REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0022.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: culinary and nutritional traits; farmer-breeder-chef-consumer nexus; folk cultivars; genetic diversity; global warming; heritage seedbank; local food systems; seed savers; stress tolerance
Online: 3 June 2019 (12:34:14 CEST)
The burdens of malnutrition, protein and micronutrient deficiency, and obesity cause enormous costs to society. Crop nutritional quality has been compromised by the emphasis on edible yield and through the loss of biodiversity due to the introduction of high-yielding uniform cultivars. Heirloom crop cultivars are traditional cultivars grown for a long time (> 50 years), and whose heritage has been preserved by regional, ethnic or family groups. Heirlooms are recognized for their unique appearance, names, uses and historical significance. They are gaining in popularity because of their unique flavors and cultural significance to local cuisine, and their role in sustainable food production for small-scale farmers. As a contrast to modern cultivars, heirlooms may offer a welcome alternative in certain markets. Recently, market channels have emerged for heirloom cultivars in the form of farmer-breeder-chef collaborations and seed savers organizations. There is therefore urgent need to know more about the traits available in heirloom cultivars, particularly for productivity, stress tolerance, proximate composition, sensory quality and flavor. This information is scattered and the intention of this review is to document some of the unique characteristics of heirloom cultivars that may be channeled into breeding programs for developing locally adapted high value cultivars.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0482.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Alternative splicing; biological rhythms; domestication and polyploidization; gene mining; heterosis; nutrient homeostasis; plant phenology and architecture; symbiosis; transcriptome and proteome diversity
Online: 7 September 2023 (09:30:00 CEST)
Alternative splicing (AS) is a gene regulatory mechanism modulating gene expression in multiple ways. AS is prevalent in all eukaryotes including plants. AS generates two or more mRNAs from the precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) to regulate transcriptome complexity and proteome diversity. Advances in next-generation sequencing, omics technology and bioinformatics tools, and computational methods provide new opportunities to quantify and visualize AS-based quantitative trait variation associated with plant growth, development, reproduction, and stress tolerance. Domestication, polyploidization and environmental perturbation may evolve novel splicing variants associated with agronomically beneficial traits. To date, pre-mRNAs from many genes are spliced into multiple transcripts that cause phenotypic variation for complex traits, both in model plant Arabidopsis and field crops. Cataloguing and exploiting such variation may provide new paths to enhance climate resilience, resource-use efficiency, productivity, and nutritional quality of staple food crops. This review provides insights into AS variation alongside gene expression analysis to select for novel phenotypic diversity for use in breeding programs. AS contributes to heterosis, enhances plant symbiosis (mycorrhiza and rhizobium), and provides a mechanistic link between the core clock genes and diverse environmental clues.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Anthocyanin biosynthesis; biosafety regulations; colored vegetables; crossbreeding; gene editing; human health; transgenes
Online: 24 January 2022 (10:38:22 CET)
Malnutrition, unhealthy diets, and lifestyle changes have become major risk factors for non-communicable diseases while ad-versely impacting economic growth and sustainable development. Anthocyanins, a group of flavonoids that are rich in fruits and vegetables, contribute positively to human health. This review focuses on genetic variation harnessed through crossbreeding and biotechnology-led approaches for developing anthocyanins-rich fruit and vegetable crops. Significant progress has been made in identifying genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in various crops. Thus, the use of genetics has led to the development and release of anthocyanin-rich crop cultivars in Europe and USA. Such a trend is emerging in the developing world. The purple pota-to “Kufri Neelkanth” has been released for cultivation in northern India, and a few colored grain wheat lines, developed through crossbreeding, are being tested for their productivity and adaptation. Although tomato is deficient in anthocyanins, some of its wild relatives are known to accumulate anthocyanins in their sub-epidermal fruit tissue. In Europe, anthocyanin-rich tomato cul-tivar ‘Sun Black’ developed via the introgression of Aft and atv genes has been released. The development of anthocyanin-rich food crops without any significant yield penalty has been due to the use of genetic engineering involving specific transcription factors or gene editing. The anthocyanin-rich food ingredients have the potential of being more nutritious than those devoid of anthocyanins. The inclusion of anthocyanins as a target characteristic in breeding programs can ensure the development of culti-vars to meet the nutritional needs for human consumption, particularly in the developing world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: drought stress; introgression; leaf area; root to shoot ratio; wild species; yield loss
Online: 28 April 2023 (05:15:13 CEST)
Drought stress is a major production constraint in crops globally. Crop wild relatives are important source of resistance and tolerance for both biotic and abiotic stresses, respectively. A breeding program was initiated to introgress drought tolerance in sunflower through hybridization between the wild species Helianthus argophyllus and the cultigen pool of H. annuus. Selection was carried out in the F2 to F5 segregating populations for high cuticular waxes, smaller leaf area, single heading and high oil content. The selected F5 breeding lines were compared with non-adapted elite sunflower germplasm in a replicated randomized complete block research project using different water treatments comparing fully irrigated (T0), with 75 (T1), 50 (T2) and 25% (T3) irrigation treatments. The comparison between the two types of germplasm showed that drought tolerant breeding lines had comparatively lesser decreases in leaf area, shoot weight and root shoot ratio 10 under the various drought treatments. Leaf area of the drought selected F5 lines were smaller than that of the elite germplasm under controlled irrigated treatments, but they maintained their leaf area under the drought treatments. Several drought resistant promising lines D-2, D-5, and D-27 were identified and showed high leaf area, great root length and increase root to shoot ratio under the highest stressed treatments (T3). Some of the lines could be directly used for the development of drought tolerant hybrids. Combining ability test indicated D-27 (F7) as good general combiner for seed yield plant−1 and oil contents when mated with male line RSIN.82. These hybrids could help to minimize seed yield losses due to water stress and to achieve profitable cultivation of sunflower in 18 arid regions of Pakistan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Crop, CRISPR/Cas9; Resistance; RNA interference; Stress
Online: 1 July 2021 (14:13:20 CEST)
With the rapid population growth, there is an urgent need for innovative crop improvement approaches to meet the increasing demand for food. Classical crop improvement approaches involve, however, a backbreaking process that cannot equipoise with increasing crop demand. RNA based approaches i.e. RNAi-mediated gene regulation and site-specific nuclease based CRISPR/Cas9 system for gene editing has made advances in the efficient targeted modification in many crops for the higher yield and resistance to diseases and different stresses. In functional genomics, RNA interference (RNAi) is a propitious gene regulatory approach that plays a significant role in crop improvement by permitting down-regulation of gene expression by small molecules of interfering RNA without affecting the expression of other genes. Gene editing technologies viz. clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) have appeared prominently as a powerful tool for precise targeted modification of nearly all crops genome sequence to generate variation and accelerate breeding efforts. In this regard, the review highlights the diverse roles and applications of RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 system as powerful technologies to improve agronomically important plants to enhance crop yields and increase tolerance to environmental stress (biotic or abiotic). Ultimately, these technologies can prove to be important in view of global food security and sustainable agriculture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0149.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Agro-industry; Ethiopia; oasis wheat; pasta wheat; Senegal River; value chain
Online: 12 April 2019 (11:04:08 CEST)
Durum wheat is an important food crop in the world and an endemic species of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In the highlands of Ethiopia and the oases of the South Sahara this crop has been cultivated for thousands of years. Today, smallholder farmers still cultivate it on marginal lands to assure production for their self-consumption. However, durum wheat is no longer just a staple crop for food security but it has become a major cash crop. In fact, the pasta and couscous industry currently purchase durum grain at prices 10 to 20% higher than bread wheat. Africa as a whole imports over € 4 billion per year of durum grain to provide the raw material for its food industry. Hence, African farmers could obtain a substantial share of this large market by turning their production to this crop. Here, the achievements of the durum breeding program of Ethiopia are revised to reveal a steep acceleration in variety release and adoption in the last decade. Furthermore, the variety release for Mauritania and Senegal is described to show how modern breeding methods could be used to deliver grain yields above 3 t ha-1 in seasons of just 92 days of length and daytime temperatures always above 32°C. This review describes the ability of releasing durum wheat varieties adapted to all growing conditions of SSA, from the oases of the Sahara to the highlands of Ethiopia. This potential area of expansion for durum wheat production in SSA is not linked to any breeding technology, but rather it remains dependent on the market ability to purchase these grains at a higher price to stimulate farmer adoption. The critical importance of connecting all actors along the semolina value chain is presented in the example of Oromia, Ethiopia, and that success story is then used to prompt a wider discussion on the potential of durum wheat as a crop for poverty reduction in Africa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0110.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Amphiploidy; Disomic Polyploidy; Plant Genome Evolution; Neo-polyploidy; Polysomic Polyploidy
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:25:28 CET)
Polyploidy means having more than two basic sets of chromosomes. Polyploid plants may be artificially obtained through chemical, physical and biological (2n gametes) methods. This approach allows an increased gene scope and expression, thus resulting in phenotypic changes such as yield and product quality. Nonetheless, breeding new cultivars through induced polyploidy should overcome deleterious effects that are partly contributed by genome and epigenome instability after polyploidization. Furthermore, shortening the time required from early chromosome set doubling to the final selection of high yielding superior polyploids is a must. Despite these hurdles, plant breeders have successfully obtained polyploid bred-germplasm in broad range of forages after optimizing methods, concentration and time, particularly when using colchicine. These experimental polyploids are a valuable tool for understanding gene expression, which seems to be driven by dosage dependent gene expression, altered gene regulation and epigenetic changes. Isozymes and DNA-based markers facilitated the identification of rare alleles for particular loci when compared with diploids, and also explained their heterozygosity, phenotypic plasticity and adaptability to diverse environments. Experimentally induced polyploid germplasm could enhance fresh herbage yield and quality, e.g. leaf protein content, leaf total soluble solids, water soluble carbohydrates and sucrose content. Offspring of experimentally obtained hybrids should undergo selection for several generations to improve their performance and stability.