ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0363.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Ebola virus; filovirus; lipid binding; matrix protein; VP24
Online: 17 July 2020 (06:00:08 CEST)
Viral protein 24 (VP24) from Ebola virus (EBOV) was first recognized as a minor matrix protein that associates with cellular membranes. However, more recent studies shed light on its roles in inhibiting viral genome transcription and replication, facilitating nucleocapsid assembly and transport, and interfering with immune responses in host cells through downregulation of interferon (IFN)-activated genes. Thus, whether VP24 is a peripheral protein with lipid binding ability for matrix layer recruitment has not been explored. Here we examined the lipid binding ability of VP24 with a number of lipid binding assays. The results indicated that VP24 lacked the ability to associate with lipids tested regardless of VP24 posttranslational modifications. We further demonstrate that the presence of the EBOV major matrix protein VP40 did not promote VP24 membrane association in vitro or in cells. Further, no protein-protein interactions between VP24 and VP40 were detected by co-immunoprecipitation. Confocal imaging and cellular membrane fractionation analyses in human cells suggested VP24 did not specifically localize at the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Overall, we provide evidence that EBOV VP24 is not a lipid binding protein and its presence in the viral matrix layer is likely not dependent on direct lipid interactions.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cytosolic phospholipase A2; electron microscopy; C2 domain; Golgi; membrane bending; membrane curvature; oligomerization
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:10:52 CET)
Group IV phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) regulates the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes via the formation of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. The targeting and membrane binding of cPLA2α to the Golgi involves the N-terminal C2 domain whereas the catalytic domain produces arachidonic acid. Although most studies of cPLA2α concern its catalytic activity, it is also linked to homeostatic processes involving the generation of vesicles that traffic material from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. Here we investigate how membrane curvature influences the homeostatic role of cPLA2α in vesicular trafficking. The cPLA2α C2 domain is known to induce changes in positive membrane curvature, a process which is dependent on cPLA2α membrane penetration. We show that cPLA2α undergoes C2 domain-dependent oligomerization on membranes in vitro and in A549 cells. We found that the association of the cPLA2α C2 domain with membranes is limited to membranes with positive curvature, and enhanced C2 domain oligomerization was observed on vesicles ~50 nm in diameter. We demonstrated that the cPLA2α C2 domain generates cholesterol enriched Golgi-derived vesicles independently of cPLA2α catalytic activity. Our results therefore provide novel insight into the molecular forces that mediate C2 domain-dependent membrane localization in vitro and in cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0150.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: chaperone function; heat-shock proteins; lipid binding; phosphatidylserine; protein refolding
Online: 29 July 2020 (12:18:02 CEST)
HspA1A, a molecular chaperone, translocates to the plasma membrane (PM) of stressed and cancer cells. This translocation results in HspA1A’s cell-surface presentation, which renders tumors radiation insensitive. To specifically inhibit the lipid-driven HspA1A’s PM translocation and devise new therapeutics it is imperative to characterize the unknown HspA1A’s lipid-binding regions and determine the relationship between the chaperone and lipid-binding functions. To elucidate this relationship, we determined the effect of phosphatidylserine (PS)-binding on the secondary structure and chaperone functions of HspA1A. Circular dichroism revealed that binding to PS resulted in minimal modification on HspA1A’s secondary structure. Measuring the release of inorganic phosphate revealed that PS-binding had no effect on HspA1A’s ATPase activity. In contrast, PS-binding showed subtle but consistent increases in HspA1A’s refolding activities. Furthermore, using a Lysine-71-Arginine mutation (K71A; a null-ATPase mutant) of HspA1A we show that although K71A binds to PS with affinities similar to the WT, the kinetics of the binding are significantly different, probably because of the mutant’s inability to achieve specific conformations. These observations suggest a two-step binding model that includes conformational changes and strongly support the notion that the chaperone and lipid-binding activities of HspA1A are dependent but the regions mediating these functions do not overlap. These findings provide the basis for future interventions to inhibit HspA1A’s PM-translocation in tumor cells, making them sensitive to radiation therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0467.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Ebola virus; filovirus; lipid binding; Marburg virus; membrane trafficking; virus assembly; VP40
Online: 29 February 2020 (13:12:20 CET)
Marburg virus (MARV) is a lipid-enveloped negative sense single stranded RNA virus, which can cause a deadly hemorrhagic fever. MARV encodes seven proteins, including VP40 (mVP40), a matrix protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic leaflet of the host cell plasma membrane. VP40 traffics to the plasma membrane inner leaflet, where it assembles to facilitate the budding of viral particles. VP40 is a multifunctional protein that interacts with several host proteins and lipids to complete the viral replication cycle, but many of these host-interactions remain unknown or are poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of a hydrophobic loop region in the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of mVP40 that shares sequence similarity with the CTD of Ebola virus VP40 (eVP40). These conserved hydrophobic residues in eVP40 have been previously shown to be critical to plasma membrane localization and membrane insertion. An array of cellular experiments and confirmatory in vitro work strongly suggests proper orientation and hydrophobic residues (Phe281, Leu283, and Phe286) in the mVP40 CTD are critical to plasma membrane localization. In line with the different functions proposed for eVP40 and mVP40 CTD hydrophobic residues, molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate large flexibility of residues in the EBOV CTD whereas conserved mVP40 hydrophobic residues are more restricted in their flexibility. This study sheds further light on important amino acids and structural features in mVP40 required for its plasma membrane localization as well as differences in the functional role of CTD amino acids in eVP40 and mVP40.