ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Grafting; Pecan; Transcriptome; Graft union; Hormone
Online: 7 December 2017 (17:21:15 CET)
Pecan (Carya illinoinensis), as a popular nut tree, is widely planted in China in recent years. Grafting is an important technique for its cultivation. For a successful grafting, graft union development generally involves the formation of callus and vascular bundles at the graft union. To explore the molecular mechanism of graft union development, we applied high through-put RNA sequencing to investigate transcriptomic profiles of graft union at four time points (0d, 8d, 15d, and 30d) during pecan grafting process. We identified a total of 12,180 differentially expressed genes. In addition, we found that the content of auxin, cytokinin and gibberellin were accumulated at the graft unions during the grafting process. Correspondingly, genes involved in those hormone signaling were found to be differentially expressed. Interestingly, we found that most genes associated with cell division were up-regulated at callus formative stages, while genes related to cell elongation, secondary cell wall deposition, and programmed cell death were generally up-regulated at vascular bundle formative stages. In the meantime, genes responsible for reactive oxygen species were highly up-regulated across the graft union developmental process. These results will aid in our understanding of successful grafting in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0220.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Almond; Persian walnut; Pistachio; Hazelnut; Pecan; Chestnut; grafting; graft compatibility
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:52:06 CEST)
The production and consumption of nuts are increasing in the world due to strong economic returns and the nutritional value of their products. With the increasing role and importance given to nuts (i.e., walnuts, hazelnut, pistachio, pecan, almond) in a balanced and healthy diet and in the prevention of various diseases, breeding of the nuts species has also been stepped up. Most recent fruit breeding programs have focused on scion genetic improvement. However, the use of locally adapted grafted rootstocks also enhanced the productivity and quality of tree fruit crops. Grafting is an ancient horticultural practice use in nut crops to manipulate scion phenotype and productivity and overcome biotic and abiotic stresses. There are complex rootstock breeding objectives and physiological and molecular aspects of rootstock–scion interactions in nut crops. In this review, we provide an overview of these, considering the mechanisms involved in nutrient and water uptake, regulation of phytohormones, and rootstock influences on the scion molecular processes, including long-distance gene silencing and trans-grafting. Understanding the mechanisms resulting from rootstock × scion × environmental interactions will contribute to developing new rootstocks with resilience in the face of climate change, but also of the multitude of diseases and pests and of the possible increase of their aggressiveness. They will also have to offer the premises of economic production, respectively yield and the quality, according to multiple destinations of nuts in the current consumption and food industry, but also the increasing exigencies of the consumer market and the profile industry.