ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0292.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: six-port circuits; complex-ratio-measuring circuits; open-ended coaxial probe; breast tumors; RF reflectometer; relative complex permittivity; one-port calibration; graphical user interface
Online: 20 October 2021 (12:50:17 CEST)
A developed six-port reflectometry (SPR) system was integrated to measure the relative permittivity of tumor and normal breast tissue for medical diagnostic purpose. In order to obtain an accurate and precise measurement, the calibration process was done to the SPR using the well-known three-standard technique. Next, the studied dielectric probe was connected to the calibrated measurement-port of the SPR. The open end of the probe aperture was dibbed into the normal and tumor synthetic breast tissue samples to measure the synthetic breast tissues dielectric constant, ɛrʹ, and loss factor, ɛrʺ in the frequency range of 1.5 GHz to 3.3 GHz. Finally, the comparative studies were conducted between commercial VNA with Keysight 85070E dielectric probe and the studied SPR-probe system based on the measured magnitude of the reflection coefficient, phase shift, dielectric constant, and loss factor of the synthetic breast samples. The maximum absolute errors of the measured reflection coefficient magnitude, phase shift, dielectric constant, and loss factor were found to be 0.01, 1.07°, 1.12, and 0.75, respectively. It was ascertained that the predicted dielectric constant, ɛrʹ, is able to differentiate between normal, (ɛrʹ < 50) and tumor, (ɛrʹ > 50) breast tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Intra-body communication; path loss; microwave probes; channel characterization; fat tissue; ex-vivo; phantom; dielectric properties; topology optimization.
Online: 3 July 2018 (15:08:56 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the use of fat tissue as a communication channel between in-body, implanted devices at R-band frequencies (1.7–2.6 GHz). The proposed fat channel is based on an anatomical model of the human body. We propose a novel probe that is optimized to efficiently radiate the R-band frequencies into the fat tissue. We use our probe to evaluate the path loss of the fat channel by studying the channel transmission coefficient over the R-band frequencies. We conduct extensive simulation studies and validate our results by experimentation on phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, with good agreement between simulations and experiments. We demonstrate a performance comparison between the fat channel and similar waveguide structures. Our characterization of the fat channel reveals propagation path loss of 1.4 dB and 3.8 dB per 20 mm for phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate that fat tissue can be used as a communication channel for high data rate intra-body networks.