ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Covid-19; Neutrophil-Lymphocyte ratio (NLR); severe covid pneumonia
Online: 5 December 2022 (06:26:50 CET)
With covid infection having a periodic occurrence and each wave affecting millions of people, there is an urgent need for healthcare providers to develop readily available biological markers to predict the severity and mortality of COVID-19 infection at an early stage of the disease to predict the most optimal management. The Neutrophil – lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) and Platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), are novel inflammatory markers suggested to predict the severity of illness in COVID -19 patients. We evaluated a retrospective cohort of 224 patients with covid 19 illnesses from August 2020 to October 2020. We categorized the patients into 'mild' and 'moderate to severe as per the severity of their illnesses. The optimal cut-off values of the continuous NLR, PLR, and Age were calculated by applying the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated from ROC analysis. The results showed that Age, Hb, and NLR are significant predictors of the severity of illness. So we quantified the predictive contribution of those variables by its Z- score and showed that NLR is the strongest predictor followed by Age.ROC curve analysis revealed NLR to be an excellent predictor of disease severity (sensitivity 88.30% and specificity 82.60%) at a cut-off of > 4.24. A cut-off of 165.63 was obtained for PLR, which showed good predictive value for the severity of illness. A NLR > 6 was used as a predictor for mortality due to covid illness with good sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: NLR and PLR can be used as prognostic markers to identify the severity of covid illness and the probability of mortality in the future in low-resource settings. Given its low cost, easily available, accessible, and reproducible data, it can be used as a useful marker to assist the physician in early referral and treatment of covid 19 infected patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0049.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Computational Imaging; Non-linear reconstruction (NLR); Holography; scattering lens; 3D imaging
Online: 3 June 2022 (12:50:31 CEST)
Scattering has been always considered a problem in most of the imaging and holography systems. In this project, a 3D imaging system has been developed based on scattering against common beliefs. The 3D imaging system consists of only two components namely a scattering lens, fabricated by grinding the surface of a convex lens using sandpaper and a web camera. The point spread function (PSF) in the form of speckle distribution was recorded using a laser source in the first step. A synthetic object was selected which was convolved with the PSF in a computer to generate the object intensity distribution. The image of the object was reconstructed by processing the PSF and object intensity distribution using a computational reconstruction method called non-linear reconstruction. The recorded PSF was scaled and the process was repeated for a different synthetic object. The concept was extended to 3D by summing the object intensity distributions generated using PSFs with different scaling factors. The image at different planes can be reconstructed using the PSFs corresponding to that plane.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Systems biology, stroke, neuroinflmmation, NLR,systemic immune inflmmation index, Post Stroke Neurological Syndrome (PSNS)
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:38:58 CET)
Stroke represents one of the most important causes of morbidity ( eighty million patients with disabling of ongoing effects of stroke at a given time, globally) and mortality (the second leading cause of death) worldwide. Innovative systems biology-based approach is likely to increase the understanding of the underpinning of acute stroke promise to enhance stroke prevention, acute treatment, and neurorehabilitation. Recent growing body of evidence with shared pathobiology with COVID-19 and the critically important role of inflammation in the context of stroke points to far-reaching consequences of acute stroke, just as in the case of COVID-19 ( post-acute event issues as well as long term issues ) . So far, stroke typically defined by late-appearing disease manifestation by the range of stroke subtypes as defined by the WHO or American Stroke Association. This definition neglects the underlying pathobiological mechanisms such as low-grade chronic inflammation and already compromised vascular system. Diseases such as stroke is hardly a simple result of a single problem, but rather a complex cascade of pathobiological processes and interactions in a complex biochemical environment. The evidence of changes in innate immunity and adaptive immunity during the index event of acute stroke and recovery over next 3-12 months can be easily elicited with simple bedside blood tests such as neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with well over 300 published papers including several systematic reviews and meta-analyses confirming this. Global standard operating procedures (SOP) of stroke care dictated by the national and international stroke guidelines at present. It is imperative to explore the evidence of systems biology approach in current stroke guidelines. This is likely to be a key turning point in managing stroke across the continuum (prevention, management of acute event and rehabilitation).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0561.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Nivolumab; immunotherapy; head and neck cancers; HNSCC; chemotherapy; neutrophil to lymphocyt ratio; NLR; second primary malignancy; Cetuximab
Online: 9 May 2023 (04:21:38 CEST)
The prognosis of patients with recurrent or metastatic of the head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) refractory to platinum-based chemotherapy is severe and, consequently, the identification of therapeutic options for this category of patients is a priority. Nivolumab, an anti- programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibody, has been approved for the treatment of recurrent or metastatic HNSCC after platinum-based therapy progressing. We present the early experience of two academic center including diagnostic, clinical, biological, therapeutic and outcomes characteristics of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with Nivolumab. The purpose of the study is to identify certain peculiarities and to report them compared to the data from the literature in order to generate some hypotheses that coud constitute criteria for the selection of cases with maximum benefit to immunotherapy. Analyzing the data obtained from 18 patients treated in Emergency County Hospital Craiova, "Saint Nectarie" Oncological Hospital Craiova and Euroclinic Oncological Center Iasi January 2020 and March 2023 it could be hypothesized that lower nadir values of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (<3.5) and the adition of intensive regimens of chemotherapy and radiotherapy could justify a favorable response in terms of progression free survival (PFS) during immunotherapy with Nivolumab. To our knowledge, the study included the first two cases of second primary malignancy (SPM) in the head neck region treated with Nivolumab. The reported data support a possible benefit of the sequential administration of radiotherapy, immunotherapy for SPM cases. Higher positive dynamic of neutrophil to lymphocyt ratio (NLR) could be associated with worst outcome during immunotherapy. All study observations including the role of infections and antibiotic treatment as well as the possible biomarker value of NLR variation during immunotherapy should be investigated in multicenter clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: luminal breast cancer; neoadjuvant therapy; neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR); platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR); predictive/prognostic biomarkers
Online: 7 May 2021 (12:26:14 CEST)
Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a promising predictive and prognostic factor in breast cancer. We investigated its ability to predict disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with luminal A or luminal B-HER2-negative breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Pre-treatment complete blood cell counts from 168 consecutive patients with luminal breast cancer were evaluated to assess NLR. The study population was stratified into NLRlow or NLRhigh according to a cut-off value established by receiving operator curve (ROC) analysis. Data on additional pre- and post-treatment clinical-pathological characteristics were also collected. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazards models were used for statistical analyses. Patients with pre-treatment NLRlow showed a significantly shorter DFS (HR 6.97, 95% CI 1.65-10.55, p= 0.002) and OS (HR 7.79, 95% CI 1.25-15.07, p= 0.021) compared to those with NLRhigh. Non-ductal histology, luminal B subtype, and post-treatment Ki67≥ 14% were also associated with worse DFS (p= 0.016, p= 0.002, and p= 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, luminal B subtype, post-treatment Ki67≥ 14%, and NLRlow remained independent prognostic factors for DFS, while only post-treatment Ki67≥ 14% and NLRlow affected OS. The present study provides evidence that pre-treatment NLRlow helps identify women at higher risk of recurrence and death among patients affected by luminal breast cancer treated with NACT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0810.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: NLR; CRP; P/F; COVID-19; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio; Neutrophils; Lymphocytes; immune system; biomarkers; SARS-CoV-2; inflammation; ICU; lung failure
Online: 11 May 2023 (07:07:51 CEST)
All severe cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections are characterized by a high risk of disease progression towards ARDS, leading to bad outcome. Respiratory symptoms in COVID-19 patients often do not correspond to disease’s worsening. A dysregulated host response to the large viral load could play a key role in the disease progression. In our sample median age was 74 years (72-75) and 54% were men. Median period of hospitalization was 9 days. Firstly, we observed an asynchronous trend of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in 764 selected among 963 patients who were consecutively recruited in two hospitals (Cannizzaro, S. Marco) in Catania, Italy. NLR values in deceased patients showed an increase from baseline over time. By contrast, CRP tended to fall from baseline to median day of hospitalization in all four subgroups, but steeply increased at the end of hospitalization only in ICU-admitted patients. Then we evaluated the relationships between NLR and CRP as continuous variables with PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P/F). Finally, we made mediation and moderation analyses to determine the link between inflammation (CRP), immune system (neutrophils and lymphocytes) and respiratory failure (P/F). CRP, neutrophils and P/F are linked in the same pathogenetic chain leading to respiratory failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Vascular inflammation; Peripheral arterial disease (PAD); Chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI); GHAS trial; TNF-α; hs-CRP; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); NOX4; eNOS; VEGF-A.
Online: 3 December 2021 (09:44:42 CET)
Background: Vascular inflammation plays a crucial role in peripheral arterial disease (PAD), although the role of the mediators involved has not yet been properly defined. The aim of this work is to investigate gene expression and plasma biomarkers in chronic limb-threating ischemia (CLTI). Methods: Using patients from the GHAS trial, both blood and ischemic muscle samples were obtained to analyze plasma markers and mRNA expression, respectively. Statistical analy-sis was performed by using univariate (Spearman, t-Student, X2) and multivariate (multiple lo-gistic regression) tests. Results: 35 patients were available at baseline (29 for mRNA expression). Baseline characteristics (mean): Age:71.4±12.4 (79.4% male); TNF-α:10.7±4.9; hs-CRP:1.6±2.2; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR):3.5±2.8. Plasma TNF-α was found elevated (≥8.1) in 68.6% of patients, while high hs-CRP (≥0.5) in 60.5%. Diabetic patients with high level of inflammation showed significantly higher levels of NOX4 expression at baseline (p=0.0346). Plasma TNF-α had a negative correlation with eNOS expression (-0.5, p=0.015) and hs-CRP with VEGF-A (-0.63, p=0.005). The expression of NOX4 was parallel to that of plasma TNF-α (0.305, p=0.037), especial-ly in DM. Cumulative mortality at 12-month was related to NLR ≥3 (p=0.019) and TNF-α ≥8.1 (p=0.048). The best cut-off point for NLR to predict mortality was 3.4. Conclusions: NOX4 and TNF-α are crucial for the development and complications of lower limb ischemia, especially in DM. hs-CRP could have a negative influence on angiogenesis too. NLR and TNF-α represent suita-ble markers of mortality in CLTI. These results are novel because they connect muscle gene expres-sion and plasma information in patients with advanced PAD, deepening the search of new and ac-curate targets for this condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD); platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR); neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR); baso-phil-to-lymphocyte ratio (BLR); eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (ELR); in-hospital mortality; nom-ogram; decision curve analysis (DCA); clinical impact curve (CIC)
Online: 14 November 2022 (04:42:59 CET)
The study comprehensively evaluated the prognostic roles of PLR, NLR, MLR, BLR, and ELR in patients with acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). 619 patients with AECOPD and 300 healthy volunteers were retrospectively included into the study. The clinical characteristics containing laboratory findings of the AECOPD patients and the blood cell counts (CBCs) of the healthy volunteers were collected. Compared with the healthy volunteers, PLR, NLR, and MLR were elevated in COPD patients in stable condition, and were further ele-vated during exacerbation. ELR showed the opposite trend. PLR, NLR, and MLR were all posi-tively correlated with hospital LOS as well as CRP. In contrast, ELR was negatively correlated with hospital LOS as well as CRP. Elevated PLR, NLR, and MLR were all associated with more serious airflow limitation in AECOPD. Elevated PLR, NLR, and MLR were all associated with increased in-hospital mortality while Elevated ELR was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality in AECOPD. A nomogram was construct to predict in-hospital mortality in AECOPD. The nomo-gram had a C-index of 0.850 (95% CI: 0.799 – 0.901) with good predictive value and clinical ap-plicability. In summary, PLR, NLR, MLR, and ELR served as predictors for clinical outcomes in patients with AECOPD.