ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0322.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Hemolytic peptide; Network science; Half-Space Proximal Networks; Metadata Networks; Visual mining; Cluster analysis; Motif discovery; StarPep toolbox; Peptide drug discovery
Online: 17 March 2023 (10:05:05 CET)
Peptides are promising drug development frameworks thanks to their high target selectivity, tolerability and relatively low production cost. However, despite the fact that several thousand potentially therapeutic peptides reported, only sixty have arrived at the market. This concerning low proportion is partially explained by undesired properties such as peptide-induced hemolytic activity. Hence, we aim to get a better insight into the chemical space of hemolytic peptides using a novel approach based on network science and interactive data mining as an alternative to design more effective peptide drugs with low hemolytic activity. Metadata networks (METNs) were used to characterize and find general patterns associated to hemolytic peptides, whereas Half-Space Proximal Networks (HSPNs), created using five different two-way dissimilarity measures, represented the hemolytic peptide space. Then, using the best candidate HSPNs, we extracted various scaffolds that capture information of almost all the chemical space but avoiding peptide overrepresentation. Such scaffolds can have many applications, such as training accurate ML-based prediction models, constructing one-class multi-query similarity searching models and characterizing the diversity of hemolytic peptides using a manageable set of peptides. Finally, by means of an alignment-free approach, we reported 47 putative hemolytic motifs, which might provide hints about the mechanisms of hemolysis and can also be used as toxic signatures when developing novel peptide-based drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Interferons; IFNα; IFNß; IFNγ; antiviral; antiproliferative; immunomodulator; PEGylation; formulation; encapsulate IFNs; drug delivery system; liposomes; polymeric micelles; microparticles; nanoparticles
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:51:44 CEST)
Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines involved in the immune response that act on innate and adaptive immunity. These proteins are natural cell-signaling glycoproteins expressed in response to viral infections, tumors, and biological inducers and constitute the first line of defense of vertebrates against infectious agents. They have been marketed for more than 30 years with considerable impact on the global therapeutic protein market thanks to their diversity in terms of biological activities. They have been used as single agents or with combination treatment regimens, demonstrating promising clinical results, resulting in 22 different formulations approved by regulatory agencies. The 163 clinical trials with currently active IFNs reinforce their importance as therapeutics for human health. However, their application has presented difficulties due to the molecules’ size, sensitivity to degradation, and rapid elimination from the bloodstream. For some years now, work has been underway to obtain new drug delivery systems to provide adequate therapeutic concentrations for these cytokines, decrease their toxicity and prolong their half-life in the circulation. Although different research groups have presented various formulations that encapsulate IFNs, to date, there is no formulation approved for use in humans. The current review exhibits an updated summary of all encapsulation forms presented in the scientific literature for these cytokines IFNα, IFNß, and IFNγ, from the year 1996 to the year 2021, considering parameters such as: encapsulating matrix, route of administration, and encapsulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0398.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Perfluorinated derivatives; Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution; Bioconjugation; IR and 19F-NMR simulations; Molecular Docking
Online: 26 October 2022 (04:01:55 CEST)
A series of cysteine-based perfluoroaromatic (hexafluorobenzene (I) and decafluorobiphenyl (II) were synthesized and established as a chemoselective and available core to simple or more complex systems since small molecules to biomolecules with interesting properties. As proof of concept of the potential application of perfluorinated derivatives as non-cleavable linkers, some antibody-perfluorinated conjugates were prepared via thiol, demonstrating that the bioconjugation process doesn’t affect to the macromolecular entity. Besides, some molecular properties of synthesized compounds are evaluated using a combination of spectroscopic characterization (FT-IR and 19F-NMR chemical shifts) and theoretical calculations. Moreover, molecular Docking was also developed to predict cysteine-based hexafluorobenzene and decafluorobiphenyl derivatives’ affinity against topoisomerase Il and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). The results suggested that mainly cysteine-based decafluorobiphenyl derivatives could be potential topoisomerase II α and COX-2 inhibitors, becoming potential anticancer agents and candidates for anti-inflammatory treatment.