Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Phylogenetics; Subclinical infection; FMD outbreaks; Disease control; Surveillance; Sentinels
Online: 30 August 2021 (11:54:39 CEST)
The genetic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) poses a challenge to the successful control of the disease, and it is important to identify the emergence of different strains in endemic settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate sampling of clinically healthy livestock at slaughterhouses as a strategy for genomic FMDV surveillance. Serum samples (n = 11875) and oropharyngeal fluid (OPF) samples (n = 5045) were collected from asymptomatic cattle and buffalo on farms in eight provinces in southern and northern Vietnam (2015 to 2019) to characterize viral diversity. Outbreak sequences were collected between 2009 and 2019. In two slaughterhouses in southern Vietnam, 1200 serum and OPF samples were collected from asymptomatic cattle and buffalo (2017 to 2019) as a pilot study on the use of slaughterhouses as sentinel points of surveil-lance. VP1 sequences were analyzed using discriminant principal component analysis and time-scaled phylodynamic trees. Six of seven serotype O and A clusters circulating in southern Vietnam from 2017-19 were detected at least once in slaughterhouses, sometimes pre-dating outbreak sequences associated with the same cluster by 4-6 months. Routine sampling at slaughterhouses may provide timely and cost-effective strategy for genomic surveillance to identify circulating and emerging FMDV strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0489.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Agriculture; Copernicus initiative; Farming; Food traceability; Organic Farming; Rice; Rice paddy fields; Water Management; Sentinels
Online: 20 May 2021 (12:32:52 CEST)
Whereas a vast literature exists on satellite-based mapping of rice paddy fields in Asia, where most of the global production takes place, little has been produced so far that focuses on the European context. Detection and mapping methods that work well in the Asian context will not offer the same performances in Europe, where different seasonal cycles, environmental contexts, and rice varieties make distinctive features dissimilar to the Asian case. In this context, water management is a key clue; watering practices are distinctive for rice with respect to other crops, and within rice there exist diverse cultivation practices including organic and non-organic approaches. In this paper, we focus on satellite-observed water management to identify rice paddy fields cultivated with a traditional agricultural approach. Building on established research results, and guided by the output of experiments on real-world cases, a new method for analysing time series of Sentinel-1 data has been developed, which can identify traditional rice fields with a high degree of reliability. This work is a part of a broader initiative to build space-based tools for collecting additional pieces of evidence to support food chain traceability; the whole system will consider various parameters, whose analysis procedures are still at their early stages of development.