ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0306.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacture; topology optimisation; computed tomography
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:53:49 CEST)
Additive Manufacturing (AM) provides an opportunity to fundamentally redesign components previously limited by conventional manufacturing techniques. A new process for this workflow of design, manufacture by Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) and validation is presented, to which a case study of a crank for a high performance racing bicycle is applied. Topology optimisation generated conceptually ideal geometry from which a functional design was interpreted. Design for AM considerations were employed to reduce build time, material usage and post-processing labour. PBF was employed to manufacture the parts, and the build quality assessed using Computed Tomography (CT). Static and dynamic functional testing was performed and compared to a Finite Element Analysis (FEA). CT confirmed good build quality of tall, complex geometry with no significant geometrical deviation from CAD over 0.5 mm. Static testing proved performance close to current market leaders, although failure under fatigue occurred after just 2495 ± 125 cycles, the failure mechanism was consistent in both its form and location. These physical results were representative of those simulated, thus validating the FEA. This research demonstrates a complete workflow from design, manufacture, post-treatment and validation of a highly loaded PBF manufactured component, offering practitioners with a validated approach to the application of PBF.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0158.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Samsung Note 7 Li-ion, Thermal runaway, Ceramic coating, battery, Tomographic image, Welding characterisation
Online: 21 December 2017 (17:32:42 CET)
Li-ion cell designs, component integrity and manufacturing processes all have critical influence on the safety of Li-ion batteries. Any internal defective features that induce a short circuit, can trigger a thermal runaway: a cascade of reactions, leading to a device fire. As consumer device manufacturers push aggressively for increased battery energy, instances of field failure are increasingly reported. Notably Samsung made a press release in 2017 following a total product recall of their Galaxy Note 7 mobile phone, confirming speculation that the events were attributable to the battery and its mode of manufacture. Recent incidences of battery swelling on the new iPhone 8 have been reported in the media, and the techniques and lessons reported herein may have future relevance. Here we look deeper into the key components of one of these cells and confirm evidence of cracking of electrode material in tightly folded areas, combined with a delamination of surface coating on the separator, which itself is an unusually thin monolayer. We report microstructural information about the electrodes, battery welding attributes and thermal mapping of the battery whilst operational. The findings point to the most likely combination of events and highlights the impact of design features, whilst providing structural considerations most likely to have led to the reported incidences relating to this phone.