ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0110.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: BTBR; ob/ob; type-2 diabetes; flavanol; insulin; beta cell
Online: 31 January 2022 (18:09:34 CET)
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Cocoa may slow T2D development and progression. This study employed male and female BTBR.Cg-Lepob/ob/WiscJ and wild type (WT) controls to assess the potential for cocoa to ameliorate progressive T2D and compare responses between sexes. Mice received diet without (WT, ob/ob) or with cocoa extract (ob/ob + c) for 10 weeks. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT/ITT) were conducted at weeks 1, 5 and 2, 6, respectively. Cocoa provided mild non-significant protection against weight gain vs. ob/ob control in males but not females. Male ob/ob + c had increasing fasting glucose at weeks 1 and 5 GTTs, with significantly higher levels of fasting glucose than ob/ob control at week 5. This was not seen in females. Cocoa protected against elevated 4-hour fasting glucose in week 2, but not week 6, ITTs. Cocoa partly suppressed hyperinsulinemia in males but significantly amplified it in females and protected against loss of beta cell area in females only. The mechanisms of these sex-specific effects remain to be elucidated. This study informs additional experiments with larger sample sizes and demonstrates that sex differences must be considered when designing dietary interventions for T2D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0470.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; carotenoids; natural pigments; spirulina powder; C-phycocyanin; antioxidant activity
Online: 25 July 2018 (06:19:11 CEST)
Arthrospira platensis is the widely available source of spirulina and contains distinctive natural pigments including carotenoids and C-phycocyanin (C-PC). In this study, the major carotenoid and C-PC contents were determined in seven commercially available spirulina powder products and laboratory-prepared A. platensis trichomes (AP-1) by an LC-DAD method and a UV-Visible spectrometry, respectively. The correlation of these two pigment content levels with Hunter color coordinates and antioxidant activity was also evaluated. The L* value failed to show a significant correlation with pigment content, but a positive correlation was observed between a* values and the contents of total carotenoid and C-PC. As b* values decreased, the total carotenoid and C-PC contents increased. AP-1 exhibited the highest content of total carotenoids, chlorophyll a and C-PC, and antioxidant activities among the samples. This observation could be related to degradation of these pigments during the mass production process. The carotenoid profiles suggested that the commercial spirulina powders originated from two different sources, A. platensis and A. maxima. Total carotenoid and C-PC content exhibited positive significant correlations with antioxidant activities measured by DPPH and ABTS assays. These results provide a strong scientific foundation for the establishment of standards for the commercial distribution of quality spirulina products.