ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0004.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydroxyapatite, xenografts; implant design; implant surface
Online: 1 June 2017 (06:19:41 CEST)
The aim of the present study was to monitor implant stability after sinus floor elevation with two biomaterials during the first 6 months of healing by a resonance frequency analysis (RFA), and how physico-chemical properties affect the implant stability quotient (ISQ) at the placement and healing sites. Bilateral maxillary sinus augmentation was performed in 10 patients in a split-mouth design using a bobine HA (BBM) as a control and porcine HA (PBM). Six months after sinus lifting, 60 implants were placed in the posterior maxilla. The ISQ was recorded on the day of surgery from RFA at T1 (baseline), T2 (3 months), and T3 (6 months). Statistically significant differences were found in the ISQ values during the evaluation period. The ISQ (baseline) was 63.8±2.97 for BBM and 62.6±2.11 for PBM. The ISQ (T2) was ~ 73.5±4.21 and 67±4.99, respectively. The ISQ (T3) was ~ 74.65±2.93 and 72.9±2.63, respectively. All the used HAs provide osseointegration and statistical increases in the ISQ at baseline, T2 and T3 (follow-up), respectively. The BBM, sintered at high temperature with high crystallinity and low porosity, presented higher stability, which demonstrates that variations in the physico-chemical properties of a bone substitute material clearly influence implant stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0226.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydroxyapatite; xenografts; physicochemical-characterization; tissue reaction
Online: 31 March 2017 (08:35:07 CEST)
Detailed information about graft material characteristic is crucial to evaluate their clinical outcomes. The present study evaluates the physicochemical characteristics of two xenografts manufactured on an industrial scale deproteinized at different temperatures (non-sintered and sintered) in accordance with a protocol previously used in sinus lift procedures. It compares how the physico-chemical properties influence the material performance in vivo with a histomorphometric study in retrieved bone biopsies following maxillary sinus augmentation, in 10 clinical cases. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed typical structure of hydroxyapatite for both materials. Both xenografts are porous and exhibit intraparticle pores. Strong differences were observed in terms of porosity, cristallinity, and calcium/phosphate. Histomorphometric measurements on the bone biopsies showed statistically significant differences. The physicochemical assessment of both xenografts in accordance with the protocol developed at industrial scale confirmed that these products present excelent biocompatibilitity, with characteristics similar to natural bone. The sintered HAs xenograft exhibit higher osteoconductivity although were not complete resorbable (30.80±0.88% residual material). On the other hand, the non-sintered HAs xerograft induced about 25.92±1.61% of new bone and almost complete degradation after 6 months implantation. Differences in physico-chemical characteristics found between the two HAs xenograft determine different behavior of this material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0212.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydroxyapatite; xenografts; scanning electron microscopy; degradation; resorption; Ca/P ratio; bone response; biocompatibility
Online: 28 March 2017 (17:09:44 CEST)
Some studies have demonstrated that in vivo degradation processes are influenced by the material’s physico-chemical properties. The present study compares two hydroxyapatites manufactured on an industrial scale, deproteinized at low and high temperatures, and how physico-chemical properties can influence the mineral degradation process of material performance in bone biopsies retrieved 6 months after maxillary sinus augmentation. Residual biomaterial particles were examined by field scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to determine the composition and degree of degradation of the bone graft substitute material. According to the EDX analysis, the Ca/P ratio significantly lowered in the residual biomaterial (1.08±0.32) compared to the initial composition (2.22±0.08) for the low-temperature sintered group, which also presented high porosity, low crystallinity, low density, a large surface area, and poor stability and a high resorption rate compared to the high-temperature sintered material. This demonstrates that variations in the physico-chemical properties of bone substitute material clearly influence the degradation process. Further studies are needed to determine whether the resorption of deproteinized bone particles proceeds slowly enough to allow sufficient time for bone maturation to occur.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0085.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: TCP-C2S, Nurse ´A ceramic, Biomaterials, adult human mesenchymal stem cells, Solid State Reaction, Biomedical applications.
Online: 14 March 2017 (13:43:13 CET)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity and cell response of a well-characterized Nurse´s A-phase (7CaO•P2O5•2SiO2) ceramic and his effect compared to a control (tissue culture polystyrene-TCPS) on the adhesion, viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of ahMSCs in vitro. Cell proliferation (Alamar Blue Assay), Alizarin Red-S (AR-s) staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) and collagen I (Col I) were evaluated. Also, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images were acquired in order to visualise the cells and the topography of the material. The proliferation of cells growing in a direct contact with the material was slower at early stages of the study because of the new environmental conditions. However, the entire surface was colonized after 28 days of culture in growth medium (GM). Osteoblastic differentiation markers were significantly enhanced in cells growing on Nurse´s A phase ceramic and cultured with osteogenic medium (OM), probably due to the role of silica to stimulate the differentiation of ahMSCs. Moreover, calcium nodules were formed under the influence of ceramic material. Therefore, it is predicted that Nurse´s A-phase ceramic would present high biocompatibility and osteoinductive properties being a good candidate to be used as a biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.