REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0290.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: PPE; personal protective equipment; WHO; CDC; healthcare workers; COVID-19
Online: 24 June 2020 (09:13:08 CEST)
Background: The healthcare workers are exposed to dangerous pathogen agents during the outbreak of the new coronavirus COVID-19. To minimize the risk of becoming infected by this virus, healthcare workers need to wear the most appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the guidelines that the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for the Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend for the rational use of EPP to protect healthcare workers against the novel coronavirus COVID-19.Methodology: To learn how to effectively protect healthcare workers against the COVID-19, a detailed analysis and comparison of the WHO and CDC guidelines related to the proper use of personal protection equipment (PPE) in different healthcare settings was carried out. Results: The results of this study based on an analysis of PPE recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for the Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicated that the safety and protection of healthcare workers can be maximized if the guidelines suggested by these institutions are followed. In general, the WHO and CDC recommendations based on medical practices are similar, and depending on the healthcare activities and settings where the healthcare workers perform their work, suggest wearing medical/surgical facemasks, respirators, googles and face shields (eye protection), gloves, gowns and aprons. Conclusions: The protection and safety of the healthcare workers can be maximized during the outbreak of COVID-19 by following the WHO and CDC recommendations described in this study. The general guidelines offered by these institutions are similar and based on medical practices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0588.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: thermoregulation; personal protective equipment; smart textiles; performance; productivity
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:15:51 CEST)
The exposure to extreme temperatures in workplaces involves physical hazards for workers. A poorly acclimated worker may have lower performance and vigilance and may therefore be more exposed to accidents and injuries. Due to the incompatibility of the existing standards implemented in some workplaces and the lack of thermoregulation in many protective equipment, thermal stress remains one of the most frequent physical hazards in many work sectors. However, many of these problems can be overcome with the use of smart textile technologies that enable intelligent thermoregulation in personal protective equipment. Smart textiles can detect, react and adapt to many external stimuli. Interconnected sensors and actuators that interact and react to existing risks can provide the wearer with increased safety, protection and comfort. Thus, the skills of smart protective equipment can contribute to the reduction of errors and the number and severity of accidents in the workplace, and thus promote improved performance, efficiency and productivity.This review provides an overview and opinions of authors on the current state of knowledge on these types of technologies by reviewing and discussing the state of the art of commercially available systems and the advances made in previous research works.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; mask; respirator; coronavirus; 3D Printing; N95; personal protective equipment (PPE)
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:16:17 CEST)
The COVID-19 crisis has resulted in a shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) . COVID-19 is currently the leading cause of death in the United States. Health care providers caring for COVID-19 patients or at high risk of being exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus benefit from a face shield to protect against aerosol droplets that could hit the face and minimize the chance of inadvertently touching the face with contaminated hands, and air filtration to filter out aerosolized SARS-CoV-2. Adapting commercially available full-faced snorkel masks has been proposed as an alternative to narrow the gap in PPE . Here we explore a full-faced snorkel mask with commercially available particulate filters.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; Smart wearable; personal protective equipment; augmented reality
Online: 12 July 2020 (14:48:50 CEST)
Wearable computing is a fast evolving segment of computing that includes smart watches, head mounted wearables such as Magic Leap headsets, Microsoft Hololens, and VR goggles from various vendors. In this report, we present ideas for a smart wearable device that also doubles as a virus protection device. Instead of using the filtering approach that is predominantly used by virus protection equipments such as face masks, we propose to use a computational approach where the device maintains an awareness of the real-time virus spread and use that information to steer the wearer away from the virus. As the wearable has a head enclosing design, viral infection can only happen through the air that is inhaled by the wearer. The objective of the smart wearable is to maintain a repository for clean air and switch the operating modes between stored and fresh air modes depending on the environmental conditions. It can augment this basic operating procedure by recycling the exhaled air to maximize it operating capacity (i.e., time duration for which it could supply the wearer with safe air) and by cleaning the stored air using UVC to further reduces the chance of infection. To maintain an awareness of the virus spread in the environment, the smart wearable will rely on an edge computing framework that will be distributed to cover areas frequented by people. The smart wearable will have modular design so that it can be reconfigured to add or subtract functionality that the wearer wants for a particular situation so that the design remains relevant even after the virus threat recedes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1598.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Personal Protective Equipment (PPE); Plastics wastes.
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:39:52 CEST)
The years 2019 to 2022 are being marked by the pandemic resulting from a viral infection, COVID-19. The demand and use of PPE has never been so high and it is often discarded without considering the correct disposal route and the environmental impact that this type and volume of waste can generate. The aim of this study was to analyze the increased demand for PPE used during the pandemic and, consequently, the generation of these wastes. In addition to this analysis, it is extremely important to raise the discussion about the treatment of these residues and the possibilities of more ecological personal protection equipment, such as biodegradable or reusable ones. The extensive use of PPE, which is mostly plastics and is not easily degraded, mainly leads to its accumulation in landfills but, if disposed of incorrectly, it could reach marine environments, contributing to the formation of microplastics in the oceans. Therefore, this article also aims to relate these themes to the Sustainable Development Goals, as efficient management aligned with sustainable development goals is essential to mitigate these anticipated problems and ensure a more sustainable future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0562.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Personal; personal characteristics; performance; pilot; Indonesian Naval Aviation Center
Online: 23 November 2020 (08:47:46 CET)
Facing the tasks and challenges going forward, a pilot of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Center was required to be brave in taking risks, especially in carrying out its main tasks, so it was expected that a pilot of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Center had intelligence, especially in finding appropriate solutions and alternatives to address every task challenges dynamics in situations that often changed quickly. The purpose of this study was to identify the personal character and performance that should be owned by the pilot of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Center. This research used a qualitative approach with a contextual and constructional meta-analysis study method. The results of this meta-analysis study concluded that in line with the essence of personal character that is defined as the personal aspects of a work that allows workers to achieve superior performance. These personal aspects include nature, emotive-motives, value systems, attitudes, knowledge, and skills, where the personal character would produce an optimal performance on a pilot of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Center.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; face masks; Personal Protective Equipment; Personal Protective Material; droplet; aerosols
Online: 2 April 2021 (11:28:19 CEST)
Fabric material was coated with Viruferrin™ and tested for its inactivating properties against the pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza A viruses. A statistically significant (p<0.0001) decrease in the number of infectious virus particles exposed to Viruferrin-treated fabric when compared with the cotton control for both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A viruses was observed. For both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A, Viruferrin-treated fabrics experienced a > 99% virus reduction without saliva after five minutes of contact when compared to the positive control at time point 0. Furthermore, the reusability of the Viruferrin treated fabric was demonstrated by stability for up to 10 washes. The level of anti-viral (SARS-CoV-2) activity remained constant from 5 to 10 washes and demonstrated a significant difference (p<0.0001) from the unwashed untreated material. Applications for this treated fabric are far-reaching, and as a biological face covering offers not only a unique 2-way protection but also is unlikely to cause onward touch transmission.
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Corruption; bribery; personal values; corrupt relationship
Online: 9 February 2021 (09:15:10 CET)
Corruption is a legal and moral contravention that generates great concern among nations due to its erosive effects on economic growth, democracy, governance, social equity and the integrity of culture. Therefore, it is necessary to know more about the multiple variables that produce and maintain this phenomenon. This article reports the results of an experimental investigation that sought to provide elements of judgment on the influence of the structure of personal values on the willingness to bribe. For this, 12 couples of young university students of both sexes interacted through a game that simulated a relationship between a corrupter and a corruptible agent, with the help of a real-time communication system, mediated by an online platform, which allowed instant and bidirectional interaction. The couples were randomly constituted and played with each other under double blind. However, the interacting members of the dyad could share values or vary in their axiological structure in such a way that, while one of them could manifest anti-corruption principles, the other's commitment was not so obvious. The results confirm the importance of the axiological structure of people in the facilitation or containment of the corrupt behavior. This article also reflects on the theoretical connotations of the relationships shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0389.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: personal protection equipment; COVID-19; mass production
Online: 22 April 2020 (05:50:16 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic provoked a number of restrictive measures, such as the closure or severe restriction of border transit for international trading traffic, quarantines and self-isolation. This caused a series of interrelated consequences that not only prevent or slow down the spread of disease, but also impact the medical systems’ capability to treat the patients and help their recovery. In particular, steeply growing demand for medical safety goods cannot be satisfied by regular suppliers due to the shortage of raw materials originating from other countries or remotely located national sources, under conditions of quarantined manpower. The current context inevitably brings back memories (and records!) of the situation 80 years ago, when WWII necessitated major effort directed at the rapid build-up of low cost mass production to satisfy all aspects of war-time need. In the present short report we document a successful case of fast mass-production of light transparent medical safety face shields (thousands per day) realized in Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech) fabrication laboratory (FabLab). The demand for safety face shields by tens of hospitals in Moscow City and Region rapidly ramped up due to the need to protect medical staff during patient collection and transportation to hospitals, and within both the infected (“red”) and uninfected (“green”) zones. Materials selection for sterilizable transparent materials was conducted based on the analysis of merit indices, namely, minimal weight at given stiffness and minimal cost at given stiffness. Due to the need for permanent wear, design was motivated by low weight and comfortable head fixation, along with high production efficiency. The selection of minimal tooling in University fabrication workshops and the use of distributed volunteer labor are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0153.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: provenance; quantified self; personal informatics; visualization; comics
Online: 21 December 2017 (05:40:26 CET)
Personal health data is acquired, processed, stored, and accessed using a variety of different devices, applications, and services. These are often complex and highly connected. Therefore, use or misuse of the data is hard to detect for people, if they are not capable to understand the trace (i.e., the provenance) of that data. We present a visualization technique for personal health data provenance using comics strips. Each strip of the comic represents a certain activity, such as entering data using a smartphone application, storing or retrieving data on a cloud service, or generating a diagram from the data. The comic strips are generated automatically using recorded provenance graphs. The easy-to-understand comics enable all people to notice crucial points regarding their data such as, for example, privacy violations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: health data science; clinical trials; research participant reporting; personal health data diary; personal private webserver; research data integrity
Online: 6 June 2018 (09:40:35 CEST)
We describe how clinical researchers can exploit the Android cell phone as an economic platform for the gathering of data from clinical trial participants. The aim was to provide a solution with the shortest possible learning curve for researchers who are comfortable with setting up web pages. The additional requirement is that they extend their skills to the installation of a local webserver on the cell phone and then use four simple PHP templates to construct the clinical research data collection and processing forms. Data so collected is automatically written to local csv files on the cell phone. These csv phones can be retrieved from the device by the researcher simply by plugging the cell phone into their desktop PC and accessing the cell phone memory in just the same way as they would a USB memory stick. The results are presented as a list of recommended Android Apps along with settings that have proved to provide a stable combination likely to be easily used by clinical research participants. We have made a limited ‘user trial’ of this approach with satisfactory feedback received. We have concluded that this approach will reward researchers with a solution that is user friendly, will provide transcription free data and that is more than cost competitive with the conventional error prone/poor compliance ‘paper based participant form – researcher transcription’ cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0513.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Ethics, Social Media; Facebook; Instagram; Snapchat; Personal Information
Online: 29 March 2023 (15:39:31 CEST)
Social media has revolutionized the way we communicate and interact with each other. While it has brought many benefits, it has also presented many ethical challenges. Social media platforms have access to an enormous amount of personal data, and there are concerns about how this data is being stored, collected, and used. Users often need to fully understand the risks of sharing sensitive information. Social media platforms have made it easy for fake news to spread rapidly, which can be dangerous and have serious consequences. Misinformation and propaganda can influence people's decisions and beliefs. In this paper, we will analyze the issues and challenges that may arise, and it will be necessary for individuals and society to address these challenges ethically and responsibly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0542.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: famous people; personal brand; Internet users; social media
Online: 23 July 2020 (08:29:28 CEST)
The article is of a research nature. The aim of the article is to identify the role of social media in shaping personal brand. To this end, the first part discusses the concept of personal brand, components of brand capital in case of famous people, including consumer-based capital. Attention was also paid to the great importance of social media and the growing role of their users in the process of shaping personal brand. Based on the analysis of the source literature, a research gap was identified, related to the lack of empirical verification of the relationship between users’ online activity and the brand capital of famous people, also known as celebrities, associated with artistic and cultural activities. The article uses the results of direct research carried out in the years 2019-2020. The second (empirical) part of the article presents research hypotheses, methodology, as well as results and conclusions from the research. Based on 26 in-depth individual interviews that were conducted with people famous in Poland (mainly engaged in artistic and cultural activities) and surveys on a group of 324 social media users, it was shown, among others, that online activity of Internet users stimulates the brand capital of famous people. Statistically significant relationships were observed for such components of the personal brand as awareness / associations with the personal brand and for the relationship regarding the perception of the quality of activities carried out by a famous person.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Toxicity; Diagnosis; Personal care; Patient encounter; Patient-based medicine
Online: 16 May 2022 (14:06:25 CEST)
Clinicians are key in reclaiming the medical arts ceded to clinically irrelevant technology and thereby aligning patient with fast-changing biological realities. Narrowing the chasm between virtual and real perceptions of health hazards requires: 1) becoming acutely aware of the habitat loss aggravating the pervasive dissemination of chemicals via conventional food, air, and consumer products and the proliferation of non-ionizing radiation; and 2) making strategic use of slow, system 2 thinking so as to respond wisely to the rampant epidemics of chronic low-dose toxicity disregarded or misdiagnosed for half a century. To respond adaptively, take a moment during each patient encounter to add chronic ambient poisoning to the differential diagnosis and investigate subtle symptoms and signs of irritation in vulnerable organ systems. Enacting adaptive response across our profession could ease the suffering of millions, help avert the sixth extinction, and contribute to continuation of evolved life as we know it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0368.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV2; personal protection devices; snorkel masks; safety test
Online: 30 June 2020 (07:43:58 CEST)
Introduction: The SARS-CoV2 pandemic has led to an worldwide shortage of Personal Protection Devices (PPD) for medical and paramedical personnel. Adaptation of commercially available snorkel masks to serve as full face masks has been proposed. Even not formally approved as PPD, they are publicized on social media as suitable for this use. Concerns about actual protection levels and risk of carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation while wearing them for extended periods made us perform a systematic testing of various brands, in order to verify whether they are as safe and effective as claimed. Methods: A ‘fit’ test was performed, analogous to gas mask testing. Respiratory safety was evaluated by measuring end-tidal CO2 and oxygen saturation while wearing the masks in rest and during physical exercise. Masks were tested with 3D adaptors to mount regular bacterial-viral ventilator filters when available, or with snorkel openings covered with N95/FFP2 cloth. Results: Modified masks performed reasonably well on the fit test, comparable to regular N95/FFP2 masks. Not all ventilator filters are equally protective. For all masks, a small initial increase in end-tidal CO2 was noted, remaining within physiological limits. Masks with specific adaptors (3D printed or provided by the manufacturer) are safer, have more flexibility and reliability than makeshift adaptations. Conclusions: These masks can offer benefit as a substitute for complete protective gear as they are easier to don and remove and offer full-face protection. They may be more comfortable to wear for extended periods. Proper selection of mask size, fit testing, quality of 3D printed parts and choice of filter are important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Covid-19; personal protective equipment; facemask; odds ratio; Malaysia
Online: 9 May 2020 (08:02:16 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 transmission has been established to occur through respiratory droplets from coughing and sneezing. Health agencies have strongly recommended the use of facemask as a precaution from cross-transmission. Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of facemask use among visitors to the hospital. This study also investigated the demographic factors contributing to unacceptable facemask practice. Setting: This prospective observational study was done among hospital visitors to a district specialist hospital during COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. Methods: Individuals entering through dedicated entry point were observed for the type, category and practice of wearing personal protective equipment. Inclusion criteria for this study were any individual's ≥ 2 years old entering the treatment facility from selected entry points. Patients were categorized into two groups of acceptable and unacceptable facemask practice. The Pearson chi-square was used to test for differences in investigated variables in the univariate setting and Binary Logistic regression model was used in the multivariate setting. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence, acceptance practice and odds ratio of unacceptance of facemask use. Results: Among 1652 individuals included in the final analysis, 1574 (96.9%) was observed wearing facemask with 1269 (72.0%) of individuals worn medical-grade facemask. However, among them, only 1397 (88.8%) individuals' facemask practice was acceptable while the reaming 177 (11.2) individuals were perceived with unacceptable facemask practice. Male individuals, Malay ethnic and high risk age group are 1.47 times (Odds Ratio: OR=1.47; 95% CI, 1.06-2.06; p=.023), 2.18 times (OR=2.18; 95% CI, 1.55-3.08; p<.001) and 1.99 times (OR=2.18; 95% CI, 1.42 - 2.77; p<.001) more likely to exhibit unacceptable facemask practice respectively. Conclusion: Extensive use of facemasks coupled with environmental hygiene measures is a public health strategy which can help to mitigate the COVID-19 epidemic impact. However, a targeted comprehensive strategy to improve compliance to proper facemask practice among the high-risk population is needed to achieve maximal protective benefit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0353.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: organic food; sustainable consumption; visualization; personal shopping data; reflection; feedback
Online: 31 July 2019 (11:11:50 CEST)
Although food retailers have embraced organic certified food products as a way to reduce their environmental loading, organic sales only make up a small proportion of total sales worldwide. Most consumers have positive attitudes towards organic food, but attitudes are not reflected in behaviour. This article addresses consumers’ attitude-behaviour gap regarding their purchase organic food and reports on how visualization of personal shopping data may encourage them to buy more organic food. Through the design of the visualization tool, the EcoPanel, and through an empirical study of its use, we provide evidence on the potential of the tool to promote sustainable food shopping practices. Sixty-five users tested the EcoPanel for five months and interviews were made with ten of these. The test users increased their purchase of organic food with 23%. The informants used the EcoPanel to reflect on their shopping behaviour and to increase their organic shopping. We conclude that the visualization of food purchases stimulates critical reflection and the formation of new food shopping practices. This implies that food retailers may increase sales of organic food through using a visualization tool available for their customers. In this way these retailers may decrease their environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: inter-personal relationships; construction innovation; knowledge sharing; inter-organizational relationships
Online: 8 February 2019 (09:20:06 CET)
Abstract: Guanxi, a Chinese term that defines social networks of power and benefits, can be divided into inter-personal and inter-organizational relationships, and guanxi significantly influences construction innovation in China. Many studies have examined the relationship between guanxi and construction innovation at the project or organizational level. However, few of these studies explained how guanxi could affect an individual’s innovative behaviour from a double-level perspective. This paper builds on social capital theory and social exchange theory to examine guanxi’s role in motivating innovative behaviour in a China-specific construction context. It investigates the main effects of inter-personal relationships on innovative behaviour, the mediating effects of knowledge sharing, and the cross-level moderating effects of inter-organizational relationships. These elements were tested using a survey that received 178 responses from 35 different organizations. The results were analysed using Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM) and revealed that inter-personal relationships have positive influences on innovative behaviour, thus highlighting the partial mediating effects of knowledge sharing. In addition, the analyses showed that inter-organizational relationships augment inter-personal relationships and knowledge sharing on innovative behaviour by cross-level interaction. The research findings enhance an understanding of guanxi and innovative behaviour in China-specific construction project settings, as well as verifying the significance of guanxi in stimulating innovative behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0315.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: light armour; personal protective equipment; load; law enforcement; occupational tasks
Online: 24 April 2018 (09:47:48 CEST)
Policing duties may inherently be dangerous due to stab, blunt trauma and ballistic threats. The addition of individual light armour vests (ILAVs) has been suggested as a means to protect officers. However, the addition of the extra load of the ILAV may affect officer ability to conduct occupational tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine if wearing any of 3 different ILAVs (ILAV A, ILAV B, & ILAV C) affected occupational task performance when compared to that in normal station wear. A prospective, within-subjects repeated measures design was employed, using a counterbalanced randomization in which each ILAV was worn for an entire day while officers completed a variety of occupationally relevant tasks. These tasks included a victim drag, car exit and 5 meter sprint, step down and marksmanship task. Results showed that performance in each task did not vary between any of the ILAV or normal station wear conditions. There was less variability in the marksmanship task with ILAV B, however. The results suggest that none of the ILAVs used in this study were heavy enough to significantly affect task performance in the assessed tasks when compared to wearing normal station wear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0039.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Positive youth development, youth sport, realist evaluation, life skills, personal development.
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:40:59 CET)
Part 1 of this 2-paper series identified a wide and deep network of context, generative mechanisms and outcomes responsible for psychosocial development in a performance basketball club. In this – part 2 – study, the stakeholder’s programme theories were tested during a full-season ethnography of the same club. The findings confirm the highly individualised nature of each young person’s journey. Methodologically, immersion in the day-to-day environment generated a fine-grain analysis of the processes involved, including: i) sustained attentional focus; ii) structured and unstructured skill building activities; iii) deliberate and incidental support; and iv) feelings indicating personal growth. Personal development in and through sport is thus shown to be conditional, multi-faceted, time-sensitive and idiosyncratic. The findings of this two-part study are considered to propose a model of psychosocial development in and through sport. This heuristic tool is presented to support sport psychologists, coaches, club administrators and parents to deliberately create and optimise developmental environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0071.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: collective intelligence; social contribution motivation; personal contribution motivation; incremental innovation capability
Online: 3 July 2019 (16:24:54 CEST)
The study is to identify motivational factors that lead to collective intelligence and to understand how these factors relate to each other and to innovation capabilities in enterprises. The relationships between each of the sub-factors of the collective intelligence construct with the sub-factor of incremental innovation were examined. The study used the convenience sampling of corporate employees who use collective intelligence from corporate panel members (n=1500). Collective intelligence was found to affect work process, operations, and service innovation. This suggests that as work processes are made more innovative, the more actively collective intelligence is pursued, the greater the improvement in the performance of work processes, work procedures, work efficiency, customer satisfaction, and services. This study provides significant implications for corporations operating collective intelligence services such as online communities. First, such corporations vitalize their services by raising the quality of information and knowledge shared in their communities. Additionally, contribution motivations that take the characteristics of knowledge and information contributors into consideration require further development.The sample for this study was identified through convenience sampling of corporate employees who use collective intelligence from corporate panel members (n=1500). Collective intelligence was found to affect work process, operations, and service innovation. This suggests that as work processes are made more innovative, the more actively collective intelligence is pursued, the greater the improvement in the performance of work processes, work procedures, work efficiency, customer satisfaction, and services. This study provides significant implications for corporations operating collective intelligence services such as online communities. First, such corporations vitalize their services by raising the quality of information and knowledge shared in their communities. Additionally, contribution motivations that take the characteristics of knowledge and information contributors into consideration require further development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: personal genomics, DNA, polygenic, risk, regulation, discrimination, calibration, prediction, transparency, autonomy
Online: 23 May 2019 (16:23:57 CEST)
Direct-to-consumer genetic testing companies aim to predict the risks of complex diseases using proprietary algorithms. Companies keep algorithms as trade secrets for competitive advantage, but a market that thrives on the premise that customers can make their own decisions about genetic testing should respect customer autonomy and informed decision making and maximize opportunities for transparency. The algorithm itself is only one piece of the information that is deemed essential for understanding how prediction algorithms are developed and evaluated. Companies should be encouraged to disclose everything else, including the expected risk distribution of the algorithm when applied in the population, using a benchmark DNA dataset. A standardized presentation of information and risk distributions allows customers to compare test offers and scientists to verify whether the undisclosed algorithms could be valid. A new model of oversight in which stakeholders collaboratively keep a check on the commercial market is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0465.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: right to privacy; personal data; indemnity; sustainability of public finances; Covid-19
Online: 26 January 2023 (03:09:31 CET)
The basic constitutional freedoms and rights of a person and citizen are in principle unlimited: the full scope of their exercise is the rule, and the restriction determined by law can only be an exception based on explicit constitutional authority and the legitimate aim of the restriction determined by the Constitution. That being so, the restrictions - in addition to being based on constitutional authority and pursuing constitutional objectives - should be commensurate with the needs to achieve these objectives. This means that restrictive legal rules must be suitable for achieving the legitimate aim pursued, must not be stricter than necessary and must be balanced between the constitutionally guaranteed subjective right of the individual and the interests of society. In this scholar paper, the authors point out the economic and legal consequences of the violation of individual privacy and data protection rights caused by the public disclosure of personal data of people who, at a certain time, were obliged to self-isolate due to suspicion of Covid-19 virus infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0388.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: social noise; auditory, non-auditory noise effects; personal music players; university students
Online: 30 November 2019 (10:07:18 CET)
Purpose: The study is aimed to quantify the effects of social noise (personal music players (PMP), high-intensity noise exposure events) and road traffic noise exposures in the sample of Slovak university students living and studying in Bratislava. Methods: There were 1,003 university students (306 males and 697 females, average age 23.13±2) enrolled in the study; 347 lived in the student housing facility exposed to road traffic noise (LAeq =67.6 dB) and 656 in the control one (LAeq =53.4 dB). Respondents completed a validated ICBEN 5-grade scale “Noise annoyance questionnaire”. The exposure to PMP was objectified by the conversion of the subjective evaluation of the volume setting and duration. With the cooperation of the ENT specialist, we arranged audiometric examinations on the pilot sample of 41 volunteers. Results: From the total sample of 1,003 students, 794 (79.16 %) of them reported the use of PMP in the course of the last week; average time of 285 minutes. There was a significant difference in PMP use between the exposed (85.59 %) and the control group (75.76 %) (p=0.01). Among PMP users 30.7 % exceeded the LAV (lower action value for industry LAeq,8h = 80 dB). On a pilot sample of volunteers (n=41) audiometry testing was performed indicating a hearing threshold shift at higher frequencies in 22% of subjects. Conclusions: The results of the study on a sample of young healthy individuals showed the importance of exposure to environmental noise from different sources (transportation, neighborhood, construction, entertainment facilities, etc.) as well as social noise and the need for prevention and intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0346.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: artificial immune system; cellular networks; personal communication system; location management; mobility management
Online: 24 May 2018 (10:02:14 CEST)
In this paper, we are proposing a bio-inspired location management (LM) technique for personal communication system (PSC). It is based on artificial immune system (AIS), with self-adaptation and self-updates attributes in order to perform the location management, and work helps to achieve the better quality of service (QoS) and quality of experience (QoE) for the mobile users. Here, we are suggesting a modified mobile switching center (MSC) architecture, and an adaptive self-modified location management procedure. The proposed mobile switching centre architecture has an advantage of rule-based and fact-based system to store the rules and fact related to location management procedure, and it shows the intelligent behavior of system. The mobile switching centre calculates the best method for location management and rule-base system trigged the rules to perform the techniques. The system stores the result (techniques for location management) in fact-base system for future use. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed techniques been analyzed, and it observed that the proposed system has 45-50% improvement in performance over the current location management techniques. Here, we are taking the performance parameters such as signaling cost, database update cost, overhead measurement, mobility management cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0071.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; fitted face masks; museum collections; personal protective equipment; public health measures
Online: 3 March 2023 (10:22:56 CET)
As the COVID-19 pandemic begins to abate and national public health systems are treating the SARS-Cov-2 virus as endemic, many public health measures are no longer mandated, but remain recommended with voluntary participation. One of these is the wearing of fitted face masks, initially mandated to contain, or at least slow, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 which is primarily transmitted via aerosols emitted while breathing, coughing, or sneezing. While the habit of once wearing fitted face masks recedes into memory for much of the population, so does the knowledge of the various types of masks that were once en vogue. To create a record for the future, this paper provides the first comprehensive documentation of the nature and range of fitted facemasks that circulated during the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Positive youth development, youth sport, realist evaluation, life skills, personal development, psychosocial development.
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:39:46 CET)
Sport has the potential to support psychosocial development in young people. However, extant studies have tended to evaluate purpose-built interventions, leaving regular organised sport relatively overlooked. Moreover, previous work has tended to concentrated on a narrow range of outcomes. To address these gaps, we conducted a season-long ethnography of a youth performance sport club based on a novel Realist Evaluation approach . We construed the club as a social intervention within a complex system of agents and structures. In this - Part 1 - account we detail the perceptions of former and current club parents, players and coaches, using them to build a set of programme theories. The resulting network of outcomes (i.e. self, emotional, social, moral and cognitive) and generative mechanisms (i.e., the attention factory, the greenhouse for growth, the personal boost, and the real-life simulator) spanning across multiple contextual layers provides a nuanced understanding of stakeholders’ views and experiences. This textured perspective of the multi-faceted process of development provides new insights for administrators, coaches and parents to maximise the developmental properties of youth sport, and signposts new avenues for research in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0711.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: AHTN; HHCB; musk ketone; personal care product; sewage treatment plant; synthetic musk fragrance.
Online: 28 December 2020 (21:55:03 CET)
Levels of synthetic musk fragrances (SMFs) and various personal care products (PCPs) were measured in the Han River and its tributaries in Seoul, Korea. The most abundant SMF in all river and PCP samples was 4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydrocyclopenta[g]isochromene (HHCB), followed by 1-(3,5,5,6,8,8-hexamethyl-6,7-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone (AHTN), musk ketone (MK), and 1,1,2,3,3-pentamethyl-2,5,6,7-tetrahydroinden-4-one (DPMI). There was a significant correlation between the SMF concentration in the PCPs and the Han River samples. Moving from upstream to downstream in the Han River, the median SMF concentration was 6.756, 2.945, 0.304, and 0.141 μg/L in the sewage treatment plant (STP) influent, effluent, tributaries, and mainstream, respectively, implying that effective SMF removal was achieved during the sewage treatment process, followed by dilution in the receiving water. Four STPs using advanced biological treatment processes had removal efficiencies of 55.8%, 50.6%, 43.3% for HHCB, AHTN, and MK, respectively. The highest SMF concentrations in the tributaries were observed at locations close to the STPs. Our study confirmed that the main source of SMFs in the receiving water were sewage effluent containing untreated SMFs, which are largely originated from household PCPs, especially hair care products (e.g., shampoo) and perfumes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0021.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: the reference group theory; life satisfaction; exercise adherence; personal investment; strategic and cultural fit
Online: 4 October 2022 (11:06:17 CEST)
To expand the application area of the reference group and enrich exercise theoretical research, based on Stimulus-Organism-Response (S–O-R) framework, this study examines the factors that motivate for adherence to exercise from the external. Taking reference group and strategy and cultural fit as the main stimulus, and personal investment and life satisfaction as mediating variables, this study try to explore the influence of external stimulus on residents’ exercise behavior. In order to enrich the sample size, two surveys of 734 Chinese residents in two cities (Xiamen vs. Fuzhou) were conducted using factor analyses, regression analysis, and T-test analysis. The results indicated that the reference group and strategic and cultural fit as external stimulus have impact on residents’personal investment, life satisfaction and exercise adherence, personal investment and life satisfaction as the organism has impact on residents’ exercise adherence. Personal investment and life satisfaction play a chain mediating role between the reference group and exercise adherence, strategy and cultural fit, and exercise adherence. Moreover, the T-test determined the differences between Xiamen and Fuzhou residents’ exercise adherence and life satisfaction. Residents’ surroundings affect their exercise behavior and life satisfaction. These findings have implications for policymaking aimed at promoting national exercise, which could gradually improve residents’ physical fitness, particularly in light of the current coronavirus emergency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0017.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Interest in modem personal taste; utilitarianism; new fashion products; self-confidence; fashion buying behaviour
Online: 1 August 2022 (09:40:17 CEST)
As a mediator variable, self-confidence is one of the most effective elements of the decision-making process of consumer behaviour. This research has studied the effects of different aspects of consuming fashion on the self-confidence and behaviour of consumers in Tehran’s clothing market. This study has considered the acceptance of new products, interest in mode and fashion, utilitarianism, and personal taste in its analysis. This research aims to understand the fashion buying behaviour amongst Iranian consumers in consideration of their attitude towards self-confidence and aspects of fashion consumption. The statistic sample is 400 consumers from Tehran’s clothing market who have been chosen based on the random availability procedure. The primary tool in this research was a questionary used to testify the assumptions and a model fit created by using structural equations and factor analysis. This research showed that the interest in mode and fashion, personal taste, utilitarianism, and new products positively impact self-confidence. In addition, the positive impact of self-confidence on fashion buying behaviour was confirmed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0271.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: fungicides; insecticides; occupational health; personal protective equipment; poisoning; safety measures; training; integrated pest management
Online: 12 November 2018 (09:16:16 CET)
Misuse and poor handling of chemical pesticides in agriculture is hazardous to the health of farmers, consumers and the environment. We studied the pest and disease management practices and the type of pesticides used in four root, tuber and banana (RTB) crops in Burundi and Rwanda through in-depth interviews with a total of 811 smallholder farmers. No chemical pesticides were used in banana in either Rwanda and Burundi, whereas the use of insecticides and fungicides in potato is quite frequent. Nearly all insecticides and about one third of the fungicides used are moderately hazardous. Personal protective equipment is used by less than a half of the interviewed farmers in both countries. Reported cases of death due to self- or accidental poisoning among humans and domestic animals in the previous 12 months were substantial in both countries. Training of farmers and agrochemical retailers in safe use of pesticide and handling, and use of integrated pest management approaches to reduce pest and disease damage is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: pregnant and non-pregnant women; health behaviours; preconceptional lifestyle; personal values; symbols of happiness
Online: 28 December 2017 (03:34:01 CET)
Preconception lifestyle modification and reducing several known risk factors may have an influence on the future pregnancy outcome. The aim of the study was to analyse health behaviour and personal values, as well as to assess the relationship of these factors in women without children, in pregnant ones and in women who had already delivered babies. The questionnaire survey included Health Behaviour Inventory (HBI), Personal Value List (PVL) and the sociodemographic data and was conducted in 538 women. These women were divided into 3 groups: women who recently delivered (n = 235), pregnant women (n = 121) and childless women (n = 182). Pregnant women demonstrated a significantly higher level of declared health behaviours and also they rated higher subscales values "positive mental attitude" and "health practices" in comparison to women who recently delivered and to childless women. In all tested groups the highest rated personal value was "a successful family life", while the most appreciated symbol of happiness was "love and friendship". Our results suggest that the system of values and the perception of happiness symbols may influence women's health behaviours. Positioning “health” in the hierarchy of personal values as the most important one may facilitate introduction of healthy behaviours. This in turn could reduce several adverse pregnancy outcomes that are potentially modifiable with changing preconception health attitudes. Our results also identify several unanswered questions and highlights areas where new research is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: personal mobility vehicle; active tilting; steering axis; steering disturbance; load reaction force; slanted road; rutted road
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:24:36 CET)
Personal Mobility Vehicle (PMV) which has an inward tilting angle turns with the lateral force due to large camber angle, so it is necessary to consider the lateral movement of the tire vertical load axis during turning. Although the steering torque mechanism are very different from those of automobiles, there are not many examples which studied the steering torque mechanism of PMV. In this paper, based on the effects of six components force acting on the tires, a method for setting the steering axis specifications is derived, including the geometrical minimization of steering moment disturbance due to the vertical load reaction force during turning. Although, automobile tires have a significant ground camber angle when traveling on rutted roads, they do not have it on slant roads because the vehicle body tilts along the road surface. On the other hand, in PMV, the vehicle body always keeps upright when traveling both on slanted roads and on rutted roads. Therefore, the tires have ground camber angles on both types of road surface. We study the straight running ability under such road surface disturbances based on the geometrical minimization of steering moment disturbance due to the vertical load reaction force during turning. This straight running ability can be a remarkable strong point of PMV with an inward tilt mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: personal cooling system; heat and mass transfer; environmental temperature; relative humidity; phase change materials; thermal management
Online: 3 December 2018 (16:11:11 CET)
The hybrid personal cooling system (HPCS) consisted of ventilation fans and phase change materials (PCMs) covered with insulation pads is a promising wearable cooling system to mitigate heat strain and heat-related illnesses of occupational workers with heavy labor in hot environments. Effects of clothing characteristics (e.g., thermal resistance of insulation pads, latent heat and melting temperature of PCMs) on the thermal performance of the HPCS have been investigated in detail in our previous study. Apart from the aforementioned factors, environmental conditions, i.e., environmental temperature and relative humidity, also significantly affect the thermal performance of the HPCS. In this paper, a numerical parametric study was performed to investigate the effects of the environmental temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the thermal management of the HPCS. Five levels of air temperature under environmental RH=50% were chosen (i.e., 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40 ºC) to study the impact of environmental temperature on the HPCS’s cooling performance. In addition, four levels of environmental RH at ambient temperatures of 36 and 40 ºC were selected (i.e., 30, 50, 70 and 90%) to examine the effect of RH on cooling performance of the HPCS. Results show that high environmental temperatures could accelerate the PCM melting process and thereby weaken the cooling performance of HPCS. In the moderately hot environment (36 °C), the HPCS presented good cooling performance with the maximum core temperature at around 37.5 °C during excise when the ambient RH≤70%, whereas good cooling performance could be only seen under RH≤50% in the extremely hot environment (40 °C). Thus, it may be concluded that the maximum environmental RH for the HPCS exhibiting good cooling performance decreases with the increase in the environmental temperature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0029.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Sleep tracking; Context aware recommender system; Quantified self; Personal informatics; Ubiquitous computing; Mobile computing; mHealth; CBI-I
Online: 5 May 2022 (09:34:09 CEST)
The practice of quantified-self sleep tracking is increasingly common nowadays among healthy individuals as well as patients with sleep problems. However, existing sleep-tracking technologies only support simple data collection and visualization, and are incapable of providing actionable recommendations that are tailored to users' physical, behavioral and environmental context. Here we coined the term context-aware sleep health recommender system (CASHRS) as an emerging multidisciplinary research field that bridges ubiquitous sleep computing and context-aware recommender systems. In this paper, we presented a narrative review to analyze the type of contextual information, the recommendation algorithms, the context filtering techniques, the behavior change techniques, the system evaluation, and the challenges in peer-reviewed publications that meet the characteristics of CASHRS. Analysis results identified current research trends, the knowledge gap, and future research opportunities in CASHRS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0407.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Attitude; Perceived Ease of Use; Perceived Usefulness; Facilitating Condition; Personal Innovativeness in IT; Mobile Banking; Generation Y.
Online: 27 March 2020 (11:22:34 CET)
The study investigates the determinants of mobile Internet banking adoption among Gen-Y in Malaysia. Align the issue of the study and research objectives, and the study underpinned Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as the main guideline or a blueprint to analyze the research model. The study applied survey research design and analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) under the PLS-SEM technique with SmartPLS 2.0. A total of 358 mobile internet banking users in Malaysia were random proportional selected as respondents and analyzed. Results from the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) revealed that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, facilitating condition, and personal innovativeness in IT have significantly influenced the attitude of mobile internet banking adoption in Malaysia. Additionally, perceived ease of use and facilitating conditions found to have a significant influence on the perceived usefulness of Mobile Internet Banking. Lastly, facilitating conditions and personal innovativeness in IT are significantly influence the perceived ease of use of mobile internet banking among Gen-Y in Malaysia
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0577.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: personal protective equipment (PPE); COVID-19; manufacturing; prototyping; 3D-printing; biocompatibility; sterilization; face shields; regulatory sciences; local resilience
Online: 24 September 2020 (10:45:53 CEST)
The disruption of conventional manufacturing, supply, and distribution channels for medical supplies during the COVID-19 pandemic has caused widespread shortages and catalyzed local efforts to use nontraditional, rapid manufacturing to meet urgent healthcare needs. Here we present a crisis-responsive design framework designed to assist with product development under pandemic conditions. The framework utilizes extensive stakeholder engagement, comprehensive and dynamic needs assessment, local manufacturing, and product testing for the accelerated development of healthcare products. We contrast this framework with traditional medical device manufacturing and discuss relevant regulatory policies. We highlight the applicability of the crisis-responsive framework to a successful local program that designed and supplied face shields for a large US academic hospital. Finally, we make recommendations aimed at improving future resilience to healthcare emergencies. These include continued development of open source designs suitable for rapid manufacturing and changes in regulatory policy that strike a balance between rigidity and uncontrolled innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicle (EV); charging station (CS); state of charge (SOC); structured query language (SQL); personal home page (PHP)
Online: 16 March 2017 (06:36:11 CET)
The enormous growth in the penetration of electric vehicles (EVs), has laid the path to advancements in the charging infrastructure. Connectivity between charging stations is an essential prerequisite for future EV adoption to alleviate users’ “range anxiety”. The existing charging stations fail to adopt power provision allocation and scheduling management. To improve the existing charging infrastructure data based on real-time information and availability of reserves at charging stations could be uploaded to the users to help them locate the nearest charging station for an EV. This research article focuses on an a interactive user application developed through SQL and PHP platform to allocate the charging slots based on estimated battery parameters, which uses data communication with charging stations to receive the slot availability information. The proposed server-based real-time forecast charging infrastructure avoids waiting times and its scheduling management efficiently prevents the EV from halting on road due to battery drain out. The proposed model is implemented using a low-cost microcontroller and the system etiquette tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: extraversion; Big Five; coping; COVID-19; other-directed learning; self-directed learning; Google Scholar; vaccine; public opinion; personal values
Online: 10 April 2023 (03:50:17 CEST)
Extraversion, a Big Five personality trait, has been identified as a significant factor in COVID-19 positive coping—yet, relevant research is conflicting. Studies have not situated the influence of extraversion within a geographical and historical context. Thus, a sound base is lacking for assessing when opposing results regarding extraversion and COVID-19 positive coping are likely to result. Furthermore, extraversion with respect to COVID-19 coping has not been considered concerning other-directed learning in contrast to self-directed learning. To establish a sufficiently sound base, an examination of the range of high-ranking Google Scholar results on extraversion and COVID-19 coping from different countries during the pandemic’s various waves—pre and post vaccine introduction—is undertaken. The same are then considered for insights into public opinion. Following, extraversion is compared with other-directed learning and differentiated from self-directed learning. An understanding is thus presented for assessing when extraversion will necessarily be an effective personality trait for COVID-19 positive coping and when it will not. Extraversion’s effect will be found inherently inconsistent for identifying COVID-19 positive coping as a result, because of its dependence on other-directed learning. The conclusion: COVID-19 positive coping stability is contingent on personal values that guide self-directed learning, rather than other-directed extraversion.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: neurotechnologies; neuroscience; public health; brain-machine interface; artificial intelligence; coronavirus; COVID19; personal data; neuroethics; liability; stress; social isolation; containment
Online: 15 June 2020 (06:32:47 CEST)
How can neuroscience help everyone to live and care for our confined brains? Understanding and studying human behaviour allows us to measure the impact of such confinement on each of us and to identify those who need help. The challenges are to understand the psychological repercussions following confinement and to understand how neuroscience and neurotechnology can be very interesting tools for dealing with the health crisis. Neuroscience is changing our traditional philosophical and ethical views by providing information about the biological basis of our moral behaviour. The exception of the brain is at the heart of neuroethical thinking and discourse. Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary discipline placed at the intersection between the human sciences and the neurosciences, and aims to help understand how knowledge and research in neurosciences and neurotechnologies will affect the future of society, their impact on humans, relationships, daily life, the labour market ... but also how they can help and provide solutions and answers to the questions of citizens in a health crisis. But it's a double-edged sword, collecting and analyzing brain data in real time seems to be increasingly simple and within everyone's reach, without having the hindsight of the real meaning of these data, allowing one day to read people's thoughts, control them and manipulate them. It is becoming clear that the boundaries between medical and non-medical uses of neuroscience and neurotechnology are becoming very porous, inviting us to reflect on neuroethical issues in order to put safeguards on these uses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: dental care; emotions; health personnel; health services; human needs; motivation; patient reported outcome measures; patient satisfaction; personal satisfaction; theory of satisfaction
Online: 11 September 2020 (09:44:11 CEST)
There is little understanding of patients' experiences and perceptions with satisfaction by health professionals such as medical and dental clinicians. Furthermore, patient satisfaction is not well understood. The objective of this article is to better understand patients' satisfaction with their medical and dental care. The methods of the current article are based on a narrative review of the literature strategy. Patient satisfaction's multidimensional nature has been established since the perceived reasons for satisfaction varied widely among patients. Many aspects of the treatment influence participant satisfaction at different stages of the intervention's process. An improved understanding of the basis for managing patients' expectations with information reiteratively and efficiently may ultimately reduce patients' potential for negative feelings toward the medical and dental treatment experience. The consumerist method may misrepresent the concept of satisfaction in health service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0207.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: open hardware; COVID-19; medical hardware; Powered Air-Purifying Respirator; PAPR; RepRap; 3-D printing; additive manufacturing; personal protective equipment; safety equipment
Online: 17 June 2020 (03:50:13 CEST)
To assist firefighters and other first responders to use their existing equipment for respiration during the COVID-19 pandemic without using single-use, low-supply, masks, this study outlines an open source kit to convert a 3M-manufactured Scott Safety self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) into a powered air-purifying particulate respirator (PAPR). The open source PAPR can be fabricated with a low-cost 3-D printer and widely available components for less than $150, replacing commercial conversion kits saving 85% or full-fledged proprietary PAPRs saving over 90%. The parametric designs allow for adaptation to other core components and can be custom fit specifically to fire-fighter equipment, including their suspenders. The open source PAPR has controllable air flow and its design enables breathing even if the fan is disconnected or if the battery dies. The open source PAPR was tested for air flow as a function of battery life and was found to meet NIOSH air flow requirements for 4 hours, which is 300% over expected regular use.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: reciprocal personal/public protection; mask discriminating mouth and nose; mouth cover; mask; face covering; source control; source classification; Covid-19; active source; liquid droplets
Online: 14 September 2020 (11:45:27 CEST)
Reciprocal Personal/Public Protection (RPPP) featured with source control is introduced, Mask Discriminating Mouth and Nose (MDMN) is employed to serve the purpose, which includes polymer based mouth cover with optional nose cover. The new knowledge that mouth is a primary, active and dominant source of the virus has been well established, which is the base of MDMN. Source classification and related source control tools are discussed, mouth cover is recommended as the tool prioritized to use. Liquid droplets is identified as a hard issue related to mask, liquid droplets, mask fitting, comfort and facial recognition constitute real challenges of mask in addition to efficiency, All of these have been addressed with MDMN. Comparisons between MDMN and masks/face covering are taken on four aspects: efficiency and efficacy, tolerance and comfort, cost and waste, and civil rights and public interest. Mouth cover is recommended to replace the face covering and act as both a personal tool and a public utensil, mouth cover with nose cover can provide better protection than N95 etc. RPPP with MDMN, could be an alternative for lockdown, a parallel strategy to vaccine, and a collectively living way during the pandemic era. MDMN, featured with high efficiency protection, high degree comfort, easy wearing, tight-fitting, easy facial recognition & communication, reusability, cost-effective, environment friendly and scale manufacturing more readily and widely etc., is a simple and sustainable solution, which is essential for ordinary people to keep wearing it properly for protection.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; public health intervention; disease severity; personal survival strategy; randomized control trials; epidemiological model; junk science; mind and body; reductionist
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:11:34 CEST)
To predict how the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, we developed a systematic method for predicting disease outcomes. In the method, we evaluate how personal disease outcomes are mainly affected by viral concentration and exposure time and four defense mechanisms: human innate immunity/host response, acquired immune response, inflammation resolution and micro circulation, and the available space in the thorax cage. By considering how pandemic measures affect viral exposure and those mechanisms, we found many pandemic measures are misused or abused to deliver long-term adverse impacts. We noted that lifestyles have been changed as a result of movement restriction measures. By using the method, we found that altered lifestyles are predicted to raise infection rate, disability and death risks in the future. We show that a person can use personal, environmental, emotional factors to reduce infection rate and death risk. To prove the validity of this finding, we extensively examined medical research models, holistic and reductionist models, epidemiological models, disease risk factors, etc, and found that population methods are unfit for studying holistic health, statistical population does not exist in most clinical trials, mathematical models were misused for studying disease properties for a population, mathematical equations for modeling personal diseases are beyond human ability to solve, statistical models are misused, population-derived treatments are inherently dangerous to patients, vaccines have limited benefits due to unique lung structure and rapid RNA mutation, and immune system damage is caused by fast viral replication rate. We found that altering biological properties to improve the defense mechanisms could prevent a super majority of deaths and prevent the virus from reaching a point to damage the immune system. For vulnerable persons, such measure is a viable strategy for surviving from the pandemic. As a whole, holistic personalized medicine is more powerful than population-based reductionist treatment by one to several orders of magnitudes. We urge people do their parts to force the medical establishment to abandon population treatment models that are responsible for failure of medicine and dissemination of misleading and factually wrong information on the effectiveness of medical treatments.