ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0033.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: P. rubescens algal bloom; remote sensing; MERIS; MODIS
Online: 10 September 2017 (07:36:21 CEST)
In winter 2008-2009, Lake Occhito, a strategic multiple-uses reservoir in South Italy, was affected by an extraordinary Planktothrix rubescens bloom. P. rubescens is a filamentous potentially toxic cyanobacterium which has recently colonized many environments in Europe. A number of studies is currently available on the use of remote sensing techniques to monitor different fresh water cyanobacteria species. By contrast no specific applications are available on the remote sensing monitoring of P. rubescens. In this paper we present a specific algorithm, based on Water Leaving Reflectances (WLR) from MERIS data, atmospherically corrected using the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) retrieved by MODIS data, to detect P. rubescens blooms. The high accuracy in AOT data, provided by MOD09 surface reflectance product, at 1km spatial resolution, allowed obtaining a good correlation between the WLR and the P. rubescens chlorophyll-a concentrations measured in the field, through multiple stations fluorometric profiles. A modified Normalized Difference Chlorophyll index (NDCI) algorithm is presented. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been successfully compared with other specific algorithms for turbid productive waters. We demonstrated how important is to verify the spectral behaviour of bio-optical parameters in order to develop an ad hoc algorithm that better performs with respect to standard algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0163.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Carbonate aquifer; groundwater modelling; multilayer aquifer; MODFLOW-NWT formulation; Central Italy
Online: 11 July 2022 (14:19:53 CEST)
This paper concerns about a stepwise modelling procedure for groundwater flow simulation in a complex carbonate, folded and faulted, multilayer aquifer, in the Apennine chain in Central Ita-ly, which constitutes a source of good quality water for human consumption. A perennial river acts as the main natural drain for groundwater while sustaining valuable water related ecosys-tems. The spatial distribution of recharge was estimated using the Thornthwaite-Mather method on 60 years of climate data. The system was conceptualized as three main aquifers separated by two locally discontinuous aquitards. Three numerical models were implemented by gradually adding complexity to the model grid: single layer (2D), three layers (Quasi-3D), and five layers (Fully-3D), using an equivalent porous medium approach, in order to find the best solution with a parsimonious model setting. To overcome dry-cell problems in the Fully-3D model, the New-ton-Raphson formulation for MODFLOW-2005 was invoked. Calibration results show that a Fully-3D model was required to match the observed distribution of aquifer outflow to the river baseflow. The numerical model demonstrated the major impact of folded and faulted geological structures on controlling the flow dynamics in terms of flow direction, water heads and spatial distribution of the outflows to the river and springs.