ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0140.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: performance; biodegradation; bacterial consortium; marine sponge; PAHs
Online: 8 October 2021 (12:09:30 CEST)
Every petroleum processing industry produces sewage sludge containing several types of poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) components. The degradation of PAH components by physical, biological and chemical methods is not efficient. The use of marine sponge symbiont bacteria is considered an alternative method in the degradation and reduction of PAHs com-pared to the previous method. This study aims to explore the potential and performance of a consortium of sponge symbiont bacteria in degrading anthracene and pyrene. There are three types of bacteria (Bacillus pumilus strain GLB197, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain SLG510A3-8, Acineto-bacter calcoaceticus strain SLCDA 976) were mixed to form a consortium. The interaction between the bacterial consortium suspension and PAH components was measured at 5-day intervals for 25 days. The biodegradation performance of bacteria on PAHs samples was determined based on five biodegradation parameters. The analysis results showed a decrease in the concentration of anthracene (21.89%) and pyrene (7.71%), equivalent to a ratio of 3: 1. The data was followed by a decrease in the abundance of anthracene (60.30%) and pyrene (27.52%), an equivalent ratio of 2: 1. The level of degradation of the pyrene component is lower than that of the anthracene compo-nent, presumably due to the higher toxicity of pyrene and the more stable molecular structure, making it difficult for bacterial cells to destroy it. The biodegradation products are organic compounds of alcohol, aldehyde, carboxylic acids and a small proportion of aromatic hydrocarbon components. Keywords: performance; biodegradation; bacterial consortium; marine sponge; PAHs
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0052.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Carbohydrates; keto diet; IRS; C-peptide
Online: 7 April 2022 (04:03:54 CEST)
Abstract: Carbohydrates form the major source of energy in Asian diets. A lower carbohydrate diet became the recommended golden standard for healthy lifestyle. However, the effects of low-carbohydrates diet on health in apparently healthy individuals have been poorly studied, especially in relation to insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). A total of 120 healthy weight participants with no previous history of a major medical condition and an average BMI of ≤ 25kg/m2 were recruited. Self-reported dietary intake and objective physical activity by accelerometry were tracked for seven days. Participants were divided into three categories according to their dietary intake of carbohydrates. Blood samples were collected for metabolic markers analysis. HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-B) and C-peptide were used to evaluate glucose homeostasis. The consumption of low carbohydrates (less than 45% of total energy) significantly correlated with higher HOMA-IR, Lower HOMA-β % compared to moderate carbohydrate intake (between 45% to 65%). However, only the HOMA-β % was significantly influenced by carbohydrates intake. Moreover, low carbohydrates intake was significantly associated with elevated C-peptide secretion. The substitution of carbohydrates with other macronutrients, such as fat and proteins in the Atkins/ketogenic diet, resulted in a pronounced induction of IRS-related inflammatory markers; FGF2, IP-10, IL-6, IL-17A, MDC and reduction of IL-13. Overall, the presented data highlight, for the first time, that low carbohydrate intake results in significant glucose homeostasis imbalance that may be driven by a heightened state of inflammatory response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0194.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Caveolin 1; Obesity; Adipose tissue; Metabolic inflammation; Cytokines; TNF-α; NF-κB
Online: 12 December 2022 (06:02:18 CET)
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. Caveolin-1 (CAV1), a structural and functional protein found in adipose tissues (AT), is augmented in obese individuals. We aimed to define the inflammatory mediators that influence CAV1 gene regulation and associated mechanism in obesity. Using subcutaneous AT from 27 (7 lean/20 obese) normoglycemic individuals, in vitro human adipocyte models, and in vivo mice models, we found elevated CAV1 expression in obese AT and a positive correlation between the gene expression of CAV1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB). CAV1 gene expression was associated with that of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and their cognate receptor (r ≥ 0.447, p ≤ 0.030) but not with anti-inflammatory markers. CAV1 expression was correlated with CD163, indicating a prospective role for CAV1 in adipose inflammatory microenvironment. Unlike wild-type animals, mice lacking TNF-α exhibited reduced levels of CAV1 mRNA/proteins, which were elevated by administering exogenous TNF-α. Mechanistically, TNF-α induces CAV1 gene transcription by mediating NF-kB binding to its two regulatory elements located in the CAV1 proximal regulatory region. The interplay between CAV1 and TNF-α signaling pathway is interesting and has potential as a target for therapeutic interventions in obesity and metabolic syndromes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0497.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ONC201; colorectal cancer cells; DDIT3; CHOP; BAK/BAX pathway
Online: 19 November 2020 (08:42:43 CET)
The imipramine ONC201 exerts a novel anti-proliferative activity over a wide spectrum of cancer cell types. ONC201 activates integrated stress response pathway that is associated with induction of Damage Inducible Transcript 3 (DDIT3, also known as C/EBP homologous protein or CHOP). We questioned whether the ONC201/CHOP crosstalk is regulated by diverse signaling pathways in non-metastatic versus metastatic cancer cell lines. Therefore, the Dukes' type B colorectal adenocarcinoma non-metastatic (SW480) and metastatic (LS-174T) cell lines were treated with ONC201. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis, gene expression was assessed by Affymetrix microarray, and key regulatory proteins were validated by Western blot assays. Unlike LS-174T cells, SW480 cells were resistant to ONC201 treatment. Gene ontology pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed substantial differences between LS-174T and SW480 responsiveness to ONC201 treatment. In both cell lines, CHOP expression was upregulated in response to ONC201 treatment, however, its upstream regulatory mechanisms were not identical. Although, PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 ER-stress pathways were found to upregulated CHOP in both cell types, the BAK/BAX pathway was a notable regulator of CHOP in the metastatic LS-174T cells alone. In addition, CHOP RNA splicing profiles were varied between the two cell lines, which was further modified in response to ONC201 treatments. In conclusion, we delineated the signaling mechanisms regulating the expression of CHOP in non-metastatic versus metastatic colorectal cells in response to ONC201 treatment. The observed differences were related to cellular plasticity and metabolic reprogramming.