannot provide satisfactory performance in urban canyons. 3D mapping-aided (3DMA) GNSS may serve as an urban GNSS solution, since the availability of 3D city models has widely increased. As a result, this study developed a real-time 3DMA GNSS-positioning system based on state-of-the-art 3DMA GNSS algorithms. Shadow matching was integrated with likelihood-based ranging 3DMA GNSS, generating positioning hypothesis candidates. To increase robustness, the 3DMA GNSS solution was then optimized with Doppler measurements using factor graph optimization (FGO) in a loosely-coupled fashion. This study also evaluated positioning performance using an advanced wearable system’s recorded data in New York City. The real-time forward processed FGO can provide a root-mean-square error (RMSE) with about 21 m. The RMSE drops to 16 m when the data is post-processed with FGO in a combined direction. Overall results show that the proposed loosely-coupled 3DMA FGO algorithm can provide a better and more robust positioning performance for the multi-sensor integration approach used by this wearable for persons with BLV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0051.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: problematic smartphone use; adolescence; marketing; unhook; gamification
Online: 27 May 2020 (04:59:36 CEST)
Background: Smartphones have become an indispensable part of the daily lives of adolescents in the 21st century, which is characterized by a highly digitized modern world. Besides their many advantages, smartphones might pave the way to compulsive usage and addictive experiences. To remedy this problem, this study proposes an authentic approach which integrates consumer behavior theories and techniques such as unhook and gamification. An education program has been designed based on these approaches to decrease the problematic smartphone use. Method: The participants of the education program consisted of 305 students (48.2% girls and 51.8% boys) with a mean age of 14.57 (SD = 0.74). The Demographic Form and Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SASA) were conducted before the education program and three weeks after the education. Results: The results of the paired sample t-test analysis before and after the education program revealed that the SASA total scores decreased significantly (p < 0.01). There are significant differences in terms of gender, mothers’ education and class levels. Conclusion: This research emphasizes the role of an interdisciplinary approach to the addiction problem. The content used in the education program includes strategies that originally aimed at increasing consumption. The effectiveness of the program can be enhanced further in the future along with self-regulatory additions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0405.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Smartphone Apps; Trip Planning; App Usage; Travel Outcomes
Online: 24 August 2022 (03:55:53 CEST)
With considerable growth in the Information & Communication Technologies, several smartphone-based mobility platforms have already sprung up and they have the potential of transforming the mobility ecosystem completely. However, mobility-based smartphone app usage pattern across various user groups in Indian cities is unknown, and this knowledge is vital for introducing new consolidated apps-based services. Therefore, using primary data from a survey carried out in Bhopal (India), this article analyses the usage pattern of smartphone apps for trip planning activities and travel outcomes across various user groups at the personal and household level. The research offers empirical indication of relationships between smartphone app usage for trip planning (like departure time, choosing a destination, choosing the mode, se-lecting route, communicating, and coordinating trips, and performing tasks online instead of visiting) and resulting travel outcomes including vehicle kilometers travelled (for purposes like work/education, shopping, and recreation), social gathering, new place visits and group trips. The chi-square test has been used to test and interpret several socioeconomic variables that could in-fluence this relationship, such as gender, age, income, etc. This study's findings provide important behavioral insights that may be useful in policy discussions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0292.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: sonification; gamification; auditory display; smartphone apps; video games
Online: 10 June 2021 (13:21:22 CEST)
As sonification is supposed to communicate information to users, experimental evaluation of the subjective appropriateness and effectiveness of the sonification design is often desired and sometimes indispensable. Experiments in the laboratory are typically restricted to short-term usage by a small sample size under unnatural conditions. We introduce the multi-platform CURAT Sonification Game that allows us to evaluate our sonification design by a large population during long-term usage. Gamification is used to motivate users to interact with the sonification regularly and conscientiously over a long period of time. In this paper we present the sonification game and some initial analyses of the gathered data. Furthermore, we hope to reach more volunteers to play the CURAT Sonification Game and help us evaluate and optimize our psychoacoustic sonification design and give us valuable feedback on the game and recommendations for future developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0376.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Photo-taking Behaviors; Behaviors detection; Smartphone; OpenPose; Skeleton.
Online: 25 March 2020 (08:57:29 CET)
Many people can take photos with smartphones and easily post photos via SNS (Social Network Services). This has caused a social problem that unintended appearance in photos may threaten the privacy of photographed persons. For this issue, numerous studies have already been introduced to prevent the unintended appearance in photos from the photographer’s side, but only a few methods tackled this from the photographed person's side. Therefore, we considered calling attention to a situation that a photo-taking behavior by a photographer can be automatically detected by using a wearable camera worn by a photographed person. In this paper, we propose an approach to detect photo-taking behaviors in video data taken from the wearable camera, analyzing specific human skeleton information. OpenPose is utilized to obtain the human’s skeleton information and the time-series data are analyzed. In addition, we compare two similar behaviors which are photo-taking behaviors and net-surfing behaviors. These video data are distinguished by DP matching and cross-validation. Finally, it is concluded that the detection accuracy of photo-taking behaviors is about 92.5%, which is satisfactory enough for this research purpose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0257.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: smartphone; magnetic sensor, magnetic field; lab physics; quadrupole
Online: 26 January 2018 (16:17:43 CET)
We believe that a natural focus of the Physics Education Research community is on understanding and improving student learning in our physics courses. For this purpose, we are introducing smartphones in the physics laboratory. Current smartphones measure each component of the magnetic field, bearing in mind that any current perpendicular to a magnetic field produces a small potential difference, transversal to the said current, being this voltage easily measurable by Hall sensors. In this work, we have considered the magnetic field created by a linear quadrupole and we have studied its dependence on distance. Using an experimental procedure that is simple we have measured the magnetic field using the Hall sensor that most smartphones have, together with the corresponding app. The purpose of this work is to show that the laboratory is a powerful tool that increases significant learning under three conditions: 1) the practice must not be too sophisticated; 2) students must handle objects in the lab; and 3) the practice must be scientifically accurate, including the adjustments by minimum squares, and the following and necessary error calculation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0033.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: smartphone accelerometers; dataset; human activity recognition; fall detection
Online: 18 July 2017 (13:16:10 CEST)
Smartphones, smartwatches, fitness trackers, and ad-hoc wearable devices are being increasingly used to monitor human activities. Data acquired by the hosted sensors are usually processed by machine-learning-based algorithms to classify human activities. The success of those algorithms mostly depends on the availability of training (labeled) data that, if made publicly available, would allow researchers to make objective comparisons between techniques. Nowadays, publicly available data sets are few, often contain samples from subjects with too similar characteristics, and very often lack of specific information so that is not possible to select subsets of samples according to specific criteria. In this article, we present a new smartphone accelerometer dataset designed for activity recognition. The dataset includes 11,771 activities performed by 30 subjects of ages ranging from 18 to 60 years. Activities are divided in 17 fine grained classes grouped in two coarse grained classes: 9 types of activities of daily living (ADL) and 8 types of falls. The dataset has been stored to include all the information useful to select samples according to different criteria, such as the type of ADL performed, the age, the gender, and so on. Finally, the dataset has been benchmarked with two different classifiers and with different configurations. The best results are achieved with k-NN classifying ADLs only, considering personalization, and with both windows of 51 and 151 samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0383.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: NG eCall; road security; cellular communications; heterogeneous networks; smartphone.
Online: 21 November 2022 (07:56:48 CET)
In the European Union, the eCall system has been mandatory since March 31, 2018. The system enabled a significant increase in safety on roads and highways, making help faster in the event of an accident. However, based on circuit-switched 2G/3G communications and an onboard device called IVS, it is generally unavailable on legacy vehicles. Some of its limitations tend to be remedied by the future NG eCall based on 4G/5G packet-switched communications. This paper discusses why IVS may be an Achilles’ heel of any future IVS-based eCall and analyzes the advantages of a smartphone-based system. The TEZE system, implemented and installed in Italian highway tunnels, is a first general-purpose safety system, and allows highly reliable smartphone-based emergency calls. It is based on a dedicated low-cost ground infrastructure that allows monitoring of the availability of emergency call service through the mobile radio networks of the operators present inside the tunnels. The system complies with the ISO/IEC 30141:2018 reference standard. Identifying functional/non-functional requirements and their verification criteria provide an overall validation of the analyzed system. The paper concludes by examining some key functionalities for vehicular services that can be implemented in an integrated system based on smartphones and heterogeneous networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0177.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Plant disease; Machine vision; UAV; Smartphone; Convolutional Neural Network
Online: 19 April 2022 (07:44:29 CEST)
Stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat and causes large-scale epidemics and severe yield loss. Applying fungicides during early epidemic development is crucial to controlling the disease but is often challenged by resource-limited human visual scouting. Deep learning has the potential to process images and videos captured from affordable devices to empower high-throughput phenotyping for early detection of stripe rust for timely application of fungicides and improve control efficiency. Here, we developed RustNet, a neural network-based image classifier, for efficiently monitoring fields for stripe rust. RustNet was built on a ResNet-18 architecture pre-trained with ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) dataset using transfer learning. RGB images and videos of multiple wheat fields with different wheat types (winter and spring wheat), conditions (irrigated and non-irrigated), and locations were acquired using smartphones or unmanned aerial vehicles near the canopy. A semi-automated image labeling approach was conducted to improve labeling efficiency by combining automated machine labeling and human correction. Cross-validations across multiple categories (sensor platforms, wheat types, and locations) achieved Area Under Curve from 0.72 to 0.87. Independent validation on a published dataset from Germany achieved accuracies ranging from 0.79 to 0.86. The visualization of the last convolutional layer of RustNet demonstrated the identification of pixels with stripe rust. RustNet is freely available at https://zzlab.net/RustNet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0343.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Awake Bruxism, Self-Report, Ecological Momentary Assessment, Smartphone Application
Online: 12 March 2021 (15:45:57 CET)
Diagnosis of Awake Bruxism (AB) is problematic due to the inability to use continuous recordings during daytime activities. Recently, a new semi-instrumental approach was suggested, viz., an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), with the use of a smartphone application. With the application subjects are requested to report, at least 12 times per day, the status of their masticatory muscle activity (relaxed muscles, jaw bracing without tooth contact, teeth contact, teeth clenching or teeth grinding). The aim of the present study was to compare the EMA to the assessment of AB as defined by a single point self-report. The most frequent condition recorded by the EMA was relaxed muscles (ca. 60%) and the least frequent one - Teeth grinding (0.6 %). The relaxed muscle condition also showed the lowest coefficient of variance over a 7day period of report. Additionally, only the relaxed muscles and the Jaw bracing conditions presented an acceptable ability to discriminate between AB positive and AB negative subjects, as defined by single point self-report questions. The combination between self-report and EMA may have a potential to promote our ability to diagnose AB. We suggest to re-consider the conditions of Teeth contact and Teeth grinding while using EMA to evaluate AB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0506.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Paper-based microfluidic device; colorimetric; multiple detection; smartphone application
Online: 26 October 2020 (08:56:58 CET)
Paper-based microfluidic analysis devices (μPADs) have attracted attention as a cost-effective platform for point-of-care testing (POCT), food safety, and environmental monitoring. Recently, three-dimensional (3D)-μPADs have been developed to improve the performance of μPADs. For accurate diagnosis of diseases, however, 3D-μPADs need to be developed to simultaneously detect multiple biomarkers. Here, we report a 3D-μPADs platform for the detection of multiple biomarkers that can be analyzed and diagnosed with a smartphone. The 3D-μPADs were fabricated using a 3D digital light processing printer and consisted of a sample reservoir (300 µL) connected to 24 detection zones (of 4 mm in diameter) through 8 microchannels (of 2 mm in width). With the smartphone application, eight different biomarkers related to various diseases were detectable in concentrations ranging from normal to abnormal conditions: glucose (0–20 mmol/L), cholesterol (0–10 mmol/L), albumin (0–7 g/dL), alkaline phosphatase (0–800 U/L), creatinine (0–500 µmol/L), aspartate aminotransferase (0–800 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (0–1000 U/L), and urea nitrogen (0–7.2 mmol/L). These results suggest that 3D-µPADs can be used as a POCT platform for simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: smartphone dependency; aggression; ego-resilience; parenting behavior; peer attachment
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:45:15 CEST)
This study was conducted to examine the moderating and mediating effect of ego - resilience, parenting attitude, and peer attachment in the relation between smartphone dependency and aggression. Participants were 1,863 youths using a smartphone among the first middle school students responded in the 7th Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute in Korea. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, a correlation, and a hierarchical regression analysis. First, ego-resilience showed a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency, aggression and significant moderating effects were revealed. Second, parenting behavior showed a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency and aggression, with no moderating effects seen. Third, peer attachment had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency and aggression, with no moderating effects seen. The research suggested the mental health and growth of students could be improved by applying various nursing and health care programs to improve ego-resilience, parenting behavior and peer attachment as they grow into adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0031.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: smartphone; magnetic hall sensor, magnetic field; lab physics; quadrupole
Online: 5 February 2018 (11:30:05 CET)
Current smartphones incorporate different types of sensors that allow us to know our spatial position, they give us information about pressure, speed, acceleration, time, acoustic level, and other different physical magnitudes. These smartphones measure each component of the magnetic field, bearing in mind that any current perpendicular to a magnetic field produces a small potential difference, transversal to the said current, being this voltage easily measurable by Hall sensors. With the implementation of three Hall sensors, and an appropriate app, we can measure the three components of the magnetic field vector, and with this we can obtain information and deduce properties of the physical systems considered. In this paper we are exploring the use of smartphones in a physics laboratory for freshman students. To do this, we have measured, using Hall sensors, the magnetic field created by a linear quadrature, and we have obtained, first of all, its dependence on the distance between the quadrupole and the magnetic sensor. The second purpose of this work is to show that the laboratory is a powerful tool that increases the significant learning of freshman students through advanced technological tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0148.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Chinese smartphone brands; Decision trees; e-stores subscribers; consumer learning
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:24:54 CEST)
Introduction. Until now, the impact of learning variables on consumers' choices concerning Chinese product brands in the international online shopping framework remains unknown. Accordingly, this study aims to examine the effect of those learning variables on global consumers' choices of Chinese product brands. Method. A total of 44,704 transactions related to the buying process have been collected from a programming language and the Octopus Software within a Chinese International Online Shopping platform. Analysis. The 44,704 transactions have been analyzed through a Decision Tree. Results. The study points out that the number of e-retailers' subscribers reinforces the international consumers' trust online. At the same time, the pricing levels and quantity of product availability are used by global online consumers to assess the originality of Chinese product brands. Conclusions. First, this study extends the existing literature on consumer learning by going beyond the learning variables considered. Second, the study boosts consumer learning literature by elucidating the most significant learning variables guiding international online consumers' choices and purchases. The application of the results will enable brands and e-retailers to understand (1) the stages of the international online consumers' choice; (2) the buying strategies of global consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: active learning; web-based quiz; Google Forms; reviewing habits; smartphone
Online: 19 April 2020 (07:59:23 CEST)
Active participation of students is paramount not only for their learning experiences but also for their academic performance. Therefore, various methods have been developed and proven to help students achieve active learning. However, several shortcomings in these methods have been indicated as increasing students’ sense of burden and discomfort, eventually preventing them from benefiting sufficiently. This study aimed to determine the efficiency of a low-load web-based review quiz built by the researchers on Google Forms to enhance students’ reviewing habits and active class participation. Participants in this study were 53 first-year dental hygiene students in a 10-class microbiology course. After each class, all students were given the web-based quiz to prepare for a paper-based review test, which assessed the learning of the content covered in the previous classes. We analyzed the correlations between frequency of participation in the web-based quiz and the average scores of the weekly review tests or the final examination scores. Consequently, voluntary participation in the web-based quiz positively correlated with both short-term and long-term students’ learning outcomes. Through this web-based quiz during the first year of the dental hygiene program, students can develop the “self-learning attitude” needed to pass the national examination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: sedentary behaviour; smartphone; mobile app; just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI)
Online: 19 August 2022 (05:29:57 CEST)
Breaking up prolonged sitting by short bouts of light physical activities including standing and walking has been shown to be beneficial for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This paper presents the development of an android mobile app to deliver a just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) to reduce sedentary time in people with T2D. A total of six design workshops were conducted with seven experts to identify design requirements, a behavioural framework, and required contextual adaptations for the development of a bespoke mobile app (iMOVE). Moreover, a focus group was conducted among people with T2D as potential end-users (N=10) to ascertain their perceptions of the app. Feedback from the focus group was used in subsequent iterations of the iMOVE app. Data were analysed using an inductive qualitative thematic analysis. Based on workshops, key features of iMOVE were developed, including simplicity (e.g., navigation, login), colours and font sizes, push notifications, messaging algorithms and a triggering system for breaking up sitting time and moving more. Based on the user testing results, a goal setting tab was added, font sizes were made larger, the brightness of colours was reduced, and a colour indicator was used to indicate device connectivity with an activity tracker. A user-centric app was developed to support people with T2D to transition from sedentary to active lifestyles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: ballistocardiography; seismocardiography; ultra-short heart rate variability; stress evaluation; smartphone; accelerometers
Online: 3 July 2019 (10:49:55 CEST)
Body acceleration due the heartbeat-induced reaction forces can be measured as smartphone accelerometer (m-ACC) signals. Our aim was to test the feasibility of using m-ACC to detect changes induced by stress by ultra-short heart rate variability (USV) indices (SDNN and RMSSD). Sixteen healthy volunteers were recruited; m-ACC was recorded while in supine position, during spontaneous breathing (REST) and during one minute of mental stress (MS) induced by arithmetic serial subtraction task, simultaneous with conventional ECG. Beat occurrences were extracted from both ECG and m-ACC and used to compute USV indices using 60, 30 and 10s durations, both for REST and MS. A feasibility of 93.8% in the beat-to-beat m-ACC heart rate series extraction was reached. In both ECG and m-ACC series, compared to REST, in MS the mean beat duration was reduced by 15% and RMSSD decreased by 38%. These results show that short term recordings (up to 10 sec) of cardiac activity using smartphone’s accelerometers are able to capture the decrease in parasympathetic tone, in agreement with the induced stimulus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: leaf area index; smartphone camera sensor; conifer forest; canopy gap fraction
Online: 17 January 2017 (09:59:36 CET)
Plant leaf area index (LAI) is a key characteristic affecting field canopy microclimate. In addition to traditional professional measuring instruments, smartphone camera sensors have been used to measure plant LAI. However, when smartphone methods were used to measure conifer forest LAI, very different performances were obtained depending on whether the smartphone was held at the zenith angle or at a 57.5° angle. To validate further the potential of smartphone sensors for measuring conifer LAI and to find the limits of this method, this paper reports the results of a comparison of two smartphone methods with an LAI-2000 instrument. It is shown that both methods can be used to reveal the conifer leaf-growing trajectory. However, the method with the phone oriented vertically upwards always produced better consistency in magnitude with LAI-2000. The bias of the LAI between the smartphone method and the LAI-2000 instrument was explained with regard to four aspects that can affect LAI: gap fraction, leaf projection ratio, sensor field of view (FOV), and viewing zenith angle (VZA). It was concluded that large FOV and large VZA cause the 57.5° method to overestimate the gap fraction and hence underestimate conifer LAI, especially when tree height is greater than 2.0 m. For the vertically upward method, the bias caused by the overestimated gap fraction is compensated for by an underestimated leaf projection ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: low-cost fluorescence microscopy; smartphone microscopy; 3D-printed devices; laser-based microscopy
Online: 21 October 2022 (13:48:31 CEST)
Fluorescence microscopy is an important tool for disease diagnosis, often requiring costly optical components, such as fluorescence filter cubes and high-power light sources. Due to its high cost, conventional fluorescence microscopy cannot be fully exploited in low-income settings. Smartphone-based fluorescence microscopy becomes an interesting low-cost alternative, but raises challenges in the optical system. We present the development of a low-cost inverted laser fluorescence microscope, that uses a smartphone to visualize the fluorescence image of biological samples. Our fluorescence microscope uses a laser-based simplified optical filter system, that provides analog optical filtering capabilities of a fluorescence filter cube. Firstly, we validated our inverted optical filtering by visualizing microbeads labeled with three different fluorescent compounds or fluorophores, commonly used for disease diagnosis. Secondly, we validated the disease diagnosis capabilities, by comparing the results of our device with those of a commercial fluorescence microscope. We successfully detected and visualized Trypanosoma cruzi parasites, responsible of the Chagas infectious disease, and the presence of Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies of the ANCA non-communicable autoimmune disease. The samples were labeled with the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) fluorophore, one of the most commonly used for disease diagnosis. Our device provides a 400 X magnification and is at least two orders magnitude cheaper than conventional commercial fluorescence microscopes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0406.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Smartphone; App Usage; Transport Mode Usage; Latent Class Cluster Analysis; Multimodality; Environment
Online: 24 August 2022 (03:59:57 CEST)
Smartphone-based mobility apps enable users to make informed transportation decisions, offering instant access to transport-related information. This development has created a smartphone-enabled ecosystem of mobility services in developed countries while it is slowly picking up pace in the global south, which can contribute towards the decarbonization of urban transport. Work on this has already started in India, and there is considerable evidence indicating the profound impact of these apps on the perceived utility and usage of transport modes, with far-reaching implications for sustainable development goals (SDGs). However, for most users, the use of smartphone apps is a novel trend, and the knowledge of the impacts of usage of existing apps on the usage pattern of transport modes by various user groups is essential for positioning new consolidated app-based services soon. Against this backdrop, the present study uses latent class cluster analysis to empirically investigate the impacts of mobility apps on transport mode usage patterns in Delhi by classifying users into latent classes based on socioeconomic characteristics, attitudes/preferences, smartphone app usage, and mode usage pattern. The characteristics of the latent class and factors affecting the individual’s probability of being classified to these cluster have been discussed, along with some measures to encourage app-based mobility for each cluster.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0058.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Smartphone sensing; mobile-social integration; automatic recognition; social data; long-term health monitoring
Online: 10 March 2017 (17:32:31 CET)
Over the past decades, overweight and obesity has become a global epidemic and the leading threat for death. To prevent the serious risk, an overweight or obese individual must apply a long-term weight-management strategy to control food intake and physical activities, which is however, not easy. Recently, with the advances of information technology, more and more people can use wearable devices and smartphones to obtain physical activity information, while they can also access various health-related information from Internet online social networks (OSNs). Nevertheless, there is a lack of an integrated approach that can combine these two methods in an efficient way. In this paper, we address this issue and propose a novel mobile-social framework for health recognition and recommendation, namely, H-Rec2. The main ideas of H-Rec2 include (1) to recognize the individual's health status using smartphone as a general platform, and (2) to recommend physical activity and food intake based on personal health information, life science principles, and health-related information obtained from OSNs. To demonstrate the potentials of the H-Rec2 framework, we develop a prototype that consists of four important components: (1) an activity recognition module that senses physical activity using accelerometer, (2) a health status modeling module that applies a novel algorithm to generate personalized health status index, (3) a restaurant information collection module that collects relevant information from OSN, and (4) a restaurant recommendation module that provides personalized and context-aware recommendation. To evaluate the prototype, we conduct both objective and subjective experiments, which confirm the performance and effectiveness of the proposed system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0502.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: breathalyzer; wearable; sensors; breath analysis device; health; mobile screen; alcohol; ethanol; smartphone; multimedia screen
Online: 19 April 2021 (15:11:03 CEST)
One third of fatal car accidents and so much tragedies are due to alcohol abuse. These sad numbers could be mitigated if everyone had access to a breathalyzer anytime and anywhere. Having a breathalyzer built into a phone or a wearable could be the way to get around the reluctance to carry a separate device. Towards this goal, we propose an inexpensive breathalyzer that could be integrated in the screen of mobile devices. Our technology is based on the evaporation rate of the fog produced by the breath on the phone screen, which increases as a function of the breath alcohol content. The device simply uses a photodiode placed on the side of the screen to measure the signature of the scattered light intensity from the phone display that is guided through the stress layer of the Gorilla glass screen. A part of the display light is coupled to the stress layer via the evanescent field induced at the edge of the breath microdroplets. We demonstrate that the intensity signature measured at the detector can be linked to the blood alcohol content. We fabricated a prototype in a smartphone case powered by the phone’s battery, controlled by an application software installed in the smartphone and tested it in real-world environments. Limitations and future work toward a fully operational device are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cough sound; cough peak flow; microphone; cough ability; cough strength; bone conduction microphone; smartphone
Online: 8 June 2018 (13:45:14 CEST)
Cough peak flow (CPF) is a measurement to evaluate the risk of cough dysfunction and can be measured using various devices, such as spirometers. However, complex device setup and the face mask required to be firmly attached to the mouth impose burdens on both patients and their caregivers. Therefore, this study develops a novel cough strength evaluation method using cough sounds. This paper presents an exponential model to estimate CPF from the cough peak sound pressure level (CPSL). We investigated the relationship between cough sounds and cough flows and the effects of a measurement condition of cough sound, microphone type, and participant’s height and gender on CPF estimation accuracy. The results confirmed that the proposed model estimated CPF with a high accuracy. The absolute error between CPFs and estimated CPFs were significantly lower when the microphone distance from the participant’s mouth was within 30 cm than when the distance exceeded 30 cm. Analysis of the model parameters showed that the estimation accuracy was not affected by participant’s height or gender. These results indicate that the proposed model has the potential to improve the feasibility of measuring and assessing CPF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: computational nutrition; meal plan generator; nutritional app; nutritional intervention; smartphone application; diet app; diet record.
Online: 9 December 2022 (01:11:03 CET)
Access to good nutritional health is one of the principal objectives of current society. Several e-services offer dietary advice. However, multifactorial and more individualized nutritional recommendations should be developed to recommend healthy menus according to the specific user's needs. In this article we present and validate a personalized nutrition system based on an application (APP) for smart devices with the capacity to offer an adaptable menu to the user. The APP was developed following a structured recommendation generation scheme, where the characteristics of the menus of 20 users were evaluated. Specific menus were generated for each user based on their preferences and nutritional requirements. These menus were evaluated by comparing their nutritional content versus the nutrient composition retrieved from dietary records. The generated menus showed great similarity to those obtained from the user dietary records. Furthermore, the generated menus showed less variability in micronutrient amounts and higher concentrations than the menus from the user records. The macronutrient deviations were also corrected in the generated menus, offering a better adaptation to the users. The presented system is a good tool for the generation of menus that are adapted to the user characteristics and a starting point to nutritional interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0403.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: lead biosensors; FRET; portable Pb sensor; smartphone-based device; Met-lead; tap water lead; groundwater lead
Online: 23 February 2022 (10:53:14 CET)
Most methods for measuring environmental lead (Pb) content are time consuming, expensive, hazardous, and restricted to specific analytical systems. To provide a facile, safe tool to detect Pb, we created pMet-lead, a portable fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based Pb biosensor. pMet-lead comprises a 3D-printed frame housing a 405-nm laser diode — an excitation source for fluorescence emission images (YFP and CFP) — accompanied by optical filters, a customized sample holder with a Met-lead 1.44 M1 (the most recent version)-embedded biochip, and an optical lens aligned for smartphone compatibility. Measuring the emission ratios (Y/C) of the FRET component enables Pb detection with a dynamic range of nearly 2 (1.96), pMet-lead/Pb dissociation constant (Kd) 45.62 nM, and limit of detection 40 nM (0.832 μg/dL, 8.32 ppb). To mitigate earlier problems with lack of selectivity for Pb vs. zinc, we preincubated samples with tricine, a low-affinity zinc chelator. We validated pMet-lead measurements of characterized laboratory samples and unknown samples from six regions in Taiwan by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Notably, two unknowns had Y/C ratios significantly higher than that of the control (3.48 ± 0.08 and 3.74 ± 0.12 vs. 2.79 ± 0.02), along with Pb concentrations (10.6 ppb and 15.24 ppb) above the WHO-permitted level of 10 ppb in tap water, while the rest four unknowns showing no detectable Pb upon ICP-MS. These results demonstrate that pMet-lead provides a rapid, sensitive means for on-site Pb detection in water from the environment and in living/drinking supply systems to prevent potential Pb poisoning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Smartphone; cloud; privacy; framework; mobile privacy; blockchain; permission system; data security; Android OS; Zygote; Dalvik VM
Online: 7 September 2020 (08:53:02 CEST)
The Smartphone industry has expanded significantly over the last few years. According to the available data, each year, a marked increase in the number of devices in use is observed. Most consumers opt for Smartphones due to the extensive number of software applications that can be downloaded on their devices, thus increasing their functionality. However, this growing trend of application installation brings an issue of user protection, as most applications seek permission to access data on a user’s device. The risks this poses to sensitive data is real to both corporate and individual users. While Android has grown in popularity, this trend has not been followed by the efforts to increase the security of its users. This is a well-known set of problems, and prior solutions have approached it from the ground up; that is, they have focused on implementing reasonable security policies within the Android’s open-source kernel. While these solutions have achieved the goals of improving Android with such security policies, they are severely hampered by the way in which they have implemented them. In this work, a framework referred to as CenterYou is proposed to overcome these issues. It applies a pseudo data technique and a cloud-based decision-making system to scan and protect Smartphone devices from unnecessarily requested permissions by installed applications and identifies potential privacy leakages. The current paper demonstrated all aspects of the CenterYou application technical design. The work presented here provides a significant contribution to the field, as the technique based on pseudo data is used in the actual permissions administration of Android applications. Moreover, this system is user and cloud-driven, rather than being governed by over-privileged applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0647.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Lung condition; COVID-19; Machine learning; Custom Vision; Core ML; Auto ML; AI; Pneumonia; Smartphone application; Real-time diagnosis
Online: 26 September 2020 (16:14:39 CEST)
AI is leveraging all aspects of life. Medical services are not untouched. Especially in the field of medical image processing and diagnosis. Big IT and Biotechnology companies are investing millions of dollars in medical and AI research. The recent outbreak of SARS COV-2 gave us a unique opportunity to study for a non interventional and sustainable AI solution. Lung disease remains a major healthcare challenge with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The predominant lung disease was lung cancer. Until recently, the world has witnessed the global pandemic of COVID19, the Novel coronavirus outbreak. We have experienced how viral infection of lung and heart claimed thousands of lives worldwide. With the unprecedented advancement of Artificial Intelligence in recent years, Machine learning can be used to easily detect and classify medical imagery. It is much faster and most of the time more accurate than human radiologists. Once implemented, it is more cost-effective and time-saving. In our study, we evaluated the efficacy of Microsoft Cognitive Service to detect and classify COVID19 induced pneumonia from other Viral/Bacterial pneumonia based on X-Ray and CT images. We wanted to assess the implication and accuracy of the Automated ML-based Rapid Application Development (RAD) environment in the field of Medical Image diagnosis. This study will better equip us to respond with an ML-based diagnostic Decision Support System(DSS) for a Pandemic situation like COVID19. After optimization, the trained network achieved 96.8% Average Precision which was implemented as a Web Application for consumption. However, the same trained network did not perform like Web Application when ported to Smartphone for Real-time inference, which was our main interest of study. The authors believe, there is scope for further study on this issue. One of the main goals of this study was to develop and evaluate the performance of AI-powered Smartphone-based Real-time Applications. Facilitating primary diagnostic services in less equipped and understaffed rural healthcare centers of the world with unreliable internet service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0396.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: structural equation modelling; smallholder farmers; smartphone apps; decision support systems; unified theory of acceptance and use of technology; innovation hubs, mastery-approach goal
Online: 16 December 2020 (08:33:48 CET)
While current studies have focused on adoption and the relevant content of the app to become a decision support system, very few studies have focused on the farmer's intention and initial decision to adopt. Based on a survey of 394 smallholder farmers this study investigated Mexican farmers’ willingness to adopt an agricultural advice app. A Structural Equation Modelling approach, based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) was applied. To understand farmers’ adoption decision, extended constructs were studied (e.g. mastery-approach goals) along with farmers’ age and participation in an innovation hub. Results showed that the intention to adopt the app is predicted by how farmers believe that technical infrastructure exists and by the expectation of the farmers using the app to acquire new knowledge. The multi-group analysis revealed that performance expectancy is a relevant predictor of the intention to adopt, whereas the mastery-approach goal is relevant only for younger and farmers not connected to the innovation hub. The results may well be a baseline to research further suitable non-financial incentives for different farmers’ groups, then encourage initial adoption and enhance uptake. The findings are useful for practitioners and app developers designing digital decision support tools.