ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0172.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Red bread wheat; white bread wheat; flour; rheological properties
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:47:24 CET)
In this study, rheological properties of the bread wheat flour dough from 6 wheat genotypes were determined. For the pereparation of flour, 3 red bread (Pandas, Sagitorya, Pehlivan) and 3 white bread (Kaşifbey, Göktan, Ceyhan-99) were selected as wheat genotype. To determine the rheological properties of the wheat flour dough, farinograph, extensograph, mixolab and glutograph devices were used. According to the results of the Farinograph analysis, the average development time of wheat White and red genotypes were 1.95 minutes and 8.96 minutes, respectively. According to the extensograph results of the flour samples, the most extended stability value was determined with 7.47 min in Ceyhan-99 cultivar. As a result of the research, it was determined that flour yields of red bread varieties were higher other genotypes, gas retention capacities of white bread flours were showed high result in extensograph application and resistance of dough to elongation was higher. In the Mixolab analysis, it determined that white bread wheat varieties have higher values in terms of kneading properties and gluten properties, and red bread wheat varieties have higher values in values of viscosity, amylase value and starch retrogradation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0005.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: flavored yogurt; potato powder; physiochemical properties; microstructure; rheological properties
Online: 1 August 2019 (04:19:53 CEST)
The current study emphasizes on optimizing a suitable ratio of enzymatically hydrolyzed potato powder (EHPP) and whole milk powder (WMP) to produce a quality yogurt by evaluating the physicochemical and rheological properties. The results showed that the addition of EHPP decreased the pH towards acidic conditions which resulted in the high acidity of yoghurt. The proximate composition showed that EHPP increased the ash, protein, water holding capacity (WHC) while fat, synersis, color parameters and total solid were decreased when compared to control yoghurt (CY) sample. Moreover, texture profile (TPA) analysis showed that the addition of EHPP decreased the hardness and cohesiveness while springiness did not show significant difference. Furthermore, rheological properties revealed that EHPP decreased the storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G”) when compared with control. In addition to this, sensory analysis revealed that the treatment P4M (1:3) was found as optimum ratio regarding taste, flavor, and aroma. Besides this, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms that the high amount of EHPP resulted in the void holes while CY showed dense gel structure. The prepared yogurt with EHPP provides an excellent flavor, satisfying sweetness and homogeneous texture. These findings suggest the optimum formulation ratio of prepared yogurt was found to be P4M (1:3) for desirable attributes and consumer acceptance. The prepared yogurt from the EHPP presents the potential industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0811.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: magnetorheological; elastomer; magnetorheological elastomer; MRE; weather; accelerated; rubber; composite; rheological
Online: 31 December 2020 (13:28:19 CET)
Silicone RTV-based engineering rubber composite products have been widely used for several applications in various fields as a major component such as structure, automotive, and medical. In its application, the rubber composite product is placed in an open area that is directly exposed to sunlight and rain. It has a significant negative impact on changes in chemical and rheological properties, making the product life of rubber composite products shorter. Therefore, in this study, changes in the chemical and rheological properties of both isotropic and anisotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) treated with accelerated weathering were studied compared to untreated specimens with specimens that had been treated. MRE specimens with 40% by weight CIP were prepared with no current excitation and another sample were made under 1.5 T of magnetic flux density. Each specimen was treated in an accelerated weathering machine Q-Sun Xe-1 Xenon Test Chamber with a UV light exposure cycle for 102 minutes and 18 minutes of UV light combined with water spray for 24 hours followed by a condensation cycle of 4 hours in a dark period. Material characterization was carried out using FTIR and Rheometer to determine the changes in chemical and rheological properties. The morphological analysis results showed that the surface was rough and more cavities occurred after being given weather treatment. Rheometer test results showed a decrease in storage modulus in each MRE specimen that had been treated compared to untreated MRE specimens. Meanwhile, FTIR testing showed a change in wave peak between untreated and treated MRE specimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: 3D-concrete-printing; strain-hardening geopolymer composite, rheological properties; mechanical properties; strain-hardening
Online: 25 March 2022 (03:25:40 CET)
One of the major limitations of the current 3D-concrete-printing technology is incorporation of reinforcement. Furthermore, there is a need to decrease the ecological footprint of printable concrete. As a possible solution for these challenges, this paper presents a 3D-printable strain-hardening geopolymer composite (3DP-SHGC) that shows pseudo-ductile behaviour under direct tension. The developed 3DP-SHGC is composed of one-part (just-add-water) geopolymer binder made of slag (GGBFS), fly ash (FA) and solid activator. The one-part geopolymer binder eliminates the need for elevated temperature curing and handling of corrosive alkaline liquids. At first, an optimum matrix was identified by studying the effects of FA to GGBFS ratio on the rheological properties and compressive strength. Subsequently the optimum matrix was reinforced by PVA fibres to make the 3DP-SHGC, which printing performance and rheological properties were evaluated. In addition, the influences of curing temperature on the compressive, flexural and tensile performances of the printed specimens were also investigated. The results were compared with those obtained for the mould-cast specimens. The 3DP-SHGC exhibited superior flexural performance, higher tensile strength, and comparable tensile strain capacity to the mould-cast counterpart. Further, the curing temperature had influence on the mechanical properties of both 3D-printed and mould-cast SHGCs. The underlying reasons for the differences are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0170.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: HMW-GS; LMW-GS; MALDI-TOF-MS; Third-generation RNA sequencing; Rheological parameters
Online: 10 December 2021 (11:34:24 CET)
High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) in mature grains play important roles in the formation of glutenin macropolymer and gluten quality. To characterize the expressed glutenin genes of the bread wheat variety Xinmai 26 during seed development, in this study, we measured the dough rheological properties of mature grains through farinograph and gluten testing system, and revealed its strong gluten quality. The compositions of HMW-GS and LMW-GS were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Further, a total of 18 full-length transcripts were obtained by third-generation RNA sequencing, including 5 transcripts of HMW-GS genes and 13 transcripts of LMW-GS genes (8 intact genes and 5 pseudogenes). The deduced protein structures of transcript sequences exhibit the typical HMW-GS and LMW-GS structural characteristics. Moreover, a specific functional marker was developed to make better use of the extra cysteine residue of 1Dx5 subunit. This study provides an efficient method to accurately identify glutenin genes in bread wheat through matching full-length transcripts to their spectrum of glutenin, which will be helpful to understand the contributions of glutenin genes to wheat quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0313.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: mechanical properties of advanced materials; magneto-rheological (MR); elastomer; stress relaxation; mathematical model
Online: 15 October 2020 (08:31:22 CEST)
Materials characterised by magnetorheological properties are non-classic engineering materials. A significant increase in the interest of scientific community in materials from this group can be observed over the recent several years. The results of research presented in this article are oriented on the examination of said materials’ mechanical properties. In order to do so, stress relaxation tests were conducted on cylindrical samples of magnetorheological elastomers loaded with compressive stress for various values of magnetic induction (B1 = 0 mT, B2 = 32 mT, B3 = 48 mT, and B4 = 64 mT) and temperature (T1 = 25° C, T2 = 30° C, and T3 = 40° C). The results of these tests indicate that the stiffness of examined samples increases along with the increase of magnetic field induction and decreases along with the increase of temperature. On this basis, it has been determined that: the biggest stress amplitude change caused by the influence of magnetic field was σ0ΔB = 12.7% and the biggest stress amplitude change caused by the influence of temperature was σ0ΔT = 11.3%. As a result of applying a mathematical model, it has been indicated that the stress relaxation in the examined magnetorheological elastomer for the adopted time range (t = 3600 s) has a hyperbolic decline nature. The collected test results point to examined materials being characterised by extensive rheological properties, which leads to a conclusion that it is necessary to conduct further tests in this scope.
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; Spirulina; boosting effect; impedance analysis; commercial starter cultures; SLAB; rheological analysis
Online: 15 December 2019 (14:43:49 CET)
Arthrospira platensis, commercially known as Spirulina, is a fresh-water cyanobacterium that is gaining even more attention in the last years due to its high biological and nutritional value. For this reason, it has been employed in several food applications, to obtain or enhance functional and technological properties of cheese, yogurt, bread, cookies or pasta. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential boosting effect of two different concentrations (0.25% and 0.50%) of Arthrospira platensis on the fermentation capability of several starter LAB strains, 1 probiotic and 4 commercial mix culture. These strains were used to ferment three different substrates and their fermentation behaviors were evaluated by impedance analyses together with rheological and color measurements. It was demonstrated that the booster effect took place, but it was variable and dependent not only on the strain or mix culture used, but also on the substrate and Arthrospira platensis concentration. Also, rheological and color modifications were found to be dependent of these factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0049.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polymer-matrix composites; natural fiber reinforcement; interface/interphase; microstructural analysis; crystallization behavior; rheological behavior
Online: 6 February 2018 (00:36:44 CET)
To improve the interfacial bonding of sisal fiber reinforced polylactide biocomposites, polylactide (PLA) and sisal fibers (SF) were melt-blended to fabricate bio-based composites via in situ reactive interfacial compatibilization with the addition of an epoxy-functionalized oligomer (ADR). The FTIR analysis and SEM characterization demonstrated that PLA molecular chain was bonded to the fiber surface and epoxy-functionalized oligomer played a hinge-like role between sisal fibers and PLA matrix, which resulted in improved interfacial adhesion between fibers and PLA matrix. The interfacial reaction and microstructures of composites were further investigated by thermal and rheological analyses, which indicated that the mobility of the PLA molecular chain in composites was restricted because of the introduction of ADR oligomer, which in turn reflected the improved interfacial interaction between SF and PLA matrix. These conclusions were further investigated by the calculated activation energies of glass transition relaxation (△Ea) of composites via dynamic mechanical analysis. The mechanical properties of PLA/SF composites were simultaneously reinforced and toughened via addition of ADR oligomer. The interfacial interaction and structure-properties relationship of composites are key points of this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0053.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Electro-Rheological fluid; Semi-active vibration control; tunable vibration absorber; type-1 fuzzy control; interval type-2 fuzzy control
Online: 23 May 2017 (15:58:35 CEST)
This study presents a vibration control using actively tunable vibration absorbers (ATVA) to suppress vibration of a thin plate. The ATVA’s is made of a sandwich hollow structure embedded with the electrorheological fluid (ERF). ERF is considered to be one of the most important smart fluids and it is suitable to be embedded in a smart structure due to its controllable viscosity property. ERF’s apparent viscosity can be controlled in response to the electric field and the change is reversible in 10 microseconds. Therefore, the physical properties of the ERF-embedded smart structure, such as the stiffness and damping coefficients, can be changed in response to the applied electric field. A mathematical model is difficult to be obtained to describe the exact characteristics of the ERF embedded ATVA because of the nonlinearity of ERF’s viscosity. Therefore, a fuzzy modeling and experimental validations of ERF-based ATVA from stationary random vibrations of thin plates are presented in this study. Because Type-2 fuzzy sets generalize Type-1 fuzzy sets so that more modelling uncertainties can be handled, a semi-active vibration controller is proposed based on Type-2 fuzzy sets. To investigate the different performances by using different types of fuzzy controllers, the experimental measurements employing type-1 fuzzy and interval type-2 fuzzy controllers are implemented by the Compact RIO embedded system. The fuzzy modeling framework and solution methods presented in this work can be used for design, performance analysis, and optimization of ATVA from stationary random vibration of thin plates.