ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0518.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Theater Keywords: Mesoproterozoic; Neoproterozoic; Baltica; Amazonia; detrital zircon; Volyn-Orsha basin
Online: 30 March 2023 (02:53:28 CEST)
We used LA-ICP-MS U-Pb data for detrital zircon to constrain the Maximum Depositional Age (MDA) and provenance of clastic sedimentary rocks of the Volyn-Orsha sedimentary basin, which filled an elongated (~625×250 km) depression in SW Baltica and attained ~900 m in thickness. Eighty-six zircons out of one hundred and three yielded concordant dates, with most of them (86 %) falling in the time interval between 1655 ± 3 and 1044 ± 16 Ma and clustering in two peaks at ca. 1630 and 1230 Ma. The remaining zircons yielded dates older than 1800 Ma. The MDA is defined by a tight group of three zircons with a weighted average age of 1079 ± 8 Ma. This age corresponds to the time of a clockwise ~90° rotation of Baltica and the formation of the Grenvillian – Sveconorwegian – Sunsas orogenic belts. Subsidence was facilitated by the presence of eclogites derived from subducted oceanic crust. The sediments of the Orsha sub-basin in the northeastern part of the basin were derived from the local crystalline basement, whereas the sediments in the Volyn sub-basin, extending to the margin of Baltica, were transported from the orogen between Laurentia, Baltica, and Amazonia.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0302.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: origin of life; DOM; DOC; choanoflagellate; sponge; Porifera; Neoproterozoic; Cryogenian
Online: 13 August 2020 (11:24:48 CEST)
The most widely accepted scientific theory for the origin of life on Earth is that prokaryotic microbes evolved from simple organic compounds in seawater under anoxic conditions. For about 1 billion years thereafter, these microbes consumed the same dissolved organic matter (DOM) from which they had evolved before scarcity of DOM forced the evolution of cyanobacterial photosynthesis followed by eukaryosis. Could the more efficient consumption of DOM have also stimulated the subsequent origin of multicellular animal life? In this report, we synthesize past and recent evidence to propose the “DOM uptake hypothesis” for the origin of metazoans. A choanoflagellate-like protozoan was the likely ancestor of the first sponge-like metazoan to evolve on Earth. Choanoflagellates have outwardly facing flagellae that are subject to viscous water movement, while sponges have choanocytes in chambers with flagellae directed to pump water with greater fluidity across an aquiferous system with a huge cellular surface area. While generally considered particle feeders, both choanoflagellates and sponges absorb DOM, with some sponges relying on DOM for as much as 90% of their diet. We propose that the earliest metazoans may have evolved to survive the dire nutritional conditions of the Cryogenian “snow-ball Earth” period (~700 million years ago) by developing a body plan with the enhanced ability to absorb low concentrations of DOM in seawater from sources such as the viral lysis of microbes, exudates of benthic stromatolites, or refractory DOM compounds. Additionally, species of extant sponges that have a high abundance of microbes living in their bodies consume the greatest amounts of DOM, suggesting that the DOM uptake hypothesis may also be dependent on microbial symbiosis.