ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: infectious bronchitis; viral evolution; whole genome sequencing; DMV; QX.
Online: 2 August 2022 (09:27:23 CEST)
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly variable RNA virus that affects chickens worldwide. Due to its inherited tendency to suffer point mutations and recombination events during viral replication, emergent IBV strains have been linked to nephropathogenic and reproductive disease that are more severe than the typical respiratory disease, leading, in some cases, to mortality, severe production losses, and/or unsuccessful vaccination. QX and DMV/1639 strains are examples of the above-mentioned IBV evolutionary pathway and clinical outcome. In this study, our purpose was to systematically compare whole genomes of QX and DMV strains looking at each IBV gene individually. Phylogenetic analyses and amino acid site searches were performed in datasets obtained from GenBank accounting for all IBV genes and using our own relevant sequences as a basis. The QX dataset studied is more genetically diverse than the DMV dataset, partially due to the greater epidemiological diversity within the five QX strains used as a basis compared to the four DMV strains from our study. Historically, QX strains have emerged and spread earlier than DMV strains in Europe and Asia. Consequently, there are more QX sequences deposited in GenBank than DMV strains, assisting in the identification of a larger pool of QX strains. It is likely that a similar evolutionary pattern will be observed among DMV strains as they develop and spread in North America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: IBV; infectious bronchitis; variants; whole-genome sequencing, enteric tropism; runting-stunting syndrome
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:25:48 CEST)
Abstract: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) induces respiratory and urogenital disease in chickens. Although IBV replicates in the gastrointestinal tract, enteric lesions are uncommon. We have reported a case of runting-stunting syndrome in commercial broilers from which an IBV variant was isolated from the intestines. The isolate, CalEnt, demonstrated an enteric tissue tropism in chicken embryos and SPF chickens experimentally. Here, we determined the full genome of CalEnt and compared it to other IBV strains, in addition to comparing the pathobiology of CalEnt and M41 in commercial broilers. Despite the high whole-genome identity to other IBV strains, CalEnt is rather unique in nucleotide composition. The S gene phylogenetic analyses showed great similarity between CalEnt and Cal 99. Clinically, vent staining was slightly more frequent in CalEnt-infected birds than those challenged with M41. Furthermore, IBV IHC detection was more evident and the viral shedding in feces was overall higher with the CalEnt challenge compared with M41. Despite underlying intestinal lesions caused by coccidiosis and salmonellosis vaccination, microscopic lesions in CalEnt-infected chickens were more severe than in M41-infected chickens or controls, supporting the enteric tropism of CalEnt. Further studies in SPF chickens are needed to determine the pathogenesis of the virus, its molecular mechanisms for the enteric tropism, and its influence in intestinal health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: chicken; Newcastle disease; spleen; immune response; gene expression; RNA-seq
Online: 4 August 2020 (16:09:52 CEST)
As a major infectious disease in chickens, Newcastle disease causes considerable economic losses in the poultry industry, especially in developing countries where there is limited access to effective vaccination. Therefore, enhancing resistance to the virus in commercial chickens through breeding is a promising way to promote poultry production. In this study, we investigated gene expression changes at 2 and 6 dpi after infection at day21 with a lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in a commercial egg-laying chicken hybrid using RNA sequencing analysis. By comparing NDV challenged and nonchallenged groups, 526 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.05) were identified at 2 dpi, and only 36 at 6 dpi. For the DEGs at 2 dpi, IPA analysis predicted inhibition of multiple signaling pathways in response to NDV that regulate immune cell development and activity, neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Upregulation of Interferon Induced Protein with Tetratricopeptide Repeats 5 (IFIT5) in response to NDV was consistent between the current and most previous studies. Sprouty RTK Signaling Antagonist 1 (SPRY1), a DEG in the current study is located in a significant QTL associated with virus load at 6 dpi in the same population. These identified pathways and DEGs provide potential targets to further study breeding strategy to enhance NDV resistance in chickens.