ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0176.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: COVID-19; nurses; posttraumatic stress disorder; perceived social support; changes in outlook; sense of security; meaning in life
Online: 7 August 2020 (08:10:28 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic affects not only physical health but also deteriorates mental health resulting in sleep problems, depression, and traumatic stress. Our research investigates the level of posttraumatic stress, perceived social support, opinions on positive and negative consequences of the pandemic, sense of security, and sense of meaning among nurses in the face of new and not fully understood global epidemiological phenomena. For this purpose, computer-assisted web interviewing methods were conducted between May 1 and May 15, 2020. Participating nurses completed the following research tools: The Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CIOQ), The Safety Experience Questionnaire (SEQ) and The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ). Three hundred and twenty-five nurses working throughout Poland joined the study of an average age of 39.18 ± 11.16 years. The average overall IES-R score in the study group was 1.78 ± 0.65. Among the dimensions of traumatic stress, the highest score was obtained in the dimension Avoidance 1.86 ± 0.73, then in the dimensions Hyperarousal 1.8 ± 0.78 and Intrusion 1.74 ± 0.83. Amongst studied nurses, the highest support rates were provided by significant others (22.58 ± 5.22), then from friends (21.91 ± 5) and family (21.45 ± 4.4). Among the surveyed nurses, higher average scores were noted in the subscale measuring positive psychological changes (18.56 ± 4.04). In contrast, a higher average level of assessment was noted on the Reflection on the safety dimension (4.21 ± 0.49). The mean MLQ score was 5.33 ± 0.87. A slightly higher result was observed in the subscale Presence (5.35 ± 1.14). The results of the research implemented during the period of severe psychological pressure associated with the COVID-19 pandemic provided information on symptoms of traumatic stress in the examined group of nurses. Their sense of security has been lowered and accompanied by an intensified reflection on issues concerning security. However, the sense of meaning (currently felt) in life remains higher than the tendency to searching for it. The surveyed nurses perceive individual support from the so-called significant others (apart from family and friends). They see positive changes resulting from painful experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be characterized by adaptation in the form of posttraumatic growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0148.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; Infectious diseases; Global diffusion; Environmental factors; Compartmental models; Epidemiologic models; Outlook; Prediction; Preparedness; Surveillance; Health policy; Crisis management; Strategies.
Online: 8 November 2022 (08:40:47 CET)
One of the most important problems in the presence of epidemics and pandemics is an accurate prediction and preparedness. Scholars and experts argue that future pandemics and/or epidemics are almost inevitable events and is not whether next pandemics will happen, but when a new heath emergency will emerge. Epidemiologic models for prediction of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shown many limitations because of unpredictable dynamics of the new viral agent SARS-CoV-2 in environment and society. The main goals of this study are twofold: first, the analysis of anthropogenic activities and factors that may trigger pandemic threats; second, the planning of new directions for strategies to reduce risks that a pandemic threat emerges and/or in the initial phase to reduce vast diffusion and negative impact of new viral agents that can generate hazards and problems in public health, environment and socioeconomic systems. In particular, the investigation and understanding of sources and driving factors concerning the emergence and diffusion of new pandemics have critical aspects for strategic actions of forecast, prevention and preparation of effective policy responses to cope with next pandemic crises and health emergencies. Insights here endeavor, whenever possible, to clarify these problems to increase the knowledge of the sources and factor determining the emergence of new viral agents in order to design optimal response policies to face next pandemic diseases similar to COVID-19. .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1537.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: global gas; LNG; supply and demand dynamics; market outlook; investment needs
Online: 23 May 2023 (02:57:40 CEST)
This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the global gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) markets. The article begins by discussing the increasing demand for gas and LNG, particularly in Asia, as countries aim to transition to cleaner sources of energy. It explores how market volatility has led to energy security interventions and lasting economic and emissions impacts. It then explores the global supply and demand dynamics, highlighting the structural change expected in the market and the competition between Europe and Asia for limited new LNG supply. The article also focuses on Europe's increased flexibility and dependence on LNG imports, which have risen by 60% to 121 million tonnes, offsetting lower Russian pipeline imports. Furthermore, the article delves into global supply and demand dynamics, how the market is expected to remain tight, and how record gas and LNG prices have led to demand reductions. Additionally, it analyzes the future outlook and investment needs, highlighting the continued uptake of gas in heavy-duty transport and the need for further investment to avoid a supply-demand gap. The article concludes with an analysis of the implications for the future of the global gas and LNG markets.