REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: podoplanin, PDPN, tumor malignancy, tumor marker, antibody therapy, cancer-specific monoclonal antibody, CasMab
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:05:50 CET)
Podoplanin (PDPN) is a cell-surface mucin-like glycoprotein that plays a critical role in tumor development and normal development of the lung, kidney, and lymphatic vascular systems. PDPN is overexpressed in several tumors and is involved in their malignancy. PDPN induces platelet aggregation through binding to platelet receptor C-type lectin-like receptor 2. Furthermore, PDPN modulates signal transductions that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, invasion, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and stemness, all of which are crucial for the malignant progression of tumor. In the tumor microenvironment (TME), PDPN expression is up-regulated in the tumor stroma, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and immune cells. CAFs play significant roles in the extracellular matrix remodeling and the development of immunosuppressive TME. Additionally, PDPN functions as a co-inhibitory molecule on T cells, indicating the involvement with immune evasion. In this review, we describe the mechanistic basis and diverse roles of PDPN in malignant progression of tumor and discuss the possibility of the clinical application of PDPN-targeted cancer therapy, including cancer-specific monoclonal antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptor T technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0581.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: CD44; CD44 variant 5; monoclonal antibody; flow cytometry; immunohistochemistry
Online: 31 January 2023 (09:08:35 CET)
Pancreatic cancer exhibits a poor prognosis due to the lack of early diagnostic biomarkers and the resistance to conventional chemotherapy. CD44 has been known as a cancer stem cell marker, and plays tumor promotion and drug resistance in various cancers. Especially, the splicing variants are overexpressed in many carcinomas, and play essential roles in the cancer stemness, invasiveness or metastasis, and resistance to treatments. Therefore, the understanding of each CD44 variant (CD44v) function and distribution in carcinomas is essential for the establishment of CD44-targeting tumor therapy. In this study, we immunized mice with CD44v3–10-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO) cells, and established various anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). One of the established clones (C44Mab-3; IgG1, kappa) recognized peptides of the variant 5-encoded region, indicating that C44Mab-3 is a specific mAb for CD44v5. Moreover, C44Mab-3 reacted with CHO/CD44v3–10 cells or pancreatic cancer cell lines (PK-1 and PK-8) by flow cytometry. The apparent KD of C44Mab-3 for CHO/CD44v3–10 and PK-1 was 7.1 × 10−10 M and 1.9 × 10−9 M, respectively. C44Mab-3 could detect the exogenous CD44v3–10 and endogenous CD44v5 in western blotting, and stained the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pancreatic cancer cells, but not normal pancreatic epithelial cells in immunohistochemistry. These results indicate that C44Mab-3 is useful for detecting CD44v5 in various applications, and expected for the application of pancreatic cancer diagnosis and therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Targeted therapy; Clinical trial
Online: 21 February 2022 (03:05:05 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Surgery or surgery plus radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy for patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) were accepted as the main therapeutic strategies until the early 2000s, when targeted drugs, like cetuximab and bevacizumab were developed. The use of targeted drugs in clinical practice has significantly increased patients’ overall survival. To date, the emergence of several types of targeted drugs has opened new possibilities and revealed new prospects for mCRC treatment. Therapeutic strategies are continually being updated to select the most suitable targeted drugs based on the results of clinical trials that are currently underway. This review discusses the up-to date molecular evidence of targeted therapy for mCRC and summarizes the Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted drugs including the results of clinical trials. We also explain their mechanisms of action and how these affect the choice of a suitable targeted therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: CD44; CD44v6; monoclonal antibody; colorectal cancer
Online: 9 January 2023 (09:02:06 CET)
CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein, and its isoforms are produced by the alternative splicing with the standard and variant exons. The CD44 variant exon containing isoforms (CD44v) are overexpressed in carcinomas. CD44v6 is one of the CD44v, and its overexpression predicts poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. CD44v6 plays critical roles in CRC adhesion, proliferation, stemness, invasiveness, and chemoresistance. Therefore, CD44v6 is a promising target for cancer diagnosis and therapy for CRC. In this study, we established anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by immunizing mice with CD44v3-10-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO) cells. We then characterized them using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. One of the established clones (C44Mab-9; IgG1, kappa) reacted with a peptide of variant 6-encoded region, indicating that C44Mab-9 recognizes CD44v6. Furthermore, C44Mab-9 reacted with CHO/CD44v3-10 cells or CRC cell lines (COLO201 and COLO205) by flow cytometry. The apparent KD of C44Mab-9 for CHO/CD44v3-10, COLO201, and COLO205 was 8.1 × 10−9 M, 1.7 × 10−8 M, and 2.3 × 10−8 M, respectively. C44Mab-9 detected the CD44v3-10 in western blotting, and partially stained the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CRC tissues in immunohistochemistry. Collectively, C44Mab-9 is useful for detecting CD44v6 in various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: CD44; CD44 variant 4; monoclonal antibody; flow cytometry; immunohistochemistry
Online: 21 December 2022 (07:40:21 CET)
CD44 has been known as a marker of tumor initiating cells, and plays pro-tumorigenic functions in many cancers. The splicing variants play critical roles in malignant progression of cancers by promoting the stemness, cancer cell invasion or metastasis, and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. To understand each CD44 variant (CD44v) function is essential to know the property of cancers and establishment of the therapy. However, the function of the variant 4-encoded region has not to be elucidated. Therefore, specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the variant 4 are indispensable for basic research, tumor diagnosis, and therapy. In this study, we established anti-CD44 variant 4 (CD44v4) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by immunizing mice with a peptide containing the variant 4-encoded region. We next performed flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry to characterized them. One of the established clones (C44Mab-108; IgG1, kappa) reacted with CD44v3-10-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells (CHO/CD44v3-10). The KD of C44Mab-108 for CHO/CD44 v3-10 was 3.4 × 10−7 M. In western blot analysis, C44Mab-108 detected CD44v3-10 in the lysate of CHO/CD44v3-10 cells. Furthermore, C44Mab-108 stained formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded oral squamous carcinoma tissues in immunohistochemistry. These results indicated that C44Mab-108 is useful to detect CD44v4 in various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0189.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: mouse CCR9, monoclonal antibody, epitope mapping, alanine scanning, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Online: 12 December 2022 (03:54:29 CET)
C-C chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) is a receptor for C-C-chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25). CCR9 is crucial in the chemotaxis of immune cells and inflammatory responses. Moreover, CCR9 is highly expressed in tumors including several solid tumors and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Several preclinical studies have shown that anti-CCR9 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exert antitumor activity. Therefore, CCR9 is an attractive target for tumor therapy. In this study, we conducted the epitope mapping of an anti-mouse CCR9 (mCCR9) mAb, C9Mab-24 (rat IgG2a, kappa), using a 1 × alanine (1 × Ala) and 2 × alanine (2 × Ala)-substitution method via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We first performed the 1 × Ala-substitution method using one alanine-substituted peptides of the mCCR9 N-terminus (amino acids 1-19). C9Mab-24 did not recognize two peptides (F14A and F17A), indicating that Phe14 and Phe17 are critical for C9Mab-24-binding to mCCR9. Furthermore, we conducted the 2 × Ala-substitution method using two consecutive alanine-substituted peptides of the mCCR9 N-terminus, and showed that C9Mab-24 did not react with four peptides (M13A–F14A, F14A–D15A, D16A–F17A, and F17A–S18A), indicating that 13-MFDDFS-18 is involved in C9Mab-24-binding to mCCR9. Overall, combining, the 1 × Ala or 2 × Ala scanning methods could be useful for understanding for target-antibody interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: CD44; monoclonal antibody; esophageal cancer
Online: 1 March 2022 (10:32:33 CET)
CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein, which is widely expressed on normal and cancer cells. CD44 is involved in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, survival, stemness, and chemo-resistance. Therefore, CD44 is thought to be a promising target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we established anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by immunizing mice with CD44v3-10 ectodomain and screening using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We then characterized them using flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. One of the established clones (C44Mab-46; IgG1, kappa) reacted with CD44s-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells (CHO/CD44s) or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines (KYSE70 and KYSE770). The KD of C44Mab-46 for CHO/CD44s, KYSE70, and KYSE770 was 1.1×10-8 M, 4.9×10-8 M, and 4.1×10-8 M, respectively. C44Mab-46 detected CD44s of CHO/CD44s and KYSE70, and CD44v of KYSE770 in western blot analysis. Furthermore, C44Mab-46 strongly stained esophageal squamous carcinoma cells in immunohistochemistry using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ESCC tissues. Taken together, C44Mab-46 is very useful for detecting CD44 in various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0360.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: EpCAM; monoclonal antibody; recombinant antibody; colorectal carcinoma
Online: 28 March 2022 (10:11:34 CEST)
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a cell surface glycoprotein, which is widely expressed on normal and cancer cells. EpCAM is involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, survival, stemness, and tumorigenesis. Therefore, EpCAM is thought to be a promising target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we established anti-EpCAM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. We characterized them using flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. One of the established recombinant anti-EpCAM mAbs, recEpMab-37 (mouse IgG1, kappa), reacted with EpCAM-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells (CHO/EpCAM) or a colorectal carcinoma cell line (Caco-2). In contrast, recEpMab-37 did not react with EpCAM-knocked out Caco-2 cells. The KD of recEpMab-37 for CHO/EpCAM and Caco-2 was 2.0 × 10-8 M and 3.2 × 10-8 M, respectively. In western blot analysis, recEpMab-37 detected EpCAM of CHO/EpCAM and Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, recEpMab-37 could stain formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colorectal carcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry. Taken together, recEpMab-37, established by CBIS method, is useful for detecting EpCAM in various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0245.v1
Online: 18 October 2022 (03:52:19 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein binds to the cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) as the first step in viral cell entry. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein expression in ACE2-expressing cell surface induces cell–cell membrane fusion, thus forming syncytia. To exert its fusiogenic activity, the spike protein is typically processed at a specific site (S1/S2 site) by cellular proteases such as furin. The C488 residue, located at the spike–ACE2 interacting surface, is critical for the fusiogenic and infectious roles of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We further demonstrated that the C488 residue of spike protein is involved in subcellular targeting and S1/S2 processing. C488 mutant spike localization to the Golgi apparatus and cell surface were impaired. Consequently, the S1/S2 processing of the spike protein, probed by anti-Ser-686-cleaved spike antibody, markedly decreased in C488 mutant spike proteins. Moreover, brefeldin A-mediated endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi traffic suppression also suppressed spike protein S1/S2 processing. As brefeldin A treatment and C488 mutation inhibited S1/S2 processing and syncytia formation, the C488 residue of spike protein is required for functional spike protein processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0071.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: mouse CCR3; monoclonal antibody; epitope mapping; alanine scanning; flow cytometry
Online: 3 November 2022 (07:35:45 CET)
The CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) is a receptor for CC chemokines, including CCL5/RANTES, CCL7/MCP-3, and CCL11/eotaxin. CCR3 is expressed on the surface of eosinophils, basophils, a subset of Th2 lymphocytes, mast cells, and airway epithelial cells. CCR3 and its ligands are involved in airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic asthma, ocular allergy, and cancers. Therefore, CCR3 is an attractive target for those therapies. Previously, anti-mouse CCR3 (mCCR3) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), C3Mab-3 (rat IgG2a, kappa), and C3Mab-4 (rat IgG2a, kappa) were developed using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. In this study, the binding epitope of these mAbs was investigated using flow cytometry. The CCR3 extracellular domain-substituted mutant analysis showed that C3Mab-3, C3Mab-4, and a commercially available mAb (J073E5) recognized the N-terminal region (amino acids 1–38) of mCCR3. Next, the alanine scanning was conducted in the N-terminal region. The results revealed that Ala2, Phe3, Asn4, and Thr5 of mCCR3 are involved in C3Mab-3 binding, whereas Ala2, Phe3, and Thr5 are essential to C3Mab-4 binding, and Ala2 and Phe3 are crucial to J073E5 binding. These results reveal the involvement of the N-terminus of mCCR3 in the recognition of C3Mab-3, C3Mab-4, and J073E5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: EpCAM; breast cancer; antitumor activities; antibody‐dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Online: 12 October 2022 (10:08:42 CEST)
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a stem cell and carcinoma antigen, which mediates cellular adhesion and proliferative signaling by the proteolytic cleavage. In contrast to low expression in normal epithelium, EpCAM is frequently overexpressed in various carcinomas, which correlates with poor prognosis. Therefore, EpCAM has been considered as a promising target for tumor diagnosis and therapy. Using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method, we previously established an anti‐EpCAM monoclonal antibody (EpMab-37; mouse IgG1, kappa). In this study, we investigated the antibody‐dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement‐dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and an antitumor activity by a defucosylated mouse IgG2a-type of EpMab-37 (EpMab-37-mG2a-f) against an EpCAM‐expressing breast cancer cell line (BT-474). EpMab-37-mG2a-f recognized BT-474 cells with a moderate binding-affinity [a dissociation constant (KD): 2.9x10-8 M] by flow cytometry. EpMab-37-mG2a-f exhibited ADCC and CDC for BT-474 cells by murine splenocytes and complements, respectively. Furthermore, administration of EpMab-37-mG2a-f significantly suppressed the BT-474 xenograft tumor development compared with the control mouse IgG. These results indicated that EpMab-37-mG2a-f exerts antitumor activities against the BT-474 xenograft, and could provide valuable therapeutic regimen for the breast cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0028.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: EGFR; HER2; bispecific antibody; ADCC; CDC; canine osteosarcoma
Online: 5 October 2022 (09:45:16 CEST)
The overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) has been reported in various human tumors, including breast, gastric, lung, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. Humanized anti‐EGFR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been shown to improve patients’ survival. Canine tumors resemble human tumors in the initiation and progression. We previously established a defucosylated mouse-dog chimeric anti‐EGFR mAb (E134Bf) and a mouse-dog chimeric anti‐HER2 mAb (H77Bf), which exerted antitumor activities in canine tumor xenograft models. Here, we produced E134Bf antibody fused to H77Bf single chain Fv at the light chains (E134Bf-H77scFv). The bispecific E134Bf-H77scFv recognized dog EGFR (dEGFR) and dog HER2 (dHER2)-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells by flow cytometry. E134Bf-H77scFv also reacted with dEGFR and dHER2‐positive canine osteosarcoma D-17 cells, and possesses a high binding-affinity (KD: 1.3x10-9 M). Furthermore, E134Bf-H77scFv exerted antibody‐dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement‐dependent cytotoxicity against D-17 cells in the presence of canine mononuclear cells and complement, respectively. Moreover, administration of E134Bf-H77scFv suppressed the development of D-17 xenograft tumor in mice early compared with the control dog IgG, E134Bf and H77Bf alone. These results indicate that E134Bf-H77scFv exerts antitumor activities against dEGFR/dHER2-positive canine tumors, and could be a valuable treatment regimen for canine tumors.